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An Analysis of Holden

An Analysis of Holden's Lonely Psychology of The Catcher in the Rye
1 Introduction 1.1 Purpose Salinger's masterpiece The Catcher in the Rye tells the story of Holden, a rebellious teenager that could not stand the " phony " hypocrite of school, deliberately failed the exam to be expelled from school , after leaving school, he went to New York hoping to find a place can quell soul. The Catcher in the Rye is a highly autobiographical work, Holden can be equated to a large extent with the author. The book is not long, only hundreds of thousands of words. In addition to published a number of short stories, the author only wrote this novel, but has a tremendous impact in American society and literature. The Catcher in the Rye has been taken seriously, not only because the author has created a new style of art, through first-person narrative tone to speak the book , more importantly, because the author uses realistic strokes, depicts a middle-class children anguish and hesitation of the spirit world vividly and detailed. The purpose of this study, through the psychological process of Holden to find out the hero’s lonely character and it's season. 1.2 Significance The New York Times' Book Review wrote: In the United States, read The Catcher in the Rye as graduate instructors to get the nod as important. This shows the value of the book , through the character of loneliness analysis, the reader can understanding the hero's image a better, especially its' inner world , but also allows the reader a clearer understanding of the psychological state of the fifties teen and this image of Holden 's creative intent. 1.3 Literature Review Foreign research situation German scholar Hence Phonurt analyzes Holden's loneliness from psychoanalysis.[1] He believes that there are two worlds in Holton’s mind: one world is combined with the Ackley, Stradlater and the prostitute Jenny Sunny, who represented the ugly world, and the other is from the brother Ally, sister of Phoebe and nuns, who represents pure, beautiful world. Holden feel lonely because of the discovered that the second world's disappeared. Domestic research situation The domestic critics, Luo Shiping thinks that Holden attempt to eliminate the gap between society and others during the three days in New York, and trying to achieve a situation beyond the self-centered, but he failed, there always had an invisible wall between Holden and others. so that he had only loitering outside the walls of society could not be combined with it. Luo Shiping wrote: "Holden got a sense of isolation arising from overcome the pain, and he also try to generate degraded perception of the unity of the state yet, that is the state before the birth of man. He desire to return matrix which a symbol of nature a dark .However, Howard seems only to seek the degenerative condition of his fantasy. And he was dreamed of a

Catcher in the Rye. "Talking about the main causes of when Holden’s mental breakdown. Luo Shiping got a conclusion from human perspective, Holden's consciousness were mainly composited with various fiction and fantasy in society "false consciousness", while most of his unconscious content is true. On the one hand, Holden was afraid to deviate from the social character and plunged into complete solitude of the situation, so he suppressed to prevent him unconscious to become conscious; on the other hand he was afraid of being completely insulated from outside of humanity and loss conduct and virtue of human, so he was trying to expand his realm of the unconscious. In this way, his spirit was divided to social goals and humanity nature, mutually exclusive poles, both the polarities of the mutual conflict and mutual exclusion lose his psychological balance, the split spirit, this leads the collapse of the spirit of a main reason for Holden's.[2] Lee Zhen combined Holden with Buddhism Sakyamuni , and he thought that Holden used "anti-hero" way to fight this cruel world. He was tired of this world, and against everything. Li Zhen rebellious Holden made three ways to escape the real world, namely self-defeating ways hypocritical ways and convert natural ways.[3] 2 study and research methods 2.1 study J `D Salinger's novel The Catcher in the Rye. 2.2 Research Methods 2.2.1 literature For works by authors, reviews and other literature to read, collect valuable information, and integration. 2.2.2 logical analysis Of the article content analysis, comparison and induction to identify intrinsically linked. 3 Results and Discussion 3.1 JD Salinger and The Catcher in the Rye 3.1.1 J.D Salinger briefly J.D Salinger was born on January 1st, 1919 to a well-to-do merchant family in New York City. His father was a Jewish importer of European hams. His mother was a gentile---Scotch-Inish. Salinger's only sibling, Doris, was eight years older than he. From 1932 to 1934, Salinger received his education in both public and private schools in Manhattan. When he was 15, he was sent to a military academy, Valley Forge Military Academy in Pennsylvania, where he got his only diploma in his life. In 1940, Salinger published his first short story, The Young Folks in Stray and The University of Kansas City Review was published later in the same year. At the end of World War Ⅱ, Salinger was discharged from the army and remained in Europe, working as a civilian for the Department of Defense until May 1946,when he returned to New York City. He never stopped writing and publishing his works. In 1951,Salinger published The Catcher in the Rye after working on it a decade. When it was published, it was soon a dest seller, peaking at number 4 on the New York Times best-seller list for the last half of 1951.Salinger himself remained from 1951 to 1963 the most popular American Fiction writer among serious high school and college students.[4]

3.1.2 The Catcher in the Rye brief The Catcher in the Rye is a landmark work in the U.S., it quickly became a popular reading for students in high school and college. In reality, many students and teachers are subject to the book. Holden, a sixteen- year-old boy, the narrator of the novel, was expelled from his school. Do not want to go home, Horton decided to take a room in a hotel for a few days in New York. In these days, he met different people, but most of the time, he was depressed. Then, he wanted to be "a Catcher in the Rye", who stood in a field, so that children do not last," some crazy cliff" edge. Adolescence is crucial, which is one of the most important stages of human development and Horton is experiencing a period of time. While many people have written in this stage of the growth process, there is little awareness of such intensity of pain and depression to do so.[5] Holden after World War II on behalf of American youth . His story has been a great influence on his generation adolescents and adults. Holden was typical of many students to imitate the behavior and appearance. This study will investigate the causes and effects of Horton confusion as to provide some influence young people today. 3.2 Effect of their living environment Holden Loneliness 3.2.1 Loneliness of his school life Holden, coming from a rich family, receiving his schooling in an expensively charging pre-school, has a bright future. However, he is unhappy, for he can not get what he wishes, that is, the emphasized and cherished spiritual value: honesty, compassion, kindness and love to human beings. But what is unfortunate is, when he begins to touch the adult world that he frightenedly finds out that his ideal for love is just a beautiful soap bubble. At the very beginning, the novel displays a sad, gloomy scene: as a schoolboy from Pency Prep, Holden, often more than not, feels imcompatible with the situation. One Saturday afternoon, when all the rest schoolmates are enjoying a football match, Holden, himself, wanders about on the top of the nearby hill, for he shows little interest in the result of the match. And also he wants to avoid those “phonies” by detaching himself from others. More than that, because of not having passed four subjects, he is doomed to be kicked out from Pency Prep. Holden holds a hostile attitude towards his schoolmates, all the teachers and the school authority. He feels that his schoolmates are either stupid or unbirdled; he never believes the teachers's words. Just like at other school where he was studied, in Pency Prep, he feels that he is surround by phonies, complaining, “It was a terrible school , no matter how you looked at it.”[ The Catcher in the Rye, Yilin press, 2007, 218] Early in the school, before Holden is kicked out from Pency Prep, he visits his history teacher, Mr. Spencer, who hurts Holden's self-esteem. Because Mr. Spencer reads from his examination paper:“Dear Mr. Spencer (he read out loud), that is all I kown about Egyptians. I can not seem to get very interested in them although your lectures are very interesting. It is all right with me if you flunk me though as I am flunking everything else except English anyway. Respectfully yours, Holden Caulfield.”[The Catcher in the Rye,Yilin press, 2007, 228] After he reads the words, Holden has a feeling of betrayal and a feeling of shameness. And all the kindness of Spencer in his heart disappears. He is more tired of the adult's world and the adult's

phoniness. In Holden's eyes, his teacher, Mr. Antonlini is his last but only friend and the embodiment of the force of morality. However, ironically, when Holden has to turn to his but only friend, it is this very “gentleman” who gives this sorely hurt young man the last but deadly attack. When he nearly gives up all hopes, he comes to his teacher, also his idol to seek for some understanding and consolation. But what he gets from his teacher is his slick and worldly wise warnings:“The mark of the immature man is that he wants to die nobly for a cause, while the mark of the mature man is that he wants to live humbly for one”[The Catcher in the Rye,Yilin press, 2007,419] When he heards these words, he feels depressed and disappointed. He knows that on one can understand him. He does not want to “live humbly”. His mostly-trusted teacher disappoints him. And when he wakes from his dream, he finds that his teacher is homosexual. His disappointment changes into indignation, disgust and horror. His idol falls from the sacrifitical altar of the soul and breaks into pieces. Holden's god dies. Up till then, he feels completely desperate in the adult world. Holden despies not only his teachers but also his schoolmates. For example, his roomate, Stradlater, who disgusts Holden the most. Especially the date of Stradlater, this “sexy bastard” with Jane Gallagher (Holden's girl friend), makes Holden “damn near dropped dead”, for Jane Gallagher is his best female friend. What Stradlater has done deprives Holden of his only cherishment and all of a sudden, Holden feels “depressed and all” and he wishes he was dead. This strike is so severe, so he has a fight with Stradlater, and then leaves the Pency Prep lonely, no one has come see him. He begins his lonely and suffering journey to New York. 3.2.3 Loneliness of his life in New York Holden finds his position and his cherished value nowhere in the society. New York is the miniature of American society. Here, there is only phoniness; the offence among individuals is unavoidable. He sees through the phoniness of headmaster of Elton Hills School and he mourns for the commitment of suicide of “his only upright” classmate. Once he indignantly denounced the whole system of education:“…and all you do is study, so that you can learn enough to be smart enough to be able to buy a Cadillac some day, and you have to keep making believe you give a damn if the football team loses, and all you do is talk about girls and liquor and sex all day, and everybody sticks together in these dirty liittle goddamn clicks.”[The Catcher in the Rye,Yilin press, 2007,356] Holden feels hard to communicate with the society is that he detests the phoniness. He has only one criterion to test the socity, that is, the genuineness. The most important one of Holden's words in this novel is “phony”. He senses instinctively that phoniness and deceits permeate the world. Holden can not establish honest understandings and trust with others. For instance, when he tries to communicate with Sally Hages, this “queen of phonies”, he sadly finds out that this girl can hardly follow him. Sally is already, to the most extent, adulterated. Her interest lies in showing off figure in mini-skirt. “That's why she was so hot to go, she wanted to see herself in one of those little skirts that just come down over their butt and all.” [The Catcher in the Rye,Yilin press, 2007,353-354] And when Holden said to

her:“How would you like to get the hell out of here?…What we should do is, tomorrow morming we could drive up to Massachusetts and Vermont, and all around there…We'll stay in these cabin camps and stuff like that till the dough runs out.…I could get a job somewhere and we could live somewhere with a brook and all…Will you do it with me?”[The Catcher in the Rye,Yilin press, 2007,357] But Sally is indifferent with his words. And Sally makes fun of his words. So Holden feels very depressed and the phony adult world has made him desperate. When he heards Sally's sarcasm, he finds himselt so innocent, and he laughs at Sally's phonies. From this, he firmly thinks that the audlt world is snobbish. Really, Holden's joureny to New York hardly brings himself any serenity, consolation and real happiness. The origin of all the hideoue phenomena he sees lies in the lack of love. Individuals cannot communicate with each other, for they lack sympathy and kingness. The degeneration of morality and the lust of material enjoy, inevitably frustrates and disgusts those explorers like Holden, who seek for the spiritual value of life. Holden despises this city controlled by money, curses the deceits by people seeking for fame and profits. As a result, it is reasonable that he refuses to step on the “way to success” arranged by the society. Holden alone fights the situation, struggling in the dilemma between the wonderfull dream and the vulgarity of the society. This is why he often feels so lonely, so frustrated, and so depressed. Holden don not want to be one of them, so he is struggling in his mind, he could not understand the phenomena. At last, he could find nowhere is suitable for him except the madhouse. The world is so broad, but nowhere he can stay, Holden in the novel is very tragic. 3.3 Holden’s Loneliness of his spiritual world 3.3.1 Loneliness of Contradictory character rebellious 1. Rebels education system Holden revolt first in the education system of criticism. West Middle School where he Phan " pricey reputation in the education sector " , every middle class family want to put their children to go there to accept the " best" education. Beginning of the novel , when it comes to where he Phan Holden West Middle School , said: "You may have heard of it, maybe you have at least seen the ads on them almost a thousand copies of the magazine advertised it ." Flaunt " since starting in 1888 , we took the child into a good cultivation , young people have brains . " However, in Holden 's view, " is completely humbug like in other schools in the same clan West, did not cultivate any talent. And there I did not see any good , people have brains . maybe one or two . but they are likely to go to school , it is the kind of person . " In Phan West, he saw students Ackley kept grasping pimples , the old class of other people looking for trouble, do not like stronger than him ; roommate Strade Leta handsome, strong handsome, but in fact is both dirty and empty inside guy, his purpose in life seems to be only three : the power of obedience to escape homework , seducing the girl ; president "is a false heart of hybrids , like a whore , like curry favor with the rich and parents of students ' potential ; teachers vulgar behavior , opinion pedantic , and even engage in homosexuality. In fact , Holden does not like school education by the authority of the ruling ideology

- a holistic form of performance , because it eliminated the differences, repressed personality, unified by forcing the majority to the minority stand on . Faced with such a rotten education system , Holden can not continue to endure , after a number of setbacks and failures , he gradually distanced himself contact with the environment, resolutely decided to leave school , to use the old abandoned school education system launched in revolt . Schools as a climbing tower ladder of success , Holden was on the whole negative . He was expelled , not because of academic incompetence , but a hated for his silent revolt education system , there is a sense of moral choice , is the inevitable result of his school life a long time for this type of protest . 2 Western culture rebels Holden protest outward manifestation of Western society and culture of the western movies and religious hatred , because movies and religion "is the hypocrisy of Western civilization, the concentrated expression ." 21 can not give people inspiration and spiritual strength . In modern society, the "God is dead ." When he encountered difficulties , such as a once produced Holden A strange feeling , like himself in broad daylight , in a busy street sank and disappeared ; him for help but it is his dead brother , repeated the prayer : " Eli , do not let me disappear ." He accused the Christian spirit has already been destroyed by Music City on Christmas Eve launch commercial performances with religious , he was sure : " If the old saw Jesus , the Fed disgusting ." Because the festival stage, in an atmosphere of vulgar commercial , religious activities seem like a farce , simply can not give people inspiration and spiritual strength . In modern society, the "God is dead ." Holden resistance of the film is more straightforward , he said: " I most hate to even mention you are not the best movie I would like to mention . ." "I hate actors who act like they've never not live ." . The beginning of the novel , Holden in a mental hospital to doctors to tell their story, very concerned about the situation of his brother DB . DB in Hollywood , and that " he was very rich recent past he does not have money ." As a " normal" writer , DB 's " a great " novel "The Secret Goldfish ," " very touching , almost killed me life " , and" the moment he entered the Hollywood , when the bitch ---- the DB ". It can be seen as an idol brother Holden once , "This talented writer , you should not go to Hollywood ." (P169) available since DB into Hollywood , specifically to earn money to write vulgar screenplay this former idol in his mind on the broken, Holden has lost dear brother Airy , when DB drove luxury cars , with starring when he was writing the screenplay that pretty girl came to see him , he is painfully aware that he will lose his brother . 3 protesters utilitarian doctrine Holden can not stand hypocrisy and utilitarian social indifference of naked fetishism is felt disgusted because he repressed the people of autonomy , people become vassal substances. Once people become vassal substance exchange and communication hearts would be impossible. He was a reluctant grown man. He always remembered the past , remember the dead brother , lost innocence miss , miss young sister. For him, good things are not front and in the back. He is an aimless roaming , the deteriorating process. Each went to a place often because nowhere else to go ; every issue because

doing nothing ; every effort is beginning to hope to disappointment Eventually, the accumulation of disappointment into despair , and finally heart failure, mental breakdown . For him, this era of rapid development of material civilization is by no means a sign of human progress , nor is the purpose of human pursuit . He would rather it all to stop. In the Natural History Museum , he expressed the feelings, " the hall filled with a breath , people feel as if the heavy rain outside , here is the world's only dry, warm , pleasant place" because " everything have always stay in the same place does not move , "" some things should be kept old same old you should put them into the kind of large glass cabinets , do not to touch them . " emotional exhaustion , moral turpitude , materialistic modern city life inevitably lead to spiritual values such as Holden 's disgust and anger explorers . Holden despise this city ruled by money , it is a curse intrigues carried fame . Therefore, he refused to "success " of the road for his arrangement of society is not surprising . Others dream of what he scoffed , because he was looking for a deeper, more real, more humane life, a "person" for the life of the center . "Humanity" is his most cherished values , that he " did not like the car this stuff , " and "would rather buy a goddam horse " because " the horse is at least humanity animals . ." [6] 3.3.2 Loneliness of Contradictory character 1. Personality conflicts In Holden's world, the most hated is hypocrisy, and even he himself cleared that "In a society where hypocrisy, hypocrisy works," So he acted on the reality was different with his inner wishes. On the surface he was wanton indulgence , pretending to adults in and out of the bar, but inside, he hate the people which hypocrisy affectation in the bar; On the one side he tell lies that he didn’t want the patriarch sad to draw up some moving stories of his son which was fulsome, o the other side he accused the deceptive advertising of school , Blaming them always cheats accusing; he looks hated everything, doing nothing, but he has a kind heart, and like to help others, once donation to the two nuns, and tie a girls' shoes who is skating with enthusiastic, and act as guides for the two children to visit the museum mummy. When he was bored he will spend some time in the cinema , and imitate the stars’ behavior, but he hated movies mostly; He was extremely lonely outward, but his heart was longing for understanding and communication; He disgust everything around him, for all to see not pleasing to the eye. but desire for love and the good things in deep heart; his behavior weird , but cannot wait to changing everything around him; He muddle along, with no life goals, but his heart was filled with grief and a sense of crisis; he was longing for sacrificing for a career the true and peaceful life. 2 Fantasy tendency Holden's mental state determines some of his psychological characteristics. His was pain and exhausted, often drinking down. The unpleasant of external stimuli make him confused and restless, so he constantly wandering around. His willpower was weak and could not concentrate too long, so he often too impulsive and whimsical. These unstable psychological characteristics sometimes make him do some quite neurotic behaviors appeared on the surface. He often could not accept the fact that it should be, but asked to accept it which he required. He lives in his desires,

and the view of reality is what he wanted. Once he could not force a reality in line with his ideas, he will fall into anxiety, fear, despair, and even has a tendency to cause schizophrenia.[7] 4 Conclusions and comments 4.1 Conclusion The Catcher in the Rye reveals this fact that enjoys a high degree of material in a capitalist society, people are captured by the abundant material comfort and flashy cultural life easily. And loss of the pursuit of real meaningful life; loss of the sensitive and cherish to the closest things with human life; loss of the lofty ideals and behavior. Holden struggled in the flow of life without directions, but he did’t find a rock that could stand stabilized. And he failed. This novel shows a lonely boy in pain to pursue the valuable life without accepted by social. 4.2 Opinions In this article, through detailed analysis of the causes of the formation of holden's loneliness, it has provided some indicative opinions on adolescents' mental health growth, especially on education is very important. 4.2.1 Family life education is the fulcrum of life education Family education is irreplaceable in the growth of children education is the pivot of other education Is the root and source of all education to human. 4.2.2 School education is the backbone of life education School education is a most important part of one’s life, it will make the students to master knowledge, improve ability, and cultivate people with independent operation and thinking. 4.2.3 Social education is a big stage of life education Modern society education is an important supplement of school education, Teenagers are the future of the nation, and the Society in cultivating excellent plays an important role in the next generation. 4.2.4 Self- ideal stage to shape the role of education The growth of a person only by the external condition is not enough, it must also have their own individual efforts. Therefore, Students' self-education is also very important link in the process of education. Education is a complex and systematic project, Only family, school, society and individual that coordinate with each other, the life education of teenagers will be more perfect.

Hence Phonurt, “ The Catcher in the Rye: Lonely Youth,” The Study of Salinger ( New York: Odyssey Press, 1963) P18 Luo Shiping ( Luo Shiping, Psychiatric complex perspective——Analysis the Holden of Salinger's the Catcher in The Rye, Journal of Sichuan International Studies

University,1996. 3,P27) Lee Zhen, “ ’anti-hero’ classic image collisions with real society——The ways and reasons of Holden’s rebel in The Cather in the Rye” Jiangxi Social Sciences, 2011.5 ,P103 马 岚 霍尔顿·考尔菲德:一个孤独的反抗者【J】 科学版) ,2005,18(2) :73~76 李侦 “反英雄”经典形象与现实社会的碰撞——《麦田里的守望者》主人公霍 尔顿的反叛方式及缘由[J] 江西社会科学 2011,5:103~106 南京理工大学学报(社会

黄川,2006, 《麦田里的守望者》中霍尔顿叛逆性格的转变【J】.大连海事大学学 报,第 3 期 孙仲旭《麦田里的守望者》 2007 年译. 译林出版社。 方平.孤独的守望者——霍尔顿精神世界解析,硕士.吉林大学

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