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An Overview of American Literature 1. Colonial period (early 17th—late 18th) 2. Romantic period (first half of 19th) 3. Realism (after 1865) 4. Naturalism (last decade of the 19th ) 5. Modernism (the first half of the 20th) American Literature The Literature of the Colonial Period The first view of America Being thus passed the vast ocean, and a sea of troubles…they had now no friends to welcome them nor inns to entertain or refresh their weatherbeaten bodies; no houses or much less towns to repair to, to seek for succour…savage barbarians were readier to fill their sides with arrows than otherwise. And for the reason it was winter, and they that know the winters of that country , know them to be sharp and violent, and subject to cruel and fierce storms …the whole country, full of woods and thickets, represented a wide and savage hue. --from William Bradford’s History of Plimmoth Plantation A Wealth of Natural Resources He is a bad fisher who cannot kill on one day with his hooke and line, one, two, or three hundred Cods. --John Smith, A Description of New England A sup of New England’s air is better than a whole draft of old England’s ale. --Francis Higginson, New-England’s Planatation The Colonies Jamestown, Virginia 1607

New England 1620

Massachusetts Bay 1630

American Puritanism “Puritans” American Puritanism American Puritanism stressed predestination, original sin, total depravity, and limited atonement from God’s grace. A way of life that stressed hard work, thrift, piety and sobriety. “He was a visionary who never forget that two plus two equals four; he was a soldier of Jehovah who never came out on the losing side of a bargain… He was a practical idealist…His creed was the revealed word of God and his life was the rule of moderation; his beliefs were handed down on high and his conduct was regulated by expediency. He was a doctrinaire and an opportunist.” Literature of Early Settlements A literary expression of the Puritan idealism. Types of writing: histories, travel accounts, biographies, diaries, letters, autobiographies, sermons, and poems… Usefulness and Plainness: Utilitarian, polemical, or didactic.

Style: fresh, simple, direct and with a touch of nobility.

The first published book of poems by an Americanwas also the first American book to be published by a woman—Anne Bradstreet (1612-1672) Her ability to capture the colonial experience in poetry established her place as one of America’s most notable early writers. * Background/early life/education * Born and educated in England * Admired and imitated several English poets * At 18, she went to America in 1630. * Father and husband served as governors. * The Tenth Muse Lately Sprung up in America (1650) Stylistic characteristics: Bradstreet’s poems usually employ iambic pentameter with key variations in rhythm and syntax for special rhetorical effect or emphasis. Her poems are also filled with imagery, followed with sustained parallels. Metaphysical conceits could also be found in her poems. Her poems are also filled with self-effacing "apology" (art claiming artlessness), which gradually becomes more authoritative poetic persona(questioning God) (persona: A voice or character representing the speaker in a literary work) Language and imagery are often direct, and relatively simple. The Author To Her Book Thou ill-formed offspring of my feeble brain, Who after birth did'st by my side remain, Till snatcht from thence by friends, less wise than true, Who thee abroad exposed to public view, Made thee in rags, halting to th' press to trudge, Where errors were not lessened (all may judge). At thy return my blushing was not small, My rambling brat (in print) should mother call. I cast thee by as one unfit for light, The visage was so irksome in my sight, Yet being mine own, at length affection would Thy blemishes amend, if so I could. I washed thy face, but more defects I saw, And rubbing off a spot, still made a flaw. I stretcht thy joints to make thee even feet, Yet still thou run'st more hobbling than is meet. In better dress to trim thee was my mind, But nought save home-spun cloth, i' th' house I find. In this array, 'mongst vulgars may'st thou roam. In critic's hands, beware thou dost not come, And take thy way where yet thou art not known.

If for thy father askt, say, thou hadst none; And for thy mother, she alas is poor, Which caused her thus to send thee out of door. This casual poem is one of Anne Bradstreet’s most delightful and genuine. It recounts * with humor her feelings at seeing her poems (The Tenth Muse) in print in 1650 without her authorization or correction, and her subsequent efforts to improve them. It appears that she intended this to stand last among her poems when she revised them about 1666 for a proposed second edition.

American Literary and Cultural Independence The American Cleavage from the Parent Cultures No other country whose origin lies in Europe has had so sharp an awareness of its cleavage from, and superiority to, the parent cultures. Running through American history, and therefore through American literature, is a double consciousness of Old World modes and the New World possibilities. Yesterday has been dismissed and pined for: tomorrow has been invoked and dreaded. (palefaces for Europeanized concept of literature vs redskins for notion of native literature; stateroom vs steerage styles) The beginning of a myth Theodore Roosevelt said that whether those who came were called settlers or immigrants, they travelled steerage—the hard way. To transfer oneself and one’s family across the ocean was a step not lightly taken. It was something of an act of faith, the beginning of a myth. In the mythology, Europe was associated with the past…hunger, poverty, oppression. America, by contrast, was the future: plenty, prosperity, freedom.
* It’s a complex fate, being an American, and one of the responsibilities it entails is fighting against a superstitious valuation of Europe. Henry James(1872) * America must be as independent in Literature as she is in politics, as famous for the arts as for arms. Noah Webster

Literary and Cultural Independence Literature the Americans have none – no native literature, we mean. It is all imported. They had a Franklin, indeed; and may afford to live for half a century on his fame. …- and some pieces of pleasantry by Mr Irving. But why should the Americans write books, when a six weeks’ passage brings them in our own tongue, our sense, science and genius, in bales and hogsheads? -- Sydney Smith in Edinburgh Review, Dec. 1818 We have listened too long to the courtly muses of Europe. ---Emerson “American Scholar” as America’s Intellectual Declaration of Independence

Independence lay over the Horizon Can we never be thought /To have learning or grace/Unless it be brought/ From that damnable place? – Philip Freneau We have at length arrived at that epoch when our literature may and must stand on its own merits or fall through its own defects. We have snapped asunder the leading-strings of our British Grandmamma. – Edgar Allan Poe (1830)
* It would take 50 years of accumulated history for America to earn its cultural independence and to produce the first great generation of American writers: * Washington Irving, James Fenimore Cooper, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, Herman Melville, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Edgar Allan Poe, Walt Whitman, and Emily Dickinson.

Literature of the 18th Century The Literature of Reason and Revolution Literature of the 18th Century Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758) and Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) shared the 18th century between them. Both Inheritors of the Puritan tradition but different directions. Jonathan Edwards: the Great Awakening (a period of new religious fervor in North America from 1735-1750). Franklin: the spirit of the Enlightenment in America. Jonathan Edwards Calvinism “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” Described the agonies of hell and urged people to repent their sins. One of the hallmarks of American oratory. Benjamin Franklin American Enlightenment Rationality instead of tradition Scientific inquiry instead of unquestioning religious dogma Representative government instead of monarchy Benjamin Franklin embodied the Enlightenment ideal of humane rationality. … with the advent of Enlightenment, the Puritans began to lose their grip. Benjamin Franklin—Pragmatic Individualism BF(1706-1790)was the one who really opens the story of American literature, though far more a Jack-of-all-trades than a man of letters.(the father of his country) In many ways it is Franklin who best represents the spirit of the Enlightenment in America: self-educated, social, assured, a man of the world, ambitious and public-spirited, speculative about the nature of the universe, but in manners of religion content to observe the actual conduct of men rather than to debate supernatural matters which are unprovable.

Benjamin Franklin works: Poor Richard’s Almanac (Early to bed, early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise. / God helps those that help themselves. / Lost time is never found again. / Beware of little expenses, a small leak will sink a great ship. / When the well’s dry, they know the worth of water. / Make hay while the sun shines./ The worst wheel of the cart makes the most noise. / He that would be beforehand in the World, must be beforehand with his Business.) Richard Saunders, a cracker barrel philosopher maxims The Way to Wealth (1774) Essence of his teaching: thrift, carefulness, independence.
The Autobiography (13 virtues – temperance / silence / order / resolution / frugality / industry / sincerity /justice / moderation / cleanliness /tranquility /chastity / humility.) An account of a poor boy’s rise to wealth and fame and the fulfillment of the American Dream. * Franklin embodied the transition from Puritan piety, idealism and provincialism to the more secular, utilitarian, and cosmopolitan values of the American Enlightenment.

Style Clear and plain in his time Formal, but organization of his material informal Simplicity, clarity, good sense Philip Freneau (1752-1832) The father of American poetry Poet of the American Revolution An outstanding representative of dawning nationalism in American literature. The beginning of American Romanticism. A transitional poet: Neoclassical and Romantic: “And Reason’s self shall bow the knee / To shadows and delusions here.” Life The first American-born poet. Elite circles. Contributed patriotic poetry in support of American Revolution. “The British Prison Ship” “To the Memory of the Brave Americans” Died poor and unknown. “The Wild Honey Suckle”(忍冬 杜鹃花 忍冬, 忍冬 杜鹃花) Fair flower, that does so comely grow, Hid in this silent, dull retreat, Untouched thy honied blossoms blow, 野金银花 美丽的金银花, 你粲然绽放于幽静一角。 芳菲满枝,无人垂顾,

Unseen thy little branches greet; No roving foot shall crush thee here, No busy hand provoke a tear. By Nature’s self in white arrayed, She bade thee shun the vulgar eye, And planted here the guardian shade, And sent soft waters murmuring by; Thus quietly thy summer goes, Thy days declining to repose. Smit with those charms, that must decay, I grieve to see your future doom; They died—nor were those flowers more gay, The flowers that did in Eden’s bloom; Unpitying frosts, and Autumn’s power Shall leave no vestige of this flower. From morning suns and evening dews At first thy little being came; If nothing once, you nothing lose, For when you die you are the same: The space between, is but an hour, The frail duration of a flower. * *

迎风起舞,无人注目。 游子从不践踏你的玉体, 过客从不催落你的泪滴。 造化令你素裹银妆, 你得以远离庸人的目光 她赐予你一片绿荫葱葱 她带给你一泓流水淙淙 恬静的夏日倏然流淌 你终于红衰翠减,玉殒香消 妩媚动人,你却无法盛颜久长 落红满地,你令我黯然神伤 纵然在伊甸乐园,人间天堂 也难免一日凋零,满目凄凉 萧瑟秋风,凄白秋霜 你终于消失得无影无踪 朝霞幕露 孕育了你娇小的身躯 你从尘土来,又归尘土去 来时一无所有,去时化作尘土 可叹生命苦短 你终究红消香断

Theme: the mutability of flowers and by extension the transience of human life Form: rhymed, orderly --Away from Puritanism, but pre-Romantic: Nature lyric

The Indian Burying-Ground IN spite of all the learned have said, I still my old opinion keep; The posture that we give the dead Points out the soul’s eternal sleep.
Not so the ancients of these lands;— The Indian, when from life released, Again is seated with his friends, And shares again the joyous feast. His imaged birds, and painted bowl, And venison, for a journey dressed, Bespeak the nature of the soul, Activity, that wants no rest.

His bow for action ready bent, And arrows with a head of stone, Can only mean that life is spent, And not the old ideas gone. Thou, stranger, that shalt come this way, No fraud upon the dead commit, Observe the swelling turf, and say, They do not lie, but here they sit.

Here still a lofty rock remains, On which the curious eye may trace (Now wasted half by wearing rains) The fancies of a ruder race. Here still an aged elm aspires, Beneath whose far projecting shade (And which the shepherd still admires) The children of the forest played. There oft a restless Indian queen (Pale Shebah with her braided hair), And many a barbarous form is seen To chide the man that lingers there. By midnight moons, o’er moistening dews, In habit for the chase arrayed, The hunter still the deer pursues, The hunter and the deer—a shade! And long shall timorous Fancy see The painted chief, and pointed spear, And Reason’s self shall bow the knee To shadows and delusions here.

American Romanticism From the end of the 18th century To the Civil War Background The radical changes in American life and the buoyant mood of the nation: Great immigration Burgeoning industrialization Westward expansion European Influences

American Features To moralize, to edify rather than to entertain An entirely new experience: a feeling of “newness” Native Material Puritan heritage The Early Romantics Poetry William Cullen Bryant Henry Wadsworth Longfellow Fiction Washington Irving James Fenimore Cooper Transcendentalism Transcendentalism: a late and localized manifestation of romantic movement in literature and philosophy. The condensation of American romantic movement in literature of the period. Ralph Waldo Emerson Henry David Thoreau High Romantics Poetry Edgar Allan Poe Walt Whitman Emily Dickinson Fiction Edgar Allan Poe Nathaniel Hawthorne Herman Melville Comparison between Early Romantics and High Romantics “Nave, experimental, conformist, self -conscious and imitative”– Spiller Their works were picturesque but lacked a deep power. Depart from the complacent romantic impulse (not Whitman) Well-conceived literary theories and well-structured literary forms Present dark and brooding pictures of the country (not Whitman) Not popular in lifetime Early Romantics: Fiction
Irving, Cooper

Washington Irving 华 顿 欧 (1783-1859) Father of the American Short Story Life Born to a wealthy Merchant family in New York City.

His first book: A History of New York from the Beginning of the World to the End of the Dutch Dynasty 纽 纽 (1809), under the name of “Diedrich Knickerbocker”. Lived in Europe for 17 years and gained literary reputation. The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent (1819-1820) 记 : Rip Van Winkle, The Legend of Sleepy Hollow Returned to America in 1832. Why is he important? The first prost stylist of American romanticism. The first American man of letters to support himself as a professional writer. The first American author to win international recognition. The first modern American short stories. He gave an impetus to the American humor and to the urbane wit. He introduced the familiar essay to America. He helped create what might be called an American Mythology. Style Sentimentalism, modeled himself on Oliver Goldsmith (1728-74) Among the first to confront the difficulty of finding a literary identity in a country lacking its own distinct cultural identity. Graceful, refined, fluent, dignified, urbane, witty, melodious —models of perfect English Humor: tongue-in-cheek irony, exaggeration The caricature, satire and local allusion in “Knickerbocker” The clarity and grace of the “Crayon” style Rip Van Winkle Setting: when and where a village in the mountains of upstate New York Period of Revolution Plot: hunting—gnomes—drinking—slumber—back—great changes Characterization: Rip (Wolf), the lazy husband the termagant wife Style: humor achieved through irony, dignified words and exaggeration Theme and motif The loss of manhood Escapism mutability (ì) ‰wù 《 异 记 》 ,见 : “柯 质 对 . 与质 枣 , 饥 .局终 ,‰_… 烂 .”质 归 乡 , 岁.

James Fenimore Cooper 1789-1851 The First Important American novelist As a novelist Genres: 3 kinds of novels historical novels about the revolutionary past, eg. The Spy. the first to write a novel exclusively focusing on the sea, eg. The Pilot.

about the American frontier The Leatherstocking Series: 皮袜子系列 , The Pioneers 尝 The Last of the Mohicans k3 干 The Prairie ’t, The Pathfinder xY‰~ The Deerslayer 猎 As a critic Conservative Themes of Wilderness vs. civilization, freedom vs. law, order vs. change, aristocrat vs. democrat, natural rights vs. legal rights. Features of Cooper’s Novels Language Plots Stylistic features Characters Nature “Cooper’s interest in painting developed in him his excellent pictorial imagination which he applied effectively, counterpointing descriptions of conflict and violence with scenes of forest beauty.”

The Leatherstocking Series An American Epic Setting: the early frontier period of American history in the American wilderness---the American West. Central character: Natty Bumppo: the essential American soul The heritage left by Cooper The figures in his novels helped create that part of American mythology most popular today: the story of the cowboy and the winning of the American West. Two of the great stock figures: the stoic, daring frontiersman and the bold, friendly Indian. “Cooper’s genius lay in his ability to transform the personal terms of his crisis into larger terms—to give them a transpersonal dimension with national and even mythic implications.”

William Cullen Bryant(1794-1878) The American Wordsworth Life “Thanatopsis” 随 曲, written when he was only sixteen. A great editor a leading advocate for the abolition of slavery, a supporter of Lincoln. The Central Park One of America’s earliest naturalist poets Theme:

The beauty and harmony of nature as a source of solace, joy, and escape The dignity of humanity The sacredness of human freedom The power and beneficence of God Conventional in subject and style Transition towards Romanticism (transcendentalism) Thanatopsis ( Gr. a view of death) Bryant “develops a view of death which represents a sharp break from the Puritan attitude toward man’s final destiny. To the Puritans, death was seen as a preliminary to an afterlife. Bryant, however, treats death as part of nature, the destiny of us all, and the great equalizer.” --Carl Bode TO A WATERFOWL William Cullen Bryant (1794 - 1878) Vainly the fowler’s eye Might mark thy distant flight to do thee wrong, As, darkly painted on the crimson sky Thy figure floats along. (5-8) There is a Power whose care Teaches thy way along that pathless coast,-The desert and illimitable air,-Lone wandering, but not lost. (13-16) He, who, from zone, to zone, Guides through the boundless sky thy certain flight, In the long way that I must tread alone, Will lead my steps aright. (29-32)

柯 —) 伦 莱
在漂洒的露水中, 天空闪烁着白日最后脚步的光辉, 穿过玫瑰色云霞的深处,你向哪里 去寻找你孤独的路? 捕鸟者恶意的目光 徒然注意到你在远处的双翔 因为,绛红色的天幕映照出, 你潇洒双翔的身影。 你在寻找潮湿的栖地, 是芳草萋萋的湖畔,还是宽阔河流的岸边 抑或,是在寻找那波涛起伏 浪涛拍岸的海岸? 有一个神明关怀着你, 为你在没有路的岸边指路,—— 寂寥无际的万里长空,—— 孑然一身却从不迷途。 你终日扑打双翼 在那浩淼的天际,穿过冰冷稀薄的空气 疲倦了,你也从不俯身双向热情的大地, 尽管黑夜即预来临。 你辛劳的旅程即预告终 你预找到夏日的家园,在那里 你预在同伴中休憩鸣唱,芦苇预俯身 遮掩你隐蔽的鸟窝。 你袅袅而去,深邃的天空 吞噬了你的身影;然而,我心中 却深深地镌刻你留下的教益, 不会轻易忘记。 他,人间无处不在, 在无垠的天空指引着你的双行, 在我孤独跋涉的漫长路上, 他预为我正确地导航。

Bryant Park

Bryant Park was named after William Cullen Bryant (1794-1878), a Lawyer, Poet and later in life, one of the nation's leading advocates for the abolition of slavery. The lawn at Bryant Park in Midtown Manhattan is a big thing during most midday lunch-time hours in New York City. Usually, you'll see hundreds of people along the sides on the benches and within. Located between 40th - 42nd Streets at 6th Avenue behind our infamous NY Public Library this park is quite a special one.

Edgar Allan Poe (1809-49) Tragic life, a gifted but tormented man “Poe was the first American writer to succeed in creating a total life in art as a foil to the conflict and frustration of the human predicament.” Poet and short story writer( those of horrors and “ratiocination”) Poe’s Theory of Poetry Beauty is the only legitimate province of the poet: The sense of the beautiful is an immortal instinct within men. “The death of a beautiful woman is, unquestionably, the most poetical topic in the world.”—Poe, 1846, “The Philosophy of Composition” Poetry was, a ‘passion’, not merely a ‘purpose’; poetry should appeal only to the sense of beauty, not truth; informational poetry, or didactic poetry was illegitimate (in the times to inculcate a moral); poetic emotion was a vague sensory state, so against realistic details in poetry. The music of Language: language as medium of pure musical and rhythmic beauty A pioneering aesthetician and psychological investigator
To Helen
伦 海伦,你的美丽对于我, 就像昔日尼斯安的小船 , 在芳菲的大海轻轻颠簸, 载着精疲力竭的流浪汉 驶向他故乡的岸边。 早已习惯漂泊在汹涌的海上, 你堇色的秀发,典雅的容颜 和仙女般的风姿已令我知详 何谓希腊的华美壮观, 何谓罗马的宏伟辉煌。 瞧!在那明亮的壁龛窗里, 我看你玉立多像尊雕塑, 那镶嵌玛瑙的明灯在手! 啊,普叙赫,你来自圣地, 那片天国净土!

His short stories The first to develop the short story as a distinctive art form and to elaborate criteria. Subject: Morbidity, necrophilia, the no man’s land between death and life; the strange, incestuous vampirism of the dead with the living Grotesque, Gothicism Brevity, single effect, truth instead of beauty, psychological effect on the reader

The earliest American detective fiction and science fiction “The Cask of Amontillado” “The Masque of the Red Death” “The Fall of the House of Usher” “The Murders in the Rue Morgue” “The Purloined Letter” –one of the world’s greatest detective stories. “The Fall of the House of Usher” A gothic masterpiece The setting and symbols reveal character and conflict Study of fear Incestuous relationship (D. H. Lawrence) Plot: arrival of the narrator-the eerie atmosphere (the mansion, the lake)-Usher and Madeline-Madeline’s death-the verse-the book reading-Madeline came-death of the twins-the collapse of the mansion. Style: single effect Theme: Terror, Murder, Madness Symbolism: the mansion, the tarn, the bridge, the crack in the house, the storm

Transcendentalism New England Transcendentalism American Renaissance (1836-1855) Transcendentalism and Romanticism Transcendentalism: a late and localized manifestation of romantic movement in literature and philosophy. The condensation of American romantic movement in literature of the period. Transcendentalism: Sources Unitarianism a revolt against orthodox Puritanism; belief: God as one being, rejecting the doctrine of trinity stressing the tolerance in religious opinion Idealism from France and Germany Kant (the father of Transcendentalism) Hegel (whose dialectic method of thesis, antithesis, and synthesis was used at times by Emerson). Oriental mysticism in Hindu and Chinese classics the Sayings of Confucius, the Hindu Bhagavad Gita 《 歌》 ( ) and the , 教教 《 罗 》 Upanishads《奥 奥 预 》 ( , 各 据. ) 教古 教奥 辩 学 The Transcendental Club The club The journal: The Dial The Experiments Concepts Definition: The recognition in man of the capacity of acquiring knowledge transcending the reach of the five senses, or of knowing truth intuitively, or of reaching the divine

without the need of an intercessor. Emerson: “whatever belongs to the class of intuitive thought” Concepts--intuition 1. The power of intuition Things learned from within were truer than the things they learned from without, and transcended them. Intuition was inner light within. Concepts--spirit 2. Spirit first, matter second The reality of spirit is greater than that of matter. Transcendentalism stressed essence behind appearance. Concepts--nature 3. Nature is symbolic of spirit or God. Everything in the universe is viewed as an expression of the divine spirit. Nature is God’s enlightenment towards human beings: morality, beauty. Transcendentalism stresses unity of humanity and nature. Concepts--individual 4. The significance of the individual The individual is the most important element in society. The ideal kind of individual is self-reliant and unselfish. A greatness in all human beings that needs only to be set free. As an individual soul can commune with God, it is, therefore, divine. The individual soul can reach God without the help of churches or clergy. While stressing individuality, transcendentalism rejects the restraints of tradition and custom. Concepts--Oversoul 5. An emotional communication between an individual soul and the universal “oversoul”. Oversoul: an all-pervading unitary spiritual power of goodness; all things come from it and everyone is a part of it; omnipresent and omnipotent; existing in nature and in humanity alike. Concepts—commerce is degrading 6. Commerce is degrading. Characteristics of Transcendentalism The triumph of intuition over five senses The exaltation of the individual over society The critical attitude toward formalized religion The rejection of any kind of restraint or bondage to custom The new and thrilling delight in nature Significance—an ethical guide to life Tolerance of difference in religious opinion and the free control of its own affairs by each congregation Throwing off shackles of custom and tradition The development of a new and distinctly American culture The essential worth and dignity of the individual as a powerful force for democracy

An idealism that was needed in a rapidly expanded economy. Significance—a new group of writers Emerson and Thoreau Under the influence of Emerson and Thoreau: Almost all the writers of the period—Hawthorne, Melville, Lowell, Dickinson, Whitman. They created one of the most prolific periods in the history of American Literature.

Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882) Transcendentalism’s most seminal force Unitarianism, a Unitarian minister, resigned. Traveled in Europe: Wordsworth, Carlyle, Coleridge. a public speaker The club and the journal: The Dial Essays: Nature: the manifesto of American transcendentalism “The American Scholar”: America’s Declaration of Intellectual Independence Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862) Education Emerson’s handyman Living alone in Walden pond from July 1845 to September 1847 Put in jail for refusing to pay the poll-tax “Civil Disobedience” (1849) Living with nature “Break convention, live in new ways.” Walden I went into the woods because I wanted to live deliberately. I wanted to live deep and suck out all the marrow of life... to put to rout all that was not life; and not, when I came to die, discover that I had not lived. --Dead Poets Society From Walden I went to the woods because I wished to live deliberately, to front only the essential facts of life, and see if I could not learn what it had to teach, and not, when I came to die, discover that I had not lived. I did not wish to live what was not life, living is so dear; nor did I wish to practise resignation, unless it was quite necessary. I wanted to live deep and suck out all the marrow of life, to live so sturdily and Spartan-like as to put to rout all that was not life, to cut a broad swath and shave close, to drive life into a corner, and reduce it to its lowest terms, and, if it proved to be mean, why then to get the whole and genuine meanness of it, and publish its meanness to the world; or if it were sublime, to know it by experience, and be able to give a true account of it in my next excursion.
From Self-Reliance by Ralph Waldo Emerson Section I (paragraphs 1-6): Trust thyself. 1. The importance of thinking for oneself. 2. “Trust thyself”.

Q: What does Emerson urge people to be? 3. The force of infancy and youth. Q: Why are children models of self-reliance? 4. The analogy between boys and the idealized individual. Q: In what ways are boys and the idealized individual similar? Why does Emerson say that the careful adult is clapped into jail by his consciousness? 5. The importance of an individual’s resisting the pressure to conform to the external norms. Q: What does society conspire to do? 6. The necessity to follow one’s inner voice, whatever it is. Be a nonconformist. Q: How to resist this conspiracy? Section II (paragraphs 7-13): Consistency is the hobgoblin of little minds. Q: what are the two enemies of the independent thinker? 7. Society’s disapproval or scorn. Q: Which is more formidable, the scorn of the cultivated classes or the outrage of the masses? 8. The individual’s own sense of consistency. 9. Consistency drains our creativity. Q: what is the metaphor about memory? 10. The Condemnation of the society that demands conformity. Q: Who are the great minds that Emerson cites? 11. The ultimate consistency. Q: What are the two metaphors that Emerson uses? 12. A true man is the center of things. 13. Humans determine the worth of an object, not vice versa. Q: what is the fable of the drunkard about?

Nathaniel Hawthorne(1804-1864) The Scarlet Letter “Young Goodman Brown” He is “remembered for helping to establish the short story”, he is remembered as a “proponent of instilling morals and lessons into his writing” Nathaniel Hawthorne His ancestral burden: Hawthorne was “burdened by the misdeeds of notorious Puritan ancestors” William Hathorne: One of Hawthorne’s ancesters, he migrated to America with the Puritans in 1630. “ History records that William Hathorne once ordered that a burglar be branded with a B on his forehead” Persecuted Quakers John Hathorne (son of William Hathorne): Nathaniel’s great-grandfather “was a prosecuting . . . magistrate at the infamous 1692 witch trials in Salem . . .”

“W” Family name Hathorne Nathaniel spells his: Hawthorne The House of the Seven Gables “considers the effects of one man’s sin upon succeeding generations” “The wrong-doing of one generation lives into the successive ones, and divesting itself of every temporary advantage, becomes a pure and uncontrollable mischief.” Life Hawthorne’s father, a sea-captain, died of yellow fever in Dutch Guiana, leaving his widow to mourn him during a long life of eccentric seclusion, and this influenced her son’s somber and solitary attitude. Read widely. Graduated from Bowdoin College: Longfellow, Franklin Pierce. Returned to Salem. Published his first novel Fanshawe and Twice-Told Tales. Worked at the Customs House. Joined the transcendentalist community of Brook Farm. Turned to more profitable novels. Enjoyed frequent visits with his neighbor Herman Melville. Served as U.S. Consul at Liverpool. Works Collection of Short Stories Twice-Told Tales (1837) Mosses from an Old Manse (1846) The Snow-Image and Other Twice-Told Tales (1851) “Young Goodman Brown” “The Minister’s Black Veil” “Ethan Brand” “Dr. Heidegger’s Experiement” Novels: The Scarlet Letter, a treatment of the effects of sin on the human spirit. The House of Seven Gables(1851) The Blithedale Romance (1852) The Marble Faun (1860) Subjects and Themes the New England past and the subject and setting. Human psychology Intellect vs. feeling and warmth Sin and evil

Puritanism A Moralist, a master of psychological insight, the first major novelist to wed morality to art. Major Comment on Hawthorne’s Themes Hawthorne was imbued with an inquiring imagination, an intensely meditative mind, and an unceasing interest in the ambiguity of man’s being. He was an anatomist of “the interior of the heart”, conscious of loneliness of man in the universe, of the darkness that enshrouds all joys, and of the need of man to look into his own soul. ---Bode Style Romance Symbols and setting Narrative skills Soft, flowing style Ambiguity Allegory The supernatural Works Collection of Short Stories Twice-Told Tales (1837) Mosses from an Old Manse (1846) The Snow-Image and Other Twice-Told Tales (1851) “Young Goodman Brown” “The Minister’s Black Veil” “Ethan Brand” “Dr. Heidegger’s Experiment” Novels: The Scarlet Letter, a treatment of the effects of sin on the human spirit. The House of Seven Gables(1851) The Blithedale Romance (1852) The Marble Faun (1860) “Young Goodman Brown” Written in 1835 “Known for being one of literature’s most gripping portrayals of seventeenth-century Puritan society” Summary “‘Young Goodman Brown’ tells the tale of a young Puritan man drawn into a covenant with the Devil. Brown’s illusions about the goodness of his society are crushed when he discovers that many of his fellow townspeople, including religious leaders and his wife, are attending a Black Mass. At the end of the story, it is not clear whether Brown’s experience was nightmare or reality, but the results are

nonetheless the same. Brown is unable to forgive the possibility of evil in his loved ones and as a result spends the rest of his life in desperate loneliness and gloom.” Comments Characters: Young Goodman Brown Faith Devil / Old Goodman Brown Goody Cloyse, the Minister, and Deacon Gookin. Goody Cloyse, Goody Cory, Martha Carrier. Themes: Good / Evil; Alienation/Community “Hawthorne presents sin as an inescapable part of human nature”. Every human being is alone ‘in that saddest of all prisons, his own heart’ Symbolism and allegory: Point of view: The Scarlet Letter Synopsis And aged English scholar sends his young wife, Hester Prynne, to establish their home in Boston. When he arrives 2 years later, he finds her in the pillory with her illegitimate child in her arms. She refuses to name her lover and is sentenced to wear a scarlet A, signifying Adulteress, as a token of her sin. The husband conceals his identity, assumes the name Roger Chillingworth, the in the guise of a doctor seeks to discover her paramour. Hester, a woman of strong independent nature, becomes sympathetic with other unfortunates, and her works of mercy gradually win her the respect of her neighbours. Chillingworth meanwhile discovers that the Rev. Arthur Dimmesdale, a revered, seemingly saintly young minister, is the father of Hester’s beautiful, mischievous child, Pearl. Dimmesdale has struggled for years with his burden of hidden guilt, but though he does secret penance, pride prevents him from confessing publicly, and he continues to be tortured by his conscience. Chillingworth’s life is ruined by his preoccupations with his cruel search, and he becomes a morally degraded monomaniac. Hester wishes her lover to flee with her to Europe, but he refuses and makes a public confession on the pillory in which Hester had once been placed. He dies their in her arms. But Hester lives on, triumphant over her sin because she openly confessed it, to devote herself to ensuring a happy life for Pearl and helping others in misfortune. Themes Sin and its Effects Good and Evil The individual and the society Structure Symmetry Unity of place Symbols

“the first symbolic novel to be written in the United States” “A” The scaffold The sun The forest The meaning of the “A” As the novel progresses, Hester ages and changes and the townspeople begin to see both her and the symbol A in different ways. Thus the “A” comes to have a multiplicity of meanings, each of which deepens and develops the meaning of the novel A = Adulteress (Hester is guilty of the sin of adultery.) A = Art (Hester is a very creative, skilled seamstress who makes her living through this art) A = Able (Hester is able to support herself and daughter and to survive the town’s condemnation.) A = Admirable (The townspeople begin to admire Hester.) A = Angel (She tends the sick and dying and is an “angel” of charity toward others.) A = Arthur (Everyone wants to know who the father of the illegitimate child is, but Hester will not betray him. Ironically, his initial is displayed in Hester’s punishment: his name is Arthur.

Herman Melville(1819-1891) Life Family and schooling Education aboard the ship: Signed on to a merchant ship, than a whaling cruise Marriage Writing career: Established his reputation as an adventure writer. Influences: Shakespeare, Emerson, friendship with Hawthorne Moby Dick: not well received, 1920s, revival of Moby Dick, one of the most dramatic reversal in all literary history. A popular writer “one of the half-dozen major American literary figures of the 19th century” Worked in New York City Custom House,20 years
Works Early works Typee(1846) Omoo(1847) Mardi(1849) Redburn(1849) White Jacket(1850) Moby Dick(1851) Late works Pierre(1852) The Confidence-Man(1857)

Billy Budd (1924) (finished before death) Major Themes Alienation, loneliness, suicidal individualism, rejection and quest, confrontation of innocence and evil, morbidity and demonism of the world, agonies of self-discovery, doubts over the comforting 19th century idea of progress, mistrust of the idea of unrestrained liberty, man as radically imperfect, and a world filled with lost innocence and betrayed hope; the loss of faith and sense of futility and meaninglessness.
Moby Dick

“the greatest American Novel” An epic novel No other book as full of such action, religion, philosophy, detailed information about a way of life, democratic beliefs, humor, tremendous variety of style and allusions. 科学 学 究, 戏剧, 历历故 , 学 讨, 诗. But it is first a symbolic voyage of the mind in quest of the truth and knowledge of the universe, a spiritual exploration into man’s deep reality and psychology. Synopsis The outcast youth Ishmael, feeling “ a damp, drizzly November” in his soul, goes to New Bedford, planning to ship on a whaler. There he draws as a roommate Queequeg, a Polynesian prince, and the two become comrades. After Ishmael hears a symbolic sermon by father Mapple, he and Queequeg go to Nantucket and sign on the Pequod, which sails on Christmas Day. The Captain, Ahab, is a monomaniac whose one purpose is to capture the fierce, cunning white whale, Moby-Dick, which had torn away his leg during their last encounter. He keeps below deck for some time, but finally declares his purpose and posts a doubloon on the mast as a reward for the man who first sights the white whale. The characters of the sailors are revealed by their reactions. The chief mate, starbuck, earnest, prudent and fretful, dislikes it. Stubb, the second mate, is happy-go-lucky and takes perils as they come. Flask, the third mate, is incapable of deep thought and for him killing whales is simply an occupation. Others in the crew include Fedallah and his mysterious Asiatics; the American Indian harpooner, Tashtego; the African, Daggoo; the black cabin boy, Pip. Through the plot of the voyage, which carries the Pequod nearly around the world, runs a comprehensive discussion of the nature of the whale, the history of science and art relating to the animal, and the facts of the whaling industry. Whales are captured during the pursuit, but circumstances seem to conspire against Ahab: storms, lightning, loss of the compass, the drowning of a man, and the insanity of Ahab’s favorite, Pip. The white whale is finally sighted, and in the first day’s chase he smashes a whaleboat. The second day, another boat is swamped, and the captain’s ivory leg is snapped off. On the third day the whale is harpooned, but Ahab, fouled in the line, is pinioned to Moby-Dick, who bears down on the Pequod. The ship is sunk and, as the final spars settle in the water, one of the man nails to the mast a sky hawk that pecks at the flag he is placing as a signal. The ship, “like Satan, would not sink to hell till she had dragged a living part of heaven along with her and helmeted herself with it.” Ishmael, the only survivor, is rescued by another whaler, the Rachel.

Themes Vengeance: Defiance: Father Mapple’s sermon about Jonah “And if we obey god, we must disobey ourselves; and it is in this disobeying ourselves, wherein the hardness of obeying God consists.” Death: the oil painting at the Spouter-Inn, three prophets ( Elijah, Gabriel, Fedallah) Man and nature Search and discovery Religion Love and friendship Style Conscious literariness: references to former authors, the Bible and Shakespeare, sailor talk and old style. Threefold quality: the style of fact, oratory celebrating the fact, and meditation Symbolic and metaphorical: a story of whale-hunting and romance of moral inquiry Encyclopedic; the non-narrative chapters The technique of multiple views ambiguity Language and style Some chapters are cast in dramatic form like a play. Some times Ahab speaks almost in Shakespearian blank verse. Very nervous (strong) variation is one of the prime elements.

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow(1807-1882) Life Born in Portland, Maine. A seaside town A classmate of Hawthorne’s; Bowdoin College. First trip to Europe (3 years) , learned Italian, Spanish, French Taught modern languages back home; Bowdoin(1829-35), later at Harvard (1836-54) Second trip, improved his German, learned Dutch, Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, and Finnish Assumed the chair of modern languages at Harvard
Honors Honorary degrees from the Oxford and Cambridge in England Queen Victoria gave him a private audience. 75th birthday celebrated nationally in America. The only American to be honored with bust in the Poet’s Corner at Westminster Abbey Achievements Anthology: The Poets and Poetry of Europe Translation: the Divine Comedy by Dante Works: Voices of the Night, Ballads and Other Poems, The Song of Hiawatha A Psalm of Life My Lost Youth Hymn to the Night The most celebrated poet of his time

Theme and style American subjects and European styles Simple ideas and mastery of rhyme and rhythm. Tone: didactic, preachy, a manly and affirmative note.
A Psalm of Life

Didactic stresses the importance of a full and sincere activity in making the most of life’s brief span, rather than succumbing to moods of vain regret and dejection.
人 生 颂 学艺费光阴,时日去匆忙, 任我们的心勇敢又坚强, 却依然像那蒙住的丧鼓—— 敲打着哀乐走向那坟墓。 在风云世界的广阔战场, 在人生征途的野宿营帐, 别像默默的牛羊任驱赶! 要争做英雄,能征善战! 预来再美好也别空指望! 让死的过去把死的埋葬! 干吧,在活着的此刻就干! 胸内有红心,头顶有上苍!

别用悲切的诗句对我唱: “人生只是虚幻的梦一场! ” 因为昏睡的灵魂已死亡, 而事物不是看来那模样。 人生多真切!它决非虚度! 一抔黄土哪里会是它归宿; “你来自泥尘,得重归泥尘。 ” 这话所指的并不是灵魂。 我们命定的终点和道路, 既不是享乐,也不是悲苦; 行动吧;要让每一个明天 看我们比今天走得更远。

伟人的生平向我们指出: 我们能使此生超群脱俗—— 一朝逝去,时间的沙滩上 预留下我们的脚印行行。 在庄严的生活之海航行, 也许有兄弟会遭遇不幸, 会因为航船沉没而绝望—— 但见那脚印,又变得顽强。 就让我们振奋,行动起来, 凭着对付任何命运的胸怀; 不断去收获,不断去追求, 学会劳动,也要学会等候。

Walt Whitman-Poet of the People Birth and Early Career Born 31 May 1819 near Huntington, Long Island, New York Second child (of 8) born to Walter and Louisa Van Velsor Whitman Only five or six years of formal schooling Worked as printer’s apprentice (to 1835) and as a schoolteacher. A number of editorial and printing jobs. The Brooklyn Eagle 1846-1848. Becomes chief editor of the Brooklyn Eagle, a post he holds from March 5, 1846 to January 18, 1848. In May 1848, Whitman is fired because his politics conflict with those of the publisher. A “free soil” or “locofoco” Democrat, Whitman opposes the expansion of slavery into new territories. New Orleans Lives in New Orleans for 4 months as editor of the Daily Crescent. Sees slavery and slave-markets at first hand Experiences with nature (“live oaks, with moss”) and with French language later appear in his poetry. Influences: Emerson Emerson helped Whitman to “find himself”: “I was simmering, simmering; Emerson brought me to a boil.” Emerson’s view on language: Language of the street is always strong.

“Cut these words and they would bleed. They are vascular and alive. They walk and run, moreover they speak and they have this elegance that they do not trip on their speech. It is a shower of bullets, while Cambridge men and Yale men correct themselves at the beginning of every sentence.” Whitman goes further than Emerson. He was interested in trapmen, cab drivers, trolley drivers, and ordinary everyday people and was friendly with them. Another major influence: All kinds of natural rhythms, e.g. the ocean His ambition to write poetry in which each line would approximate the effect of a wave rolling on Pomona or Long Island Leaves of Grass, 1855 Walt Whitman, an American, one of the roughs, a kosmos, Disorderly fleshy and sensual . . . . Eating, drinking and breeding, No sentimentalist . . . . no stander above men and women or apart from them . . . . no more modest than immodest. Whoever degrades another degrades me . . . . and whatever is done or said returns at last to me, And whatever I do or say I also return. Praise to Whitman Ralph Waldo Emerson, letter to Whitman, 21 July 1855: “I find [Leaves of Grass] the most extraordinary piece of wit & wisdom that America has yet contributed. . . . I greet you at the beginning of a great career, which yet must have had a long foreground somewhere, for such a start.” I am not unaware that the charge of coarseness and sensuality has been affixed to them. My moral constitution may be hopelessly tainted or - too sound to be tainted… but I confess that I extract no poison from these Leaves - to me they have brought only healing. --Fanny Fern, critic and popular essayist Protests “Foul work" filled with "libidinousness" (The Christian Examiner) There are too many persons, who imagine they demonstrate their superiority to their fellows, by disregarding all the politeness and decencies of life, and, therefore, justify themselves in indulging the vilest imaginings and shamefullest license. (Rufus Griswold, The Criterion) 9 editions Leaves of Grass has 9 editions, each with additions and annexes. 1855 Self-published the first edition: 12 poems 1891-92 the final edition Civil War After his brother is wounded at Fredericksburg (1862), Whitman goes to Washington to care for him and stays for nearly 3 years, visiting the wounded, writing letters, and keeping up their spirits. One Wounded Soldier’s View “Every Sunday there were half a dozen old roosters who would come into my ward and preach and pray and sing to us, while we were swearing to ourselves all the time, and wishing the blamed old fools would go away. Walt Whitman’s funny stories, and his pipes

and tobaccos, were worth more than all the preachers and tracts in Christendom.”

Whitman and Lincoln “When lilacs last in the dooryard bloom’d”

“O Captain, My Captain”

O Captain! My Captain! O CAPTAIN! my Captain! our fearful trip is done; The ship has weather’d every rack, the prize we sought is won; The port is near, the bells I hear, the people all exulting, While follow eyes the steady keel, the vessel grim and daring: But O heart! heart! heart! O the bleeding drops of red, Where on the deck my Captain lies, Fallen cold and dead. When Lilacs Last in the Door-yard Bloom’d WHEN lilacs last in the door-yard bloom’d, And the great star early droop’d in the western sky in the night, I mourn’d—and yet shall mourn with ever-returning spring. O ever-returning spring! trinity sure to me you bring; Lilac blooming perennial, and drooping star in the west, And thought of him I love. With the lustrous and drooping star, with the countenance full of woe, With the lilac tall, and its blossoms of mastering odor; With the holders holding my hand, nearing the call of the bird, Comrades mine, and I in the midst, and their memory ever I keep—for the dead I loved so well; For the sweetest, wisest soul of all my days and lands...and this for his dear sake; Lilac and star and bird, twined with the chant of my soul, There in the fragrant pines, and the cedars dusk and dim. The Poet at Home Whitman died on 26 March 1892 at. and is buried in the tomb that he had designed. The song of myself begins with “I,” but it ends with “you.” “I stop somewhere waiting for you.” I Hear America Singing I HEAR America singing, the varied carols I hear; Those of mechanics—each one singing his, as it should be, blithe and strong; The carpenter singing his, as he measures his plank or beam, The mason singing his, as he makes ready for work, or leaves off work; The boatman singing what belongs to him in his boat—the deckhand singing on the steamboat deck; The shoemaker singing as he sits on his bench—the hatter singing as he stands;

The wood-cutter’s song—the ploughboy’s, on his way in the morning, or at the noon intermission, or at sundown; The delicious singing of the mother—or of the young wife at work—or of the girl sewing or washing—Each singing what belongs to her, and to none else; The day what belongs to the day—At night, the party of young fellows, robust, friendly, Singing, with open mouths, their strong melodious songs. Spirit that Form’d this Scene SPIRIT that form’d this scene, These tumbled rock-piles grim and red, These reckless heaven-ambitious peaks, These gorges, turbulent-clear streams, this naked freshness, These formless wild arrays, for reasons of their own, I know thee, savage spirit—we have communed together, Mine too such wild arrays, for reasons of their own; Was’t charged against my chants they had forgotten art? To fuse within themselves its rules precise and delicatesse? The lyrist’s measur’d beat, the wrought-out temple’s grace—column and polish’d arch forgot? But thou that revelest here—spirit that form’d this scene, They have remember’d thee.

Emily Dickinson(1830-1886) The most perfect flower of New England transcendentalism --Conrad Aiken men in her life: Benjamin F. Newton: “a friend, who taught me immortality” Charles Wadsworth: may be the model for the lover in her poetry Thomas Higginson: a sympathetic critic Literary career: 1775 poems, only 7 published in her own time writing on scraps Revival of interest in her poetry Complete works, Harvard University, 1955 Dickinson and Whitman romantic poets, interested in self-expression, loving nature, influenced by Emerson’s idea about self-expression, nonconformity Dickinson: pessimistic; Whitman: optimistic.
My Life Closed Twice before Its Close My life closed twice before its close; It yet remains to see If immortality unveil A third event to me, So huge, so hopeless to conceive As these that twice befell.

Parting is all we know of heaven, And all we need of hell. Subjects Love, death, nature, religion, immortality, pain, beauty, isolation, poetry, language, domestic life… The theme of Death: Death personified as a monarch, a lord, a kind but irresistible lover. Theory The romantic notion of the poet as a seer Poetry contributes to growth Indirection: obscure, cryptic, indirect, paradoxical Inconsistency: her poems are like entries in a diary Emerson: a foolish consistency is the hobgoblin of little minds Literary Influences She knew the poetry of Longfellow, Holmes, and Lowell. She identified with Hawthorne’s isolated, gnarled, idiosyncratic characters. Emerson was an enduring favorite. She loved Thoreau, recognizing a kindred spirit in the independent, nature-loving man who delighted in being the village crank of Concord. Style Lyric: short, condensed, based on a single image or symbol, dense verbal texture, unusual thematic significance Influence of Christian tradition: Biblical language and allusions the meter of hymns: four-line stanzas, a pattern of 4 beats, 3 beats, 4 beats and 3 beats her inventiveness: her personal experience as a source of her whimsical imagery and pithy expression The persona “I” Use of paradox, irony, oxymoron, synesthesia Paradox: a statement which seems on its face to be logically contradictory or absurd, yet turns out to be interpretable in a way that makes good sense. Oxymoron: a paradoxical utterance that conjoins two terms that in ordinary usage are contraries: pleasing pains, loving hate. Synesthesia: The description of one kind of sense impression by using words that normally describe another: loud colors, bright sounds, sweet music. Also called sense transference Unorthodox syntax and punctuation: Ungrammatical phrasing Frequent use of dashes Sporadic capitalization of nouns Innovation in rhyme: Off rhymes and broken meters Bold and unconventional metaphors: metaphysical conceit Aphoristic wit Slant Rhyme Within the structure form of short meter, she multiplied aural possibilities by substituting consonance and assonance for rhyme. . . . Have passed, I thought, a Whip lash

Upbraiding in the Sun When stopping to secure it It wrinkled and was gone-Several of Nature’s People I know, and they know me-I feel for them a transport Of cordiality— Her fondness for imperfect rhymes (slant rhymes) owes a debt to the hymnal, where ‘home” can be made to rhyme with “come”, and “God” with “road”, “tune” with “pain” . Enjambm =entenjamb(e)ment [in'd mnt]【韵律学】 (在对句、诗节或诗行等中一个诗句的)跨行,跨行连续 Her ideas often run across the end of the conventional stopping place of a line or stanza break, forcing her readers to learn where to pause to collect the sense before reading on. He glanced with rapid eyes That hurried all around-They looked like frightened Beads, I thought-He stirred his Velvet Head Like one in danger, Cautious, I offered him a Crumb And he unrolled his feathers And rowed him softer home-Dashes The entire Dickinson family used dashes in their correspondence. Grand go the Years--in the Crescent--above them-Worlds scoop their Arcs-And Firmaments--row-Diadems--drop--and Doges--surrender-Soundless as dots--on a Disc of snow— Frequent use of dashes to indicate pauses, little hesitations, or emphasis, or simply to achieve musical effect. Capital Letters Dickinson capitalizes most common nouns. Safe in their Alabaster Chambers-Untouched by Morning-And untouched by Noon-Lie the members of the Resurrection-Rafter of Satin--and Roof of Stone! Characteristic use of the language Her poems were marked by precise and connotative language, deliberate disregard of grammar, and an infatuation with ambiguity, paradoxes, puns, puzzles, incongruities and metaphysical conceit. Source of her vocabulary: She wrote: “For several years, my Lexicon (Webster’s American Dictionary of the English

Language) –was my only companion.” The living speech of the Connecticut Valley provided her with homely and dialectical expressions. Words of Latin or Greek origin employed for ideas words of concrete Saxon origin employed for perception Poems for appreciation Success Success is counted sweetest By those who ne'er succeed. To comprehend a nectar Requires sorest need. Not one of all the purple Host Who took the Flag today Can tell the definition So clear of Victory As he defeated -- dying -On whose forbidden ear The distant strains of triumph Burst agonized and clear! Because I could not stop for Death -Because I could not stop for Death -He kindly stopped for me -The Carriage held but just Ourselves -And Immortality. We slowly drove -- He knew no haste And I had put away My labor and my leisure too, For His Civility – We passed the School, where Children strove At Recess -- in the Ring -We passed the Fields of Gazing Grain -We passed the Setting Sun – Or rather -- He passed Us -The Dews drew quivering and chill -For only Gossamer, my Gown -My Tippet -- only Tulle – We paused before a House that seemed A Swelling of the Ground -The Roof was scarcely visible -The Cornice -- in the Ground – Since then -- 'tis Centuries -- and yet Feels shorter than the Day I first surmised the Horses' Heads

Were toward Eternity -Emily Dickinson - I died for Beauty -- but was scarce I died for Beauty -- but was scarce Adjusted in the Tomb When One who died for Truth, was lain In an adjoining room – He questioned softly "Why I failed"? "For Beauty", I replied -"And I -- for Truth -- Themself are One -We Brethren, are", He said – And so, as Kinsmen, met a Night -We talked between the Rooms -Until the Moss had reached our lips -And covered up -- our names -I taste a liquor never brewed I taste a liquor never brewed, From tankards scooped in pearl; Not all the vats upon the Rhine Yield such an alcohol! Inebriate of air am I, And debauchee of dew, Reeling, through endless summer days, From inns of molten blue. When landlords turn the drunken bee Out of the foxglove's door, When butterflies renounce their drams, I shall but drink the more! Till seraphs swing their snowy hats, And saints to windows run, To see the little tippler Leaning against the sun! Much madness is divinest sense Much madness is divinest sense To a discerning eye; Much sense the starkest madness. 'T is the majority In this, as all, prevails. Assent, and you are sane; Demur, -- you're straightway dangerous, And handled with a chain. The soul selects her own society

The soul selects her own society, Then shuts the door; On her divine majority Obtrude no more. Unmoved, she notes the chariot's pausing At her low gate; Unmoved, an emperor is kneeling Upon her mat. I've known her from an ample nation Choose one; Then close the valves of her attention Like stone. There's a certain slant of light There's a certain slant of light, On winter afternoons, That oppresses, like the weight Of cathedral tunes. Heavenly hurt it gives us; We can find no scar, But internal difference Where the meanings are. None may teach it anything, ' T is the seal, despair, -An imperial affliction Sent us of the air. When it comes, the landscape listens, Shadows hold their breath; When it goes, 't is like the distance On the look of death. The bustle in a house The bustle in a house The morning after death Is solemnest of industries Enacted upon earth, -The sweeping up the heart, And putting love away We shall not want to use again Until eternity. He ate and drank the precious Words -He ate and drank the precious Words -His Spirit grew robust -He knew no more that he was poor,

Nor that his frame was Dust -He danced along the dingy Days And this Bequest of Wings Was but a Book -- What Liberty A loosened spirit brings -Emily Dickinson - To fight aloud, is very brave To fight aloud, is very brave -But gallanter, I know Who charge within the bosom The Cavalry of Woe -Who win, and nations do not see -Who fall -- and none observe -Whose dying eyes, no Country Regards with patriot love -We trust, in plumed procession For such, the Angels go -Rank after Rank, with even feet -And Uniforms of Snow. Emily Dickinson - Crumbling is not an instant's Act Crumbling is not an instant's Act A fundamental pause Dilapidation's processes Are organized Decays. 'Tis first a Cobweb on the Soul A Cuticle of Dust A Borer in the Axis An Elemental Rust -Ruin is formal -- Devil's work Consecutive and slow -Fail in an instant, no man did Slipping -- is Crash's law. Apparently with no surprise Apparently with no surprise To any happy flower, The frost beheads it at its play In accidental power. The blond assassin passes on, The sun proceeds unmoved To measure off another day For an approving God.

These are the days when birds come back These are the days when birds come back, A very few, a bird or two, To take a backward look. These are the days when skies put on The old, old sophistries of June, -A blue and gold mistake. Oh, fraud that cannot cheat the bee, Almost thy plausibility Induces my belief, Till ranks of seeds their witness bear, And softly through the altered air Hurries a timid leaf! Oh, sacrament of summer days, Oh, last communion in the haze, Permit a child to join, Thy sacred emblems to partake, Thy consecrated bread to break, Taste thine immortal wine! I never lost as much but twice I never lost as much but twice, And that was in the sod; Twice have I stood a beggar Before the door of God! Angels, twice descending, Reimbursed my store. Burglar, banker, father, I am poor once more! Emily Dickinson - This is my letter to the World This is my letter to the World That never wrote to Me -The simple News that Nature told -With tender Majesty Her Message is committed To Hands I cannot see -For love of Her -- Sweet -- countrymen -Judge tenderly -- of Me

American Realism Background Three conflicts between: Economically: the agrarian ideal vs the industrial ideal

Politically: the plantation gentility of the South and the commercial gentility of the North Culturally: the culturally mature East and the raw and expanding West. The Civil War (1861-1865) “The Gilded Age”

Realism American Realism came in the latter half of the nineteenth century as a reaction against Romanticism. It stresses truthful treatment of material. It focuses on commonness of the lives of the common people, and emphasizes objectivity and offers an objective rather than an idealistic view of human nature and human experience. The three dominant figures of the period are William Howells, Mark Twain, and Henry James. William Dean Howells (1837-1920): The Rise of Silas Lapham (1885) O. Henry (William Sidney Porter) (1862-1910) Henry James (1843-1916) Local Colorism Local colorism as a trend became dominant in American literature in the late 1860s and early 1870s. It is a variation of American literary realism. Generally, the writings of local colorists are concerned with the life of a small, well-defined region or province. The characteristic setting is the isolated small town. Local colorists were consciously nostalgic historians of a vanishing way of life, recorders of a present that faded before their eyes. Yet for all their sentimentality, they dedicated themselves to minutely accurate descriptions of the life of their regions. Mark Twain is a local colorist. Mark Twain Twain preferred to present social life through portraits of the local characters of his regions, including people living in that area, the landscape, and other peculiarities like the customs, dialects, costumes and so on. So the rich material of his boyhood experience on the Mississippi became endless resources for his fiction, and the Mississippi valley and the west became his major theme. Harriet Beecher Stowe (1811-1896): Uncle Tome’s Cabin Hamlin Garland (1860-1940): Main-Traveled Roads Francis Bret Harte (1836-1902): The Luck of Roaring Camp William Faulkner (1897-1962): The Sound and the Fury Naturalism Naturalism designates a literary movement in the late 19th and early 20th centuries in France, America and England. It applies the principles of scientific determinism to fiction and drama. It views human beings as animals in the natural world responding to environmental forces and internal stresses and drives, over none of which they have control and none of which they fully understand. Here are the major features of naturalism. (1) Humans are controlled by laws of heredity and environment. (2) The universe is cold, godless, indifferent and hostile to human desires. (3) Naturalistic writers are pessimistic. They choose their subjects from the lower ranks of the society, and portray misery and poverty of the “underdogs” who demonstrably victims of society and nature.

Stephen Crane (1871-1900): Maggie, A Girl of the Streets (1893) The Red Badge of Courage (1895) Benjamin Frank Norris (1870-1902) McTeague (1899)

Theodore Dreiser (1871-1945) Sister Carrie Jennie Gerhardt The Trilogy of Desire: The Financier The Titan The Stoic The Genius An American Tragedy Jack London (1867-1916) The Call of the Wild Martin Eden The Sea Wolf White Fang The Iron Heel The People of the Abyss Henry James(1843-1916) Life Aristocratic parents Unsystematic formal education Independently wealthy Observer rather than Participant Moved permanently to England,1876 Became a British subject,1915 Literary Career—first stage International theme: How Americans behave in an international setting. Europeans/ Americans Innocence vs Experience James’ attitude towards European culture: decadence, heritage. The American (1877) The Europeans (1878) Daisy Miller (1878) The Portrait of a Lady (1881) Washington Square (1881) In these early works, James experiments with the limited point of view, and focuses on the “complex inner lives of his American characters” which are “fully and realistically

projected” Second Stage Novels in the naturalistic mode: The Bostonians, 1886 顿 Turning to three dominant subjects: Troubled writers and artists Ghosts and apparitions, Doomed or threatened children and adolescents The Figure in the Carpet, 1896 图 What Mazie Knew, 1897 l……7jhW The Turn of the Screw, 1898 丝 拧 拧 The Beast in the Jungle, 1903 丛 兽 Third Stage Returning to international themes Novels complex and profound The Wings of the Dove, 1902 鸽 The Ambassadors, 1903 记 The Golden Bowl, 1904 镀 Richness of syntax, characterization, point of view, symbolic romance, metaphoric texture, and organizing rhythms. famous for their intricate, dense narrative and “focus on the way in which people make their own realities through their perceptions and impressions” Theory of Fiction: The Art of Fiction, 1884 The novelist must be faithful to life as it actually appears. There must be freedom for the artist to choose what subjects he will deal with. The novel must be regarded as an organic whole with every part of a functioning contributor to the achieving of the novel’s ultimate expression. The author must remain outside—the self-containment of art. Dramatization: showing rather than telling Central consciousness through whom events are observed. Omniscient / limited POV Psychological realism: the first of the modern psychological novelists, a realist of the inner life Ambiguity About Point of View The “center of consciousness” Limited POV, presenting the story through the filter of a single character or a succession of characters. He argues for characters of great sensitivity as his centers of consciousness, since the more they perceive of life the more the reader perceives. About Fiction Fiction is a serious art form—not a pastime nor a game in which the reader indulges his daydreams—but an “imitation of life”. It deals with the larger truths of human existence that comprise the pattern behind the fact. Two qualities of fiction:

Fiction should be made of experience intensely perceived (either from life or from imagination) Fiction should be interesting. The artist stories are not merely artist stories; the international works are not merely international conflicts. In both groups, in others such as the ghostly tales, and in still other stories not easily classified, one finds real people playing out real dramas of loneliness, suffering, and betrayal. Themes Art The clash between the old European world and the new American world (“international theme) Conflict between more or less ingenuous Americans and sophisticated Europeans American good and European evil Innocent young American bumping into old enriched culture which is degenerate But his later works show a great awareness of complexity. James’ place in American Literature Bridging the 19th and 20th c. Connecting America and Europe. A pioneer in psychological realism A “master craftsman” Criticized by some because of his focus on the elite (James deals largely with the moral and social problems of middle- and upper-class society. ) Along with the increasing complexity of his style, his hypersensitive narrators, or protagonists, having alienated James from the common reader, as James himself realized.

Samuel Langhorne Clemens = Mark Twain(1835-1910) --Highlight of American Realism Life boyhood A pilot on the Mississippi River Mark Twain: Safe water, or Two Fathoms Deep The Notorious Jumping Frog of the Calaveras County Permanent home in Hartford, Connecticut Bankruptcy Loss of daughters and wife Hannibal, Missouri Thinking of the old days in Hannibal made him feel like “some banished Adam, revisiting his half-forgotten Paradise and wondering how the arid world could ever have seemed green and fair to him”. Works The Notorious Jumping Frog of the Calaveras County,1867 Roughing it,1872 The Gilded Age,1873

The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, 1876 The Prince and the Pauper, 1882 Life on the Mississippi,1883 The Adventures of huckleberry Finn, 1884 A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court,1889 The Tragedy of Pudd’nhead Wilson, 1894 “To the Person Sitting in Darkness”,1901 The Man that Corrupted Hadleyburg, 1900 The Mysterious Stranger,1916 Autobiography, 1924

The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn All Modern American Literature comes from one book by Mark Twain called Huckleberry Finn … it’s the best book we’ve had … There was nothing before. There has been nothing so good since. --Ernest Hemingway The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn Twain’s greatest achievement Setting: Hannibal/St Petersburg Structure: Chapters 1-16 Chapters 17-31 Chapters 32-43 Plot: Picaresque tale Initiation fiction: Initiation accomplished through symbolic death and rebirth. Satire on southern culture Humor Style : Vernacular language Local color Themes Truth versus falsehood Civilization versus natural instincts and nature Man as an individual as opposed to man in a group; man and society Innocence versus Experience Prejudice and respect for human dignity Characterization Huck Tom Sawyer Jim Symbols The Mississippi River--life’s journey, Providence, nature—often called 3rd protagonist Land—civilization, society Raft-natural simplicity of protagonists Steamboat-civilization Theodore Dreiser
“The Wheelhouse of American Naturalism”

Theodore Dreiser (1871—1945) Biography Family: poor, large, religious, immigrant. Education: A few months at Indiana University. Early Career: Journalism Sister Carrie After 1911, a full-time writer: Jennie Gerhardt The Trilogy of Desire An American Tragedy Political activities: 1927-28, visited the Soviet Union, Dreiser Looks at Russia, hopeful belief in socialism 1945, a communist. Major Works Sister Carrie (1900) Jennie Gerhardt (1911) The “Genius” (1915) An American Tragedy (1925) Trilogy of Desire: The Financier (1912) The Titan (1914) The Stoic (1947) Major Features Dreiser’s naturalist view of American society Photographic and relentless observation A serious tone An honest massing of details The use of journalistic method Dreiser’s novels are formless at times and awkwardly written, and his characterization is found deficient and his prose pedestrian and dull, yet his very energy proves to be more than a compensation. Sister Carrie Dreiser: “It is not intended as a piece of literary craftsmanship, but as a picture of conditions done as simply and effectively as the English language will permit.” Modern Poetry I E. A. Robinson & Robert Frost Edwin Arlington Robinson(1869-1935) The poet laureate of failure A poet of transition between the 19th and 20th centuries. Robinson’s poetry is transitional, evaluating the present by using traditional forms and by including elements of transcendentalism and Puritanism. “Robinson stayed content with the old way to be new”—Robert Frost Subject: Tilbury: a small New England town Themes: the futility of human life. Form: traditional verse forms; to approximate poetically folk speech patterns; plain language Tone: ironic, aloof, detached with an undercurrent of compassion and humor

Robert Frost (1874~1963) —America’s poet laureate Biography 1. Family 2. Education 3. 1894, My Butterfly 4. Farm life in Delhi, New Hampshire 5. 1912, sold his farm and took his wife and four young children to England. 6. 1913, A Boy’s Will. 7. 1915, back to America. 8. 1916, Mountain Interval: The Road not Taken. 9. 1923, New Hampshire: Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening. 10. 1930~1940, family tragedies. 11. 1963, death The unofficial poet laureate of America Four “Pulitzer Prize of Poetry”: 1924, 1931, 1937, 1943. 44 honorary degrees Invited to read his poem at President Kennedy’s inauguration in 1961: The Gift Outright. John Kennedy’s Comments The death of Robert Frost leaves a vacancy in the American spirit……His death impoverishes us all; but he has bequeathed his nation a body of imperishable verse from which Americans will forever gain joy and understanding. Robert Frost Frost – “A poem begins with a lump in the throat; a homesickness or a lovesickness. It is a reaching-out toward expression; an effort to find fulfillment. A complete poem is one where an emotion has found its thought and thought has found the words…words that have become deeds.” Frost’s poetry Setting: New England Subjects and themes: daily life of ordinary people; rural poetry in the pastoral tradition: farm situations Universal matters of life and death, good and evil, with the deceptive and rustic simplicity landscape and people of New England, loneliness and poverty of isolated farmers, beauty, terror, and tragedy in nature Poetic style: simple language, graceful style, traditional forms of poetry, symbols from everyday life about profound ideas, colloquial and direct expression and conversational rhythms. Frost was often deceptively simple, exploring complexity through triviality. His best poems begin in folksy straighforwardness end in complex ambiguity. Frost stood aside from the literary movements of the 20th century, yet he stood aloft among his contemporary poets because of his modern thematic concern.
Mending Wall Something there is that doesn't love a wall, That sends the frozen-ground-swell under it,

And spills the upper boulders in the sun; And makes gaps even two can pass abreast. The work of hunters is another thing: I have come after them and made repair Where they have left not one stone on a stone, But they would have the rabbit out of hiding, To please the yelping dogs. The gaps I mean, No one has seen them made or heard them made, But at spring mending-time we find them there. I let my neighbor know beyond the hill; And on a day we meet to walk the line And set the wall between us once again. We keep the wall between us as we go. To each the boulders that have fallen to each. And some are loaves and some so nearly balls We have to use a spell to make them balance: 'Stay where you are until our backs are turned!' We wear our fingers rough with handling them. Oh, just another kind of outdoor game, One on a side. It comes to little more: There where it is we do not need the wall: He is all pine and I am apple orchard. My apple trees will never get across And eat the cones under his pines, I tell him. He only says, 'Good fences make good neighbors.' Spring is the mischief in me, and I wonder If I could put a notion in his head: 'Why do they make good neighbors? Isn't it Where there are cows? But here there are no cows. Before I built a wall I'd ask to know What I was walling in or walling out, And to whom I was like to give offense. Something there is that doesn't love a wall, That wants it down.' I could say 'Elves' to him, But it's not elves exactly, and I'd rather He said it for himself. I see him there Bringing a stone grasped firmly by the top In each hand, like an old-stone savage armed. He moves in darkness as it seems to me, Not of woods only and the shade of trees. He will not go behind his father's saying, And he likes having thought of it so well He says again, 'Good fences make good neighbors.’ Questions:

What do you think the theme of the poem is? What is it that does not like a wall? How does the speaker’s attitude toward mending the wall compare with that of his neighbour? What kind of darkness surrounds the neighbour? How can the barrier between individuals be broken down? Road Not Taken TWO roads diverged in a yellow wood, And sorry I could not travel both And be one traveler, long I stood And looked down one as far as I could To where it bent in the undergrowth; Then took the other, as just as fair, And having perhaps the better claim Because it was grassy and wanted wear; Though as for that, the passing there Had worn them really about the same, And both that morning equally lay In leaves no step had trodden black. Oh, I marked the first for another day! Yet knowing how way leads on to way I doubted if I should ever come back. I shall be telling this with a sigh Somewhere ages and ages hence: Two roads diverged in a wood, and I, I took the one less traveled by, And that has made all the difference. Questions What dilemma is described in the poem? Does the poem suggest that Frost was a nonconformist? Do you think the line “yet knowing how way leads on to way” is fatalistic in tone?

Modern Poetry 20th Century Literature Modernism Germany, 1890s – the early 1940s A break with the past; art and literature as an avenue to self-fulfillment A wide range of artistic expressions
Modernism Discontinuity and severance from the past / Use of the past: a feeling of disillusionment, alienation, loss of faith, despair back to the foundations of previous art Fragmentation—a common theme

fragmentation in social communities and fragmentation within the individual self anti-hero vs hero Experimentalism: a conscious break with traditional forms, perceptions and techniques of expression stream of consciousness, the use of myth, the poetic image Imagism Poetic movement of England and the Unites States, flourished from 1909 to 1917. Its credo: the use of the language of common speech, precision, the creation of new rhythms, absolute freedom in choice of subject matter, the evocation of images in hard, clear poetry, concentration. Originating in the philosophy of T. E. Hulme, (Thomas Ernest Hulme: to express momentary impressions through the use of one dominant image) the movement soon attracted Ezra Pound, who became the leader of a small group opposed to the romantic conception of poetry and inspired by Greek and Roman classic poetry and by Chinese, Japanese, and modern French poets. Imagism Harriet Monroe: Poetry: A Magazine of Verse U.S. Pound, H.D.(Hilda Doolittle), Amy Lowell Britain: F.S. Flint, Richard Aldington, D.H. Lawrence. When Pound’s interest turned to vorticism, Amy Lowell assumed active leadership—“Amygism” ---a poetic renaissance in the United States and the beginning of modern American poetry Imagism Pound’s definition: “An ‘Image’ is that which presents an intellectual and emotional complex in an instant of time.” An image “gives that sense of sudden liberation; that sense of freedom from time limits and space limits; that sense of sudden growth, which we experience in the greatest works of art.” “The imagist is trying to recall the precise instant when a thing outward and objective transforms itself into a thing inward and subjective. He wants to capture the objective stimulus at the very moment it creates an emotional response inside of the mind. Imagism 3 goals (according to Pound, in “A Retrospect”) (1) Direct treatment of the ‘thing’ whether subjective or objective. (2) To use absolutely no word that does not contribute to the presentation. (3) As regarding rhythm: to compose in the sequence of the musical phrase, not in the sequence of a metronome.

H. D. Oread Hurl up, sea--

whirl your pointed pines. splash your great pines on our rocks, hurl your green over us, cover us with your pools of fir.

William Carlos Williams The Red Wheelbarrow so much depends upon a red wheel barrow glazed with rain water beside the white chickens. Ezra Pound(1885-1972) Works Cathay, a volume of Chinese translations Cantos In A Station of the Metro The apparition of these faces in the crowd; Petals on a wet, black bough. 群 这 孔 灵 显显
湿 条 带 青 头 许

‰~Bm^‰~ 群 Haiku A Japanese lyric verse form having three unrhymed lines of five, seven, and five syllables, traditionally invoking an aspect of nature or the seasons. e句 长干 。 发 额, 门 剧 。郎 郎 马 来 ,绕 青 。 居长 干 ,两 , 唤 。 , 为 君妇 , 颜 尝 尝 。 头 尘与 。 ,岂 。 君远 ,瞿 滟 滟 。 可触 , 声 。 , 门 迟 绿 。 扫, 风 。 黄 ,双 双 园 。 感 伤 , ,预 预 预 预 家。 红颜 。 晚 远, 长风 。

T. S. Eliot(1888-1965) Poet, playwright, critic “classicist in literature in literature, royalist in politics, and Anglo-Catholic in religion” (1927) The acknowledged leader of the new poetry and criticism by 1925 and dominated poetry and criticism in the period between two world wars and shaped the tastes and the critical vocabulary of a generation
Major features of Poetry

Not accept the validity of the American dream; not accept commercial culture Audience not common mass but small elitists inadequacy and crisis of beings, esp spiritual crisis Views of Poetry preference for poetry that does away with the poet's own personality, and poetry that uses the "objective correlative" of symbolic, meaningful, and often chaotic concrete imagery. Works The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock The Waste Land The Hollow Man Ash Wednesday Four Quartets Verse plays: Murder in the Cathedral The Family Reunion The Cocktail Party The Confidential Clerk Critical Essays: “Tradition and the Individual Talent” “Hamlet and His Problems” ……. Modern Fiction between the Two World Wars Many young writers and artists live abroad for months and years. For them Europe was exotic, glamorous and exciting, and because of the rate of exchange living was cheaper in Europe than in American. ( expatriates) Marxism and Freudianism were widely studied. They changed people’s view of society and themselves. The voices of new groups of Americans were heard, poor, immigrants, Jews or blacks. There was new literature coming out of South and the literature written by women with awakened self-consciousness. An intense reexamination of the structure of literature and of the nature of the critical activity itself. American fiction grew mature and became a leading force in world literature. The excellent writers of the period include:

Ernest Hemingway F. Scott Fitzgerald William Faulkner “The achievement of these writers was remarkable; they had explored the essential passages of the earlier part of the century—from country to city, mythic pastoral to modern irony, national self-preoccupation to a larger awareness of international processes. They had drawn the potential of naturalism onward toward a modernism that seemed comfortably appropriate to twentieth-century American experience, and had constructed a modern, experimental tradition of American fiction.”

--Malcolm Bradbury

Terms Lost Generation The 1920s “You are all a lost generation…” ————Gertrude Stein Lost Generation The term is applied to the American writers who fought in the First World War, voluntarily exiled to Paris, and associated with the informal literary saloon of Gertrude Stein’s Paris home for a certain period of time. They were all disillusioned with the American Tradition of writing as well as the post-war American society. The most eloquent spokesman of the group is Ernest Hemingway. Other writers are Ezra Pound, F. Scott Fitzgerald, John Dos Passos, etc. The 1920s The Jazz Age Roaring Twenties

Ernest Hemingway Spokesman of the Lost Generation Life WWI In Paris The Spanish Civil War WWII: China, Cuba The Nobel Prize Suicide
Adventure: bull-fights, deep-sea fishing near Cuba, big games hunting in Africa, and other exotic physical masculine athletic pursuits A sensational public image Hemingway, Time, 1954 Ernest Hemingway His lean, economical style has been widely copied by other writers, and his stories of courage in the face of tragedy are re-read by each new generation. His style, the particular type of hero in his novels, and his life attitudes have been widely recognized and imitated, not only in English-speaking countries but all over the world. Works The Sun Also Rises( 1926), appeared in 1926 and it was an immediate success. He described the life of aimless expatriates in Europe as seen through the eyes of a young man who must face the bitter fact that a war wound left him unable to have children. A Farewell To Arms(1929) It is a big success. The novel describes an American lieutenant fighting in Italy in the First World War. The hero loses all sense of responsibility to the army and escapes to Switzerland with the nurse whom he loves.

When his baby is stillborn and his wife dies in childbirth, he has nothing left but his own courage to rely on. For Whom the Bell Tolls (1940) This novel concerns a volunteer American guerrilla in Spain, who blows up a strategic bridge as part of an attack which he knows is doomed to failure. In the end, he is left to die. The Old Man and the Sea (1952) This short novel is a simple story, containing some of Hemingway’s best writing. It tells about a Cuban fisherman who catches a giant marlin, only to see it devoured by sharks. This book capped his career, and led to his receipt of the Nobel Prize two years later. Other Works In Our Time (1925) It is the first book to present a Hemingway hero- Nick Adams. It was truly the start of everything that he was going to do. Nick becomes the prototype of the wounded hero who, with all the dignity and courage he could muster, confronts situations which are not of his own choosing yet threaten his destruction. Short Stories Death in the Afternoon(1932) The Green Hills of Africa(1935) To Have and Have Not (1937) A Moveable Feast (1962) Grace Under Pressure and Code Heroes This is actually an attitude towards life that Hemingway had been trying to demonstrate in his works. In the general situation of his novels, life is full of tension and battles; the world is in chaos; man is always fighting desperately a losing battle. However, though life is but a losing battle, it is a struggle man can dominate in such a way that loss becomes dignity; man can be physically destroyed but never defeated spiritually. Those who survive in the process of seeking to master the code with the honesty, the discipline, and the restraint are Hemingway Code heroes. “A man is not made for defeat….A man can be destroyed but not defeated.” Iceberg Analogy “The dignity of movement of an iceberg is due to only one-eighth of it being above water.” According to Hemingway, good literary writing should be able to make readers feel the emotion of the characters directly and the best way to produce the effect is to set down exactly every particular kind of feeling without any authorial comments, without conventionally emotive language, and with a bare minimum of adjectives and adverbs . Seemingly simple and natural, Hemingway’s style is actually polished and tightly controlled, but highly suggestive and connotative. Style Telegraphic

Biblical Direct description and dialogue with little commentary or interpretation: showing rather than telling Lean, economical Restraint and understatement Hemingway’s language Hemingway studied Mark Twain’s works and followed his example in using colloquialism. The use of short, uncomplicated, active sentences, with very few adjectives, became his recognizable style. Many other writers imitated it.

F. Scott Fitzgerald(1896-1940) Spokesman of the “Roaring 20’s” Life A mirror of the times Family: socially prominent, genteelly poor Expensive education: Princeton University, rich boys, “the belle of the ball” During WWI Marriage: Zelda Sayre, the young couple came to epitomize the Jazz Age style, Zelda’s nervous breakdown In the 1930s Let me tell you about the very rich. Let me tell you about the very rich. They are different from you and me. They possess and enjoy early, and it does something to them, makes them soft where we are hard, and cynical where we are trustful, in a way that, unless you were born rich, it is very difficult to understand. They think, deep in their hearts, that they are better than we are because we had to discover the compensations and refuges of life for ourselves. Even when they enter deep into our world or sink below us, they still think that they are better than we are. They are different. Scott and Zelda
Works This Side of Paradise The Great Gatsby The Beautiful and the Damned Tender is the Night First Edition Fitzgerald as spokesman of the Jazz Age Fitzgerald named the 1920’s “The Jazz Age” The Jazz Age, the Roaring Twenties, the Aspirin Age… Jazz music, Charleston, the motor car, organized crime The American Dream In America one might hope to satisfy every material desire and thereby achieve happiness. The first settlers

The opening of the Middle and Western states A desire for spiritual and material improvement An illusion Fitzgerald’s indictment of the American dream “America’s great promise is that something is going to happen, but it never does. America is the moon that never rose.” The Great Gatsby Plot Nick moves from the midwest to New York City in order to pursue a career in bonds Nick begins a friendship with his cousin, Daisy Nick befriends his neighbor, Jay Gatsby Nick reunites Daisy with her former love, Gatsby Daisy’s husband, Tom, discovers his wife’s affair A trip into the City results in the death of Tom’s lover, Myrtle, when she ran out in front of a car Daisy was driving. Tom tells Myrtle’s distraught husband, George, that Gatsby killed Myrtle. George kills Gatsby No one but Nick comes to Gatsby’s funeral Tom and Daisy leave town. Settings West Egg- where Nick and Gatsby live, represents new money East Egg- where Daisy lives, the more fashionable area, represents old money The City- New York City, where the characters escape to for work and play The Valley of Ashes- between the City and West Egg, where Wilson’s gas station is. Tom and Daisy "They were careless people, Tom and Daisy- they smashed up things and creatures and then retreated back into their money or their vast carelessness or whatever it was that kept them together, and let other people clean up the mess they had made." – Nick’s description of Tom and Daisy Symbols Green Light- at the end of Daisy’s dock and visible from Gatsby’s mansion. Represents Gatsby's hopes and dreams about Daisy. The Valley of Ashes- the area between West Egg and New York City. It is a desolate area filled with industrial waste. It represents the social and moral decay of society during the 1920’s. It also shows the negative effects of greed. The Eyes of Dr. T. J. Ekleburg- A decaying billboard in the Valley of Ashes with eyes advertising an optometrist. There are multiple proposed meanings, including the representation of God’s moral judgment on society. Theme The decline of American dream An indictment of the careless gaiety and moral decadence of the Jazz Age. Structure Opposing attitudes and values of two groups of people. The narrative arrangement moves from one to the other until the two groups meet.

The two way movement of the narrative is controlled by the actor/observer. Juxtaposition brings about the contrast between the opposing attitudes of the two main groups of characters.

William Faulkner 1897-1962 Life Family: the old, white upper class The British Royal Flying Corps, 1918 The University of Mississippi, 1919-20. New Orleans, 1925: Freud’s psychology, James Joyce’s vanguard fiction, Sherwood Anderson’s influence. Publication of the first novel Soldier’s Pay, 1926 Brief tour in Europe: James Joyce, modern painting. Returned to Mississippi, 1926 A period of amazing literary output: The Sound and the Fury, 1929; As I Lay Dying, 1930… Praise from Jean-Paul Sartre, Malcolm Cowley Nobel Prize for literature, 1950: because he created a symbolic picture of the remote past “to retell the recurrent story of human dreams, bravery and defeat, to make a statement about the past and use the statement to talk about man’s lot in his world.” Late 1940s and the 1950s: lecture tours, public reading, conferences. 1957-58: writer-in-residence at the University of Virginia. Death, 1962.

Faulkner and Modernism
In Anderson’s literary circle, Faulkner became acquainted with Freud’s theories of sexuality new discoveries in anthropology the sweeping implications of the literary innovations of T.S. Eliot and James Joyce He also absorbed the ennui and despair of the post-war generation. Unlike Hemingway, who developed a lean and mean prose style, Faulkner wrote long sentences, trying to capture all the nuances of a given situation in one comprehensive sentence. A Regionalist William Faulkner ranks with Ernest Hemingway as one of the leading American authors of the twentieth century. Faulkner, like Robert Frost, was a regionalist. His region was the Deep South, with its bitter history of slavery, civil war and destruction. Faulkner drew the material for most of his fiction from his own family history, the southern region’s characteristic of white social status, racial violence, honor codes, and traditional moral values. Yoknapatawpha County 15 of his major works are set in Yoknapatawpha County and its main town, Jefferson. (Oxford, Mississippi) Imaginary places on his “own little postage stamp of native soil”

A complete and detailed creation of a mythical kingdom An allegory or a parable of the South Faulkner used the South to talk about the violence and evil in all human beings. The foremost southern writer of the 20th century Depicted the bitterness of southern history with poetic expression. Critical of southern society. His theme: an analysis of the underlying cause for the failure and decay of the South before the Civil War. Works Faulkner wrote 19 novels, 4 collections of short stories, and 2 volumes of poetry. Among them, four novels are masterpieces by any standards: The Sound and the Fury 喧哗与骚动 It describes the decay and downfall of an old Southern aristocratic family, symbolizing the old social order, told from four different points of view. Light in August 八月之光 Absalom, Absalom! 押沙龙!押沙龙! One important theme of the novel is doom brought about by the denial of humanity. Go Down, Moses 下去,摩西 It tells roughly the same story of moral injustice which, in Faulkner’s opinion, poisoned southern civilization at the root. Macbeth, Act V, Scene V: Tomorrow, and tomorrow, and tomorrow Creeps in this petty pace from day to day To the last syllable of recorded time, And all our yesterdays have lighted fools The way to dusty death. Out, out, brief candle. Life's but a walking shadow, a poor player That struts and frets his hour upon the stage, And then is heard no more. It is a tale Told by an idiot, full of sound and fury, Signifying nothing. Sartoris 沙多里斯 (the first Yoknapatawpha novel) As I Lay Dying 我弥留之际 Sanctuary 圣殿 The Hamlet 村子 The Town 小镇 The Mansion 大宅 Techniques —an avant-garde experimenter He advanced some modern literary techniques: Stream of consciousness Floating or multiple point of view The violation of chronology in narrative structure A Rose for Emily Plot Section 1: Death of Miss Emily; the fuss about tax (when the new generation became mayors

and alderman). Section 2: The strange smell (2 years after her father’s death and short time after Homer disappeared); Death of her father. Section 3: Her affair with Homer (after her father’s death); Emily bought poison. Section 4: Her Cousins’ visit; Homer left; Emily aged and died. Section 5: Townspeople entered her house (after her death); the discovery. Questions 1. Account for the use of the pronoun “we” by the narrator. 2. How is Faulkner’s handling of chronology expressive of the nature of memory? 3. What does Emily represent to her town and her region? What attitudes towards social classes figure in the action and how do these change? 4. What is the relation between comic elements and the melancholy or shocking ingredients of the story? 5. What does Homer Barron represent? How important is it that he is a Yankee? 6. What motives can you attribute to Emily for her killing of Homer Barron? How are these motives related to the themes? John Steinbeck (1902-1968) The foremost writer of the Great Depression during the 1930s. The Grapes of Wrath (1939): An epic account of the frustrate pilgrimage from the barren farmland of Oklahoma to the fruit orchards of California. a symbolic journey of man on the way to finding some truth about life and himself, and a record of the dispossessed and the wretched farmers during the Great Depression as well. Pulitzer Prize, 1940 Nobel Prize for literature, 1962

Modern Drama
Eugene O’Neill, Tennessee Williams, Arthur Miller

Eugene O’Neill (1888-1953) 1936 Nobel Prize for Literature – Desire Under The Elms, The Iceman Cometh, Long Day’s Journey Into Night. His plays are sometimes autobiographical, generally tragic, often experimental. Life Born in New York City, Oct. 16, 1888 Father: James, matinee idol specialized in portraying the count of The Count of Monte Cristo. James toured the entire country for sixteen years in this production. The family had a summer cottage in New London, but the Irish family was looked down upon by the Puritan neighbors. About mother: “First seven years of my life spent mostly in hotels and railroad trains, my mother accompanying my father on his tours of the United States, although she never was an

actress, disliked the theatre, and held aloof from its people.” Eugene O’Neill entered Princeton University in 1906, but left shortly. Worked on a tramp steamer at sea. Obsessed with the mystical attractiveness of the sea Stricken with tuberculosis in 1913 In 1914 he studied the art of playwriting under George Pierce Baker at Harvard University. 1916 Bound East for Cardiff (东航卡迪夫 ) produced at the Wharf Theatre in Massachusetts by the Provincetown Players. 1920 the Provincetown production of Beyond the Horizon(天边外) won him the Pulitzer Prize. Out of 47 plays, 4 received Pulitzer Prizes, the other three being Anna Christie(安娜克 里斯蒂), Strange Interlude(奇异的插曲), Long Day’s Journey into Night(进入黑夜的 漫长旅程). Won Nobel Prize for Literature in 1936. Shortly before he died of bronchial pneumonia in 1953, O’Neill set to destroy all of his remaining manuscripts. However 3 completed plays were uncovered among his papers: Long Day’s Journey into Night; Hughie; and A Touch of the Poet. Major Plays The Hairy Ape (毛猿) 毛猿) A social drama, but the social problem is only the touchstone to a larger problem, and social dislocation is only a symbol of a more profound cosmic dislocation. Theme: Profound spiritual poverty and disharmony which, beginning as a by-product of the industrial age, soon became its most dominant characteristic. “Aw, hell! I can’t see—it’s all dark, get me? It’s all wrong!” Yank could not find a spiritual place in the universe. Ontological problem of modern man’s existence Psychological study of one’s sense of being Attempt to reestablish relationship with nature Desire Under the Elms, represents a milestone in American Drama. Expressionistic Set for Eugene O'Neill's Desire Under the Elms The trees seem to brood over the home of Ephraim Cabot. Desire Under the Elms is a modern telling of Racine's Phaedra. The Iceman Cometh 送冰人来了 Long Day’s Journey into Night A Semi-autobiographical play in four acts. The Tytone family: the father, James Tyrone, an actor; the drug-addicted mother, Mary; the elder brother, Jamie; and Edmund, based on O’Neill himself, stricken with Tuberculosis.


O’Neill introduced the European theatrical trends of realism, naturalism, and expressionism to the American stage. O’Neill admires Swedish expressionist playwright August Strindberg, who is concerned with the inscrutable forces behind life. Other influences are from Henrik Ibsen, Gerhart Hauptman, Anton Chekhov. Nietzsche’s idea on the development of race instincts also found a voice in the naturalism of O’Neill. He felt that man today is the same creature he was 2,000 years ago. He is learning ever so slowly how to control his primal instincts. Modern man is far worse off than his predecessors, for today we find the death of the old God and the failure of science to replace a new one. O’Neill made great use of Freudian and Jungian psychology. O’Neill’s drama is modern in all its aspects: in theatricality, in philosophy, and on subject matter.

Tennessee Williams (1911-1983) Born in Mississippi, reared there and in St. Louis Isolated childhood; an unsocial and eccentric disposition Began his career as a dramatist with American Blues (1939) First achieved success with The Glass Menagerie (1944)
The Glass Menagerie (1944) A play of sentiment and pathos about a frustrated mother, who is a victim of fantasies, and her withdrawn daughter. Williams’s most tender story and rather autobiographical. Illusion vs. Reality A Streetcar Named Desire (1947) Pulitzer Prize Set in a New Orleans slum Bringing into violent contrast a neurotic woman’s dream world and the animalistic realism of her brother-in-law. Sex, violence, the South Car on a hot Tin Roof (1955) Pulitzer Prize Bitter family tensions

Arthur Miller
Life Born in New York City to a middle-class Jewish Family on October 17, 1915 and died Feb. 11, 2005. His father, a manufacturer of women's coats, was hard hit by the Depression and could not afford to send Miller to college when the time came. Miller worked as a loader and shipping clerk at a New York warehouse to earn tuition money. Began as playwright at University of Michigan, and met his first wife.

All My Sons (1947) (全是我的儿子)his first Broadway success—winner of the New York Drama Critic’s Circle Award. Pulitzer Prize winner for Death of A Salesman (1949) Double winner of New York Drama Critics Circle Award. 50 years later, Death was awarded another Tony award for best revival of Broadway Season. Miller, then 83, received a lifetime achievement award. In the early 50s, Miller became associated with a number of left-wing causes and (like many other prominent writers) became a target for Senator Joseph McCarthy’s Communist-hunting committee. The Crucible (1953)(严峻的考验) is based on Salem witch trial. A View from the Bridge (1955)(桥头眺望) Death of a Salesman by Arthur Miller (American Dream Gone Awry) Central Themes Addresses family conflict in post-World War II America Takes a close look at the price paid for the “American Dream” Charges America with creating a capitalist materialism centered around a postwar economy This materialism skewed the original view of the “American Dream” as envisioned by the founding fathers. A man destroyed by his own stubborn belief in the glory of American capitalism and the redemptive power of success. Techniques Flashback scenes, representing past experiences now preying upon Willy’s distracted mind Set designed for unhampered movement He uses flashbacks to reveal how inner tensions can impel a man toward self-destruction. Free-lowing movement of the Expressionists

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