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Test1 在中国,喝茶是一种仪式(ritual),一种精致品味(refined taste)的展示。人们在饮茶的同时, 也领略着(take delight in)品茶的情趣之意。喝茶聊天是中国人中最流行的打发时间的方式。 过去,他们是以进有名的茶馆(teahouse)而开始一天的生活的。中国的茶馆相当于法国的咖 啡馆和英国的酒馆。 到这里不仅是为了喝茶, 也是为了议论当地的新闻或就政治话题进行激 烈的(furious)争论。 Tea drinking in China is a ritual and a demonstration of the refined taste. While drinking tea, people also take delight in the essence Of tea itself. Chatting over a pot of tea is a very popular way Of pastime among Chinese.In the past,they would start the day with a visit to a well— known teahouse. Chinese teahouses would be the equivalent of French cafes and English pubs. People come here not just for tea,but also to discuss local news or to have furious political debates . Test2. 在中国,中小学教育需要花费 12 年的时间来完成,分为小学、初中和高中三个阶段。小学 教育持续 5 年或 6 年。在初中阶段,大多数学生上 3 年学,极少数上 4 年学。几乎 98%的 学生在前一种学校人学。 在小学和初中的 9 年教育属于义务教育。 普通高中教育持续 3 年时 间,在整个义务教育阶段,要求学生每学期末参加期末考试。 In China,primary and secondary education takes 12 years to complete,divided in to primary, junior secondary and senior secondary stages.Primary education lasts either five or six Years. At junior secondary stage,most have three years schooling with a tiny part of four years. Almost 98 percent of students are enrolled in the former schools.The nine—year schooling in primary and junior secondary schools belongs to compulsory education. General senior secondary education lasts three years. Throughout the whole process of compulsory education,students are required to take final examinations at the end of each semester Test 3 旅游业是最近二十年来在世界各地迅速发展的一个行业, 现在正引起中国公众愈来愈大的注 意。许多人给报纸写信,就促进中国的旅游业的发展提出了种种建议。人们的看法是,发展 旅游业将有助于促进中国人民和其他国家人民之间的相互了解和友谊, 并将有利于文化、 科 学、技术方面的交流。还会有助于为中国的伟大事业积累资金。 Tourism,a fast developing business over the last two decades in all parts of the world,is now receiving increasing attention among the Chinese public.Many people have written to the press making suggestions for the promotion of tourism in China.It is believed that the development of tourism will help promote mutual understanding and friendship between the people of China and other countries and facilitate exchanges in the field of culture, science and technology. Moreover, it will help accumulate funds for China’s great cause. Test 4 传统中国绘画是一门独特的艺术,无论是风格还是技巧都与世界其他艺术门类迥然不 同。传统的日本绘画可能算是例外,但是不要忘了,它是深受中国文化影响的。中国人绘画 采用毛笔蘸墨汁或颜色,灵巧地挥洒(wield)在纸上。画家用深、浅、浓、淡的点和线构成一 幅图画。在优秀画家的手里,毛笔和墨汁不仅是绘画的工具,也是画家艺术追求的象征。 Traditional Chinese paintings constitute a unique school of art,a school that,in style and

techniques is widely different from any other art school in the world. Traditional Japanese art may be the only exception,but it has to be remembered that it has been heavily influenced by the Chinese culture.The Chinese do paintings with brushes,dipping their brushes in ink or paint and then skillfully wielding them.Painters produce on the paper pictures with lines and dots--some heavy,and some light,and some deep,and some pale.In the hands of a good painter,brushes and ink are not only tools for drawing pictures,but also the symbol of his or her artistic pursuit. Test 5 在媒介文化高度发展的今天, 年轻人接触外来文化的方式越来越多。 根据中国互联网信 息中心 CNNIC)的统计,截止到 2004 年 6 月 30 日,中国上网用户总数达到 8,700 万,其 中多数是年轻人。 现代社会的开放性和多样性使得年轻人不得不在西方文化的冲击中寻找自 己的文化定位。 实际上, 现在很多年轻人在很多生活方式上已经很难分清它是来自西方还是 东方。 In the era of highly developed media culture, young people have more contact than ever with foreign culture. According to CNNIC statistics,by June 30,2004,China had had 87 million Internet users, most of which are young people. Coupled with the openness and diversity of modern society,young Chinese people now have to seek their culture orientation within the ambit of western culture.On the surface, many aspects of the western or Eastern lifestyle are so blended that many young people find it difficult to make those lifestyles distinguishable. Test 6 世界贸易组织成立于 1995 年 1 月 1 日,目的是确保一个稳定的全球和贸易经济环境。在当 今世界上的 190 多个国家中, 世界贸易组织的成员国(member-COUntry)有 158 个。 在处理国 家之间的贸易规则方面, 世界贸易组织是唯一的全球性国际组织。 世贸组织的事务应该引起 我们的关注,因为世贸组织制定的规则对我们国家的经济和国民生活都有一定的影响。 The WTO(World Trade Organization), established on January 1,1995,aims to ensure a stable trade and economic world environment. The WTO is an association of 158 member countries,of more than 190 countries in the world today. WTO is the only global international organization The dealing with the rules of trade between nations.The business of the WTO should be of interest to US because the rules that are being decided therein have an impact on our national economy,and people’s lives. Test 7 奥运会是国际性的体育盛会(sporting events),体育项目种类繁多,分为夏冬两季,均是每 4 年举办一次。最初有记载的奥运会于公元前 776 年在希腊的奥林匹亚(Olympia)举行。奥运 会是最大的媒体活动之一。2000 年悉尼奥运会上,有超过 1.6 万名播音员和新闻记者参与 报道。据估计,有 38 亿观众通过电视收看了此届盛会。然而,奥运会的发展也是奥运会面 临的一个大问题。 The Olympic Games are an international multi—sport event subdivided into summer and winter sporting events.The summer and winter games are each held every four years. The original Olympic Games were first recorded in 776 BC in Olympia, Greece.The Olympics are one of the largest media events. In Sydney in 2000 there were more than 16,000 broadcasters and journalists,and an estimated 3.8 billion viewers watched the games on television. However,the development of the Olympics is one of the largest problems the Olympics face today.

Test 8 《三国演义》由罗贯中创作于 14 世纪,是一部中国历史题材小说。小说以汉朝末 年和三国时期的历史演变为背景, 叙述了在这个动荡(turbulent)时期发生的一系列重大事情。 整个故事情节从公元 168 年开始一直到公元 280 年领土统一(reunification)时结束。 小说篇幅 长达 80 万字,分为 120 个章节,共描述了 1,191 个人物角色,堪称中国文学史上四大经典 小说之一。 Romance of the Three Kingdoms, written by Luo Guanzhong in the 14th century, is a Chinese historical novel based upon events in the turbulent years near the end of the Han Dynasty and the Three Kingdoms era, starting in AD 168 and ending with the reunification of the land in AD 280. It is acclaimed as one of the Four Great Classical Novels of Chinese literature, with a grand total of 800,000 words, 1,191 characters, and 120 chapters. Test 9 无论中国人走到哪里,都不会改掉喝茶的习惯。茶最先由中国人发现,它是中国人生活中不 可或缺的组成部分。 有一句中国谚语将基本的日常必需品(basic daily necessities)称为柴、 米、 油、盐、酱、醋、茶。一千多年以来,饮茶的习俗已经在中国人心中根深蒂固(ingrained)。 唐朝时,一个名叫陆羽的人写了世界上第一部关于茶的著作一《茶经》(Book of Tea),这部 书有助于在中国推广饮茶艺术。 Wherever the Chinese go,the custom of drinking tea follows. Tea was first discovered by the Chinese and it is an indispensable part of the life of the Chinese. A Chinese saying identifies the basic daily necessities as fuel, rice, oil, salt,soy sauce, vinegar, and tea. The custom of drinking tea has been ingrained in the Chinese for over a thousand years. In Tang Dynasty, a man named Lu Yu created the first compendium in the world on tea, Book of Tea.This work helped to popularize the art of tea drinking all across China. Test 10 秧歌舞(Yangko)是中国汉族的一种传统民间舞蹈,通常在北方省份表演。秧歌舞者通常穿上 明亮多彩的表演服装(costume),他们的表演动作有力而迅速。在农历春节、元宵节等节日期 闻,人们一旦听到锣(gong)鼓声,不管外面天气有多冷,他们都会蜂拥到街上观看秧歌舞表 演。近年来,中国东北某些城市的老年人自发组织了秧歌队,队员常年通过跳秧歌舞来保持 健康,同时他们也乐在其中。 The Yangko dance is a traditional folk dance of the Han Chinese, commonly performed in the northern provinces. Yangko dancers usually wear bright and colorful costumes,and their movements are vigorous and quick. During holidays such as lunar New Year and the Lantern Festival, as soon as people hear the sound of drums and gongs they swarm into the streets to watch Yangko dance performances, no matter how cold it is outside.In recent years,elderly people in some cities in Northeast China have been organizing themselves into Yangko teams, with the dancers mostly enjoying themselves while keeping fit all year round. Test 11 中国以创造各种方式、方法来方便人类的生活而广为人知。在中国古代的发明中,四大发明 不仅为中国的发展,还为世界经济和文化的发展,作出了巨大贡献。中国古代的四大发明分 别是造纸术、印刷术、火药(gun powder)指南针(compass)。中国古代的四大发明为世界经济

和人类文化作出了重要的贡献,而且这也是中国作为世界文明大国的重要象征。 China is well known for its introduction of ways and means to help ease the life of mankind. Among the inventions of Ancient China, four emerged as great contributions to the developments and changes not only to the country, but also to the world’s economy and culture. The Four Great Inventions of ancient China were papermaking, commercial printing, gunpowder, the compass. China’s four great ancient inventions mad tremendous contributions to the world’s economy and the culture of mankind. They were also important symbols of China’s role as a great world civilization. Test 12 中国人喜欢在一起吃饭,这个传统可以追溯到很久之前。这反映出中国人喜欢团圆、不愿分 离的观念——圆桌、圆盘、圆碗都象征着团圆和美满。盘子通常放在桌子的中央,这样坐在 桌子面前的所有人都可以吃得到。一锅热汤尤其可以增加和谐、团圆的气氛。朋友们也喜欢 在一起吃饭、 生活。 最近一位美国汉学家(sinologist)的著作认为, 中国人的集体观念(collective tradition)就是从一同吃饭发展而来的。 Chinese like to eat together, which is a tradition that can be traced back in a long time ago. It reflects the Chinese notion of union versus division— round tables, round dishes, and round bowls all symbolize union and perfection. Dishes are usually placed at the center of the table so that everyone around the table can share them. A hot pot, in particular, adds to the atmosphere of harmony and union, friends also like to eat and live together. A recent book by an American Sinologist held that the Chinese collective tradition developed out the practice of eating together. Test 13 中国的菜肴拥有许多种不同的流派(genre),但是最具影响力并且最为公众所熟悉的就是“八 大菜系“the“Eight Categories of Chinese cuisine”)。它们是:鲁菜、川菜、粤菜、闽菜、 苏菜、浙菜、湘菜以及徽菜。 .确定一种流派形式的关键要素十分复杂,包括历史、烹调特 征、地理、气候、资源以及生活方式。不同地区的菜肴各具特色,因此尽管有时两个地区相 互毗邻,但是它们的风格却完全不同。 Chinese cuisine has a number of different genres, but the most influential and typical known by the public are the “Eight Categories of Chinese Cuisine”. These are as follows:Shandong Cuisine, Sichuan Cuisine, Guangdong Cuisine, Fujian Cuisine, Jiangsu Cuisine, Zhejiang Cuisine, Hunan Cuisine,and Anhui Cuisine. The essential factors that establish the form of a genre are complex and include history, cooking features, geography, climate, resources and lifestyles. Cuisines from different regions are so distinctive that sometimes despite the fact that two areas are geographical neighbors,their styles are completely alien. Test 14 川剧(Sichuan 0pera)就像四川火锅以及其他的名菜一样动人、 丰富。 变脸(Face Changing)是川 剧中的一大亮点。据说古人在他们的脸上作画,以便赶走野生动物。川剧吸收了这一古老的 技艺并将其升华为一门艺术。变脸是一门神奇的艺术。演员在不到 20 秒的时间内要换十多 次脸谱。通过举手、摆袖或摇头,演员使用不同的脸谱来表现不同的情绪,并通过看得见摸 得着的脸谱表达出看不见摸不着的感情。 Sichuan Opera(Chuan Ju),like hot—pot and other famous Sichuan dishes,is exciting and rich.Face Changing is the highlight of Sichuan Opera.It is said that ancient people painted their

faces to drive away wild animals.Sichuan Opera absorbs this ancient skill and perfects it into an art. Face Changing is a magical art. Actors change more than 10 masks in less than 20 seconds. By raising the hand,swinging a sleeve or tossing the head,an actor uses different masks to show different emotions, expressing invisible and intangible feelings through visible and tangible masks. Test 15 刺绣(embroidery)是一种具有悠久传统的民间艺术,在中国艺术和手工艺品史上占有重要地 位。 刺绣的长期发展离不开蚕的饲养和纺丝技术的发展。 中国是世界上第一个发现和使用丝 绸的国家。早在 5 000 年前,中国就已经开始饲养蚕。丝线和丝制品的生产促进了刺绣艺术 的诞生。时至今日,丝绣几乎已经传遍整个中国。最好的绣品通常被认为来源于下面四省: 江苏(尤其是苏州)、湖南、四川和广东,各省绣品各具特色。 Embroidery, a folk art with a long tradition, occupies an important position in the history of Chinese arts and crafts. It is, in its long development, inseparable from silkworm-raising and silk-reeling and weaving. China is the first country in the world that discovered the use of silk. Silkworms were domesticated as early as 5000 years ago. The production of silk thread and fabrics gave rise to the art of embroidery. Today, silk embroidery is practiced nearly all over China. It is generally agreed that the best commercial products comes from four provinces: Jiangsu (notably Suzhou), Hunan, Sichuan and Guangdong, each with its distinctive feature.

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