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名词性从句知识点总结

名词性从句 一.概念 名词性从句共有四种:1.主语从句 2.表语从句 3.宾语从句 4.同位语从句 二.知识点 1.主语从句:主语从句在整个句子中作主语。 (1)主语从句中的 that 不充当句子的成分,只是单纯的连接词,通常不省略。分句置于句首 时,that 绝对不可以省略。 That the driver could not control his war was obvious. It was obvious that the driver could not control his car. 2.表语从句:表语从句出现在系动词后,充当表语。 The trouble is that we are short of money. Go and get your coat. It’s where you left it. 引导表语从句除了上述三类词外还有 because, as if/ as though 等等 The reason (why/for which…..) is that …… It/This/That is because…… 连系动词“appear, look, seem”的两个常用句型 It seems/appears that…. It looks/seems as if/as though??(与事实相符用陈述语气,与事实相反用虚拟语气) 3. 宾语从句: (that 可以省略)及物动词,形容词和介词后加宾语从句作其宾语。 宾语从句时态与主句相呼应,但宾语从句表示的是客观真理或普遍现象除外 The teacher told us (that) the earth moves around the sun I am afraid (that) I have made a mistake. He will have to pay for what he has done. 当宾语从句后带宾补时,要用“主语+谓语+it +宾补+that+从句, that 不可省略 I think it certain that she will do well in her exam. that 在宾语从句常可以省略,但由 and 或 but 连接两个或多个宾语从句时,仅可以省略第一 个连词 that He said (that) he had eaten nothing and that he wasn’t hungry. 注意区别 if 引导的宾语从句和条件状语从句 I don’t know if he will come. (if 是否) If he comes, I’ll let you know. (if 如果) 4.同位语从句: (that 不可省略)对前面的名词进一步说明。 用在下列名词 fact, truth, news, idea, hope, belief, thought, doubt, order, suggestion, word etc. The teacher told us the fact that the earth moves around the sun There is no doubt that he will come. There is doubt whether he will come. His suggestion that we (should) go for an outing cheered us up. Word came that Napoleon would come to inspect them. that 引导的同位语从句与定语从句的区别: 在同位语从句中:that 不作成分,不可以省略; 在定语从句中:that 作成分,且作宾语时可以省略 We are interested in the news that some foreigners would visit our school. 同位语 We are interested in the news (that/which) he told us. 定语从句

when, where 引导的同位语从句与定语从句的区别: 在定语从句中,when, where 前有分别表示时间、地点的先行词;而在同位语从句中无此对 应关系 They have no idea at all where he has gone.(同位语从句) Go and get your coat. It’s in the place where you left it. (定语从句) 三.注意点: 1. 疑问词 whatever/ whoever/ however/whenever 等既可以引导名词性从句,也可以引导让步 状语从句,而 no matter+疑问词只能引导让步状语从句 总体规律:whatever/whoever 等词的使用范围比 no matter what/who 等要广 No matter what happens, he will not mind. (√) 让步状语从句(用逗号隔开) = Whatever happens, he will not mind. (√) 让步状语从句 No matter what you say is very important. (× ) Whatever you say is very important. (√) 主语从句(名词性从句) I believe whatever he says. Whatever he says, I will never believe him. 2.who 与 whoever 的区别 who 是“谁”的意思,表示具有疑问,whoever 相当于 anyone who“无论谁” Whoever leaves the room last ought to turn off the lights. Can you tell me who that gentleman is? 6.当从句缺少主语、宾语或表语时,引导词通常用 what。 What impressed me most was her excellent performance. What we can’t get seems better than what we have. What seems beneficial to us may be unfavorable for others. 7. 注意区分 it? that?结构引导主语从句还是强调句 主语从句 it 指代句中 that 引导的内容(通常较长) ,去掉 It is/was, that,句子不成立 强调句句型:It is/was+被强调部分+that, 去掉 It is/was, that,句子仍然成立。 It is natural that they should have different views. 主语从句 It is known to all that the earth is round.主语从句 It is only lately that he has had a family himself. 强调句 What was it that he wanted? I don’t know what it was that he wanted. 强调句 It was in the hotel where he stayed that we discussed the serious problem 强调句 8. 连词 whether 和 if 有时可以互换,但注意下列情况 总体规律:whether 的使用范围比 if 要广 (1)后面出现 or not 时,用 whether I want to know whether or not they will come. (2 ) 连接词后直接加不定式,不能用 if 只能用 whether He doesn’t know whether to stay or not. (3 )whether 可以防句首,而 if 不能 Whether he will come, I am not sure. It is uncertain if he will leave for Beijing tomorrow. (√)(if 可引导主语从句) If he will leave forBeijingtomorrow is uncertain. (× ) Whether he will leave forBeijingtomorrow is uncertain. (√) (4 ) 表语从句中只能用 whether The doubt is whether he will come. (5 ) 同位语中只能用 whether

The question whether he is honest is not settled. (6 ) 介宾从句中只能用 whether ; 动宾从句则 if 和 whether 都可用 He was interested in whether he saw her there. I don’t know if/ whether he is at home.


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