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钢结构方向的毕设外文翻译(适用于毕业论文外文翻译+中英文对照)


毕业设计外文资料翻译
附件 1:外文资料翻译译文 葡萄牙的钢结构发展——帕特里克道林的影响
安东尼雷萨诺·加西亚莱曼 摘要:本文基于大学教研和葡萄牙协会对钢结构和复合结构的创造,主要讲述了帕特里 克道林教授对作者职业生涯和葡萄牙钢结构发展的影响。 关键词:葡萄牙;钢;结构;研究 1.导言 截至钢筋混凝土的出现和第一次世界大战的到来, 在钢铁的应用方面葡萄牙紧随欧 洲大多数国家的脚步。此后,铸造厂虽然存在,但是为了保护葡萄牙和其殖民地的正在 发展中的水泥业,葡萄牙在进口结构产品方面收取很高的税收。 第一钢铁厂坐落在赛沙尔,建于 1961 年,横跨了起源与里斯本的河流并从安哥拉 获取铁矿石和煤炭,但是这项大的投资并没有制止结构钢的使用下降,然而由于这家工 厂主要生产工业建筑用钢以及轧制小型材, 结构钢的使用下降几乎限制了建筑行业的发 展。 钢结构规范反映了这一衰退, 而且直至的 19 世纪 80 年代葡萄牙一直使用着过时的 规范。确切的说,大学中对钢结构研究和教学的缺失是导致结构钢使用量下降的原因之 一,而结构钢使用量下降加剧了这一恶性循环。 在混凝土行业情况大为不同,在这个领域,葡萄牙的土木工程国家实验室(LNEC)是 世界领先机构,而且葡萄牙市行政首长协调会和编写混凝土规范的积极参与者。葡萄牙 地处地震风险区, 国家实验室在混凝土结构抗震性方面做的研究和先进规范的适用性都 给予混凝土行业以信心和优势。因此所有土木工程课程都把重点放在了混凝土的教学 上,而忽略了钢结构和复合结构的教学。 在 1974 年民主革命的几年前,土木工程行业发生了一次深刻的教育系统的变革。 一个培养新型研究人员的大型机构成立了, 这一机构专门培养没有被各大学和公共实验 室涵盖的研究人员并提供出国学习的资金。 里斯本技术大学工程学院是一高级技术研究 所(IST),它是最早受益于这一大型机构的机构之一,并且钢结构被明智地确定为土 木工程学院新型职工培训的主要要求。

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由于正在进行的殖民战争,我在刚刚服完长期的兵役之后,获得了一笔助学金是我 可以在皇家学院学习钢结构课程。我在大学期间接受的建筑结构方面的培训是很充分 的,但是正是由于几何非线性和材料非线性与混凝土结构联系不大,大学的教学在这两 方面是不足的。钢结构的复杂性深深吸引着我,我希望可以在伦敦进行进一步的的学习 取得更高的学位,但是祖国大学的变革需要我回国。我回去了,还错误的认为我有能力 在里斯本建立博士点。然而,对于葡萄牙年轻的一代来说,1975 年是振奋人心的一年并 不适合启动一项研究项目, 1976 年初, 我申请回到皇家学院并继续享受被中断了的助学 金。 那是我确定我想在帕特里克道林的监督下学习, 他是我在硕士课程学习中给我印象 最深刻的讲师。在处理钢结构最新问题方面,他非常积极主动,而且他是一位天生的领 导者,他吸引了许多来自不同国家的年轻研究者组成小组,我也非常想加入。 随着新的设计规则的发展和集中控制系统的刺激,结构钢研究中心网络为基础,这 是欧洲钢结构研究的黄金时期,帕特里克队的表现很突出。加筋板和箱梁的非线性是当 时的研究主题,在他的监督下研究人员利用几个大型模型进行实验分析。他不仅收我做 他研究方面的学生, 而且一直通过给我提供这些项目方面的工作而支持着我继续留在皇 家大学直到我的助学金继续发放为止。因此我的论文题目很自然地被确定下来,在接下 来的三年中,我研究了剪力滞后对宽翼缘箱梁屈曲的影响。我们的学生上司关系逐渐发 展转变成持久的友谊关系,我与他探讨论文,也与他讨论会葡萄牙后的项目问题。在做 有些项目时,我会寻求他的帮助和建议,他也因此影响了葡萄牙钢结构的发展。 帕特里克道林对新课题和挑战有超越常人的兴趣, 而且他对从行业中发现需要研究 和建议的新问题非常有耐心,这两点一直影响着我在职业生涯中的做事方式。 为了保持联系, 他发出的加入由他创建的日刊的编委会并以成员身份参加由他主持 的欧洲规范编写小组的邀请是很有意义的。后来,他又指导过杰奥本托。杰奥本托是他 的一个密切合作者,在发表了一篇复合结构硕士论文后,杰和帕特里克道林一起进入皇 家学院学习。杰奥本托在专家系统实验室工作,这也加强了帕特里克道林与高级技术研 究所(IST)的联系。 2.教学与研究

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1979 年我刚刚回到高级技术研究所(IST)的时候,在本科教学中教授钢结构是一 个我没有马上意识到的目标:安排钢结构和复合结构课程直到 1989 年才被推出。起初 是作为选修课,到 1996 年以后才成为结构学生的必修课程。 然而,建筑结构的硕士课程由高级技术研究所(IST)创建于 1981 年,是教育和培 养钢结构工程师的一个途径。像结构的非线性、稳定性、钢结构的性能和工艺以及复合 结构(遵循集中控制手册)等这些先进的课题是包含在学校课程内的。同时为更新设计 人员的研究生课程也成功引进了。 但是因为钢的使用在葡萄牙即将扩大, 深入在钢结构抗震性能和复合结构方面的研 究是非常有必要的,论述这些问题的硕士论文和博士论文都受到了重视。在地震研究方 面与米兰理工大学的合作成立了。渐渐地,“钢铁共同体”在葡萄牙及其国外发展成长 起来。 3.cmm——钢结构和复合结构的葡萄牙协会 首次尝试建立一个属于欧洲钢结构协会的葡萄牙协会可以追溯到 1981 年,帕特里 克道林提出了建议并给予了帮助。他来到里斯本做演讲,他谈到新的硕士课程以及成为 欧洲钢结构协会成员的优势,并且只有这样才能跟上当前新规范的发展。更多的相关机 构想加入这个协会但是都失败了,竟然是由于国家钢铁公司提出的宝留意见。 另一次不成功的尝试是在 1992 年, 直到 1997 年我们才成功创立了名为 cmm 的机构。 计划把它在这一项目的国家会议的闭幕式上推出, 这次会议是在这个年轻的钢结构教授 的帮助下在波尔图举办的。 我曾有幸邀请到帕特里克道林做演讲嘉宾并见证了我早期项 目之一的完成。 在 2005 年 4 月之前, 我一直主持该协会。 在这些年里, cmm 已经发展到 240 个成员 , 包括主要的制造商、施工员、设计员和对推广钢结构感兴趣的研究人员。正如以往所期 盼的,它是欧洲钢结构协会的成员并且每两年举办一次该领域内最重要的国家级会议。 2002 年在科英布拉举行的第三届欧洲钢铁会议也是由 cmm 主办的。 cmm 的另一个目标是 在葡萄牙的主要土木工程机构建立钢铁研究集团。这个目标已经实现,并且在里斯本州 大学、科英布拉大学、阿威罗大学、贝拉内政部大学、布拉干萨大学和波尔图大学都在 本科和硕士的课程中加入了钢结构课程,该协会还资助最好的学生钢结构项目。 cmm 的新主席路易斯蒙斯罗席尔瓦是科英布拉土木工程系教授,他是欧洲最杰出的 年轻钢铁专家之一,而且是毕业于英国皇家理工学院的博士。在他的领导下尤其是在大
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学教育的支持下,我相信 cmm 将会进入一个新的上升阶段。事实上,在 cmm 的支持下, 我们共同提出了一个新的硕士学位的钢结构和复合结构的课程。它从 2005 年由高级技 术研究所(IST)和科英布拉联合举办。它旨在很快成为一门欧洲重要的课程。 早在 19 世纪 80 年代葡萄牙的钢材仅用于不重要的建筑中,发展到今天,它被用于 一些高层建筑和桥梁(钢结构和复合结构)中。我自豪地认为,cmm 及其对新设计人员 的培养极大的促进了这一增长, 但是其他欧洲国家的原材料价格调整及公众对钢结构质 量的意见与此也是很相关的。事实上,在过去的 10 年中发生了一些需要用钢结构方案 解决问题的大事件,例如里斯本国际展览(EXPO98)和 2004 年的欧洲运动会,其中, 里斯本国际展览(EXPO98)的休息亭和特殊结构体现了钢结构的美感,2004 年的欧洲运 动会有 10 个大型足球馆使用了有趣的钢结构屋盖来建造或改造。因此葡萄牙公众看到 了钢结构成功的例子并且变得很喜欢这种结构形式。 4. 未来的发展 硕士学位的钢结构和复合结构课程是受到 cmm 在科英布拉和高级技术研究所 (IST) 支持的,这些课程的增设反映了大学教育系统在这些方面的巩固加强,使钢结构和混凝 土结构处于相同的地位。 它构成了由我和帕特里克道林在皇家学院共同发起的最后的途 径。按照设想,它很快将成为欧洲的头号事件。交流设计方案信息和教材方面的经验会 非常有益于钢材创新和使用方面的发展,cmm 将会尽其最大努力使这在葡萄牙和其它有 该项目的欧洲国家中成为行业、设计单位及高校间合作的新机会:发挥钢结构协会的新 作用。 通过参考可以被所有设计者尤其是那些欧洲规范时代以前训练有素的设计者可以 理解的复杂的新规范,设计方法和教材方面的著作要求有所创新,而帕特里克道林和 ESDEP 项目是先锋者。cmm 给予了这一活动以最大的关注,我被邀请领导它的新编辑队 伍,我也期待着这一挑战,作为一名在有土木工程和建筑学学位授予权的学院工作的教 授,我已经可以遵循着年轻的建筑师在大跨度结构及计算机图形方面的兴趣,这些计算 机图形并不能转变成传统的平面图和立面图,也不能使工程师一眼就看明白。钢、铸铁 或计算机设计和制造的图形也应探讨遵循这些趋势。 尽管这带来的困难远远不只用规范 设计线性构件,但是未来的挑战依然由比尔邦效应引领。另一方面,如果最近的钢材价 格上涨并不代表一个不可逆转的挫折, 那么葡萄牙钢结构发展的可持续性需要在传统领

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域做持续不断的研究:稳定性、连接、防火性尤其是抗震性设计,在这一领域相关工作 也正在进行并得到了国际性的广泛关注。 致谢: 因为有帕特里克道林教授的帮助,研讨会给予了我这次机会,使我得以及时回国并 成为我学术生涯的开端,也促进了葡萄牙钢结构的发展——在这其中他有决定性的影 响。仅以此文表达我对这位教授的敬意。 参考文献: 1 安东尼雷萨诺加西亚莱曼.剪切滞后对宽翼缘梁屈曲的影响,【学位论文】.伦敦 大学.1979 2 杰奥本托.钢结构只能 CAD:认知法,【学士论文】.伦敦大学.1992

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附件 2:外文原文

The development of steel structures in Portugal — the influence of Patrick Dowling
António Ressano Garcia Lamas

Abstract
The paper describes the influence of Professor Patrick Dowling in the authors career and in the development of steel structures in Portugal based on university research and teaching and the creation of the Portuguese Association for Steel and Composite Construction.

Keywords: Portugal; Steel; Structures; Research 1.Introduction
Up to the advent of reinforced concrete and the First World War, Portugal followed the majority of European countries in the use of iron and steel. After that, foundries existed but the structural products were imported with high taxation to protect a developing cement industry in Portugal and the Colonies. The first steel mill was built in 1961 in Seixal, across the river from Lisbon, fed by iron ores and coal from Angola. However, this big investment did not halt the decline in the use of structural steel which became almost limited to industrial buildings since the main production of this plant was reinforcing bars and only small profiles were rolled. The state of the norms for steel structures reflected this decline and Portugal lived with an outdated code until the 1980s. More precisely, a vicious circle of reasons contributed towards a reduction in the use of structural steel, amongst which was the lack of research and teaching on the subject at universities. The situation was very different in the field of concrete, where the National Laboratory for Civil Engineering (LNEC) was one of the world’s leading

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institutions and Portugal was an active participant in the CEB and in the writing of the concrete Model Codes. Portugal being located in an earthquake risk zone, the research developed at LNEC on the seismic behaviour of concrete structures and the availability of advanced regulations gave confidence and dominance to concrete. As a consequence all Civil Engineering courses involved extensive teaching of concrete subjects and none in steel or composite structures. A few years before the 1974 democratic revolution a profound reform of the higher education system took place, namely in Civil Engineering. A large programme of training new researchers in fields not sufficiently covered by universities or public laboratories was set up, offering grants to study abroad. Instituto Superior Técnico (IST)–the Faculty of Engineering of the Technical University of Lisbon–was one of the first institutions to profit from this programme, and steel structures were wisely chosen at the Department of Civil Engineering1 as a topic requiring the training of new lecturers. Having just finished a long compulsory military service, due to the ongoing colonial war, I was awarded a grant to follow the M.Sc. course in Steel Structures at Imperial College. My university structural training had been thorough but insufficient in geometric and material non-linearities, precisely because they were less relevant for concrete structures. I remember how these complexities of steel appealed to me and I became interested in pursuing a further degree in London, but the changes at the university required my return. I went back wrongly believing that I would be able to start a Ph.D. in Lisbon. However, 1975 was a time as exciting for the young Portuguese generation as unsuitable for starting a research project and, at the beginning of 1976, I applied to return to Imperial College and to take advantage of the interrupted grant. By then I was sure that I wanted to study under the supervision of Patrick Dowling, the lecturer who had most impressed me during the M.Sc. course. He was dynamic, concerned with tackling the more recent structural problems in steel

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and a natural leader who had attracted a team of young researchers from different countries which I wanted to join. Following the development of new design rules, stimulated by the ECCS and based on a network of structural steel research centres, these were golden times for steel research in Europe and Patrick’s team was prominent. Non-linear behaviours of stiffened plates and box-girders were the topics of the day and several large-scale models were being experimentally analysed under his supervision. He not only accepted me as a research student but, until the renewal of my Portuguese grant, supported my stay at Imperial College by offering me work in some of these projects. The subject of my thesis was thus naturally

determined, and I studied the effects of shear lag on the buckling of wide flange box-girders4 for the next three years. Our student–supervisor relation evolved into a lasting friendship and I discussed with him not only aspects of my thesis but also projects for my return to Portugal. In several of those projects I have requested his help and advice and he has thus influenced the development of steel structures in Portugal. I will try to describe how, underlining first that the rare interest of Patrick Dowling in new topics and challenges, and the attention with which he looked for new problems from industry requiring research and design recommendations, have always influenced me in the way I conducted my career. To maintain contacts, his invitation to join the editorial board of the Journal he founded and to participate as a corresponding member in the group for the Eurocodes he chaired were useful. Later, he supervised Jo?o Bento,a close collaborator who, after an M.Sc. thesis in composite construction came to study at Imperial College with Patrick Dowling. Although Jo?o Bento worked at the Expert Systems Laboratory, a new interest of Patrick Dowling, this has strengthened his contacts with IST.

2.Teaching and research

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Once back at IST in 1979, teaching steel structures at the undergraduate level was a goal that I could not immediately realise: a semester on Steel and Composite Structures was only introduced in 1989. First an optional subject, after 1996 it became compulsory for all the students choosing the Structures profile. However, the M.Sc. course in Structures, created at IST in 1981, was the vehicle for the education and training of civil engineers in steel construction. Advanced topics such as non-linear behaviour of structures, stability, steel properties and technology, together with composite structures (following the ECCS Manual) were included in the syllabus. At the same time, short post-graduate courses for the updating of designers were also successfully introduced. But for the use of steel to expand in Portugal it was necessary to develop research into the seismic behaviour of steel structures and in composite construction. M.Sc. and Ph.D. theses on these topics were promoted. For the seismic aspects cooperation with the Politecnico di Milano was established. Gradually a “steel community” developed, trained in Portugal and abroad.

3.cmm — Portuguese association for steel and composite construction
The first attempt to create a Portuguese association that could be a member of ECCS dates from 1981. The advice and help of Patrick Dowling was requested and given. He came to Lisbon to lecture in the new M.Sc. course and on the advantages of being a member of ECCS, and thus accompany the current development of new design rules. The more relevant institutions were contacted to join the association but the attempt failed, surprisingly due to the reservations voiced by the Siderurgia Nacional. Another unsuccessful attempt was made in 1992, and only in 1997 did we manage to create an organisation named cmm — Associa??o Portuguesa de Constru??o Metálica e Mista. It was planned to occur at the closing of the first National Meeting on the subject, organised in Oporto with the help of the new young

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professors of Steel Structures. I had the pleasure of inviting Patrick Dowling to be a guest speaker and witness the fulfilment of one of my early objectives. I presided over this association until April 2005. During these years cmm has grown to over 240 members including the main manufacturers, constructors, designers and researchers interested in the promotion of steel. It is a member of ECCS, as was always intended, and every two years organises national congresses , which are the most important events in the field. The 3rd Eurosteel, held in Coimbra in 2002, was also organised by cmm. Another objective of cmm has been the establishment of research and steel groups at the main departments of Civil Engineering in Portugal. This is now a reality and steel subjects are taught in the undergraduate and master degree courses, not only at the state universities of Lisbon (IST and Nova) but also at the Universities of Coimbra, Aveiro, Beira Interior, Bragan?a and Oporto. The association also supports awards to the best student projects in steel. The new president of cmm, Luís Sim?es da Silva, is Professor at the Department of Civil Engineering in Coimbra. He is one of the most distinguished of the younger steel specialists in Europe and also has a Ph.D. from Imperial College. I expect that under his leadership cmm will enter a new dynamic phase, especially in the support of university training. In fact, with the support of cmm we have together proposed a new M.Sc. course in Steel and Composite Construction. It is organised in collaboration between IST and Coimbra and started in 2005. It is designed to soon become a European Masters course. The use of steel in Portugal developed from insignificant constructions in the early 1980s to several present high-rise buildings and bridges (steel and composite). I am proud to consider that cmm and the training of new designers is largely responsible for that growth, but the alignment of prices of this material with those of other European countries, and the public perception of the qualities of steel structures were also relevant. In fact, some special events requiring steel solutions have taken place during the last 10 years, such
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as the Lisbon international exhibition (EXPO98), where pavilions and special structures exemplified the aesthetic capacities of steel, and the EURO-2004, for which interesting steel roofs were used in the construction or renovation of 10 large football stadiums. The Portuguese public was thus presented with good examples of steel structures and has adhered to them.

4.Future developments
The M.Sc. course in Steel and Composite Construction, which cmm supports in Coimbra and IST, reflects the consolidation of the teaching of these topics in our university system, placing steel on a par with concrete. It constitutes the closing of the path I initiated with Patrick Dowling at Imperial College. As envisaged, it will soon become a European Masters. The development of innovation and use of steel can greatly benefit from the exchange of experience, of information on design solutions and of teaching materials. cmm will do its best to make this a new opportunity for cooperation between industries, designers and universities in Portugal and in the other European countries involved in the project: a new role for the steel associations. The writing of design aids and teaching materials, in which Patrick Dowling and the ESDEP project were pioneers, is required for making the navigation through the complex new codes accessible to all designers, in particular those trained before the Eurocode era. cmm has given to this activity the best attention and I have been invited to chair its new editorial line and look forward to this challenge. As a professor at a department which offers degrees in Civil Engineering and Architecture I have been able to follow the interest shown by the young architects in exploring long spans but also computer generated shapes that are not transferable into traditional plans and elevations and which engineers are not capable at first sight of structurally supporting. Steel, cast or in shapes also computer designed and manufactured, should be explored to follow these

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毕业设计外文资料翻译
trends. They pose difficulties very far from the code designed linear elements but are nonetheless future challenges raised by the Bilbau effect. On the other hand, the sustainability of the progress of steel structures in Portugal, if the recent rise in the price of steel does not represent an irreversible setback, requires continuous research into the traditional areas: stability, connections and fire and, especially, earthquake design, where relevant work is being produced, internationally recognized.

Acknowledgments
The symposium in honour of Professor Patrick Dowling has given me the opportunity to make a journey back in time and to remember the beginnings of my academic career and the development of steel structures in Portugal — in which he had a decisive influence. To relate it is the best tribute I could offer in his homage.

References
1. Lamas ARG. Influence of shear lag on the collapse of wide-flange girders. Ph.D. thesis. University of London; 1979. 2. Bento JP. Intelligent CAD in structural steel: A cognitive approach, Ph.D. thesis. University of London; 1992.

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