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2017年高考英语语法知识最全概括


高考英语语法易考知识点最全概括 第一讲座:名词---基础篇 一、名词的复数: 1. 名词变复数的规则形式: 1). 一般情况下直接加 s: book------books cup-----cups 2). 以辅音字母+y 结尾的,先变 y 为 i 再加 es: city-------cities family-----families 3). 以 s、x、sh、ch 结尾的加 es: bus-----buses wish------wishes watch------watches 4). 以 o 结尾的多数加 S 初中阶段只有三个单词加 es: tomato-----tomatoes potato------potatoes hero-----heroes Negroes 5). 以 f、fe 结尾的,先把 f、fe 变 v 再加 es: leaf----leaves self---selves shelf----shelves life----lives thief---thieves 2. 少数名词的复数形式是不规则的: man----men woman---women child----children foot-----feet tooth----teeth mouse---mice 3. 单数和复数形式相同: deer---deer fish----fish sheep----sheep Chinese ----Chinese Japanese---Japanese 4. 某国人的复数:1). 中、日不变:Chinese----Chinese Japanese---Japanese 2). 英、法变: Englishman----Englishmen Frenchman----Frenchmen 3).其余 s 加后面: American-----Americans German----Germans Australian---Australians 二、不可数名词: 1. 不可数名词: 1). 不能直接用数字表数量; 2). 不能直接加 a 或 an; 3). 没有复数形式; 4). 可用 some、any、lots of、plenty of、much 修饰; 5). 可用―量词短语‖表示; 2. 不可数名词的数量的表示方法: a / 数字+ 量词 + of + 不可数名词: a piece of paper a cup of tea a glass of milk 三、名词的所有格: 1. ’s 所有格: 1). 用 and 连接两个并列的单数名词表示共有关系时,这时只在最后一个名词后加―’s.‖: This is ____________________(Mary and Lily) bedroom. 2). 用 and 连接两个并列的单数名词表示各有关系时,这时分别在每个名词后加―’s.‖: These are ________________(Tom and Jack ) school bags. 3). 以 s 结尾的名词,变所有格时在 s 后加―’‖, 不以 s 结尾的复数名词,仍加―’s‖: Teachers’ Day Children’s Day 4). 表示店铺、医院、诊所、住宅等名称时,常在名词后加 ’s 代表全称: at the doctor’s at the Bob’s 5). 由 some、any、no、every 与 one、body 结合的复合不定代词 something、anything 等和 else 连用时,所有 格应加在 else 的后面: This is _________________(somebody else ) pencil. 6). 表示时间、距离、国家、城市等无生命的名词,也可在词尾加’s 来构成所有格: an hour’s ride two weeks’ time China’s capital 2. of 所有格: 1). of 用来表示无生命的名词所有格:the map of China the door of the room 2). 双重所有格:of + 名词所有格 of + 名词性的物住代词 He is a friend of my _________(brother ).Is she a daughter of __________(you)? 四、名词作句子成分: 1. 名词作主语: 1). 表示时间、金钱、距离作主语时,谓语动词用单数: Two hours ________(be) enough for us to get there. 2). 量词短语―数字+量词+ of +…‖作主语时,谓语动词应与量词保持一致:A pair of shoes ____(be) under the bed. Two pieces of paper _______(be) on the desk. 3). 名词+介词(with、but、except、along with、as well as …….)+名词作主语时,谓语动词应与前面的名词保 持一致:The teacher with the students _________(be) planting trees on the hill. 4). 短语―neither…nor…、either…or…、not only…but also …‖连接主语时,谓语动词实行就近原则: Neither he nor I ______ (be) a Frenchman. 2. 名词作定语: 1). 名词作定语时,一般用单数形式:There is a shoe factory near the school. 2). 名词作定语时,个别情况用复数形式:(sport )The sports meeting will be held next week. 3). man、woman 作定语表示性别时,man、woman 随后面的名词单复数而 one man teacher two women teachers 第二讲座:名词---提高篇 一、名词的单复数:
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1. 可数名词的复数不规则变化: (1) 单复数同形:deer, sheep, Chinese, means, series, species, works, headquarters (2) 形单意复:people, police, youth, cattle, staff (3) 形复意单:news, physics, politics, maths (4)合成词变复数:passer-by→passers-by, son-in-law→sons-in-law, looker-on→lookers-on, go-between→go-betweens, grown-up→grown-ups (5) 词形变化:man→men, child→children,tooth→teeth, foot→feet, mouse→mice,medium→media 2. 不可数名词的数: (1) 有些抽象名词在具体化时,以复数形式出现;表示特指时,可以和定冠词连用;表示―某种‖或―一次‖的意义 时,可以和不定冠词连用: in surprise―惊讶地‖,a surprise―一件令人惊讶的事‖;win success―获得成功‖,a success―一个/件成功的人/事‖; by experience―靠经验‖,an experience―一次经历‖;with pleasure―乐意‖,a pleasure―一件乐事‖。 (2) 物质名词是不可数名词,但表示数量或种类之多时,可以用作可数名词,有单、复数: some coffee―一些咖啡‖,three coffees―三杯咖啡‖;some drink―一些饮料‖,three drinks―三杯饮料‖;his hair―他的 头发‖,a few grey hairs―几根白发‖;glass―玻璃‖,a glass―一只玻璃杯‖。 (3) 有些不可数名词的复数形式表示特殊的意义: time―时间‖, times―次数,时代,倍 ‖;wood―木头‖,woods―树林‖;sand―沙子‖,sands―沙滩‖;work―工作‖, works―工厂,著作,工程,工事‖。注意:有些名词的单复数具有不同的含义: 如:game 游戏,比赛 → games 运动会;mass 大量,众多,团,块 → masses 群众,民众等。 二、名词的作用: 名词在句中可以作主语、表语、宾语、宾语补足语、定语、同位语、状语。 注意:名词作定语时,一般用单数形式,如:shoe repairers, pencil boxes, tooth brushes。但也有例外,如:a sports car, a customs officer, a clothes shop 等。另外,―man / woman +名词‖变为复数时,作定语的 man / woman 和中心词都要变复数。如:men teachers. 三、名词的所有格: 名词的所有格在句中表示所属关系,用来作定语,修饰名词: 1. ’s 所有格,多用来表示有生命的东西,如:Peter and Tom’s school. 2. 如果一个事物为两个人共有,只在后一个名词的词尾加 ―’s‖ ;如果不是共有,就要在两个名词的词尾都加 ―’s‖。如:Tom and Mike’s room (共有)Tom’s and Mike’s books (不共有)of 所有格(名词+ of +名词)多用来表示 无生命的东西,如:the legs of the chair, the door of the house。 4. 双重所有格指―of +名词的-’s 所有格‖或―of +名词性的物主代词‖,如:a friend of my brother’s, a picture of mine。 5. 表示时间、距离、价格、重量、国家、城市的无生命名词,可以在词尾加―’s‖或―’‖表示所有格。 today’s papers; ten minutes’ walk; five pounds’ weight; ten dollars’ worth of coffee; the world’s population; China’s industry; New York’s parks 表示店铺或某人的家时,常在名词所有格之后省去 shop, house, home. 如:the tailor’s; the doctor’s, my uncle’s. 考点归纳:考点一: 名词词义辨析: 高考对名词词义辨析的考查主要体现在单项填空和完形填空中,其选项基本上是形似的词、意义相近但用法不 同的词或者形式和意义都不相关的词。解这类题的关键是要弄清楚选项中各个名词的含义,同时也要注意联系 上下文的搭配和语境。 【考例】She was put under house arrest two years ago but remained a powerful _____ in last year’s election. A. symbol B. portrait C. identity D. statue 考点二: 名词固定搭配: 【考例】You are working too hard. You’d better keep a _____ between work and relaxation. A. promise B. lead C. balance D. diary 考点三:名词的格: 名词所有格主要体现在短文改错中。如: When I finally arrived at my friend’s he lent me lots of clothes. 考点四: 名词的数: 对名词单复数的考查主要体现在单词拼写、语法填空以及短文改错中。 第三讲座:冠词---基础篇 考查重点: 冠词的考查重点包括不定冠词 a 和 an 的用法,定冠词 the 的用法和零冠词的用法等。 一. a 和 an 的区别: 不定冠词有 a 和 an 两种形式,a 用于辅音(不是辅音字母)开头的词前,an 用于元音(不是元音字母)开头的词 前: 例如:a boy, a university, a European country; an hour, an honor, an island, an elephant, an umbrella, an honest man, a useful book 不看字母看读音, 不见原因(元音)别施恩(n)
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二. 不定冠词的用法: 1. 泛指某一类人、事或物;相当于 any,这是不定冠词 a/an 的基本用法:A horse is an animal. 2. 泛指某人或某物,但不具体说明何人或何物:A girl is waiting for you. 3. 表示数量,有―一‖的意思,但数的概念没有 one 强烈:I have a computer. 4. 表示―每一‖,相当于 every:I go to school five days a week. 我一周上五天课。 5. 用在序数词前,表示―又一‖,―再一‖:I have three books. I want to buy a fourth one. 6. 用在某些固定词组中:a lot(of), after a while, a few, a little, at a time, have a swim, have a cold, in a hurry, for a long time, have a good time, have a look 三. 定冠词的用法: 1. 特指某(些)人或某(些)物,这是定冠词的基本用法:The book on the desk is mine. 2. 指谈话双方都知道的人或事物:Open the window, please. 3. 指上文已经提到的人或事物:I have a car. The car is red. 4. 指世界上独一无二的事物:Which is bigger, the sun or the earth? 5. 用在序数词,形容词最高级前:The first lesson is the easiest one in this book. 6. 用在由普通名词构成的专有名词前:the Great Wall 长城,the United States 美国 7. 用在某些形容词前,表示某一类人:the poor 穷人, the blind 盲人 8. 用在姓氏复数形式前,表示―全家人‖或―夫妻俩‖:the Greens 格林一家或格林夫妻俩 9. 用在方位词前:on the left 在左边,in the middle of 在中间 10. 用在西方乐器名称前:She plays the piano every day. 11. 用在表示海洋,河流,山脉,群岛及国家和党派等名词前:the Black Sea 黑海,the Yangzi River 长江 12. 用在某些固定词组中:all the same 仍然;all the time 一直;at the moment 此刻;at the same time 同时;by the way 顺便说;do the shopping/washing 买东西/洗衣服;in the morning/afternoon/evening 在上午/下午/晚上;in the open air 在户外,在野外 四. 零冠词的用法: 1. 棋类, 球类, 一日三餐名词前不用任何冠词:play chess play football have supper 特例:当 football,basketball 指具体的某个球时,其前可以用冠词:I can see a football. 我可以看到一只足球。 Where’s the football?那只足球在哪儿?(指足球,并非―球类运动‖) 2. 季节, 月份, 星期, 节假日名词前不用任何冠词:In July in summer on Monday on Teachers’ Day 3. 人名, 地名, 国家名前不加冠词:Beijing is the capital of China. 4. 学科, 语言, 称呼, 语职务名词前不用冠词:Math is hard to learn. 5. 复数名词表示类别时不加冠词:They are workers. I like eating apples. 6. 名词前已有物主代词(my,your,his,her 等)、指示代词(this/these,that/those)、不定代词(some,any 等)及所 有格限制时, 不用冠词:my book(正);my the book(误) 7. 在表特定的公园,街道,车站,桥,学校等之前:No.25 Middle School 五. 用与不用冠词的差异:in hospital 住院 /in the hospital 在医院里 in front of 在…(外部的)前面 /in the front of 在…(内部的)前面 at table 进餐 /at the table 在桌子旁 by sea 乘船 /by the sea 在海边 go to school(church…) 上学(做礼拜…) go to the school(church…) 到学校(教堂…)去 two of us 我们当中的两人/the two of us 我们两人(共计两人)next year 明年 /the next year 第二年 a teacher and writer 一位教师兼作家(一个人) a teacher and a writer 一位教师和一位作家(两个人) 第四讲座:冠词---提高篇 考点一: 基本用法: 1. 定冠词的基本用法: (1) 用于特指一定的人、事物或上下文提到的人、事物。如: I woke up with a bad headache, yet by the evening the pain had gone. (2) 在表示世界上独一无二的事物前。如: The moon turns round the earth.Drivers always sit on the left of buses. (3) 在单数名词前,表示某一类别或某项发明。如:The tiger is a dangerous animal. (4) 在由普通名词构成的专有名词前及表示江、河、湖、海、山川、群岛等的名词前。如: We are said to be living in the Information Age, a time of new discoveries and great changes. (5) 在序数词前、形容词最高级前或用于特指―两者中较……的一个‖。如: As is known to all, the People’s Republic of China is the biggest developing country in the world. (6) 在方位名词前、某些习惯用语或表示时间的词组中:on the left, in the east / west, on the other hand, in the end, the other day 等。 (7) 在形容词前表示一类人或事物。如:the poor / rich / young / dying / good / unknown 等。 (8) 在姓氏复数形式前,表示全家人或夫妇二人。如:The Smiths are sitting at the table. (9) 在表示度量单位的名词前,表示―每一‖。如: —It’s said John will be in a job paying over $60,000 a year.—Right, he will also get paid by the week. 口诀记忆 the 的用法:
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特指熟悉与复述,独一无二全用 the。方位乐器名词前,序数形最乐位惯。复数姓氏与专有,习惯用语最后添。 2. 不定冠词的基本用法: (1) 用在可数名词前表示―一个‖,含义上相当于―one‖。如: The development of industry has been a gradual process throughout human existence, from stone tools to modern technology. (2) 与单数可数名词连用,表示某一类人或事物;亦可泛指某一类人或事物中的―任何一个‖。如: It is generally accepted that a boy must learn to stand up and fight like a man. (3) 用在抽象名词或物质名词前,表示―一种,一次,一类‖等意义。如:He had a strong dislike for cold weather. (4) 用在序数词前,表示―再一,又一‖。如:He missed the gold in the high jump, but will get a second chance in the long jump. (5) 用在专有名词前,相当于―一位,一个,某位,某个‖或―……式的人‖。如: Experts think that the recently discovered painting may be a Picasso. (6) 用在某些固定词组中:all of a sudden, as a matter of fact, go out for a walk, have a good time, make a difference, make a living, have an idea of, have a good knowledge of 等。如: I don’t understand what the engineer means, but I’ve got a rough idea of the project plan. (7) 用在季节、月份、星期或节日的名词前,表示某个特定的季节、月份、日子或节日。如: The accident happened on a rainy Sunday towards the end of July. 3. 零冠词的基本用法(不用冠词的情况): (1) 复数名词表泛指时,其前不加冠词。如: The Smiths don’t usually like staying at hotels, but last summer they spent a few days at a very nice hotel by the sea. (2) 可数名词前有物主代词、指示代词、不定代词、名词所有格时,其前不用冠词。如: Jack’s English book is lying on his desk. (3) 专有名词、物质名词、抽象名词和表示人名、地名等的名词前,通常不用冠词。如: Sarah looked at the finished painting with satisfaction. (4) 表示季节、月份、星期、节日、一日三餐的名词前,以及表示体育运动项目、学科、运输或通讯方式等的 名词前,通常不用冠词。如:We’re going to watch a match on Sunday. (5) 表示职务、头衔的名词作表语、同位语、补足语等时,其前不用冠词。如: Sam has been appointed manager of the engineering department to take place of George. (6) 在某些固定搭配中, 如:at dawn, on second thoughts, come to light, come to power, give birth to, out of control, in public, ahead of time, in debt, hand in hand, in place of, do harm to 等。 考点二:习语、固定短语中的冠词: 1. 不定冠词用于短语搭配中。 (1) ―have/take+a(n)+与动词同形的名词‖,表示动作的一次。 have/take a rest 休息一会儿 have/take a look 看一下 have/take a bath 洗个澡 (2) ―go out for a(n)+名词‖,表示从事某项活动。go out for an outing 去郊游 go out for a picnic 去野餐 (3) 习惯搭配。as a matter of fact; in a hurry; in a word; a waste of; in a way; come to an end; all of a sudden; have a(n)...knowledge of; have a(n)...understanding/grasp /feeling of 2. 定冠词用于固定搭配。 in the morning; on the other hand; on the contrary; on the air; in the end; come to the point; the ABC of... 3. 在一些固定短语中,名词前不用冠词。 at night; at home; day after day; by telephone; in danger; on purpose; out of control; under+n.; be home to. 第五讲座:代词---基础篇 一.人称代词: 单数 复数 主格 宾格 主格 宾格 第一人称 I me we us 第二人称 you you you you 第三人称 it/she/he it/her/him they them 1. 主格作主语, 宾格作动词或介词的宾语:He teaches ______(we) Chinese. 2. 三种人称代词并列时, 顺序为: 单数: 二, 三, 一 (You, she and I ) 复数: 一, 二, 三 (we, you and they ) 注: 若把责任担, 第一人称最当先, (即若做错事时, 把第一人称放在最前面.) She and I have been to Beijing .Who broke the window ? I and Mike . 注:it 还有一些特别的用法。 1)用作形式主语, 常用于 ―It’s +adj +to do sth‖句型中.2) 用在句型: ―It seems that …‖中. 3) 用在句型: ―It’s one’s turn to do sth‖中. 4) 用在句型: ―It’s time to do sth / for sth‖中. 5) 用在句型: ―It’s +adj +that 从句‖中.6) 用作形式宾语, 用来代替动词不定式. make /think /feel/find + it + adj (名 词)+ to do sth .
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二. 物主代词: 第一人称 第二人称 第三人称 单数 复数 单数 复数 单数 复数 形容词性 my our your your its/his/her their 名词性 mine ours yours yours its/his/hers theirs 形容词性的物主代词作定语放在名词前,不能单独使用。 名词性的物主代词,后面不能加名词。名词性的物主代词常与 of 连用。 Our classroom is as big as ______(they).This is a friend of ______(my). 注: 1) 名词性的物主代词相当于形容词性的物主代词加一个名词. (名词性的物主代词=形容词性的物主代词+ 名词) 2) 形容词性的物主代词与 own 连用时,后面可跟名词也可不跟名词. My own house = a house of my own 三. 反身代词: 单数 复数 第一人称 myself ourselves 第二人称 yourself yourselves 第三人称 himself/herself/itself themselves 记忆小窍门: 反身代词有规律, 第三人称宾格加 self. 其余都要物主加 self, 复数 ves 来把 f 替. 反身代词的常用搭配:enjoy oneself hurt oneself teach oneself = learn…by oneslf all by oneself help oneself to … look after oneself leave sb by oneself lose oneself in say to oneself for oneself dress oneself improve oneself see oneself in the mirror 四. 指示代词: 1. 近指: this these 远指: that those 2. 用法 :1) that those 常用来代替前面出现的人或物 , 以避免重复 . That 代替可数名词的单数或不可数名词 . Those 代替复数名词. The weather in Guangdong is hotter than _____ in Qinghai .The books in that shop are cheaper than ______in this shop. A.this B.that C.one D.those 2) this, that 可代替句子或句子的一个部分, that 代替前面提到的句子而 this 代替下面提到的句子. He had a bad cold , that is why he didn’t come . 3) 在电话用语中, this 代替自己, 而 that 代替对方.This is Tom speaking. Who is that ? 五. 不定代词的区别:1. one 与 it 的区别: One 代替同类事物中的一种. 而 it 代替上文中出现的某事物.This book is a good one. May I borrow it ? 2. some 与 any 的区别:一般情况下, some 用于肯定句, any 用于否定,疑问句, 条件句中. 但在表建议的疑问句中, 仍用 some 代 any. 常用于 could / would / May 开头或 what about /how about …. 的句中。 May I have some water ? He asked me for some paper, but I didn’t have any . 3. many 与 much 的区别:Many+可数名词的复数 Much+不可数名词 都相当于 a lot of +复数名词/不 可数名词注: a lot of 不能用于否定句中. 否定句中用 many /much . 4. a few /few /a little /little 的区别: The story is easy to 表否定(几乎没有) 表肯定(有一点/几个) read. there are _____ new words in it . few a few 修饰可数名词 Hurry up ! There is little a little 修饰不可数名词 _____ time left . 5. each / every 的区别: each 表示两者或两者以上的人或物中的每一个. 而 every 表示三者或三者以上的人或物中的每一个. There are trees and flowers on _____ side of the street .______ student has read a story . 注: each 可以与 of 连用, each of 作主语时, 谓语动词用单数. 而 every 不能与 of 连用. 只能放在名词前作定语. Each of us _______(study )hard . 6. no one 与 none 的区别: no one 表示没有人, 不能与 of 连用. 而 none of +复数名词/ 代词,作主语时,谓语常用单数。 The boys were all tired , but _____ of them stopped to have a rest . 7. both /neither /either /all / none / any 的区别: There are many trees 都 都不 任何一个 on ____ side of the river. A. both both neither either 两者之间 B.any C. Either D. all none any 三者或三者以上 all 注: 1). both 的否定词是 neither, all 的否定词是 none.
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2). both of 作主语时, 谓语动词用复数.neither of 作主语时, 谓语动词用单数. Neither of the answers ______(be) right .Both of my parents _______(be) workers. 3). 词组 A) both …and …连接两个主语时 , 谓语动词用复数 . 同义词组: not only …but also … 反义词组: neither … nor …Not only you but also she likes watching TV.= ____ you _____ she like watching TV.= You like watching TV, _____ _____ she .B) either …or … 或者……或者…… , neither…nor… 既不……也不…… 连接两个 主语时, 谓语动词实行就近原则.Neither you nor he ______ (be ) right.One of Lily and Lucy is going to the park. = _____ Lily _____Lucy _____ going to the park.C) either 也可用于否定句中的 ―也‖ D) neither 也可表示 ― 也不‖ 句型: neither … sb 某人也不怎么样.If you don’t go there , ___ ____ I . (我也不去) 4) how many /how much 的回答: 用 none 回答.Who 的回答: 用 no one 回答.What 的回答: 用 nothing 回答. How many students are there in the classroom ? __________.Who can answer the question ? _______. A. None B. No one C. Nothing 8. other /the other /others /the others 的区别 注 : 1) one …the (空)后面没有名词 (空)后面有名词 other … 表示两者之 间 的 一 个 …… 另 一 the others the other 有数量限制(特指) 个…… others other 没有数量限制(泛指) 2) some… others… 表示一些…… 一些…… 3) another 表示三者以上的不确定数目中的另一个. 只能修饰可数名词的单数. 但 another +数字+ 复数名词= 数字+ more +复数名词 表示 ― 另外几个……‖ Would you like ______ apple ? I have two brothers, one is a teacher, _________ is a worker . Some are cleaning the classroom, ______ are sweeping the window . There are 20 teachers in our school. Eight of them are men teachers, and _____ are women teachers. 9.

everyone every one

每个,人人,大家 每个人、物 any anything anyone

Every

不与 of 连用 可与 of 连用 every everything everyone

some thing one something someone

no nothing no one

one of us has seen the film . Everyone should do their best . 10. 复合不定代词: 注: 1. 复合不定代词作

主语时, 谓语动词用单数. body somebody anybody nobody everybody 2. 形容词修饰不定代词时, 形容词放在不定代词之后. 3. 动词不定式修饰不定代词时, 动词不定式放在不定代词之后. 4. 复合不定代词用于反义疑问句中, 1) 指人的不定代词, 其反义疑问句中的主语用 he 或 they . 2) 指物的不定代词, 其反义疑问句中的主语用 it . 5. any, anything, anyone, anyboby 也可用于肯定句中, 表示 ―任何……/任何物/任何人‖ Everything ______(begin ) to grow in spring, _______ _______ ? Is there ___________(一些有趣的事)in today’s newpaper ? I want something ________ (eat ). 第六讲座:代词---提高篇 一、人称代词: 人称代词有主格和宾格之分,主格在句中作主语、表语等成分,宾格在句中作动词、介词宾语、同位语等成 分,有时也可作表语。不仅指人,也可指物,有人称和数的变化。 【注意】在连词 than 和 as 引导的比较状语从句中常常省略从句,只保留人称代词,人称代词作主语时要用主 格,在口语中也常用宾格;但当人称代词后有动词时就必须用主格。如: My sister speaks English as well as me/I. (口语中常用 me) My sister speaks English as well as I do. (此时只能用 I) 二、物主代词:1.物主代词分为形容词性物主代词和名词性物主代词,必须与所指的名词在人称、数和性别方 面保持一致。如:The waiters offered their food to the homeless man. 【注意】单数阳性名词和单数阴性名词连用作主语时,如果前面有 every,each 修饰,谓语动词用单数,代词用 his。如:Each boy and each girl wants to lend his raincoat to the soldiers. 2. 形容词性物主代词相当于形容词,只能作名词或动名词的定语。 e.g. This is our classroom. Would you mind my opening the window? 3. 名词性物主代词相当于―形容词性物主代词+名词‖,可单独作主语、宾语、表语。此外,名词性物主代词还 可与名词及 of 连用,构成双重所有格。如:
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This is her coat. Mine is over there. Some friends of mine will attend my birthday party. 三、反身代词: 1. 反身代词通常在 enjoy, teach, hurt, buy, introduce, seat, dress, express, amuse, behave 等动词和 by, for, to, of 等 介词后作宾语。如:He was left at home by himself the whole day yesterday. 2. 反身代词可以作主语的同位语,主要起加强语气的作用,意为―亲自,本人,亲身‖。 e.g. The teacher and pupils mended the road themselves. 3. 反身代词可以在 be, feel, look, seem 等系动词后作表语,表示身体或精神状态处于正常。 e.g. —You look pale. What’s wrong with you?—I’m not feeling myself today, not serious, though. 注意(1)反身代词本身不能单独作主语。 (正) I myself drove the car. 我自己开车。(误) Myself drove the car. (2) 在由 and, or, nor 连接的并列主语中,第二个主语可用反身代词,特别是 myself 作主语。 e.g. Charles and myself saw it. (3) 在不强调的情况下,but, except, for 等介词后宾语用反身代词或人称代词均可。No one but myself/me is hurt. 4. 反身代词的习惯搭配 (1) 介词+反身代词 for oneself 为自己;亲自地 to oneself 对自己;独用 of oneself 自动地 by oneself 独自地 (2) 动词+反身代词 dress oneself 自己穿衣 make oneself at home 不要客气 seat oneself=be seated 就坐 teach oneself 自学 come to oneself 苏醒 devote oneself to = be devoted to 致力于 enjoy oneself 过得愉快,玩得高兴 help oneself to 自行取用,请自便 accustom oneself to=be accustomed to 习惯于 amuse oneself 消遣,自娱 behave oneself 表现良好 apply oneself to sth. 致力于 explain oneself 说明自己的意图 express oneself 表达自己的思想 abandon oneself to 沉迷于,放纵 四、指示代词: 1. 指上文提到的事物,一般用 that,有时也用 this;指下文将要提到的事物,常用 this 或 these。如: He said I was lying, and that was unfair. (that 指代上文 He said I was lying) What I want you to remember is this:Practise makes perfect. (此句中 this 指代下文,不能换为 that) 2. that/those 可作定语从句的先行词,但 this/these 不能;其中 those 可指人,但 that 不能。如:She has known that which she wanted to know. I admire those who are always helping others. (those 作定语从句的先行词,指人) 五、相互代词: 相互代词是表示相互关系的代词,只有 each other 和 one another 两个词组,都表示―互相,相互‖。 1. each other 和 one another 在句中可以作动词或介词的宾语。如: Let’s help each other and learn from each other. They looked at one another and laughed. 2. 作定语时 each other 和 one another 须用所有格,表示―彼此的‖。如: We said hello to one another’s/each other’s family. 六、疑问代词: 1. 疑问代词后接ever 的用法。 (1) whatever/whoever/whomever/whichever 表泛指,意为―无论……‖。如: You have our support, whatever you decide.Whichever of you gets here first will get the prize. I don’t want to see them, whoever they are. (2) 置于疑问代词后,用于加强语气。如: Whatever do you mean? Whoever heard of such a thing! 2. 疑问代词的单复数形式要由所代表的人或事物的单复数形式来确定,如果不清楚代表的人或物是复数还是单 数,则谓语动词多用单数形式。who/what/which 作主语时,谓语动词既可以用单数形式,也可以用复数形式。 如:What he needs most is his mother’s love.What we need are good books. 七、复合不定代词: 1. 修饰不定代词的形容词应后置。e.g. Is there anything wrong with my car? 2. 复合不定代词作主语时,谓语动词往往用第三人称单数形式。 3. 复合不定代词构成的固定短语:anything but 根本不,一点也不 nothing but 只不过 do nothing but 只有, 除……之外什么事也不做 have something/nothing to do with 与……有/无关 something of 有点,有几分 八、全部否定与部分否定: 由 some 和 any 构成的不定代词的用法与 some 和 any 的用法基本一致。all, both, everyone, everybody, everything 以及―every+名词‖都表示全部肯定;no one, none, nobody, nothing, not...any 以及―no+名词‖都表示全部否定; 但当 not 出现在含有全部肯定的不定代词的句子中,不管 not 在它们之前还是在它们之后都表示部分否定。此外 not 与总括性副词如 everywhere, always, wholly, altogether 等连用时也表示部分否定。 e.g. All of the boys are clever, but none of them can work out this problem. (all 表示全部肯定,none 表示全部否定) Such a thing can’t be found everywhere. (―not+everywhere‖表示部分否定) The exam is very easy, but not all of the students can pass it. (―not+all‖表示部分否定) 九、both, either, neither, each, all, none: both 表示两者都,具有肯定含义;either 表示两者中的任何一个;neither 表示两者都不;each 表示两者或两者 以上的每一个;all 表示全部,指三者或三者以上的人或物,也可笼统地表示―一切,所有‖;none 表示三者或三
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者以上的人或物的全部否定,与 of 连用或用来回答 how many / much 的提问。 十、it 作人称代词: 在特定的环境中,it 也可指人,如指婴儿、性别不详或身份不明的人。 e.g. The baby stopped crying as soon as it saw the woman. —Who is it?—It’s me. 十一、it 作形式主语或形式宾语: it 可以作形式主语或形式宾语而把真正的主语或宾语后置。 1. 用 it 作形式主语的主语从句结构: (1) It+系动词+形容词+that 从句:It is necessary/important/surprising/strange+that 从句,从句中谓语动词常用 ―should+动词原形‖形式,且 should 可省略。 (2) It+系动词+名词+that 从句:It is a pity/a shame/good news/a fact/an honour/a wonder/no wonder/our duty+that 从句。e.g. It’s no wonder that you’ve achieved so much success. (3) It+不及物动词+that 从句: It seems/happened/turned out /occurs/appears+that 从句。e.g. It happened that he was out when I called on him. (4) It+系动词+过去分词+that 从句: Itissaid/reported/announced/believed/thought/well known/hoped/pointed out/found out/suggested/ordered/advised/requested/insisted/required/demanded+that 从句。 e.g. It’s said that they have succeeded in carrying out this experiment. 【注意】在―It is suggested/advised/ordered/requested/insisted/required/demanded+that 从句‖结构中,从句要用虚拟 语气,即谓语动词用―should+动词原形‖,should 可省略。 e.g. It is suggested that you (should) spend more time in studying English. (5) 其他句型,如 It doesn’t matter.../It makes no difference...等。 e.g. It doesn’t matter what you wear, as long as you look neat and tidy. It makes no difference to me whether you go or not. 2. it 作形式宾语的情况: (1)动词 find, feel, think, consider, make, believe 等后有宾语补足语时,则需要用 it 作形式宾语,把作为真正宾语 的 that 从句后置。e.g. We make it a rule that we get up at six every day. We all think it important that we should protect the environment from being polluted. (2) 有些动词接宾语从句时,需在动词和从句间加 it。这些动词有:hate, appreciate, take, owe, have, like, enjoy, make 等。e.g. I take it that you will agree with us. (3) ―动词+介词+it+that‖结构。常见的有 see to, depend on, rely on 等。 e.g. I will see to it that everything is ready on time. 十二、it 可用在强调句型 It is/was...that...中: e.g. It was in the street that I met him yesterday. 【注意】it 作形式主语和 it 引导强调句的区别:it 作形式主语代替主语从句,主要是为了平衡句子结构(特别是 谓语较短时),主语从句的连接词没有变化。 it 引导的强调句用来对句中某一个成分加以强调,其结构为―It is/was+被强调部分+that...‖。在正式英语中,无 论强调什么部分,都要求用连词 that,但是在一般情况下,如果被强调的主语是―人‖,也可用 who/whom。值得 注意的是,当被强调部分是状语时,只能用 that,不要误用 when,where,how 等。be 动词的时态,可以随着 that 从句时态的不同而变化。强调句型中去掉 It is/was 和 that 后,句子仍然完整,而 it 作形式主语的句子则不 能。e.g. It is I who am setting off for London next week. It was at six o’clock that we arrived at the mountain village. It was at the hotel room that the gentleman had stayed. 十三、it 的特殊用法: 1. 指代时间、距离、自然现象(天气)等。 e.g. It is half past two now. (指时间) It is 6 miles to the nearest hospital. (指距离) A lovely day, isn’t it? (指天气) 2. 指环境情况等。 e.g. It is very noisy at the moment. 3. 用于某些习语搭配。make it 及时赶到;成功完成 catch it 受处罚,被责骂 第七讲座:数词---基础篇 基数词: 表示人或事物数量多少的词. 序数词: 表示人或事物的顺序的词. 一. 基数词: 1. 基数词的读法. 1) 1---12: one two three four five six seven eight nine ten eleven twelve 2) 13---19: 词尾加-teen: thirteen fourteen fifteen sixteen seventeen eighteen nineteen 3) 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90: 逢十词尾加-ty: twenty thirty forty fifty sixty seventy eighty ninety 4) 21----99: 在十位与个位之间加连字符构成.21--- twenty-one 99---ninety-nine 5) 101---999: 先说几百, 再加 and ,再加末尾两位数或个位数. 101---one hundred and one 238----two hundred and thirty-eight
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6) 1000 以上的数: 先将数字从右往左数, 每三位数用一个逗号隔开, 从右往左第一个逗号表示 ―千‖读 thousand 第二个逗号表示 ―百万‖读 million 第三个逗号表示 ―十亿‖读 billion 18, 657, 421---eighteen million, six hundred and fifty-seven thousand, four hundred and twenty-one. 二. 序数词: 基数词变序数词: 口诀: 基变序, 有规律, 词尾要加 th .一二三, 特殊记, 词尾分别 tdd(first second third )八去 t , 九去 e, ve 要用 f 替. ty 变作 tie, 再加 th 莫忘记.若遇几十几, 只变个位就可以. 三. 数词的应用: 1. 表编号:结构: 名词(首字母要大写) + 基数词 = the +序数词 +名词 Lesson One = the first lesson 注:有些编号,一般仅用第一种表达法。 Room 101 101 号房间 2. 序数词前一般加定冠词 the 但序数词前与不定冠词 a /an 连用时, 表示 ―又一,再一‖ You’ve done it three times. Why not try ____fourth time ? A. a B. an C. the D. / 3. 数词前加 every, 表示每……/每隔…… . every ten days =every ninth day 每十天(每隔九天) 注:every +基数词 +复数名词 = every + (序数词-1) +单数名词 4. 基数词的复数形式表示年代和年龄 1) 表示年代: in the + 年份的复数 在几世纪几十年代. 在十九世纪七十年代. _________________________. 2) 表年龄: in one’s + 整十的复数 表示在某人几十岁时 在他四十岁时: ___________________. 5. hundred / thousand /million /billion 1). 若 hundred / thousand /million /billion 前有基数词时, 其后不加 s, 也不加 of .若没有时, 既加 s 也要带 of . Every year _______ visitors come to China. There are two _______ students in our school. A. thousand B. thousands C. thousands of D. thousand of 2). 若其前有 a few 、many、several 修饰时,通常用复数,后接 of. 3). 若名词前有 the 修饰时,用单数,后接 of Two ______the students in our school are from the countryside . A. hundred B. hundred of C. hundreds of D. hundreds 6. 几个半的表达法: 基数词 + and + a half +名词复数 = 基数词 +名词(单数/复数) +and +a half two and a half hours = two hours and a half 7. 时刻表达法: 1) 整点: 基数词 + o’clock 2) 几点几分: A). 直接读法: 先读小时, 后读分钟 3:25 ---- three twenty-five B). 间接读法: a)≤30 分钟. 分钟+ past + 小时 3:25 ----twenty-five past three b)>30 分钟. ( 60-分钟 )+ to + (小时数+1) 3:55 ----- five to four c) 30 分钟 = half 15 分钟=a quarter 45 分钟= three quarters 3:30 ---half past three 3:15----a quarter past three 3:45 ----a quarter to four 8. 日期表达法: 结构: 1). 月, 日, 年 (日用序数词, 年用基数词) 注:年份的读法: 先读前两位数,再读后两位数. 读日时要加 the. 1900---nineteen hundred 1807----eight and seven (eight o seven) 2008---two thousand eight 2007 年 3 月 21 日.--- March the twenty-first, two thousand and seven. 2). 日 月 年 (the +序数词+of +月, 年) 2007 年 3 月 21 日---the twenty-first of March, two thousand and seven. 9. 分数词的表达法: 1). 结构: a). 分子用基数词,分母用序数词. b). 当分子大于 1 时, 分母加复数. 3/4--- three fourths (three-fourths) 2). 注意: a). 分数词的几种特殊形式. 1/3—one third = a third 1/4—one fourth = a quarter 1/2—one second = a half 3/4—three fourths = three quarters b). 分数词作主语时, 谓语动词根据分数词后面的名词来确定. Two fifths of the milk ______(be ) drunk by Tom .One third of the students _______(be )girls . 第八讲座:数词---提高篇
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1. 基数词、序数词和分数词的构成及基本用法。 2. 数词作主语时的主谓一致。 数词主要包括基数词、序数词和分数词。基数词是表示数目多少的数词,序数词是表示先后顺序的数词。分数 词由基数词和序数词构成。 一、基数词: 1. hundred, thousand, million, billion, dozen, score 等前有具体数字或 several, a few 等修饰时,一般不用复数;在 表示不确切数目时,可用复数。如: 1、Several million people in the world are using this brand of toothpaste every day. 2、My teacher went to the bookstore and bought dozens of books. 2. 表示年岁时,用―in one’s +逢十的基数词的复数‖。如:in his forties。 3. 表示年代时,用―in the +逢十的基数词的复数‖。基数词的复数若用阿拉伯数字表示,可直接加 s,也可加’s。 如:in the 1950’s / 1950s。 二、序数词: 1. 序数词前通常要加定冠词 the 或与物主代词一起使用,在句中可作主语、宾语、定语和表语等。 2. 序数词前也可加不定冠词,表示―再一,又一‖。如:a third time, a third and a fourth 等。 三、分数词: 1. 分数词是由基数词和序数词构成,分子用基数词表示,分母用序数词表示;除了分子为 1 的情况下,序数词 都要用复数形式。如:1/3 one third;3/5 three fifths。 2. ―分数/百分数+ of +名词/代词‖作主语时,谓语动词的数与名词或代词的数保持一致。如: 1、Two-thirds of her spare time is spent on housework. 2、80 percent of the houses were damaged in the big earthquake. 第九讲座: 介词---基础篇一.介词 at/ in /on. 1. 表示时间: 1). 表示某一具体时间点,某一时刻/ 年龄 at six o’clock at noon at that time at the moment at the age of at night 2) in 表示时间段, 一天的三个时间段以及月份, 年, 季节, 世纪, 人生的某个时期(某人几十岁时) in the morning/afternoon /evening in spring /in 2007/in March in the twenty-first century in his fifties 3) on 表示星期几/某一具体的日子/具体某天的上午/下午/晚上, 表示一天中的三个时间段名词前有修饰语或后有 修饰语时.On Monday on New Year’s Day on Sunday morning on a rainy night on the evening of April 1st, 2007 2. 表地点: 1) at 一般指较小的地点或较具体的位置 at the station at the cinema 2) in 表示在较大的地点或一个有限空间里.in China in the classroom 3) on 指在某物体的表面上.on the desk 注意: 写街道时, 若有门牌号用 at , 否则用 on / in 都可.He lives at 270 DongChang’an Street. 二. 介词 in /on / to 表方位: 1. in 表示 A 地在 B 地范围之内. (包含关系)Tanwan is ____ the southeast of China . 2. on 表示 A, B 地接壤. (外切关系)Hubei is ____ the north of Hunan . 3. to 表示 A, B 两地有一定的间距. (外离关系)Japan is _____ the east of China . 三. between / among 在……之间: 1. between: 指两者之间. 在…….之间.2. among : 用于三者或三者以上人或物之间. 在……之中. You sit _____ him and me .The song is popular ______ the students. 四. after / in 在……之后: 1. after 1) after + 时间段. 表示以过去某一时刻为起点的一段时间之后, 用于过去时. 2) after 作介词. after doing sth 2. in +一段时间. 表示说话时或以现在为起点的将来一段时间之后.用于将来时. He came back ______ two days . He will go home___finishing his homework .He will come back _____ two days . 五. with / in / by 表示 “用……”: 1. with 表示 ―用…‖ 一般指有形的工具 / 手段 / 人体器官.He cut the apple into halves ____ a knife . 注: with 表伴随, ―带有, 含有‖He came in _____ a big smile on his face . 2. in 表示用某种语言, 方式, 途径. 或书写/绘画所用的材料. 也可表交通方式. Can you say it _____English ?He wrote a letter ____ blue ink . 3. by 表示乘坐交通工具, 表示方式, 方法 I study for a test _____ working with a group. He makes a living ____ selling newspapers. 注意: 同义词组 1). by phone = on the phone 2). by car = in a car 3). in pen = with a pen = with pens
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六. across / through / over / by 经过: 1. across 指横穿, 穿过. 表示动作从某一物体表面上经过.2. through 指穿过, 透过, 表示从某一物体空间内通过. 3. over 表示从某人或某物的上空经过或越过, 不与表面接触.4. by 表示从某人/某物的旁边经过. Can you swim ______ the river?the elephant is so big that it can’t go _____ the gate. I don’t think anyone can jump ___ the fence.I walked _____ the bank of China yesterday. 七. in front of / in the front of : 1. in the front of 表示在…….内部的前面 2. in front of 表示在……外面的前面 There is a desk in _____ front of our classroom.There is a big tree in _____ front of our classroom. 八.其它介词的用法: 1. at 的其它用法. 1). 表示 ―从事或正在做某事‖, 其后加的名词往往不加冠词.She is at work now = She is working now. 2). at 表示 ―价格或速度‖The train ran at 120 kilometres an hour. 2. in 的其它用法: 1) in 表示 ―在……方面‖ 词组: do well in = be good at 反义词:be weak in 2) in 表示 ―穿着‖后接表颜色的词或衣服.词组: be in +衣服 = be wearing +衣服 3) in 作副词, ―在家‖ = at home 3. like 的用法: 1). 像/和……一样. 常与系动词连用.词组: look like sound like 2). 与 what 连用, ―是什么样子, 怎样‖.What is he like ? He is kind . 4. off 的用法: 1). 从……下来, 脱离某物体.词组: fall off 2). ―休假‖通常放在时间名词之后. 词组: have +时间+ off He hasn’t had a night off for two hours. 5. except / besides 1). except 除了…….之外, 都……. . 不包括在范围之内.注: nothing but … 除了……之外, 什么也没有. 2). besides 除了……之外, 还有…… . 包括在范围之内. We all went swimming ______ Lucy.There is _______ a letter in the box.We study Japanese and French____ English. 6. with / without 1). with 具有, 含有 -----反义词: without 没有 词组: with the help of = with one’s help =because of = thanks to without one’s help 2). without 的用法: A).without + sb./ sth. 没有某人或某物 B).without + doing sth . He left here without____(say ) ―Goodbye‖to us C). without sth 常与 if 引导的否定的条件句.If there is no water , we can’t live. = We can’t live ______ _______ . 7. on the tree /in the tree on the tree 表示 ―树上本身长的东西‖ 在树上. 而 in the tree 表示 ―外界的物体进入树中‖ 人或物在树上. There are some apples _____ the tree. There is a boy ____ the tree. 8. since / for 注: since / for 用于现在完成时. 1). since : a). since +时间点 b). 现在完成时+ since +一般过去时 c). since +一段时间+ ago. 2) for: for +一段时间= since +一段时间+ ago 9. be made +介词的区别: be made of 由…制成 (看得见原材料) be made from 由…制成 (看不见原材料) be made in +地点 由哪儿生产 be made by sb. 由某人制造 10. 表示 ―数量的介词‖ about, round, around, over 1). about, round around 表示 ―大约……‖2). over 表示 ―超过‖= more than. 11. inside / outside Inside 在……里面 ------反义词: outside 在….外面 12. in the wall /on the wall in the wall 表示―门窗在墙上‖ on the wall 表示―某东西张贴或挂在墙上‖. 九. 不用介词的情况: 1). 当时间状为: tonight, today, yesterday, tomorrow 等时, 不用介词.What are you going to do tonight ? 2). 含有 this, that, these, those, last, next, every, each 等时间状语.He went to Wuhan last week . 3). 以 all 开头的时间状语前面不用介词.He has worked all day . 4). 以 some, any, one 等构成的时间状语前不用介词. He met a bad man one cold morning. = He met a bad man on a cold morning. 第十讲座:介词---提高 介词无法在句中独立担当成分,其后一般接名词、代词或动词 -ing 形式,还可接不定式(如: except, but)或 that 引导的从句作宾语,构成介词短语,有时还可接另外一个介词短语(如:from among the trees)。 一、介词的分类: 1. 从结构上分,可分为:简单介词(如: at, in, on, for, over, up )、合成介词(如: inside, outside, within, without)、以-ing 结尾的介词(如:concerning, including, excluding, following)和短语介词(如:according to, because of, apart from, in case of)。 2. 从含义上分,可分为表示时间(如:at, in, on, before, between)、地点(如:at, in, on, under, behind)、趋向
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(如:to / towards, across, off, up)、原因(如:for, with, due to)、让步(如:despite, in spite of)和条件(如: in case of, without, but for)等的介词。 二.核心介词必备清单: 1)表示―时间‖的介词: (1) at,on,in at:用在钟点、黎明、正午、黄昏、午夜、节日等时间名词前或表示一段时间的开头或结尾。 at 12:00,at noon,at night,at midnight, at dawn,at daybreak,at sunrise,at the weekend,at Christmas on:用在具体的某一天、星期几及某一天的上午、下午、晚上等的时间名词前,即 on 表示具体的时间。 on October 1st,on a rainy day,on National Day,on the morning of January 3rd,on the afternoon of his arrival in:用在某年、月、季节、上午、下午、晚上等的时间名词以及较长的时间如世纪、朝代之前。 in the Tang Dynasty,in September,in the morning/afternoon/evening 注意:当时间名词前有 this,that,last,next,some,every 等词限定时,通常不用任何介词。 (2) for,during,through for:指某个动作或状态持续了多少时间。 during:指某个动作或状态在某个时间段里或整个过程中断断续续地发生过多次,或在整个时间段里的某一点 发生过,起止时间比较明显。 through:在……期间;从……开头到结尾(最后那天包括在内,此时与 throughout 相同) (3) from,since from: 只用作介词,表示某动作或情况自某时开始,不表示什么时候结束。 since:既可用作介词,也可用作连词,常表示某动作或情况自某时开始,一直持续到说话时刻。 (4) before,by,until,till before:早于;在……之前 by: ①表示―不迟于……,在(某时)前‖。②表示―在……期间,在……时间内‖。 until:是比较正式的用法。在肯定句中和持续性动词连用,表示动作一直持续到 until 后面的时间为止;在否定 句中和瞬间性动词连用,表示该动作直到 until 后面的时间才开始。 till:意义与 until 相同。 (5)after,in,within after:后接时间段表示过去 ―一段时间之后 ‖,与一般过去时态连用;后接时间点表示 ―某一时刻之后‖,与将来 时态连用。 in:后接时间段表示―在何时‖或将来―一段时间之后‖,与将来时态连用。 within:指―在……之内‖,强调事情发生的全过程不超过某一段时间。 (1) on,above,over 和 below,under,beneath ① on,above,over 皆可表示―在……之上‖。区别是 on 表示与表面接触的上方; above 表示―在……上方,高于‖,但不垂直,表面不接触; over 表示正上方,强调―垂直在……之上‖,如果 over 指上下接触,则含有部分或全部覆盖之意,还可表示动作 在某物体的上方进行,意为―越过,通过‖。 ② below,under,beneath 皆可表示―在……之下‖。 below 表示不垂直并与表面不接触的下方;under 表示垂直并与表面不接触的下方; beneath 表示在某物之下,可以表示垂直或不垂直,也可以表示上下接触的意思。 (2) in front of,in the front of 两个介词短语皆有―在前面‖的意思,区别是: in front of 通常相对于某物体的外部来说,指某人或某物位于该物前面,意为―在……前面‖; in the front of 通常相对于空间而言,指某人或某物位于某个空间的内部,意为―在……的前部‖。 (3) near,beside,by beside 和 near 都有―靠近‖的意思, beside 强调―在……旁边(=at the side of)‖,指两者的位置关系,多用于人; near 意为―在……附近(=at a short distance from)‖,表示两者之间的距离,多用于场所,另外 near 还可表示时间 或程度等。 by 表示―在……旁边‖时含有―倚,凭,靠,沿着‖等意。 (4) about,round,around 表示―在……周围‖时, about 指的是―靠近……周围‖,不表示―把……团团围住‖,而 round 和 around 指―完全的、封闭的周围‖, round 既可表示静态位置,也可表示动态的动作,around 通常表示静态的位置。 (5) along,across,through,by along 意为―沿着‖,和动态动词连用,也可以和静态动词连用,表示―在空间的某一点上,在某一段空间里‖。 across 的含义与 on 有关,表示动作是在某一物体的表面进行的,指从一端到另一端或成十字交叉穿过。 across 可以表示―在……对面或另一边‖,相当于 opposite。 through 的含义与 in 有关,表示动作从物体中间穿过,这个动作是在三维空间进行的。
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by 表示从某物或某人的旁边经过。 3) 表示―原因,理由‖的介词 常见的有 for,because of,owing to,due to,on account of,thanks to,out of 等。 for:多与表示感情的抽象名词或动词及 reason,famous 等词连用。 because of:意为―由于,因为‖,强调因果关系,在句中仅作状语,修饰句中的一部分,与其他成分不用逗号隔 开。 owing to: 与 because of 一样,也强调因果关系,除作状语外,也可作表语。作状语修饰整个句子,可放在句首 或句末,用逗号隔开。 due to:引出造成后果的原因,在句中作表语、状语和定语。作表语和状语时与 owing to 同义,作状语时,一般 不用逗号与其他成分隔开。on account of:与 because of,owing to 同 义,但语气较为正式。可作状语、表语, 但不作定语。 thanks to:只能用作状语,可以表示正面的意思―幸亏‖,也可以用在讽刺口吻中(近于讽刺口吻的―感谢‖)。 out of:意为―因为,出于,由于‖,后面常接抽象名词。 4) 表示―支持,反对‖的介词: against:意为―反对‖,指在观点或主张方面与某人采取对立的态度。 for:指在观点或主张等方面与某人采取一致的态度,意思是―支持,赞成‖,与 in favor of 同义。 注意: against 还有―倚着,靠着‖的意思。 e.g. His bed is against the wall. 他的床靠墙放着。 5) 表示―除……之外‖的介词 except: 指从所提到的人或事物中除去,即从整体中除去一部分。 but: 与 except 意义相同,但其语气较 except 弱,常与不定代词和疑问代词连用。 注意:当 except 位于句首时,后面往往加上 for。Except for this,everything is in good order. =Everything is in good order except this. 除此之外,一切状况良好。except for:意为―除……之外‖,它的含义是肯定句子主体,排除局部。 besides:意为―除……之外(还有……)‖。 注意:besides 还可用作副词,意为―而且;还有‖。 e.g. I don't want to go; besides, I am too tired.我不想去了,再说我也太累了。 other than:意为―除……之外‖,后可接名词、代词、动名词和动词原形,并且可以与 but,except 互换;但当 except 后接副词、介词短语和 when 从句等时,but/other than 不可替换 except。 apart from:既可以表示 besides,又可以表示 except 或者 except for,还可以表示 without 的意思。 注意:用于否定句时,besides,except 与 but 可相互替换。 No other students passed the difficult math exam except/besides/but Lin Tao and Wu Dong. 除林涛和吴东外,其他的学生都没有通过那次很难的数学考试。 三.介词的固定搭配: 1. 介词短语: on average 平均 in favor of 支持 with regard to 关于 rather than 而不是 in case of 如果, 假使 in detail 详细地 in vain 徒劳地 on purpose 故意地 in turn 依次 in general 一般来说 on the contrary 相反 in advance 提前 apart from 除……之外 in addition to 除……之外 instead of 代替 in need 急需, 在危难中 in spite of 不管, 不顾 regardless of 不管, 不顾 in charge of 负责, 主管 in exchange of 作为交换 in return for 作为回报 out of sight 在视野之外 out of question 不成问题 out of order 出故障, 混乱 other than 除了, 不同于 beyond description 难以描述地 by means of 依靠, 借助于 in terms of 就……而言 in honor of 为了纪念, 向……表示敬意 for the benefit of 为了……利益 by accident/by chance 偶然, 意外地
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2. 介词在动词短语中的固定搭配用法: lead to 导致 feel like 想要 go against 违背 call for 需要, 要求 agree with 同意, 赞同 care about 关心, 介意 apply to 适用于 contribute to 贡献, 有助于, 促成 appeal to 呼吁, 上诉, 对……感兴趣 remind sb. of sth. 提醒某人某事 inform sb. of sth. 通知某人某事 convince sb. of sth. 使某人确信某事 3. 介词与形容词形成的固定搭配用法: be crazy about 着迷于, 热衷于 be absorbed in 全神贯注于 be popular with 受……欢迎 be enthusiastic about 热衷于 be afraid of 对……感到害怕的 be proud of 对……感到自豪的 be particular about 对……挑剔的 be bored with 对……感到厌倦的 be strict with 对……要求严格的 第十一讲座:连词---基础及提高篇 一.并列连词和连词短语: 并列连词用来连接平行的词、词组或从句。常见的连词有 and, but, or, so, both…and, either…or, neither…nor, not only… but also 等。 1. and 1). and 表示 ―和、且‖在肯定句中连接并列的成分。He is laughing and talking. 2). 祈使句+ and …… , ―and‖ 表示―那么‖之意。= If…… Study hard, and you will succeed .= _____ _____ study hard, you will succeed. 3). adj / adv + and + adj /adv 表示―渐渐‖。He makes mistakes again and again. 2. but 表示转折关系的连词,意为―但是‖He is poor, but honest. 3. or 1). or 有 ―或‖的意思,表示一种选择 Would you like tea or water? 2). ―祈使句……, or …‖ or 表示否则。= If …not …, ……. . Study hard, or you will fail. = _____ you _____study hard, you will fail. 3). or 用在否定句中表示并列关系。He can’t read or write. 4. both 1). both ―两者都‖, 后面的名词、动词都用复数。Both the answers are right. 2). both of …. Both of us are students. 3). both …and… Both you and she are right. 5. either/ either …or 1). either ―两者当中任何一个‖, 后有 of 时接名词的复数形式,无 of 时接单数名词,动词用 单数形式。You may wear either of the hats. 2). either …or… ―不是……就是……, 或者 ……或者…….‖动词与临近的主语保持一致。即 ―就近原则‖. Either you or he has to go = Either he or you have to go. 6. neither /neither …nor… 1). neither ―两者当中都不‖, 后有 of 时接名词的复数形式,无 of 时接单数名词,动词用单数形式。 Neither of the answers ______(be) right. 2). neither ….nor… ―既不…….也不……‖动词与临近的主语保持一致。即 ―就近原则‖. Neither you nor I am right. = Neither I nor you are right. 二.从属连词: 从属连词是引导从句的连词。 1. 引导宾语从句的连词 1). that 连接由陈述句转变而来的宾语从句。 2). who, whom, what, which, whose, when, where, why, how 连接由特殊疑问句转变而来的宾语从句。 3). if/ whether 连接由一般疑问句转变而来的宾语从句。 2. 引导状语从句的连词 1). 时间状语从句:when, before, after, until, as soon as (主将从现) 2). 条件状语从句:if, unless 3). 原因状语从句:because 4). 方式状语从句:than 5). 结果状语从句:so… that … ,such… that… 6). 让步状语从句:though /although
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7). 目的状语从句:so that 3. 不能同时出现在一个句子中的连词。 1). because, so 不能同时出现在一个句子里,只用其中之一。Because in our school knew him, so we had no trouble in finding him. 2). though /although, but 不能同时出现在一个句子里,只用其中之一。但 though 可以与 yet,still 同时出现在一 个句子中。Though Australia is very large, but the population is quite small. 4. 必须用 whether 的情况。 1). discuss 和介词后的宾语从句用 whether. We are discussing ____ we’ll hold a meeting.I’m worried about ___she can come to the meeting. 2). 和不定式、or not 连用必须用 whether. I don’t know ______ to leave or not. 第十二讲座:形容词和副词---基础篇 I. 形容词: 一、形容词的一般用法: 1. 作定语,一般放在所修饰词的前面。It’s a cold and windy day. 2. 作表语,放在系动词的后面。(look, feel, smell, sound….)He looks happy today. 3. 形容词修饰 something , anything , nothing , everything 等复合不定代词时,须放在其后。 Would you like something hot to drink? 4. 表示长、宽、高、深及年龄的形容词,应放在相应的名词之后。How long is the river? It’s about two hundred metres long. 5. 只能作表语的形容词:afraid;alone;asleep;awake;alive;well 健康的;ill;frightened The man is ill.(正) The ill man is my uncle.(误) 6. 只能作定语的形容词:little 小的;only 唯一的;wooden 木质的;woolen 羊毛质的;elder 年长的 My elder brother is in Beijing.(正) My brother is elder. (误) 7. 貌似副词的形容词:lonely;friendly;lively;lovely 二、形容词常用句型: 1. ―It’s +adj.+of+sb. +不定式‖表示―某人(做某事)怎么样‖。=Sb +be +adj+to do sth 注意:这一句型中常用描述行为者的性格、品质的形容词,如 good , kind , nice , polite , clever , foolish , lazy,careful,careless,right(正确的),wrong 等。 It’s very kind of you to help me.=You are very kind to help me. 2. ―It’s+adj. +for+sb. +不定式‖表示―做某事对某人来说怎么样‖。=To do sth is adj for sb . 注意:这一句型中常用的形容词有 important , necessary , difficult , easy , hard , dangerous , safe , useful , pleasant,interesting,impossible 等。 It’s not easy for them to learn a foreign language.=To learn a foreign language is not easy for them. 3. 表示感情或情绪的形容词,如 glad,pleased,sad,thankful 等常接不定式。I’m very sad to hear the bad news. 4. 表示能力和意志的形容词,如 ready(乐意的,有准备的),able(有能力的),sure(一定),certain(一 定)等常接不定式。Lei Feng is always ready to help others. He is sure to get to school on time. Ⅱ副词: 一、副词的分类: 副词按词汇意义可分为: 方式副词:well,fast,slowly,carefully,quickly 程度副词:very,much,enough,almost,rather,quite 地点副词:here,there,out,somewhere,abroad,home 时间副词:today,early,soon,now,then,recently,still 频度副词:always,often,usually,sometimes,seldom,never 否定副词:no,not,neither,nor 疑问副词:where,how,why 其他: also,too,only 二、副词的基本用法: 1). 副词是用来修饰形容词、动词、其他副词, 一般放在被修饰词之前.He plays the piano very well . 2). 副词是用来修饰动词, 常放在动词之后.He got up quickly. 3). enough 修饰 adj /adv 时, 放在其后.He is old enough to go to school. 三、常见副词用法辨析: 1. already 与 yet 的区别 already 用于肯定句句中,表示―已经‖;yet 用于否定句句末,表示―还‖,用于疑问句句末,表示―已经‖ He had_____left when I called.Have you found your ruler______? 2. very,much 和 very much. 的区别 very 用于修饰形容词或副词的原级;much 用于修饰形容词或副词的比较级;修饰动词要用 very much. John is ____ honest.This garden is_____ bigger than that one.Thank you _____. 3. so 与 such 的区别
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⑴so 修饰形容词或副词;such 修饰名词,My brother runs so fast that I can’t follow him.He is such a boy. ⑵so+形容词+a/an+可数名词单数 such+a/an+形容词+可数名词单数 such+形容词+可数名词复数/不可数名词 He is ___ clever a boy. =He is ____ a clever boy.It is____cold weather. They are _____good students. ⑶名词前有 many, much, few, little (少量的) 用 so 不用 such. (多多少少仍用 so) 但 little 表示 ―小的‖ 用 such.There are ___ little sheep on the hill . 4. also,too,as well 与 either 的区别 also,as well,too,用于肯定句,also 常用于 be 动词,情态动词,助动词之后,行为动词之前;as well,too 用 于句末;either 用于否定句中,置于句末。 例如,My father is a teacher. My mother is ____a teacher.=My father is a teacher. My mother is a teacher ______. =My father is a teacher. My mother is a teacher,_____.I can’t speak French…… Jenny can’t speak French,_____. 5. sometime,sometimes,some time 与 some times 的区别 sometime:表示将来的或过去的某一个不确定的时间。sometimes:有时,不时的= at times some time:一段时 间 some times:几次,几倍 We’ll have a test ______next month._____ we are busy and sometimes we are not. He stayed in Beijing for _____ last year.I have been to Beijing ______. 6. ago 与 before 的区别: ago 表示以现在为起点的―以前‖,常与一般过去时连用,不可以单独使用。 before 指过去或将来的某时刻―以前‖,也可泛指以前,常和完成时连用,可以单独使用。 I saw him ten minutes _______.He told me that he had seen the film______. 7. now,just 与 just now 的区别: now:与一般现在时、现在进行时、现在完成时连用,意为―现在‖just:与现在完成时连用,表示―刚……‖ just now:和过去时连用,表示―刚才‖ Where does he live______?We have _______ seen the film. He was here______. 8. lonely / alone 的区别: 1). alone 独自一人/没有同伴, 既可作 adj 也可作 adv. 2). lonely 表示孤独, 寂寞, 也可修饰地点, 表示荒凉, 偏僻的,常与 feel 连用。 3). alone 只作表语 (以 a 开头的形容词一般只作表语, 不作定语)而 lonely 既可作表语, 也可作定语) He lives _____ on a _____ island .He is _____ , but he doesn’t feel ______. 9. fast /quickly /soon 的区别. fast 表示速度之快 quickly 表示动作之快 soon 表示时间之快 I’m leaving home this afternoon. Really ? Why so ______? A. fast B. soon C. quickly D. early Ⅲ、形容词,副词的比较级、最高级: 一、规则变化: 1. 一般在词尾直接加 er 或 est, tall-taller-tallest,long-longer-longest 2. 以不发音的字母 e 结尾的单词在词尾直接加 r 或 st, nice-nicer-nicest 3. 以辅音字母+y 结尾的词,把 y 变为 i,再加 er 或 est, heavy-heavier-heaviest 4. 重读闭音节,末尾只有一个辅音字母,双写这个辅音字母,再加 er 或 est, big-bigger-biggest 注: 大, 红, 湿, 热, 悲, 瘦, 胖. 双写末辅再变级.(big/red/wet/hot/sad/thin/fat ) 5. 部分双音节词和多音节词分别在原级前加 more 构成比较级和 most 构成最高级, beautiful-more beautifulmost beautiful 注: 表示否定意义在其前加 less /least important----less important----least important English is more interesting than Chinese =Chinese is less interesting than English . 6. 由 ―形容词+ly‖构成的副词, 在其前加 more/ most slowly---more slowly----most slowly;但 early—earlier---earliest 二、不规则变化: 原级 比较级 最高级 good/well better best many/much more most little less least old old / elder old /eldest bad/badly/ill worse worst far farther (距离)/further(程度) farthest /furthest 下列单、双音节词只能加 more 和 most 原级 比较级 最高级 like(想似的) more like most like real(真的) more real most real
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tired pleased

more tired more pleased

most tired most pleased

often more often most often 注: 形容词, 副词同形有: back, high, well, fast, early, late, straight. Ⅳ.形容词,副词等级的用法: 一、原级的用法: 1. 只能修饰原级的词,very,quite,so,too He is too tired to walk on. My brother runs so fast that I can’t follow him. 2. 原级常用的句型结构 (1)A= B-----A+ as +adj / adv 的原级+ as +B 表示 ―A 和 B 一样‖ Tom is as old as Kate.Tom runs as fast as Mike. (2)A<B---A +not+as/so+形容词原级+as+B 表示 ―A 不如 B…‖ This room is not as/so big as that one. He doesn’t walk as slowly as you. 二、比较级的用法: 1. 可以修饰比较级的词. much,a lot,far,…的多 a little,a bit,…一点儿 even 甚至,still 仍然 Lesson One is much easier than Lesson Two. Tom looks even younger than before. 2. 比较级常用的句型结构 ―甲+形容词/副词的比较级+than+乙‖表示―甲比乙…‖ Tom is taller than Kate. I got up earlier than my mother this morning. 三. 最高级的用法: 1). 结构: the +最高级+ of +人或物( in +地点) He is the tallest of all the boys He works hardest in his class . 注: 副词的最高级前 the 可省掉 2). the +序数词+形容词的最高级+单数名词 The Yellow River is the second longest river in China . 3). one of +the +形容词的最高级+复数名词 He is one of the cleverest students in our class. 4). ― 特殊疑问词+be+the+最高级+ 甲,乙, or 丙?‖ 用于三者以上的比较。 Which season do you like ( the ) best,spring,summer or autumn? 四. 级别的转换: 1). 原级与比较级的转换 a). 倍数+ as …as → (倍数-1)+比较级+than This room is five times as big as that one = This room is___ ___bigger than that one . b). not as…as 与比较级的转换 A +not as …as + B → A+比较级(反义词的比较级) +than +B →B+比较级+than+A Mary is not as old as Tom. = Mary is _____ _____ Tom. = Tom is ____ _____ Mary. This book is not as expensive as that one = This book is _____ _____ than that one = That book is _____ ______than this one . 2). 比较级与最高级的转换 a). the +最高级+ of / in …… b). 比较级+than +any other +单数名词 +the other +复数名词 +anyone else +any of the other+复数名词 c). Nobody else + 比较级 + than …… Tom is the tallest boy in our class .Tom is taller than ____ ____ boy in our class. Tom is taller than _____ ____ in our class. _____ _____ is taller than Tom in our class. 五. 级别的惯用法: 1. ―比较级+and+比较级‖表示―越来越……‖。He is getting taller and taller. 2. ―the+比较级,the+比较级‖表示―越……,越……‖。 The more careful you are,the fewer mistakes you’ll make. 3.―甲+be+the+形容词比较级+of the two+……‖表示―甲是两者中较……的‖。(of the twins/parents…) Look at the two boys. My brother is the taller of the two. 4. 当 adj 的最高级前有物主代词, 名词所有格, 指示代词时, 不用 the .This is my best book of all. 5. 相比较的前后两部分必须是同类比较.My pencil is longer than ______(you). 6. 比较时不能与自身相比 注: 当相比较的两者属于同一范围/类别时, 为了与自身相比较, 要用 any other +单数名词. 若两者不属于同一范 围/类别时, 不必用 other, 直接用 any + 单数名词.He is taller than _____ boy in his class. He is taller than _____boy in our class .
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A. any B. any other 7. 有些含有比较级的句子里,常用 that(单数、不可数名词 )、 those (复数名词) 代替前面提到的词,以避免重 复。The weather in Beijing is colder than ____ in Guangzhou in winter .The boys in our class are more than _____ in your class . 第十三讲座:形容词和副词---提高篇 一、形容词作补语和状语: 1. 形容词作主语补足语和宾语补足语时, 可以 表示―现状, 状态‖; 也可以表示某一动作的结果, 常用在表示―认 为, 看待‖等动词后, 如 believe, prove, consider 等。 2. 形容词作状语时, 可以看作是―being+形容词‖结构或 when, if, because 等从句的省略, 表示时间、方式、原 因、伴随、让步、条件等, 也可以表示对主语进行解释, 说明主语是什么情况, 或进行强调, 其逻辑主语必须与 句子主语保持一致。如: Hungry and tired, he had to stop working.Ripe(=When they are ripe), the oranges taste sweet. 二、表语形容词: 表语形容词是一般只用于系动词后作表语的形容词, 这类动词常见的有 remain, stay, stand, keep, lie, grow, turn, get, become, run, come, seem, sound, appear, look, smell, taste, feel 等。常见的表语形容词有: 某些以 a开头的形容 词: afraid ―害怕的‖; alive ―活着的‖; alone ―单独的‖; ashamed ―羞愧的‖; asleep ―睡着的‖; awake ―醒着的‖等。 ① 这类形容词除 afraid 和 ashamed 可用 very 修饰外, 一般不用 very 修饰, 可用其他表程度的副词修饰, 如 very much。常用搭配: wide awake 完全清醒 sound/fast asleep 酣睡 quite alone 非常孤独 still alive 仍然活着 much alike 非常相似 full/well/quite aware of 充分意识到; 对……非常清醒 ② 表语形容词还可用作后置定语。如: He is the most famous scientist alive in the world today. 2. 某些与健康状况有关的形容词: well ―健康的‖; fine ―健康的‖; poorly ―不适; 不舒服‖; unwell ―不舒服的‖; ill ―有病的‖; faint ―头晕的‖等。如: I’m feeling well today. He is ill today. 3. 某些描述感觉或心情的形容词: glad ―高兴的‖; pleased ―高兴的‖; content ―满意的‖; sorry ―难过的‖; upset ―难过 的‖等。如:I am glad/pleased to hear that you are offered a good job. 4. 其他表语形容词: certain ―确认的‖; sure ―确信的‖; fond ―喜欢的‖; ready ―准备好的‖; unable ―不能……的‖等。 如:I’m certain/sure that he will succeed. 三、复合形容词: 1. 副词词干+分词, 如: hardworking 勤劳的 2. 名词词干+过去分词, 如: manmade 人造的 3. 名词词干+现在分词, 如: timeconsuming 耗时的 4. 名词词干+形容词, 如: worldfamous 世界闻名的 5. 数词词干+名词, 如: fivestar 五星级的 6. 数词词干+名词ed, 如: threelegged 三条腿的 7. 数词词干+名词+形容词, 如: fiveyearold 5 岁的 8. 形容词词干+过去分词, 如: readymade 现成的 9. 形容词词干+名词ed, 如: kindhearted 好心的 10. 形容词词干+现在分词, 如: ordinarylooking 相貌一般的 11. 形容词词干+形容词, 如: redhot 炽热的 四、副词: 1. 派生副词: 1) 最常用的后缀是ly, 即―形容词+后缀-ly‖构成副词。 2) 还有加后缀ward(s), ways, wise 等构成副词。如: backwards, northwards, sideways, crossways, clockwise 等。 2. 复合副词和短语副词: 复合副词是指由两个词共同组成的副词。如 anyhow, meantime, nowhere, somehow, therefore 等。 短语副词是指用连词把副词连接起来的短语。如 back and forth(前后), here and there(到处), now and then(不时) 等。五、形容词和副词原级的常见句型: 1. as+形容词/副词+as 如: He is as tall as his father. He speaks English as fluently as an Englishman. 注意: 在否定句或疑问句中可用 so...as, 即 not as/so...as。如: He can’t run so/as fast as you. It’s not as/so warm as yesterday. 2. ―as+形容词+a(n)+单数名词+as‖或―as+many/much+名词+as‖。如: This is as good an example as the other is.I can carry as much paper as you can. There are as many students in your class as in ours. 六、形容词和副词的比较级和最高级的常见句型: 1. more+原级/名词+than+原级/名词, 意为―与其说是……不如说是……‖。如:He is more diligent than clever. 2. ―比较级+and+比较级‖和―more and more+多音节词原级‖, 表示程度递增。这种结构后不可接 than 引导的从
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句。如:Things are getting better and better.She plays the piano more and more beautifully. 注意:from bad to worse/worse and worse 越来越糟 make matters worse/what was worse/worse than all/worse than ever 更糟的是. 如:Things are getting from bad to worse/worse and worse.The car broke down when I was driving home from work, and to make matters worse it was pouring with rain. 3. 如果比较对象不能相互包容时, 句型有: 比较级+than +any other+单数名词 all (the) other+复数名词 anyone else any of the other+复数名词 the rest of+复数名词或不可数名词 4. ―the+比较级, the+比较级‖表示两种情况同时变化。这个句型中的第一句相当于状语从句, 不能用将来时态。 如:The more medicine I take, the worse I seem to feel. 5. ―no+比较级+than...‖意为―都不‖, 是对两者的共同否定, 侧重前者; ―not+比较级+than...‖意为―不及‖, 表示前 者不如后者, 隐含对两者的肯定, 侧重后者。如:He is no taller than I.My handwriting is not better than yours. 6. ―the+比较级+of the two(+名词)‖, 表示―两者中较……的一个‖。如:The taller of the two boys is my brother. 7. the+最高级+of/in+比较范围 最高级表示在一定范围内某事物或某人在性质、高低或大小等方面程度最高或最低。 ―……之中最……‖, 用于 三者或三者以上的比较。同类范畴用 of, 不同类用 in。 He talks (the) least and does (the) most in his class.He is the fastest runner of the three boys. 8. not/never+比较级 ―最……不过‖。 在比较级前加上否定意义的词, 表达最高级的含义。如:His work couldn’t be worse.He has never spent a more worrying day. 9. ―nothing/nobody...+比较级+than‖意为―没有…更/最‖。如:Nothing is better than a hot drink on a cold winter day. 七、形容词和副词的比较等级的修饰语: 1. almost, exactly, half, just, nearly, quite, twice, three times, a third time 等用于原级之前, 表示程度。如: He is almost as tall as his brother.This line is twice as long as that one. 2. a bit, a little, rather, any, much/many, far, a great/good deal, a lot, still, even 等用于比较级之前, 表示确定的程度。 分数或有关长度、时间、重量等名词短语通常放在比较级前, 也可由 by 引出而置于比较级之后。如: It’s a little colder today than it was yesterday.This shirt is much more expensive than that one. He is two years older than me.=He is older than me by two years. 注意: ① 修饰可数名词的比较级不用 much, 而用 many, 如 many more books; 修饰不可数名词的比较级用 much, 如 much more work, ―更多的工作‖; much more necessary, ―更有必要‖。 ② 除 quite better 外, quite 不可修饰比较级。3. by far, much, the first/second 用于形容词的最高级前。如: The Yellow River is the second longest river in China. This is by far the best. This is much the most important. 八、比较级相关习语: 1. more than more than+数词 多于, 超过 more than+名词 不仅仅是 more than+形容词 非常, 很 more than+含有情 态动词的从句 超过了……的范围 more A than B 与其说……倒不如说……2. no more than(=only) 仅仅, 只 有 3. not more than(=at most) 不超过, 至多 第十四讲座:动词及时态---基础篇 一、一般现在时: 1. 概念:经常、反复发生的动作或行为及现在的某种状况。也可表客观规律以及在时间,条件状语从句中表将 来时(主将从现) 2. 时间状语: always, usually, often, sometimes, every week (day, year, month…), once a week, on Sundays, 3. 基本结构:①be 动词;am/is/are ②行为动词: 动词原形、第三人称单数。 4. 否定形式:①am/is/are+not; ② don’t /doesn’t +动词原形+…… 5. 一般疑问句:①把 be 动词放于句首;② Do/Does +…+动词原形+…? 二、一般过去时: 1. 概念:过去某个时间里发生的动作或状态;过去习惯性、经常性的动作、行为。 2. 时间状语: ago, yesterday, the day before yesterday, last week(year, night, month…), in 1989, just now, at the age of 5, one day, long long ago, once upon a time, this morning 3. 基本结构: ①be 动词;was/were …②行为动词: 动词的过去式
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4. 否定形式:①was/were+not; ② didn’t +动词原形 5. 一般疑问句:①was 或 were 放于句首;② Did +…+动词原形……? 三、现在进行时: 1. 概念:表示现阶段或说话时正在进行的动作及行为。 2. 时间状语: now, at this time, these days, look, listen, can you see? Can’t you see ?之类的暗示语。 3. 基本结构: am/is/are+doing 4. 否定形式: am/is/are+not+doing. 5. 一般疑问句: Is /Are …+doing sth ? 四、过去进行时: 1. 概念:表示过去某段时间或某一时刻正在发生或进行的行为或动作。 2. 时间状语: at this/that time yesterday, at that time, at six yesterday evening, from eight o’clock to nine o’clock, last night 或以 when/while 引导的时间状语(过去进行时+when+一般过去时/ 一般过去时+while +过去进行时/过去进行时+while +过去进行时)。 3. 基本结构: was/were+doing 4. 否定形式: was/were + not + doing. 5. 一般疑问句: 把 was 或 were 放于句首。 五、现在完成时: 1. 概念: 过去发生或已经完成的动作对现在造成的影响或结果,或从过去已经开始,持续到现在的动作或状态。 2. 时间状语:recently, lately, since…for…, in the past few years, already, yet, never, ever, just, before, so far, once, twice etc. 3. 基本结构: have/has + done 4. 否定形式: have/has + not +done. 5. 一般疑问句: 把 have 或 has 放于句 首。6. 反义疑问句: 直接用 has /have 进行反问 7. 注意: 1). have been to /have gone to /have been in 的区别 have been to +地点 表示曾经去过某地,现人已返回。(once, twice ….) have gone to +地点 表示人已去了某地,人还未返回。(where is sb ?) have been in +地点 表示在某地呆多长时间。(for…../ since …..) 2). 与时间段连用时,短暂性动词应改为相应的延续性动词。 Come/go to ------ be at /in leave ----be away from buy ----have borrow /lend -----keep open ---be open close---be closed die---be dead start/begin ----be on join—--be in /be a member of /be a soldier become –be make friends ---be friend get up ---be up fall asleep ---be asleep catch a cold – have a cold reach/get/arrive--stay/be 3). 现在完成时的四种句型: A). 主语+短暂性动词的过去式+ 时间+ago B). 主语+have/has +延续性动词的过去分词+for…./since …. ago . C). It’s +时间段+since +短暂性动词的过去式 D). 时间段+has passed +since +短暂性动词的过去式 His grandfather died two years ago. His grandfather has ____ ____ for two years. _____two years _____ his grandfather ____. Two years ____ ____ ____ his grandfather _____. 4). 现在完成时与一般过去时的区别 现在完成时与现在有关的时态,他侧重于过去的动作对现在造成的影响。而一般过去时侧重于表示过去的动作 与现在无关,若询问该动作发生的具体的时间时,只能用一般现在时。 Has he returned the library book ? Yes, he has. When ____ he _____(return) it ?He ____ (return)it yesterday afternoon . 六、过去完成时: 1. 概念:以过去某个时间为标准,在此以前发生的动作或行为,或在过去某动作之前完成的行为,即 ―过去的 过去‖。 2. 时间状语:1). before+过去时间,by+ 过去时间, by the end of last year(term, month…) 2). by the time +从句(一般过去时),主句(过去完成时) 3). 用于由 when,after, before 引导的时间状语从句中,前后两动作都发生在过去。 过去完成时+when/before +一般过去时一般过去时+after +过去完成时 4). 用于宾语从句中。3. 基本结构:had + done. 4. 否定形式:had + not + done. 5. 一般疑问句:把 had 放于句首。 七、一般将来时: 1. 概念: 表示将要发生的动作或存在的状态及打算、计划或准备做某事。
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2. 时间状语:tomorrow, next day(week, month, year ), soon, in+一段时间, by…, the day after tomorrow, this evening, tonight 3. 基本结构:1). am/is/are/going to + do;2). will/shall + do. 3). 用现在进行时表示将来,动词 come, go, start, leave, fly, move, begin, get …. 4). 当主句为一般将来时,由 if, as soon as, until, when, before, after, unless 引导的状语从句中用一般现在时代替 一般将来时。 4. 否定形式: ①was/were + not; ②在行为动词前加 didn't,同时还原行为动词。 5. 一般疑问句: ①be 放于句首;②will/shall 提到句首。 八、过去将来时: 1. 概念:立足于过去某一时刻,从过去看将来,常用于宾语从句中。 2. 时间状语:the next day(morning, year…), the following month(week…), by then , 3. 基本结构:①was/were/going to + do;②would/should + do. 4. 否定形式:①was/were/not + going to + do;②would/should + not + do. 5. 一般疑问句:①was 或 were 放于句首;②would/should 提到句首。 第十五讲座:动词及时态---提高篇 一.一般现在时:“do/does”: ①表示经常发生的动作或存在的状态。②表示按计划、规定要发生的动作。③表示客观存在或普遍真理。 二.一般过去时:“did”:表示过去发生的动作或存在的状态。 三.现在进行时:“am/is/are doing”:表示现在正在进行的动作。 四.过去进行时:“was/were doing”:表示过去某一时间正在进行的动作。 五.一般将来时:“will/shall do”:表示将来要发生的动作或存在的状态、未来习惯性的动作、提出请求、作出 允诺、表示同意等。六.过去将来时:“would/ should do”: 表示在过去将来的某一时间发生的动作或存在的状态。常用在间接引语中,主句谓语动词为过去时态。 七.现在完成时:“have/has done”: ①表示说话时已经完成的动作,而且这个动作的结果对现在仍有影响。 ②表示动作发生在过去,但一直持续到现在,并且有可能继续持续下去。 八.现在完成进行时:“have/has been doing”: 表示过去某时开始一直延续到现在(这个动作可能刚停止, 也可能还在进行), 不少情况下表示与现在状态有联系, 有时表示动作的重复等。 九.过去完成时:“had done”: 表示在过去某一时刻或动作之前已完成的动作,即―过去的过去‖。 1.一般现在时的用法: (1) 表示经常性、习惯性的动作和现在的状态、特征, 句中常用 often, usually, every day 等时间状语。 e.g. He goes to school every day. (经常性动作)He is very happy. (现在的状态) (2) 表示按计划、规定要发生的动作, (句中都带有时间状语) 但限于少数动词。如 begin, come, leave, go, arrive, start, stop, return, open, close 等。e.g. The train starts at nine in the morning. (3) 书报的标题, 小说等情节介绍常用一般现在时。e.g. Xi meets journalists. (4) 在时间状语从句和条件状语从句中, 用现在时代替将来时。 e.g. If you come this afternoon, we’ll have a meeting. 2. 一般过去时的用法: (1) 表示过去某时间发生的事、存在的状态或过去反复发生的动作。He saw Mr. Wang yesterday. He worked in a factory in 1986. (2) 表示过去经常发生的动作(也可用―used to‖或―would+动词原形‖代替)。 e.g. During the vacation I often swam/would swim in the sea.I used to smoke. 注意: used to 表示过去常发生而现在不再发生的动作或存在的状态。 3. 一般将来时的用法: 一般将来时表示将来的动作或状态, 其表达形式除了―will 或 shall+动词原形‖外, 还有以下几种。 (1) ―be going to+动词原形‖, 表示即将发生的或最近打算进行的事。 e.g. It is going to rain. We are going to have a meeting today. (2) go, come, start, move, sail, leave 等可用进行时态表示按计划即将发生的动作。e.g. I’m coming. (3) ―be to+动词原形‖表示按计划要发生的事或征求对方意见, 也可以表示命令、禁止等。 e.g. Are we to go on with this work? (4) ―be about to+动词原形‖表示即将发生的动作。e.g. The plane is about to leave. (5) 某些表示位移、停留等的动词其现在进行时可表示按计划或不久之后肯定 发生的动作或将要做的事。 这类动词有 go, come, stay, leave, start 等。 4. 现在进行时的用法: (1) 表示此时此刻正在进行的动作, 由―be+现在分词‖构成。 e.g. What are you doing?(2) 与 always, constantly 等连用, 表示感情色彩。e.g. He is always helping others.
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另外―系动词+介词或副词‖也表示进行时的意义。 e.g. The bridge is under construction. 注意:下列动词不宜用进行时 ① 感觉类:look, smell, feel, sound, taste, see, hear 等; ② 感情类:like, love, prefer, admire, hate, fear 等; ③ 所有类:have, contain, own, hold, belong to 等。 5. 过去进行时的用法: (1) 表示过去某一时刻、某一阶段正进行的动作, 由―was (were)+现在分词‖构成。 e.g. He was reading a novel when I came in. (2) 与 always, forever, constantly 连用, 表示赞成或厌恶的感情色彩。e.g. He was always thinking of others, never thinking of himself. 6. 现在完成时的用法: 现在完成时由―have+过去分词‖构成。其使用有两种情况: (1) 表示的动作在说话之前已完成, 而对现在有影响, 句中没有具体时间状语。 e.g. He has gone to Fuzhou. (说话人认为他不在此地)He has been to Fuzhou. (说话人认为他在此地) (2) 现在完成时所表示的动作开始于过去, 持续到现在, 也许还会持续下去。常与 for...和 since...等表示一段时间 的状语或 so far 等表示包括现在时间在内的状语连用。 e.g. He has studied English for 5 years.He has studied English since 1985.注意: 表示短暂时间动作的词, 如 come, go, die, marry, buy 等的完成时不能与 for, since 等表示一段时间的词连用。 (3) 还可用在时间和条件状语从句中, 表示将来某时完成的动作, 强调此动作先于主句动作发生。 e.g. I’ll go to your home when I have finished my homework. Don’t get off the bus until it has stopped. 7. 过去完成时的用法: (1) 表示过去某一时刻或某一动作之前完成的动作或状态。句中常用 by, before, until, when 等词引导的时间状 语。e.g. By the time he was twelve, Edison had begun to make a living by himself. I had learnt 5000 words before I entered the university. (2) 表示过去某一时刻之前发生的动作或状态持续到过去某个时间或持续下去。 e.g. Before he slept, he had worked for 12 hours. 8. 过去将来时的用法: 表示从过去的某时间看来将要发生的动作或存在的状态。由 ―should 或 would +动词原形 ‖构成。第一人称用 should, 其他人称用 would。e.g. They were sure that they would succeed. 十.时态的比较: 1. 一般过去时与现在完成时: 一般过去时只表示过去的动作或状态,不涉及对现在的影响;现在完成时表示过去发生的某一动作对现在造成 的影响或结果,强调的是现在的状况。如: We stayed there two weeks. The ship has sailed for two weeks.? 一般过去时和表示过去的时间状语连用;现在完成时常和一些不明确的或包括 ―现在‖在内的时间状语或表示从 过去某一时刻延续到现在的―一段时间‖的状语连用,而不与明确的、具体的过去时间状语连用。如: Tom suddenly fell ill yesterday. It has been freezing cold since last week. 2. 过去完成时与一般过去时: 过去完成时以过去某时间为起点,表示过去某一时间或动作之前已经发生或完成的动作或存在的状态;一般过 去时以现在时间为起点,表示过去发生的动作或存在的状态。如: He told me that he had seen the film the day before. He died three years ago. 表示某事继续到过去某时已有一段时间时,用过去完成时;表示两个或两个以上的动作,用 and (then), then 或 but 等连接,按照动作发生的顺序表达时,用一般过去时。如: He said he had worked in that factory since 1984. He had lunch and then continued his work. 3. 现在完成时与现在完成进行时: 在表示―未完成‖且与―一段时间‖连用时,两者可互换。如:We have lived / have been living here for two years. 在没有表示―一段时间‖的状语时,现在完成进行时强调继续进行,表示―未完成‖,而现在完成时强调结果,表 示完成。如:I have been reading. He has turned off the light. 第十六讲座:时态及语态---基础篇 一.被动语态的时态: 1. 一般现在时的被动语态: am /is/ are +动词的过去分词 2. 一般过去时的被动语态: was /were +动词的过去分 词 3. 一般将来时的被动语态: will be +动词的过去分词 4. 现在进行时的被动语态: am /is /are +being +动词的 过去分词 5. 现在完成时的被动语态: have /has +been +动词的过去分词 6. 情态动词的被动语态: 情态动词 + be +动词的过去分词 二.主动语态变被动语态的变法:口诀:宾变主,主变宾,谓变 be done , 时不变,数格必须随被变。 备注:1. 主动、被动的时态要一致。2. 主动、被动的句式要一致。3. 变成的被动语态的主语与谓语在单复数 上保持一致。
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三.特殊情况的被动语态: 1. 带双宾语的被动语态:动词+ sb(间宾) +sth(直宾) 口诀:如遇双宾语,一般变间宾,若把直宾变,to /for 间宾连。 1). give/pass /show 与介词 to 搭配。give sb sth —— sb +be given sth 或 sth +be given +to sb . 2). buy/make/cook 与介词 for 搭配。buy sb sth —— sb +be bought + sth 或 sth +be bought +for sb He gave me a book I ______ ______ a book by him. A book ____ ____ _____ me by him .My mother made me a cake . I ____ _____ a cake by my mother A cake ____ ____ ____ me by my mother . 2. 带省 to 的不定式作宾补的被动语态:动词+ sb + do sth . 口诀:感使动词真叫怪,to 来 to 去记心怀,主动语态 to 离去,被动语态 to 回来。 动词:make / let /have /see /hear /feel /watch make sb do sth ----sb + be +made +to do sth The boss made the workers work all day The workers ____ ____ ____ work all day by the boss. 3. 在 see /hear /notice /keep +sb +doing sth 句型中变被动语态时,doing 不变。 I heard Tom singing just now Tom _____ _____ _____ by me just now . 4. 以动词短语作谓语的主动语态变被动语态时,不可丢掉后面的介词或副词。 We should take care of the old . The old should ______ _____ _____ _____ . 四.注意事项: 1. 有些及物动词或动词短语不能用于被动语态:last, have, own …..belong to, suit…fine, 2. 不及物动词是没有被动语态:happen, take place, appear, hold (容纳) 3. 系动词是没有被动语态:Look, feel, sound, smell, taste ….The dish tastes good . 4. 有些词组没有被动语态:sell well, write well, ride well, drive well This kind of skirt sells well. 5. need 表示需要时,后面常接 doing 形式表示被动意义,相当于 to be done . All the computers need repairing.=All the computers need _____ _____ _____ . 6. 在 too…to…及 enough to …结构中有时表示被动意义。The problem is too difficult to solve. 第十七讲座:时态及语态---提高篇 英语的语态分为主动语态和被动语态。主动语态表示主语是动作的执行者 , 被动语态表示主语是动作的承受 者。只有及物动词或含及物意义的短语动词才能转换成被动语态。 一、被动语态的用法: 当我们不知道谁是动作的执行者,或者没有必要指出谁是动作的执行者,或者只需强调动作的承受者时,要用 被动语态。e.g. Such books are written for middle school students.English is spoken in many countries. 二、被动语态的构成: 被动语态是由―助动词 be +及物动词的过去分词‖构成,be 随主语的人称、数和时态的变化而变化。被动语态可 以用于各种时态。1. 几种形式的被动语态(以动词 give 为例): 一般现在时 am/is/are +及物动词的过去分词 一般过去时 was/were +及物动词的过去分词 一般将来时 shall/will/ be going to + be +及物动词的过去分词 一般过去将来时 should/would be +及物动词的过去分词 现在进行时 am/is/are being +及物动词的过去分词 过去进行时 was/were being +及物动词的过去分词 现在完成时 has/have been +及物动词的过去分词 过去完成时 had been +及物动词的过去分词 将来完成时 shall/will have been +及物动词的过去分词 过去将来完成时 should/would have been +及物动词的过去分词 2. 特殊结构的被动形式: (1) 双宾动词的被动结构: 双宾动词变为被动结构时, 一般将主动结构中的间接宾语变为被动结构中的主语, 直接宾语不变。如将主动结构 中的直接宾语变为被动结构中的主语, 间接宾语之前则应加介词 to 或 for。 (2) 带复合宾语的动词的被动结构: 带复合宾语的动词变被动语态时 , 一般将主动结构中的宾语变为被动结构中的主语 , 而将宾语补足语保留不动 (这时的宾语补足语为主语补足语)。 (3) 带情态动词的被动语态,由―情态动词+be +及物动词的过去分词‖构成: The problem may be solved in a number of different ways. In our school, library books must be returned in two weeks. (4)―be+过去分词+不定式‖式的被动结构: e.g. He is reported to have broken a world record.She is said to know three languages. (5) ―it+be+过去分词+从句‖式的被动结构: e.g. It’s said that she has some supernatural powers.It’s reported that they have discovered a new star. 常见的结构还有: It is known that...众所周知 It is suggested that...有人建议 It is believed that...人们相信 (6) ―get+done‖构成被动语态:此种形式用来表示状态或情况, 常考的形式如下: get married 结婚;get engaged 订婚;get hurt/wounded 受伤;get lost 迷路;get drunk 喝醉了;
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get caught/stuck/trapped 被困;get dressed 穿好衣服;get run over 被(车)轧等。 3. 主动形式表示被动意义: ★一些感官动词,如 feel, sound, smell, look, taste 等用作系动词时。如:It tastes strongly of mint. ★说明主语的性质、特点的动词,如 read, write, cut, sell, wash, wear, lock 等,其主语往往是物。如: The pen he bought yesterday writes smoothly. ★在―be +形容词+不定式‖结构中,不定式与句子的主语有逻辑上的动宾关系时。用于此结构的形容词常见的 有:difficult, hard, easy, light, heavy, expensive, cheap, pleasant, interesting, fit, comfortable 等。如: The man is very easy to get along with. ★当 want, need, require 表示―需要‖时,其宾语用动词-ing 形式的主动形式表示被动意义。如: The house his grandmother lives in needs repairing. ★在 be (well) worth doing, be to blame 中。如:The book he borrowed from the library yesterday is well worth reading. ★在 have, find, lend, give 等动词后的宾语有不定式作定语,不定式与宾语是逻辑上的动宾关系,但是在句子中 又有不定式动作的执行者时。如:He has found nothing to eat since he left home and came into the forest. 4. 不能用于被动语态的情况: ★谓语是及物动词 leave, enter, reach, suit, benefit, lack 等。 ★谓语是不可拆开的 take place, consist of, lose heart, belong to 等短语动词。 ★宾语是无实意的代词 it。 ★宾语是表示身体的某一部分的名词。 ★宾语是某些抽象名词。 ★have 不论在什么情况下都不能用于被动语态。 ★一般来说,当动词的宾语是动词-ing 形式或者是不定式时不能变成被动语态。 ★将来进行时和完成进行时没有被动语态。如果遇到这种情况时,可以用一般将来时和现在完成时的被动语态 来代替。 第十八讲座:情态动词---基础篇 一.情态动词的用法:1. can 用法: 1)表示能力,与 be able to 同义,但 can 只用于现在时和过去时,be able to 可用于各种时态。 Two eyes can see more than one. 注:Can you … ? Yes, I can / No, I can’t. 2). 表示允许、请求 用 could 比 can 语气更加委婉客气,常用于 could I /you …..? 句型中,若表示同意时,用 can 回答而不用 could.Could I borrow the book ? No, you can’t. 3). 表示推测 ―可能‖常用于否定句或疑问句中。(can’t 表示一定不是) It can’t be true. Can it be true? 2. may 用法 1)表允许,请求= can 表示许可或征求对方的许可,常于第一人称连用。注:May I ….? Yes, you may. No, you can’t / mustn’t. 在回答以 may 引起的问句时,多避免用这个词,而用其它方式,如 Yes, please. / Certainly. 2)表推测,可能、也许。常用于肯定句中。 Maybe he knows the news. =He _____ _____ the news. 3. must 1)表示义务。意为―必须‖(主观意志)。 We must do everything step by step. 注:Must I ….? Yes, you must / No, you needn’t (don’t have to ). --Must we hand in our exercise—books now? --No, you needn’t. / No, you don’t have to. 2)mustn’t 表禁止、不允许。 You mustn’t talk to her like that. 3)表示揣测。意为―想必、准是、一定‖等,只用于肯定句。否定、疑问句中 must 改为 can. He must be ill. He looks so pale. She’s wearing a diamond necklace. She must have a lot of money. 注:must 表推测时,其反义疑问句与 must 后面的动词一致。 There must be something wrong, ____ ____? 4. need 的用法 need 既可用作情态动词,也可用作实义动词。用作情态动词时,主要否定句或疑问句中。用作实义动词时,可 用于各种句式。 1). 用作情态动词,用于否定句和疑问句中。 a). Need I ….? Yes, you must / No, you needn’t . Need we finish the work today ? Yes you __? A. need B. can C. may D. must b). need + do sth . 变否定句:needn’t do sth 变疑问句:Need sb do sth ? 2). 用作实义动词 a). need + to do sth . We need _______(buy) some school things . 变否定句:don’t /doesn’t /didn’t +need to do sth .变疑问句:Do / Does /Did sb + need to sth ? Yes , … do/ does / did No, sb don’t / doesn’t /didn’t.You don’t need to do it yourself. b). 当主语是物时。Sth + need + doing sth = Sth +need to be done . The table needs painting. =The table needs _____ _____ _____ .
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5. had better 的用法 1). had better + 动词原形 = It’s best to do sth. You had better ______ (stay )at home. = _____ ______ ______ stay at home. 2). Had better not +动词原形 We had better ________(not play ) the computer games. 6. must 与 have to 1). 一般情况下,两者可互换。 must = have to 2). must ―必须,应该‖表示说话人的主观看法,即说话人认为必须干某事。(内在原因) have to ―必须,不得不‖强调客观需要,即外界因素迫使某人不得不干某事。(外界原因) I can’t stop playing the computer games. For your health, I’m afraid you ______. A. can B. may C. must D. had to 二.情态动词后跟完成式和进行式的用法: 1. 情态动词后跟完成式,表―原本应该干某事,而实际上没干‖ I should have finished the work earlier. He isn’t here. He must have missed the train. 2. 情态动词后跟进行式,表示―想必正在……‖,―可能正在……‖,―应当正在‖等意。 It’s twelve o’clock. They must be having lunch. They may be discussing this problem. He can’t be telling the truth. She shouldn’t be working like that. She’s still so weak. 三.情态动词的同义转换: 1. can = be able to. 2. must = have to. 3. needn’t = don’t have to. 4. need do sth = need to do sth. 第十九讲座:情态动词---提高篇 一. will, would: 1) 用于表示意志或意愿。will 指现在,would 指过去。 e.g. I will never do that again.They said that they would help us. 2) 表示―请求;建议‖。用 would 比 will 委婉、客气些。 e.g. Will you please take a message for him?Would you please pass him the book? 3) 表示习惯性动作,―总是‖―惯于‖,will 指现 在,would 指过去。e.g. Fish will die without water. 4) 表示预料或猜想。e.g. It would be about ten when he left home. 5) 表示规律性的―注定‖用 will。e.g. People will die without water or air. can, could 1) 表示能力。e.g. My grandma is well over eighty, but she can read without glasses. 2) 表示客观可能性。e.g. Accidents can happen to any drunken driver. 3) 表示请求和允许。e.g. — Can I have a look at your design?— Yes, of course you can. 4) 表示惊讶、怀疑、不相信的态度。(主要用于否定句,疑问句和惊叹句)。 e.g. What can he be doing at this time of night? 5) 表示请求,口语中常用 could 代替 can, 使语气更委婉。e.g. Could you please help me with this furniture? 二.may, might: 1) 表示允许、许可。否定回答时,一般用 mustn’t,―禁止、阻止‖。 e.g. —May I watch TV after supper?—Yes, you may. / No, you mustn't. 2) 表示请求、允许时,might 比 may 的语气更委婉;用 May I…?征询对方许可在语气上比较客气;用 Can I…?征询对方意见更常见。e.g. —Might I use your telephone?—Yes, please. —May / Can I go home now?—Yes, you may / can. 3) 表示可能性的推测,―或许,可能‖,用 might 代替 may 时,语气显得更加不肯定,用于陈述句中。 e.g. It may be true.She may come tomorrow.He might have some fever. 4) may 用于祈使句中表示祝愿。e.g. May you succeed! 三.must: 1) 表示―必须;应该‖。以 must 开头的问句,否定回答常用 needn’t 或 don’t have to,肯定回答用 must。 e.g. You must come to school on time. 2) 表示有把握的推测,只用于肯定句中。e.g. You must be ill. I can see it from your face. 3) 表示―非要;偏要‖。e.g. They are sleeping. Must you play the piano at this time? 四.have to: 表示―必须;不得不‖,强调客观需要, 有时态,人称的变化。e.g. I can’t see things clearly. I have to wear glasses. 五.shall: 1) 用于第一人称,表示征求对方的意见。e.g. What shall we do next? 2) 用于第一、三人称的疑问句,表示说话人征求对方的意见和向对方请示。 e.g. Shall we begin our lesson? Shall the driver wait? 3) 用于第二、三人称的陈述句,表示说话人给对方的命令、警告、允诺和威胁。 e.g. You shall go with me. He shall be punished. 六.should: 1) 表示劝告或建议,―应该‖。e.g. We should be strict with ourselves. 2) 表示推测,―可能‖或―应该‖。e.g. They should have arrived by two o’clock. 3) 用于第一人称表示说话人的一种谦逊、客气、委婉的语气。
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e.g. I should advise you not to do that.You are mistaken, I should say. 4) 用在 if 条件句中,表示可能性很小,但也不是完全不可能。e.g. Ask Tom to ring me up if you should see him. 5) Why / how + should,表示意外,惊异,―竟会‖。e.g. Why should you be so late today? 七.need: 表示―需要;必要‖,用于否定句、疑问句中,只有现在时,其他时态用 have to 的相应形式代替。 e.g. You needn’t ask him the question.Need I finish the work before ten? 八.dare: 表示―敢;敢于‖,主要用于疑问句、否定句和条件从句中,一般不用于肯定句(I dare say 除外)。 e.g. Dare you go alone there?The boy daren’t say so before the teacher.How dare he do such a thing? 九.ought to: 1) 表示―应该‖。e.g. You ought to take care of him. 2) 表示推测。e.g. He ought to be home by now. 十.used to: 表示过去常常(现在已经不再)。e.g. There used to be a temple here. 十一.had better: 表示―最好‖。e.g. You had better finish it now. 注意】① could, should, might 不一定与过去时间有关, 而是表示可能性弱于与其相应的 现在时形式; ② should/ought to 表示推测时, 表示确定或可能性大的合乎理想的情况或结果。 ③ need 和 dare 用作实义动词时, 有词形变化, 变成否定句、疑问句时, 要加助动词。如: You don’t need to do it yourself. We should dare to give our own opinion.2. 表示推测的情态动词的层次比较情态动 词的―推测‖功能。如:can, could, may, might, must 皆可表示推测,使用时要注意以下几点: 1) 注意语气。语气较强用 must, cannot, couldn’t; 语气较弱用 may, might 或 can, could。 2) 注意句式。在肯定句中,一般用 may, might, must; 在否定句、疑问句中常用 can, could。 3) 注意时态。表示对现在或将来的情况的推测,此时通常用 ―情态动词+动词原形 ‖结构; 表示对现在或将来 正在进行的情况进行推测,通常用―情态动词+进行体‖结构; 表示对过去情况的推测,通常用 ―情态动词+完 成体‖结构。 3. 情态动词+ have done must have done 表示对过去情况的肯定推测。may / might have done 表示过去可能发生过某事。 3) could have done 表示过去可能发生,但并未发生,含有埋怨或训斥之意;也可表示对过去可能发生的事情 的一种推测。 4) should / ought to have done 表示过去本该做(某事)而事实上未做; should not / ought not to have done 表示过去本不该做(某事)但事实上却做了,含有批评、责备之意。 5) need have done 表示过去本来有必要去做(某事),但事实上没有做; need not have done 表示过去本没有必要做(某事),但事实上做了。 十二.考查情态动词的特殊用法: 1) cannot/can’t 与 too/over/enough/perfectly/sufficiently 等词连用,―越……越……‖―无论怎样……,……也不为 过‖ ―决不会……,……够(过)‖。 2) can/could 与 be able to 辨析: 情态动词 can 只有两种时态形式, 现在式 can 和过去式 could, be able to 有多种时态形式。语境结果区别 could 可 以表示过去的能力, was/were able to 表示经过一番努力后取得了成功, 相当于 manage to do 或 succeed in doing, 而 could 没有这个含义。 十三.专项练习: 一、从方框内选用合适的情态动词并用其正确形式填空 (包括否定形式)。 1. —Is David coming by train?—He should, but he _______ not. He likes driving his car. 2. No reader ________ remove a book from the library without the permission of the librarian. 3. The girl ________ be Mary— she's in New York. 4. That the well-dressed young man ________ speak to you like that is quite astonishing. 5.—________ I finish the job right now?—Yes, you must. 6.—Must we hand in our exercise books today?—No, you ________. 7. Haven’t you seen the sign ―No parking‖ here? Cars ________ be parked here. 8. —Shall I inform her of the change of the meeting right now? —I am afraid you ________, in case he comes late for the meeting. 9. ________ you be interested, I’ll tell you the whole story. 10. It was an easy test and he ________ have passed, but he didn’t. 二、根据括号内的汉语提示补全下列句子: 1. She __________________ (不需要亲自来) —a letter would have been enough. 2. I lost your address, otherwise I __________ ____________ (早就写信给你了). 3. They are always making trouble. I think it's high time they _________________ (被教训一顿了). 4. He insisted I _________________ (应该打个车) and offered to pay for it.
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5. Your advice that she___________________ _____ (等到下周) is reasonable. 6. I should not have made fool of you if I _____________ (早想到你是认真的). 7.If you had spent more time practicing making it before, you ___________________ ____________ (就能把它做得更好) now. 第二十讲座:虚拟语气---基础及提高篇 一.虚拟语气在名词性从句中的用法: ★在―It is / was +形容词或过去分词+ that 从句‖结构的主语从句中,表示命令、愿望、建议等,谓语动词为 ―should +动词原形‖,should 也可省略。如: It is necessary that a college student (should) master a foreign language. It is desired that this rule (should) be brought to the attention of the staff. ★动词 wish 后的宾语从句中,表示与现在事实相反时,从句中动词用过去式;表示与过去事实相反时,从句中 动词用―had +过去分词‖;表示将来很难实现的愿望时,从句中动词用―would / could / might +动词原形‖。如: How I wish I was there with you. I wish I hadn’t lost the chance. I wish he would / could / might go with us to the theatre. ★在 would sooner, would rather 等后面的宾语从句中动词要用虚拟语气。尚未发生的动作用动词的过去式,已经 发生的动作用―had +过去分词‖。如: I would sooner he left on the earlier train.I’d rather you went tomorrow. I’d rather you hadn’t done that. ★表示―建议、命令、要求、坚决做‖等动词(如 suggest, demand, require, request, order, insist 等)后的宾语从句 中谓语常用―(should +)动词原形‖。如: I suggest you (should) have enough sleep.I recommend that everyone (should) attend the party. ★虚拟语气还可用在表示愿望、建议、命令、请求等的表语从句或同位语从句中,谓语用―should +动词原形‖, should 也可省略。如:Our only request is that this (should) be settled as soon as possible. He made the decision that nothing (should) hold him back. 二.虚拟语气在条件句中的用法: ★虚拟语气在 if 条件状语从句中的用法: 条 件 句 表 示 现 在 情 况 从句中谓语 的形式 主句中谓语的形式

动词过去式 ( be 的 过 去 式用 were)

should / would / might / could +动词原形

条件句

从句中谓语的形式

主句中谓语的形式

表示将来情 况

should + 动 词 原 形 ; were to + 动 词 原 形 ; 动 词 过 去 式 ( be 的 过 去 式 用 were)

should / would / might / could +动词原形

表示过去情 况

had +过去分词

should / would / might / could + have + 过 去 分词

★ 在错综时间虚拟条件句(即主句和从句所指的时间不一致)中,动词的形式需要根据表示的时间来调整。 如:If I had spoken to him yesterday, I should know what to do now. If it had rained last night, it might be very cold today. If she were to leave, I would have heard about it. ★含蓄条件句 有时虚拟语气的条件并不是直接通过条件句来表示,而是用一些词或短语(如 under, with, without, but for 等)
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或上下文暗示来说明。句中的虚拟语气一般表示过去的情况,这种句子叫含蓄条件句。如: We could have done better under more favourable conditions (= if we had been given more favourable conditions). Without your help (= If you hadn’t helped me), I couldn’t have succeeded. But for the heavy traffic (= If the traffic had not been so heavy), we would have arrived earlier. He would have given you more help, but he has been so busy. (= if he had not been so busy). 三.虚拟语气中 if 的省略: 如果条件从句的谓语中有 were, had 或 should 等词,可将 if 省略,而把这几个词放在句首,其意义与带有 if 的 条件句相同。如: If I were to do the work, I should do it some other way. → Were I to do the work, I should do it some other way. 四.虚拟语气在其它状语从句中的用法: ★在由 as if 或 as though 引导的方式状语中,虚拟语气的形式为动词的过去式(be 用 were)或―had +过去分 词‖。如:She is walking slowly as if she were tired. ★在由 lest, for fear that, in case 等引导的从句中,虚拟语气的形式为―should +动词原形‖。如: I ran as fast as possible lest I should be too late. ★在由 in order that, so that 或 that 引导的目的状语从句中,虚拟语气的形式为―may / might / could +动词原形‖。 如:In order that everybody may understand it, write it in simple language. 专项训练: 从 A、B、C、D 四个选项中,选出可以填入空白处的最佳选项。 1. We would rather our daughter _____ at home with us, but it is her choice, and she is not a child any longer. A. would stay B. has stayed C. stayed D. stay 2. _____ the morning train, he would not have been late for the meeting. A. Did he catch B. Should he catch C. Has he caught D. Had he caught 3. People are recycling many things which they _____ away in the past. A. had thrown B. will be throwing C. were throwing D. would have thrown 4. If Mr. Dewey _____ present, he would have offered any possible assistance to the people there. A. were B. had been C. should be D. was 5. We _____ back in the hotel now if you didn’t lose the map. A. are B. were C. will be D. would be 6. _____ no modern telecommunications, we would have to wait for weeks to get news from around the world. A. Were there B. Had there been C. If there are D. If there have been 7. It was John who broke the window. Why are you talking to me as if I _____ it? A. had done B. have done C. did D. am doing 8. They were abroad during the months when we were carrying out the investigation, or they _____ to our help. A. would have come B. could come C. have come D. had come 第二十一讲座:非谓语动词---基础篇 一、动词不定式: 1. 动词不定式作宾语。 1). 在动词 want, hope, would like, decide, wish,choose, try, need 等后常用动词不定式作宾语。 I hope ______(hear)from you soon. 2). think/find /feel /make it + adj + to do sth He found it difficult _______(get) to sleep. 3). stop to do sth / stop doing sth stop to do sth 停下来去做某事 stop doing sth 停止正在做的事。 After working for a long time, He has to stop _______(have ) a rest.He was very tired, so he had to stop ______(work). 2. 动词不定式作宾语补。 1). 带 to 的不定式作宾补的动词有:ask / like /would like /teach /tell /want /help +sb +to do sth Please ask him _________(come) quickly. 2). 省掉 to 的不定式作宾补的动词有:let /make / hear /see /notice /have/watch+sb +do sth 注:省掉 to 的不定式的句子变被动语态时,需要还原 to. He made the baby _______(stop) crying.The baby was made ______ _____ crying. 3. 动词不定式作主语。 1). 动词不定式常可用作句子的主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。 2). 常用 it 作形式主语,而将不定式放在句子后面。 To do sth +谓语动词+adj /n =It +谓语动词+adj / n + to do sth To get an injection is a little painful. _____ a little painful ____ ____ an injection(注射). 4. 动词不定式作定语。 动词不定式作定语放在被修饰词之后名词或代词+to do+(介词) 注:若构成的不定式的动词为不及物动词时,其后加上相应的介词。
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I want a pen to write ______. I want a piece of paper to write ______. 5. 动词不定式与疑问词连用。 疑问词+ to do sth 注:在宾语从句中,若主从句的主语一致时,宾语从句可简化为―疑问词+to do sth‖. Can you tell me how I can get to the hospital? Can you tell me _____ ____ ____ the hospital. 6. 动词不定式可作状语。 1). 动词不定式可作目的状语。 在 come / go / leave 后面接动词不定式作目的状语。 He came here ______(get)his book. 2). 动词不定式可作原因状语。 表语形容词(sorry/sad/happy/ glad /afraid/ pleased)后与动词不定式连用作原因状语 He was glad _______(see) his wife. 3). 动词不定式可作结果状语。 在 too…to …, not …enough to …句型中的动词不定式作结果状语。He was too tired _______(walk) on. 7. 动词不定式作表语。be + to do sth 注:动词不定式作表语可以和主语的位置互换,且常表将来。 Her wish is _______(become) a doctor._____ _____ is her wish. 8. 动词不定式的否定形式。在动词不定式的前面加 not.He told me _______(not stay) here. 9. 动词不定式符号的省略和保留情况。 1). 动词不定式符号的省略情况。若两个或两个以上的不定式并列时,第一个不定式符号不能省略,其余的省掉 to.但两者有对比关系时,to 都不能省略。 Edison’s mother taught him to write and read.I haven’t decided to go home or to go to the cinema. 2) 省掉不定式而保留动词不定式符号 to 的情况。 Will you take a walk with me ? I’m glad to.Would you like to join my birthday party ?I would love to. 二、动名词: 1. 动名词相当于一个名词,作主语时,谓语动词用单数。Reading in bed ______(be) bad for your eyes. 2. 有些动词或动词短语后面,只能接动名词作宾语。 三、现在分词: 1. 现在分词常放在 see, hear, watch, notice 等之后作宾补。I saw the boy____(play)in the street just now. 2. 现在分词作定语常放在被修饰词之前,现在分词短语要放在被修饰词的后面,相当于一个定语从句。 A sleeping baby = a baby who is sleeping.Did you know the man talking to Mr Li?=Did you know the man who was talking to Mr Li? 3. 现在分词表伴随情况。He came into the classroom, carrying a book. 四、过去分词: 1. 作宾补。 have /get +sth +done 表示请别人干某事 I had my TV repaired last night. 2. 作定语。单一的过去分词作定语,要放在被修饰词的前面,过去分词短语作定语要放在被修饰词的后面,相 当于一个定语从句。 Have you ever read any books written by Luxun?Have you ever read any books _____ _____ written by Luxun? 3. 作表语。 过去分词作表语已经形容词化 My cup is broken. 第二十二讲座:非谓语动词---提高篇 考点一 . 动词不定 式、分 词作状语: 1. 动 词 成分形式 主语 宾语 补语 表语 定语 状语 不 定 式 作 状语. 不定式 作状语时 相当于 一个状语 从句, 不定式 √ √ √ √ √ √ 往往用来 作目的 状语、结 果状语 或原因状 语 。 (1) 不定式用 来作目 的状语: 动名词 √ √ √ √ 作目的 状语时, 不定式 的逻辑主 语通常 也是全句 分词 √ √ √ √ 语,这里 的 主 往往译 作―为了, 想要‖。 特 别 提 示: 强调动词不定式所表示的目的时,动词不定式可用 in order to/so as to+动词原形,但 so as to 不用于句首。 (2)不定式用来作结果状语:作结果状语时,常用于 so...as to...,such...as to...,enough to...,too...to...,only to 等
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结构中。 George returned after the war, only _____ that his wife had left him. A. to be told B. telling C. being told D. told 选 A。 only to do sth. 在此表示―令人不快的结果‖,又因 tell 与 George 之间在逻辑上是动宾关系,故用不定式的被动形 式。特别提示:不定式作结果状语往往表示意想不到的结果,而现在分词作结果状语则表示自然而然的结果。 (3) 不定式用来作原因状语:不定式与形容词连用时,大多表示原因,用来作原因状语。这些形容词主要有: happy,kind,surprised,frightened,shocked,glad,delighted,disappointed 等 2. 过去分词作状语. (1) 过去分词作状语,修饰谓语动词,进一步说明谓语动词的动作或状态,即动作发生时的背景或状况;其逻 辑主语通常就是句子的主语,且主语是过去分词动作的承受者,过去分词与主语之间存在动宾关系。 (2) 过去分词短语作条件、原因及时间状语时,通常放在句首;作伴随、结果状语时,通常放在句末;作方式 状语时,一般放在句末,有时也放在句首;作让步状语时,一般放在句首,有时也放在句末。 特别提示:作状语时,是用现在分词还是用过去分词,取决于该动词与句子主语之间的关系。 过去分词作状语,与句子主语之间在逻辑上是动宾关系;现在分词作状语,句子主语与它之间在逻辑上是主谓 关系。句子的主语改变了,分词的形式也要相应地发生变化。 Seen from the top of the hill, the park looks even more beautiful.(see 与主语 the park 之间存在逻辑上的动宾关系) Seeing from the top of the hill, we find the park even more beautiful.(see 与主语 we 之间存在逻辑上的主谓关系) ____ to work overtime that evening, I missed a wonderful film. A. Having been asked B. To ask C. Having asked D. To be asked 选 A。ask 与主语 I 之间在逻辑上是动宾关系,且―要求‖的动作已经发生,故选 A 项作原因状语。 3. 现在分词的形式和内在含义. 形式 内在含义

doing

与句中主语构成逻辑上的主谓关系,与句中谓语动词同时发生,或 基本上同时发生

having done

与句中主语构成逻辑上的主谓关系,先于谓语动词发生

being done

与句中主语构成逻辑的动宾关系且与谓语动词同时发生,一般作定 语。

having been done

与句子主语构成逻辑上的动宾关系,且先于谓语动词发生,一般作 状语

―Genius‖ is a complicated concept, _____ many different factors. A. involved B. involving C. to involve D. being involved 4. 独立成分作状语. 有些分词或不定式短语作状语,其形式的选择不受上下文的影响,称作独立成分。 常见的有: generally speaking... 一般说来……frankly speaking... 坦白地说…… judging from/by... 根据……来判断 considering.../taking...into consideration 考虑到…… to tell you the truth... 说实话……supposing... 即使,如果……compared to/with... 与……相比 5. 独立主格结构作状语. 非谓语动词作状语时,它的逻辑主语应和句子主语保持一致。但有时非谓语动词带有自己的逻辑主语,在句子 中作状语,我们称之为独立主格结构。独立主格结构的特点是: (1) 独立主格结构的逻辑主语不是句子的主语。
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(2) 名词或代词与后面的分词、形容词、副词、不定式、介词短语等是逻辑上的主谓关系。 (3) 独立主格结构一般有逗号与主句分开。独立主格结构的构成形式主要有: ① 名词(代词)+现在分词/过去分词② 名词(代词)+形容词 ③ 名词(代词)+副词④ 名词(代词)+不定式 ⑤ 名词(代词)+介词短语 ⑥ with/without+名词(代词)+宾语补足语。 The party will be held in the garden, weather ____. A. permitting B. to permit C. permitted D. permit weather 与 permit 之间在逻辑上是主谓关系,故选 permitting。weather permitting 相当于 if 引导的条件状语从 句,即 if weather permits。 考点二. 动词不定式、分词、动名词作定语: 1. 分词、动词不定式和动名词作定语分述. (1) 过去分词作定语:单个的分词作定语,一般位于其修饰的名词之前;分词短语作定语,一般位于其修饰的 名词之后。被过去分词所修饰的名词就是该分词的逻辑主语,该分词与被修饰的词之间存在动宾关系。 After completing and signing it, please return the form to us in the envelope _____. A. providing B. provided C. having provided D. provide (2) 现在分词作定语: 单个的分词作定语,一般位于其修饰的名词之前;分词短语作定语,一般位于其修饰的名词之后。 被现在分词所修饰的名词就是该分词的逻辑主语,该分词与被修饰的词之间存在主谓关系。 The lecture, _____ at 7:00 pm last night, was followed by an observation of the moon with telescopes. A. starting B. being started C. to start D. to be started (3) 动词不定式作定语: 动词不定式作定语时,位于被其修饰的词之后。不定式作定语时往往表示将要发生的动作。 在作定语的动词不定式中,如果其中的动词是不及物动词,不定式后面就要用必要的介词. e.g. He is the man to depend on. We’re having a meeting in half an hour. The decision _____ at the meeting will influence the future of our company. A. to be made B. being made C. made D. having been made 选 A。_____ at the meeting 作 decision 的后置定语,make 与 decision 在逻辑上是动宾关系,且还未发生,故用 不定式的被动形式。如果被不定式修饰的名词为 place,time,way 等时,不定式后面的介词习惯上可以省去。 e.g. The old man is looking for a quiet place to live. (4) 现在分词与动名词作定语的区别: 现在分词作定语表示所修饰的名词的动作,二者是逻辑上的主谓关系,读时都有重音。动名词作定语通常表示 它所修饰的名词的用途,二者不存在逻辑上的主谓关系,读时只重读动名词。动名词作定语只能置于被修饰词 的前面,而现在分词作定语有时可置前,有时可置后,尤其是现在分词短语作定语。 2.动词不定式与分词作定语的区别. (1) 首先表现在时态上:不定式作定语通常指将来的动作,现在分词作定语表示正在进行的动作而过去分词作 定语表示已经完成的动作。 (2) 其次是判断该动词与被修饰的名词之间的关系,如果是动宾关系就要用表示被动的非谓语形式 (过去分词, 现在分词的被动式,不定式的被动式),如果是主谓关系则用现在分词或动词不定式的主动形式。 3.易混点. 当作定语的不定式所修饰的名词或代词是不定式动作的承受者时,不定式既可用主动语态,也可用被动语态, 但其含义有所不同,试比较:Have you got anything to buy?你有什么东西要买吗? Have you got anything to be bought?你有什么要(我或别人)买的吗? 考点三. 分词、动词不定式作补语: 1.分词、动词不定式作补语分述 (1) 过去分词作宾语补足语: 句中的宾语往往就是其逻辑主语,该动词与宾语之间存在动宾关系。如:e.g. I had my bike repaired yesterday. (2) 现在分词作宾语补足语: 句中的宾语往往就是其逻辑主语,该动词与宾语之间存在主谓关系。 现在分词作宾语补足语强调正在进行中的主动动作,即动作过程的一个部分。可以带有这种复合宾语的动词有 see,watch,hear,observe,feel,find,have,keep 等。e.g. We can see steam rising from the wet clothes. Listen! Do you hear someone _____ for help? A. calling B. call C. to call D. called (2)动词不定式作宾语补足语: 句中的宾语往往就是其逻辑主语,该动词与宾语之间存在主谓关系。动词不定式作宾语补足语强调动作的整个 过程。 常用不定式作宾语补足语的几种情况: 主语+ask/require/tell/order/force/ get/want/ like+sb. to do sth., 主语+think/judge/suppose/believe/consider /imagine+sb.+to be/to have done, 主语+call on (upon) /depend on/wait for/ask for+sb.+to do sth.。
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Having finished her project, she was invited by the school _____ to the new students. A. speaking B. having spoken C. to speak D. to have spoken 选 C。由 invite sb. to do sth.可知,此处用 to speak。 动词 see,watch,notice,hear,observe,make,have 等的宾语补足语用动词原形,变被动时要加 to,此时的不 定式就是主语补足语。 2.分词、动词不定式作补语时的区别. (1) 现在分词作宾补强调动作的延续性,表示动作正在进行,更具描绘性。而不定式作宾补一般表示动作的全 过程,表明动作已经结束或即将发生。 (2) 现在分词或不定式作宾补表示它与宾语之间是主谓关系,用过去分词作宾补一般表示它与宾语之间是动宾 关系,完成状态或动作由别人完成。 3.易混点. 现在分词作宾补和动名词复合结构作宾语形式上似乎相同,其区别是:从谓语动词上看,现在分词作宾补属于 ―主谓宾宾补‖的句式,谓语动词必须是能带复合宾语的动词,而动名词复合结构则是―主谓宾‖结构,谓语动词 必须是能带动名词作宾语的动词。 考点四. 非谓语动词作宾语、表语和主语: 1.非谓语动词作宾语. (1) 在三种非谓语动词中只有动名词和动词不定式可以用来作宾语,分词不能作宾语。 (2) 动名词作宾语: 以下动词只接动名词作宾语,不能接不定式: admit , advise , allow , appreciate , avoid , consider , delay , dislike,enjoy,escape,excuse,finish,forbid,forgive,imagine,keep, mind,miss,permit,practise,resist, risk,suggest 等。 以下动词短语只接动名词作宾语,不能接不定式:can’t help(忍不住),can’t stand,give up,put off,be/get used to(习惯于),devote oneself to,get down to,look forward to,lead to,pay attention to,see to,turn to 等。 Lydia doesn’t feel like _____ abroad. Her parents are old. A. study B. studying C. studied D. to study (3) 动词不定式作宾语: 不定式作宾语有两种情况,一是及物动词后直接跟带 to 的不定式,二是―动词+疑问词+带 to 的不定式‖。 ―动词+带 to 的不定式‖结构:常见的接不定式作宾语的动词有 afford,appear,agree,ask,decide,demand, desire,fail,hope,intend,learn,mean,offer,promise,refuse,wish 等。 ―动词+疑问代(副)词+不定式‖结构: 常 见 的 这 类 动 词 有 advise , decide , forget , know , learn , remember , see , tell , think , teach , wonder , discover,understand,guess,explain 等。这类疑问代(副)词有 what,when,which,where,how,whether 等 (不包含 why)。 不定式作宾语时,有时我们会使用 it 作形式宾语,而把不定式放到后面。 The chairman thought ________ necessary to invite Professor Smith to speak at the meeting. A.that B.it C.this D.him (4) 一些动词或动词短语后面接动词不定式和接动名词作宾语在意思上有很大的区别: can’t help to do sth. 不能帮助做某事 can’t help doing sth. 情不自禁做某事 forget to do sth. 忘记去做某事 forget doing sth. 忘记做过某事 mean to do sth. 打算做……,想要 mean doing sth. 意味着,就是 stop to do sth. 停下来去做另一件事 stop doing sth. 停止做某事 I remembered _____ the door before I left the office, but forgot to turn off the lights. A. locking B. to lock C. having locked D. to have locked 选 B。根据 before I left the office 及 but forgot to ... lights 可知,―我‖记得要锁门,所以 B 项正确。此题易误选 A 项,remember doing sth. 意为―记得做过某事‖,离开之前不可能已经锁上门,所以 A 项错误。 (5)动词 want,need,require 意为―需要‖时,后面跟动名词或动词不定式的被动式作宾语区别不大。 e.g. The flowers need/want/require watering/to be watered. (6) 在动词 allow , advise , forbid , permit 后面直接跟动名词作宾语,如果有名词或代词作宾语,则应构成 ―allow/advise/forbid/permit+名词/代词+动词不定式(作宾语补足语)‖。 (7) 动词不定式在 but,other than,except 后面时,如果之前有行为动词 do 的某种形式,那么后面的不定式不带 to,否则就要带 to。 另外,在 can’t choose but,can’t help but,can’t but 后的不定式也要省略 to。He cannot choose but wait. 在 why 和 why not 后省略 to Why not go there by train?为什么不乘火车去那里? 2.非谓语动词作表语. 不定式、现在分词、过去分词以及动名词都能作表语,其用法注意如下: (1) 当现在分词和过去分词作表语时,它们大多数是已经形容词化的现在分词或过去分词,而且大多数是与心 理状态有联系的词。 现在分词通常表示―(某事/物)令人感到……的‖,而过去分词则表示某人的感受,意为―感到……的‖。 这样的词常见的有: interesting― 有趣的‖ , interested―感兴趣的‖; exciting―令人兴奋的 ‖, excited―感到兴奋的 ‖; disappointing―令人失
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望的‖,disappointed―感到失望的‖等。 这类现在分词作表语时,一般是物作主语;而过去分词作表语时,则一般是人作主语。 (2) 表示一般的概念 时,不定式、动名词可以互换,而表示具体的个别的动作或有将来含义时,一般用不定式。 e.g. What she likes is watching (to watch) children play. (3) 动名词作表语说明主语的内容,常可与主语换位,回答 what 或 doing what 的问题。现在分词作表语,表示 主语的性质和特征,回答 how 的问题,其主语可以是具体的人或物。现在分词的被动语态不作表语。进行时态 说明正在进行的动作。 3.非谓语动词作主语. (1) 不定式作主语. 不定式(或不定式短语)作主语时常用 ―it‖来代替,称为形式主语。真正主语 (不定式)放在句尾。在 It is+adj.+ for/of sb. to do sth.中,当形容词表达人所具有的特性时用 of sb.,当形容词表达事物的特征时用 for sb.。 (2) 动名词作主语. 动名词作主语时,也常用 it 句式。It's no use/good doing, It’s useless doing, There is no doing. 方法技巧总结: 方法一:找准判断主动与被动的依据. 非谓语动词的考查主要在主动还是被动上,若找准判断的依据,问题可以迎刃而解。作状语,主动与被动是相 对于句子的主语来讲的;作定语时,主动与被动是相对于所修饰的词而言的;作补语时,主动与被动是相对于 宾语而言的。但也要注意作目的状语时,只能用动词不定式。 方法二:正确识别要考查的类型. with 的复合结构和连词+分词结构是经常考查的类型。但这两种形式都非常简单。with 的复合结构考查的重点 只有三种形式: ①with+宾语+doing(宾语与宾补之间是逻辑上的主谓关系) ②with+宾语+done(宾语与宾补之间是逻辑上的动宾关系) ③with+宾语+to do(表将来) 连词+分词结构只有两种形式:①连词+doing(主动语态); ②连词+done(被动语态)。 明白了上述结构可以大大提高做题速度和准确度。 方法三:时间先后判断法. 如果选项中出现了非谓语动词的完成式,就要考虑非谓语动词与谓语动词发生的时间先后问题。如: to have done 表示该动作在谓语动词之前发生;to be doing 强调与谓语动词同时发生;doing 表示与谓语动词几 乎同时发生;having done 表示该动作在谓语动词之前发生;done 表示在谓语动词之前发生。 方法四:习惯用法. 学习非谓语动词时,要记住某些特殊动词的用法,哪些动词后只能接 v.ing 形式,哪些动词后两种形式都可以 接,且含义有什么不同。 考点归纳: 非谓语动词是高中英语教学的重点和难点,也是历届高考的重点项目。命题热点多是借助于基本概念,在语境 中考查常用动词的各种非谓语形式以及个性动词后的非谓语形式。有时也涉及非谓语动词逻辑主语的一致性问 题以及独立主格结构中非谓语的各种变化。 其考点主要包括: 1. 考查不定式和动名词作宾语的区别。要求熟记―三类‖动词: (1) 只能接不定式作宾语的动词。如:seem, attempt, neglect, afford, demand, long, arrange, mean, expect 等; (2) 只能接动名词作宾语的动词。如:acknowledge, admit, appreciate, avoid, delay, escape, consider, permit, imagine, postpone, risk 等; (3) 接不定式和动名词意义有别的动词。如:remember, try, mean, regret 等。 2. 考查不定式、现在分词和过去分词作定语的区别。 不定式表示未来的动作;现在分词表示进行的动作;过去分词表示完成的动作。 3. 考查不定式和分词作状语的区别。 (1) 结果状语: only to do 表示―出乎意料的结果‖; thus doing 表示―自然而然的结果‖。 (2) 原因状语:be glad (silly,sad,disappointed,satisfied,sorry,surprised…) to have done 表示―很高兴(愚蠢、 难过……) 做了……‖。 (3) 原因状语: ―being+形容词(过去分词、副词、介词短语、名词)‖通常在句中表示原因。 4. 考查分词、不定式作宾语补足语的区别。 (1) 感官动词 see, watch, observe, look at, hear, listen to, notice 等和使役动词 have 后面的宾补有三种形式:不 带 to 的不定式、现在分词和过去分词; (2) leave 后接三种形式作宾补:leave sb. doing sth. 让某人一直做某事; leave sth. undone 留下某事未做; leave sth. to be done 留下某事要做; (3) have, get 后接三种形式作宾补:have/get sth. done 使/让某事由别人去做 (叫/让某人做某事); have sb./sth. doing 使/让某人/物持续地做某事(现在分词表示主动或正在进行); get sb./sth. doing 使某人/物开始行动起来; have sb. do sth. (get sb. to do sth.)使/让/叫某人去做某事;
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(4) be said (reported,thought,considered…)+ to do sth. (据说要……)/to be doing sth. (据说正在……)/to have done sth. (据说已经……)。 5.考查非谓语的时态和语态。 即现在分词的一般体和完成体的区别,过去分词和现在分词的区别。 6.考查非谓语动词的其他结构。 with(out)复合宾语结构、独立主格结构、不定式的复合结构等。 一.非谓语动词作状语: 1. 主要考点: (1) 不定式作状语。不定式作状语通常表示: (a) 原因(多用在某些表示喜、怒、哀、乐等的形容词后); (b) 目的(可用 so as to/in order to 替换, 但 so as to 一般不可置于句首); (c) 结果(常表意想不到的结果, 常为 only to do)。 (2) 分词作状语。 ① 现在分词作状语时, 现在分词所表示的动作与句子主语之间构成逻辑上的主动关系。 ② 过去分词作状语时, 过去分词所表示的动作与句子主语之间构成逻辑上的被动关系。 ③ 部分过去分词来源于系表结构, 作状语时不表示被动关系, 其前不用 being。 这样的过去分词及短语常见的有: seated(坐着的)、hidden(躲着)、stationed(驻扎)、lost/absorbed in(沉溺于)、born in(出身于)、dressed in(穿着)、tired of(厌烦了)等。 2. 突破技巧: (1) 把握前后主语一致性, 区别现在分词与过去分词; (2) 不定式作结果状语为意想不到的结果; 分词作结果状语为顺理成章的结果。 二.非谓语动词作定语: 1. 主要考点: 不定式、动名词、现在分词、过去分词作定语以及区别。 2. 突破技巧: (1) 把握不定式表示未来, 动名词作定语表示用途, 现在分词表示主动和进行, 过去分词表示被动和完成; (2) 注意不定式 to be done 形式、过去分词和现在分词 being done 形式作定语的区别。 三.非谓语动词作补语: 1. 主要考点: 常见的需接非谓语动词作补语的结构: (1) ―5 看 2 听 1 感觉‖的感官动词―5 看‖包括 see, watch, observe, notice, look at―2 听‖包括 hear, listen to―1 感觉‖包 括 feel (2) make, have, get 等使役动词后 (3) 特殊动词、词组、句型: ①leave, catch, keep, find②advise/allow/ask 等动词+sb. to do sth. ③sb. +be said to do sth. 中的不定式作补语。 2. 突破技巧: (1) 注意作补语的三种形式(to) do/ doing/ done 形式之间的区别。把握动作的主动、进行和被动; (2) 注意宾语补足语与主语补足语的区别; (3) 把握补语一般由不定式表示未来(不用 to 的不定式表示动作全过程); 现在分词表示进行、过去分词表示被 动、完成。 四.非谓语动词作宾语: 1. 主要考点: (1) 只能跟不定式作宾语的动词, 常见的有: 碰巧希望作决定(happen, hope/wish, decide); 准备同意和答应(prepare, agree, promise); 假装没能安排好(pretend, fail, arrange/plan); 学会拒绝难提供(learn, refuse, offer); 决心设法想得分(determine, manage, intend/expect/want); 一往无前任我行。 (2) 只能跟动名词作宾语的动词, 常见的有: 否认错过避逃亡(deny, miss, avoid, escape); 承认推迟被禁止(admit, delay, forbid); 考虑建议准完成(consider, suggest, finish); 介意冒险乱想象(mind, risk, imagine); 答应继续去训练(allow/permit, keep, practise); 设想原谅得欣赏(fancy, excuse/pardon, enjoy/appreciate)。 (3) 特殊动词及短语跟不定式与动名词作宾语的不同 动词 接动名词作宾语 接不定式作宾语

remember

记得曾做过某事

记得要做某事

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can't help

禁不住做某事

不能帮助做某事

做完一件事后, go on 继续做未完成的事 接着做另一件事 中断正在做的事, stop 中断正在做的事 去做别的事
forget 忘记曾做过某事 忘记要做某事

try

尝试做某事

努力做某事

regret

对做过的事表示后悔

对要做的事表示遗憾

mean

意味着做某事

企图(打算)做某事

(4) 动词 allow, advise, permit, forbid 后面不出现宾语时直接跟动名词作宾语 (5) 动词 need, want, require 主语为物时后跟动名词的主动形式表示被动意思, 相当于不定式的被动形式, 在句子 中均为宾语 2. 突破技巧: (1)牢记口诀, 记熟用法; (2)把握特殊词。 五.非谓语动词作主语、表语及其他: 1. 主要考点: (1) 动名词与不定式作主语: 动名词表示泛指、抽象、反复、习惯; 不定式表示具体、一次、打算、未做的动作。 (2) 现在分词、过去分词、不定式、动名词作表语: 现在分词作表语 , 表示主语的特征 , 意思― 令人……‖, 一般是物作主语 ; 过去分词作表语说明主语的心理状态 , 主语是承受者, 表示的是被动。动名词、不定式作表语与作主语是一样的, 可以表语、主语互换。 (3) 其他用法 ① 独立主格结构中的分词和不定式 如果分词作状语的逻辑主语不是句子的主语, 要在分词前面加上它自己的主语, 这种结构叫独立主格结构, 其作 用相当于状语从句或定语从句; 有时也用 with 复合结构(with+宾语+宾语补足语)作状语。 ② 形式主语或形式宾语中的不定式 ③ 固定句式中的不定式 do/have/其他动词+sth. +but (to) do sth. 的固定句式, 遵循前有 do 后无 to, 反之用 to 原则。 2. 突破技巧: (1) 分析句子的主谓语是否一致, 如果不一致就可以用独立主格结构; (2) 弄清独立结构中宾语与后面补语的关系, 然后用相应的形式, 尤其是不定式和分词形式。 I. 用括号内动词的正确形式填空。 1. Without anyone ________ (notice), the little boy slipped through the window. 2. _________________________ (realize) that the files in the computer had gone wrong, she suddenly felt at a loss. 3. We saw the big ship turn upside down, ________ (throw) its passengers into the water. 4. Jack won first place in the 100-metre race in the sports meeting, ________ (set) a new record. 5. ____________ (be) a leader for a long time, Mary found it hard to become an ordinary clerk again. 6. ____________________ (sentence) to ten years in prison, the man lost all hope. 7. Mrs. Yacoub had her watch ________ (rob) on her way home. 8. The door of the house opposite to ours remains ________ (close) all day long. 9. The trees ________ (plant) by the foreign visitors are growing well. 10. —Is that Mr. Brown?
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—Sorry, he’s not in at the moment. Shall I have him ________ (return) your call? ? 高考英语常考非谓语动词总结? 一.接动词不定式 ( to do/ do sth ) 1. like to do sth 2. like sb to do sth 3. Let’s (not ) do sth 4. want to do sth 5. want sb to do sth 6. love to do sth 7. ask sb (not ) to do sth 8. stop to do sth 9. tell sb (not ) to do sth 10. watch sb do sth 11. It’s time (for sb) to do sth 12. help sb (to ) do sth 13. help do sth 14. make sb do sth 15. decide (not ) to do sth 16. find it +adj + to do sth 17. have to do sth 18. try (not ) to do sth 19. try one’s best to do sth 20. It’s +adj +(for)of +sb + to do sth 21. plan to do sth 22. S.p.+be a good place to do sth 23. It takes sb +some time + to do sth 24. send sb to do sth 25. invite sb to do sth 26. forget to do sth 27. live to be +时间 28. be able to do sth 29. have sth to do 30. seem to do sth 31. get sb /sth to do sth 32. 疑问词+ to do sth 33. need sth to do sth 34. use sth to do sth 35. follow sb to sth 36. need to do sth 37. a good time to do sth 38. the best time to do sth 39. the best way to do sth 40. be the first / last one to do sth 41. would like to do sth 42. be excited /surprised to do sth 43. be useful to do sth 44. be allowed to do sth 45. allow sb to do sth 46. It’s better to do sth 47. It’s best to do sth 48. take care (not) to do sth 49. see sb do sth 50. why not do sth ? 51. have enough time to do sth 52. too… to do sth 53. not… enough to do sth 54. encourage sb to do sth 55. choose to do sth 56. wait to do sth 57. be happy/glad/pleased to do sth 58. make it +adj + to do sth 59. be careful to do sth 60. be afraid to do sth 61. It’s our duty to do sth 62. used to do sth 63. can’t afford to do sth 64. make a decision to do sth 65. have an opportunity to do sth 66. wait for sb to do sth 67. would do sth rather than do sth 68. would rather do sth than do sth 69. hurry to do sth 70. refuse to do sth 71. agree to do sth 72. pretend to do sth 73. pretend to be doing sth 74. prefer to do sth 75. prefer not to do sth 76. prefer to do sth raher than do sth 77. be willing to do sth 78. volunteer +时间/ 钱 + to do sth 79. volunteer to do sth 80. offer to do sth 81. rush to do sth 82. in order (not ) to do sth 83. be certain to do sth 84. be sure to do sth 85. make plans to do sth 86. go out of their way to do sth 87. lead sb to do sth 88. It’s one’s job to do sth 89. It’s one’s turn to do sth 90. urge sb to do sth 督促... 91. Could /Would you please (not) do sth ? 92. be supposed to do sth 93. warn sb to do sth 二、接动名词 (doing sth ) 1. like doing sth 2. enjoy doing sth 3. have fun doing sth 4. be interested in doing sth 5. Thanks for doing sth 6. look at sb doing sth 7. stop sb doing sth 8. stop sb from doing sth 9. go + v-ing 10. do the (some )+v-ing 11. What/How doing sth ? 12. practice doing sth 13. watch sb doing sth 14. find sb doing sth 15. mind (one’s ) doing sth 16. can’t stand doing sth 17. think about doing sth 18. spend … (in)doing sth 19. finish doing sth 20. be busy doing sth
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21. keep doing sth 22. keep sb from doing sth 23. keep sb doing sth 24. be good at doing sth 25. hate doing sth 26. There be +名词+doing sth 27. make a living by doing sth 28. have a difficult time doing sth 29. feel like doing sth 30. allow doing sth 31. see sb doing sth 32. by doing sth 33. end up doing sth 34. do a survey about doing sth 35. be afraid of doing sth 36. be used to doing sth 37. be terrified of doing sth 38. give up doing sth 39. instead of doing sth 40. have nothing against doing sth 41. be serious about doing sth 42. have a chance of doing sth 43. before/ when /while +doing sth 44. start doing sth 45. have a lot of experience doing sth 46. prefer doing sth 47. consider doing sth 48. dream of / about doing sth 49. continue doing sth 50. put off doing sth 51. be used for doing sth =be used to do sth 52. prefer doing sth to doing sth 53. without doing sth 54. be comfortable doing sth 55. can’t stop/help doing sth 56. look forward to doing sth 57. be against doing sth 58. suggest doing sth 59. be busy doing sth 60. be worth doing sth 61. have trouble/problems/difficulty (in) doing sth ? 高考英语常考动词与动词短语总结? 一、及物动词与不及物动词: 常见的跟单宾语的及物动词主要有:accept, admire, admit, affect, afford, discover, educate, enjoy, explain, forget, guess, invent, love, post, raise 等。 常见的跟双宾语的及物动词主要有: 1. 直、间接宾语易位需加 to 的动词:bring, give, hand, pass, post, promise, read, return, show, teach, tell, lend 等。 2. 直、间接宾语易位需加 for 的动词:buy, choose, cook, draw, find, fetch, make, order, paint, purchase, save, spare 等。 3. 既可加 to,也可加 for 的动词:do, get, play, sing 等。 常见的不及物动词主要有:ache, agree, apologize, appear, arrive, come, go, cry, dance, die, disappear, dream, exist, fall, flow, graduate, sit, stand, stay, wait, rise, lie, happen 等。 二、延续性动词与终止性动词: 延续性动词可用于完成时,与以下几种时间状语连用:for +一段时间,since +时间点,since +一段时间+ ago, since +从句(一般过去时)等。常见的这类动词有:have, possess, keep, know, learn, live, read, sleep, wait, work, look, hear, smell 等。 终止性动词不可用于现在完成时,不能与表示一段时间的状语连用,其否定形式多与 until / till 连用,构成―not +终止性动词+ until / till ...‖的句型,意为―直到……才……‖。如: I will not go to bed until I finish drawing the picture tonight. 三、常见的短语动词有以下五种: 1. 动词+介词: ―动词+介词‖构成的短语相当于一个及物动词,后面跟宾语。在被动语态中,整个短语不可分开。这类短语动词 常用的有:agree with, burst into, call on, consist of, deal with, depend / rely on, die of / from, dream of, feel like, get into, hear from, insist on, look / stare / glare at, prepare for, result in, set about 等。 2. 动词+副词: 1)及物动词+副词。这类短语动词常用的有:cut off, take down, put out, take over, turn down, turn over, throw away, figure out 等。 2)不及物动词+副词。后面不跟宾语,没有被动语态。这类短语动词常用的有:die away, give in, go ahead, hold on, run away, stand out 等。 3. 动词+名词+介词: 这类短语动词常用的有:catch sight of, compare notes with, declare war on / upon, get rid of, have a word with, make fun of, make use of, make preparations for, pay attention to, take care of, take hold of, take advantage of, take charge of 等。 4. 动词+副词+介词: 这类短语动词常用的有:catch up with, come up with, date back to, put up with, go in for, run out of 等。 5. be +形容词+介词: 这类短语动词常用的有:be accustomed / used to, be afraid of, be devoted to, be fond of, be familiar with, be famous for, be fit / suitable for 等。 考点归纳: 动词及其词组的灵活运用是英语的特色,也是难点,每年均为重点。历年高考试题中动词所占的比例最大,设
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题时都是给出不同的动词或短语来测试考生在具体语境中对动词(短语)意义的理解和运用。考点主要包括: 1. 动词词义辨析。包括常见动词用法辨析、近义词辨析、词形相近词辨析和用法相近词辨析。 2.高频动词短语意义辨析。 主要考点: 考查主要集中于高频的动词短语, 如 break, bring, call, come, get, go, make, take, turn, put, pick, hold, keep, look, carry, set, cut, show, pull 等构成的短语。需要特别关注: 1. break break away from 放弃, 打破; 脱离关系 break down 发生故障; (计划等)失败; (精神、身体)垮掉; 分解 break in 闯入, 插嘴 break into 闯入 break out (战争、瘟疫等)爆发, 突然发生 break up 打碎, 分手, 分开, 关系破裂 2. bring bring about 导致, 造成, 引起 bring down 使倒下, 使降低 bring in 引进; 带来; 赚得; 收获 bring forward 提出; 提前 bring out 出版; 生产; 使显现 bring up 抚养, 教育; 提出; 呕吐 3. call call for 要求; 需要; 去取或去接 call back 回电话; 回忆起 call in 召集; 请; 召来; 顺便来访 call up 打电话给; 召集; 使想起 call off 取消 call on 号召, 拜访 4. come come about 发生 come to 苏醒; 总计 come across 偶遇; 无意中发现 come true 实现, 成为现实(不及物) come out 出版; 结果是 come up (建议、计划等)被提出 come up with 提出(建议、计划等) come on (催促)快点; (鼓励)加油; (不耐烦)得了, 算了吧! 5. get get across 解释清楚; 使……被理解 get away from 避免; 摆脱, 逃离 get away with 侥幸成功; 侥幸做成 get around 四处走动; 传播开来 get down to 开始认真做某事 get along/on with 进展; 与……相处 get over 克服; 恢复 get rid of 摆脱; 除去 get through 通过; 完成; 接通电话 6. give give away 赠送; 泄露; 分发 give back 归还 give in 屈服; 让步; 投降; 认输 give out 分发; 发出; 公布; 用尽 give up 放弃 7. go go against 违背; 不利于; 反对 go ahead 开始(做某事); (表同意) go around 参观; (消息)传播 go by 过去; 经过 go down 下降; 下沉 go on 继续; 发生; 进行 go over 复习, 仔细检查 go through 穿过; 经历; 仔细检查 go with 与……相配 go without 没有……也行 8. hold hold back 犹豫; 隐瞒; 阻止 hold on=hang on 别挂断; 等一会儿; 坚持 hold out 坚持; 伸出 hold up 举起; 阻挡, 使耽搁 hold on to 紧紧抓住; 保留; 不放弃 9. keep keep away from 远离; 避 keep back 留下; 隐瞒; 克制(感情) keep on 继续; 坚持下去 keep out of 置身于……外; 避开 keep up 保持; 继续; 不低落 keep up with 跟上; keep an eye out for 密切注意; 留心; 警惕 keep an eye on 照看; 密切注视 10. leave leave alone 不打扰; 不理, 不管 leave behind 留下; 丢下, 丢弃 leave out 遗漏, 忽略 11. look look around 环顾四周 look away from 把目光从……移开 look into 调查; 窥视 look back on/upon 回忆,回顾 look up 查找, 查询; 向上看 look up to 尊敬; 敬仰 look down upon 歧视, 看不起 look forward to 盼望; 期待 look through 浏览; 快速查看 look out (for) 当心, 留意, 小心 look on 旁观 12. make make use of 利用 make up 组成; 编造; 化妆; 和解 make up for 补偿; 弥补 make for 走向; 有助于; 促成, 导致 make sense 有意义; 有道理; 讲得通 make sense of 理解; 弄明白 make out 理解; 分辨出, 辨认出 make it 成功 13. put put aside 撇开; 暂不考虑; 储蓄 put away 收拾, 整理; 储存 put back 把……放回原处; 推迟 put forward 提出; 拨快 put down 记下, 写下, 镇压 put out 伸出; 扑灭; 生产; 出版 put up 建造, 张贴; 提供住宿 put up with 忍受; 容忍 put on 穿上, 增加, 上演 14. set set aside 划出; 留出; 拨出 set about doing sth. 着手做某事 set out 出发, 动身 set out to do sth. 着手做某事 set off 动身; 引起; 使爆炸 set up 建立, 创立 15. turn turn away 走开; 转过脸去 turn down 拒绝; 关小, 调低 turn up 开大; 出现, 到场 turn out 结果是, 证明 是; 生产 turn over 翻转; 翻阅, 仔细考虑 turn against 反对; 背叛 turn to 转向; 求助于 16. take
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take after 长得像某人 take apart 拆开; 拆卸 take back 收回, 撤销 take down 记下; 拆卸; 取下 take away 带走, 拿走, 剥夺 take up 从事; 占据(时间、空间); 着手处理; 接着做 take in 吸收; 接受; 理解, 欺骗 take off 起飞; 脱下; 成功, take on 呈现; 具有; 承担; 雇用 take over 接管, 接收 take advantage of 利用 take it easy 放松, 别紧张 take your time 慢慢来, 别着急 take measures to do sth. 采取措施做某事 take action 采取行动 常见的系动词的用法: 1. 表示变化类的系动词,如 become, go, turn, grow, get, fall, make 等。 2. 表示感觉类的系动词,如 feel, smell, taste, look, sound 等。 3. 表示状态类的系动词,如 keep, remain, stand, stay, lie 等。 4. 表示―像‖类系动词,主要有 seem, appear, look, 表示―看起来,似乎,显得‖。5. 此类系动词的特点:①只适 用于主动语态;②只用于一般时态(一般现在时和一般过去时,不能用于进行时态)。 动词的一词多义用法: 很多动词在不同的语境中有不同的意义,因此要进行专门复习,常见的有: 1. act (v. & n. 行动) e.g. It will take several hours before the drug really acts. ( vi. 起作用) 2. address (n. 地址;vt. 写地址) e.g. President Obama was scheduled to address the American people on the evening of May 7. (vt. 向……做演说) 3. appreciate (vt. 欣赏,感激,感谢) e.g. They soon appreciated that it must be a well-designed trap. (v. 意识到) 4. attend (vt. 参加,出席) e.g. With several patients to attend that night, the nurse felt very tired. (vt. 照料,照顾) With three kids attending high school in the town, the couple had to work day and night to earn more money. (vt. 上学) 5. count (n. & v. 计数,数) e.g. It is not what you are thinking but what you are doing that counts. (v. 重要,有价值) 6. escape (vi. 逃跑,逃脱) e.g. I saw a familiar face in the crowd. However, his name escaped me for the moment. (vt. 被忘掉) The harmful gases are escaping from the pipe. (vi. 泄漏,漏出) 7. fail (vi. 失败) e.g. Fresh vegetables used to fail in winter. (vi. 不足,缺乏) With time passing by, his memory is failing. (vi. 衰退) Try as the family might, they failed to find the lost child in the town. (vi. 未能) 8. introduce (vt. 介绍) e.g. When tomatoes were first introduced into Europe, they didn’t accept them at all. (vt. 引入) 9. make (vt. 制造) e.g. New laws have been made to protect the interests of the farmers. (vt. 制定) He is making his own trouble by doing this. (vt. 引起,导致,造成) She will make a great teacher. (vt. 成为,使形成) 10. observe (vt. 观察) e.g. Having lived abroad for many years, he still observed the old traditions and customs. (vt. 遵守) Every year, we will observe the traditional Spring Festival in different ways. (vt. 庆祝) 11. work (v. & n. 工作) e.g. The medicine will soon work. (vi. 起作用) The machine works very well. (vi. 运转) 第二十三讲座:主谓一致---基础篇 一.就近原则: 1. 由并列结构或连词(either…or, neither…nor,not…but, not only…but also, or 等)连接的并列主语,谓 语动词与较近的那个名词或代词保持一致。 Neither his parents nor Tom_____(be) at home. 2. 在倒装句和 there be 句型中,谓语动词与后面的第一个主语保持一致。 There _____(be) a book and some pens on the desk. There ______(come) the bus. 3. 在定语从句中,关系代词作主语,其谓语动词应与它所指代的先行词保持一致。 I know the man who_____(be) talking to my father. 4. 在强调句中,连接代词又在句中作主语,这时它应与被强调的主语保持一致。 It is Mary’s brother who_____(be) injured in the car accident yesterday. 二.意义一致原则: 1. 当主语与谓语动词之间插入 along with,with,as well as,together with, besides,except, but, including 等短语时,谓语动词与第一个主语保持一致。 I along with my sister_____(be) going to Shanghai next month. 2. 由―what‖引导的名词性从句作主语时,谓语动词通常用单数形式。
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What I want to say _____(be) just ― Take care!‖. 3. ―…+ (of) +名词‖作主语时,若―of‖后的名词为单数(不可数名词),则谓语动词用单数,如果名词为复数, 则谓语动词用复数。 Most of the water here ______(be) clean. 80% of cotton ______(have) been sent to America. Half of the apples ______(be) red. 4. 词组―a number of‖作主语时,谓语动词应用复数;―the number of‖作主语时,谓语动词用单数。 A number of ancient buildings _____ (be) destroyed in the war. The number of the visitors _____ (have) decreased this year. 5. 英语的集体名词(family, public, group, team, class 等词),指代―整体‖时为单数;指代―其中的各成员‖ 则为复数。 My family ____(be) very poor when I was a little girl. My family ______(be) all looking forward for your coming. 三.整体原则: 1. 从句、不定式、动名词等作主语时谓语动词用单数。 When to leave _____(have) not been decided. Watching TV too much _____(be) bad for your eyes. 注:如果主语是两个(或两个以上)的名词性从句,谓语动词常用复数。 What he said and what he did _____(be) always different last night . 2. 如果两个以上的名词组成一个整体概念作主语时,谓语动词须用单数。 The novelist and poet _____(be) going to Europe next year. The novelist and the poet_____(be) going to Europe next year. 3. 表示时间、距离、金额、度量等词语作主语时,通常被视作整体,谓语动词用单数。 10 minutes_____(be)enough. 4. 加减乘除等数学运算谓语动词通常用单数。2 and 3 ______5. 5.―the +姓氏名词的复数‖表示―一家人、….夫妇‖,作主语时,谓语动词用复数形式。 The Blacks ______(enjoy) working in China. 四.个体原则: 1. every +….and every +…..或 each+…and each +…作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。 Every man and every woman _____(be) busy at working. 2. 英语句中的 each, either, neither 等词,作代词充当主语,修饰名词作主语时,谓语动词用单数。 Neither of us _____(have) been abroad. Neither answer _____(be) wrong. 3. 由 some, any every, no 构成的复合词(somebody,nobody,everything,anything 等)作主语时,谓语动词用 单数。 Somebody ______(be)waiting for you at the school gate. 4. 成双成对出现的复数名词(glasses,shoes,trousers,pants,gloves 等)作主语时,通常谓语动词用复数,但 前面有 a /the pair of;a /the suit of 等词语时,则谓语动词要与量词(pair, suit, piece )在单复数上保持一致。 A pair of scissors_______(be) useful tool for a dressmaker. Two pieces of paper ______(be ) on the desk. 5. 以复数形式出现,却表示单数意义(maths, physics, news …)谓语用单数。 Maths_____(be) my favorite subject. 6.―the +形容词(old /young /rich /poor )‖表示―一类人‖,作主语时,谓语用复数。 The young ______(like) listening to popular songs. 7.―the +姓氏的复数‖ 表示―某某夫妇,某某一家人‖,作主语时,谓语用复数。 The Greens _______(be)having lunch now. 第二十四讲座:主谓一致---提高篇 复习重点: 1. 主谓一致主要遵循三个原则:语法一致、意义一致、就近一致。 2. 分数、百分数、不定式、动词-ing 形式作主语时的主谓一致。 一、主谓一致的原则: 主谓一致是指主语和谓语在人称和数上保持一致。一般遵循下列原则: 1. 语法一致原则:主语和谓语在人称和数上一致,即主语是单数形式,谓语动词也采用单数形式;主语是复数 形式,谓语动词也采用复数形式。 2. 意义一致原则:谓语的单复数取决于主语的意义。有时主语形式上为单数,但意义上却是复数,那么谓语根 据意义也用复数形式;有时主语形式上为复数,但意义上却是单数,那么谓语根据意义应用单数形式。 3. 就近一致原则:谓语动词的形式与邻近的主语在人称和数上一致。 二、主谓一致的具体应用: 1. 名词作主语: ★ 集合名词作主语,如果表示整体概念,谓语动词用单数形式;如果强调个体,谓语动词用复数形式。常见的
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这类名词有:army, audience, class, family, team, crowd, staff, committee, enemy, government, population 等。有些集 合名词如 cattle, people, police 等,通常看作复数,谓语动词必须用复数。如: The team is the best in the league. ★单复数同形的名词作主语,应根据其意义来决定谓语形式,常见的这类名词有: deer, fish, sheep, Chinese, Japanese, means, works(工厂)等。如: There are ten sheep on the farm, but there are only four goats. ★表示单数概念的复形名词,如:学科(maths,physics 等)、机构、书名、剧名等作主语,谓语动词通常用 单数。如: Maths is one of the most important courses in the senior school. The Times is Britain’s oldest national daily. ★ 表示成双成对的名词作主语,谓语动词通常用复数形式,这类名词有:trouser, shoe, chopstick, sunglass 等。 但如果其前有 a pair of, a kind of 等修饰时,谓语动词一般用单数。如: A pair of trousers is on the bed. ★当名词短语中心词为表示距离、金额、时间等的复数名词时,往往把这些复数名词看作一个整体,谓语动词 用单数。如: Four thousand dollars is more than she can afford. ★―the +形容词或过去分词‖结构作主语时,如表示一类可数的人或事物,谓语动词用复数,这类词有 wounded, rich, unemployed, blind 等。如:The unemployed lead a miserable life. ★如果主语由 more than one ... 或 many a ... 构成,尽管从意义上看是复数,但谓语动词通常用单数形式;在 ―more than +复数名词‖或―more +复数名词+ than one‖结构之后,谓语动词通常用复数形式。如: Many a playwright is satisfied with the play. More than one person has been concerned in this. 2. 代词作主语: ★由代词 each, every one, no one, either, neither, another 以及合成代词 something, anything, nothing, everything, somebody, anybody, nobody, everybody, someone, anyone, everyone 作主语时,谓语动词均用单数。如: Each book was in its proper place. ★关系代词 who,that,which 等在定语从句中作主语时,其谓语动词的数应与句中的先行词的数一致。如: He is one of the students who were late this morning. He is the only one of the students who was late this morning. ★ all, most, none, some 等作主语时,其谓语动词的形式要根据它们所代替的内容来定。如: Most of his spare time was spent in reading. All of my classmates work hard. 3. 由连接词连接的名词或代词作主语: ★用 and 或 both ... and ... 连接并列主语,如果意义为复数,谓语动词通常用复数。但由 and 连接的并列主语如 果指的是同一个人、同一事物或同一概念,谓语动词则用单数形式,这时 and 后面的可数名词不带冠词。如: Both the secretary and the manager have agreed to be present. Law and order means different things to people with different political opinions. ★当主语后跟有说明主语的修饰语,如用 with, as well as, along with, rather than, together with, including, in addition to 与修饰语连接时,谓语动词的人称和数与主语保持一致。如: The missing things, as well as the bag, have been found and returned to the owner. ★ 由 or, either ... or ..., neither ... nor ..., not only ... but also ...等连接的名词或代词作主语时,谓语动词要与邻近的 主语相一致。如: Not only the students but also their teacher goes to the exhibition. 4. 数词作主语: ―分数或百分数+ of +名词‖构成的短语作主语时,谓语动词的单复数取决于 of 后名词的数。如: Only one third of the work was done yesterday. Thirds fourth of the students come to school on time. 5. 从句及非谓语动词作主语: ★名词性从句作主语时,谓语动词通常用单数。但如果是两个或两个以上的从句由 and 连接表示两个概念时, 谓语动词用复数。另外,what 从句作主语时,谓语动词的数由其表示的意义来决定。如: Whether we go camping tomorrow depends on the weather. What caused the snow slide and how many tourists are injured are still unknown. What you want is a big bag. You need not get any more stamps. What we have are quite sufficient. ★动词-ing 形式短语或动词不定式作主语时,谓语动词通常用单数。如: Smoking / To smoke is a bad habit. 常见考点: 高考试题对主谓一致的考查重点是:名词作主语时的谓语动词形式;分数、百分数、不定式、动词 -ing 形式作 主语时的主谓一致。 用括号内动词的正确形式填空:
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1. So far David’s the only one of us who ________ (go) abroad. 2. Such singers as Liu Huan ________ (be) widely popular, of whose songs, however, some ________(be) difficult to sing. 3. Many a famous pop star _________________________ (perform) in the concert tonight, so I’m looking forward to it very much. 4. —Is everyone here? —Not yet ... Look, there ________ (come)the rest of our colleagues! 5. The chief editor together with his editors ________ (be) discussing the new law about newspapers that ________ (be) newly published last month. 6. The manager and designer ________ (be) to give some suggestions for the design of the new building in a while. 7. I, who ________ (be) your deskmate now, hope we can help each other with our studies. 8. When to have the next meeting and whether to invite the director still ________ (remain) a mystery to us. 9. Nobody but doctors or nurses and those who ________ (be) invited by Doctor Liu ________ (be) allowed to enter the patient’s room. 第二十五讲座:倒装句---基础篇 1. 当句首为副词 here,there 且主语为名词时,应用完全倒装。 Here comes the bus !There goes the bell. ! 2. only 修饰时间、地点、方式等状语时,应用部分倒装。 Only in this way can we solve the problem.Only when you told me did I know her name. 注意:如果 only 修饰的不是状语,则句子不倒装。Only Uncle Li knows how it happened. 3. 表示对前者的陈述也适用后者时,肯定倒装用― so + 助动词/情态动词 + 后者‖,前句事否定,而后面的人 也不怎么样时用― neither / nor + 助动词 / 情态动词 + sb‖。 He can speak English,so can I.If she doesn’t go there tomorrow,neither / nor will I. 注意: 1)― so + 助动词 / 情态动词 + 主语‖ 表示前者的主语和后者的主语的情况一样,所谈到的是两个人,意为 ―……也是这样‖; 2)― so + 主语 + 助动词 / 情态动词‖表示前者和后者所指同一人时,说话者表示同意前者的观点,意为―的确 如此‖。 — Li Lei likes sports. — So he does and so do I. 4. 由 not only …… but also …… 引起的并列句,若将 not only 置于句首时,该分句应部分倒装, but also 引 导的分句不倒装。Not only did he give me some advice,but also he lent me some money. 5.― no matter +疑问词+从句‖ 或 ―疑问词+ever+从句‖ 注:从句应用陈述句语序,时态用一般现在时。However hard the problem is,I must work it out. 第二十六讲座:倒装、强调、省略句---提高篇 一、倒装: 1. 完全倒装: 完全倒装是把句子的谓语全部置于主语之前。在下列几种情况下多用完全倒装: 地点状语位于句首,且主语为名词而谓语为不及物动词的陈述句。如: On the top of the hill stands a big pine tree. 在―there + be / live / lie / stand / ...‖结构中。如: Once there lived an old fisherman in a village by the sea. here, there, now, then, out, in, up, down, off, away 等副词位于句首,主语为名词,谓语动词通常是 be, come, go, run, rush, fly, follow, fall 等词,时态为一般时。如: Here are some advertisements about cars. There come the rest of the students. Down came the rain and up went the umbrellas. 注意:当主语是代词时,主语和谓语的语序不变。如: Away he went. Down it came. 有时为了强调或者为了使句子平衡,常把句子的表语置于句首,构成完全倒装。如: Present at the meeting were Professor Smith, Professor Brown and many other celebrities. Gone are the days when they had nothing to eat. such 作表语提前时。如: Such is the influence of TV that it can make a person famous overnight. 有时为了强调,可将谓语部分的动词-ing 形式、过去分词或不定式置于句首。如: Standing beside the table was his wife. Buried in the sands was an ancient village. To be carefully considered are the following questions. 2. 部分倒装: 部分倒装是把谓语的一部分(助动词或情态动词)提到主语之前。使用部分倒装的情况有: 含否定意义的词或短语(如 not, nor, never, seldom, hardly, scarcely, rarely, little, few, nowhere, not until, not only, no sooner, in no way, on no account, under no circumstances, by no means 等)置于句首时。如:
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Never would he know what she had suffered. Hardly had he arrived when she started complaining. On no account must we give up this attempt. only 所修饰的副词、介词短语或状语从句位于句首时。如: Only when she came home did her mother learn the news. 当表示前面提出的某一情况也同样适用于后者时,通常要用―so / neither / nor +系动词/助动词/情态动词+主语‖倒 装结构。如: He can speak English and so can I. If she won’t go there tomorrow, neither / nor will I. 当虚拟条件句含有 were, should, had 时,可省略 if,将 were, should, had 移到主语之前。如: Should you require anything, give me a ring. Had you come yesterday, you would have seen him. so ... that 结构中的―so +形容词/副词‖置于句首时,主句通常要部分倒装,但如果谓语动词为 be 时,则为全部倒 装。如: So earnestly did the boy beg that his father gave his permission. (部分倒装) So small was the mark that I could hardly see it.(全部倒装) 3. 常见考点: 高考对倒装的考查主要是方位词、否定词位于句首、so, neither, nor 等位于句首及一些固定结构中的倒装。 1) ―Never for a second,‖ the boy says, ―_____ that my father would come to my rescue.‖ A. I doubted B. do I doubt C. I have doubted D. did I doubt 2) Not until he went through real hardship _____ the love we have for our families is important. A. had he realized B. did he realize C. he realized D. he had realized 二、省略: 1. 简单句中的省略: 简单句中,可以省略谓语(的一部分)或主语。另外,也可省略宾语等其他成分。如: (I am) Looking forward to hearing from you soon.—What do you think made Mary so upset? —Losing her bicycle (made her upset). 2. 并列句中的省略: 在由并列连词 and, but, or 等连接的并列句中,后边的分句中可以省略与前边分句中相同的成分,以避免重复。 如: My room is on the fifth floor, and hers (is) on the eighth (floor). 3. 复合句中的省略: 当状语从句的主语与主句的主语一致,且谓语动词中有 be 时,从句的主语和 be 可以省略。另外,当状语从句 的主语和谓语是 it is / was 时,it is / was 常被省略。如: The boy studies very hard though (he is) still rather weak. You may turn to the dictionary when (it is) necessary. 注意: 在状语从句中,省略了从句中的主语和 be 动词,这时从句中可出现如下结构:连词(as if, as, once)+名词;连词 (though, whether, when)+形容词;连词(whether, as if, while)+介词短语;连词(when, while, though)+动词-ing 形 式;连词)when, if, even if, unless, once, than, as)+ 过去分词;连词(as if, as though)+不定式。 在对话中,常用 so 或 not 来替代上文的一部分或整个从句。如: —Do you think he will lend us a hand? —I hope so. (= I hope he will lend us a hand.) 在限制性定语从句中,作宾语的关系代词 that, which, whom, who 等常可以省略。如: He is the man (who / whom / that) you can depend on. 引导宾语从句的连词 that 常被省略。如: We all know (that) light travels much faster than sound. 为避免重复,不定式常省去前面出现的相同部分,而只保留不定式符号 to。但如果在省略的不定式结构中含有 be, have 时,这些词要保留。如: I saw him playing with a gun, and I told him not to. My brother has lost a lot of weight — he is three kilos lighter than he used to be. —Hasn’t he finished writing the report? —No, but he ought to have. 单独使用不定式符号 to 代替不定式后被省略的动词,常用在 be afraid, expect, forget, hope, intend, like, love, mean, prefer, refuse, seem, try, want, wish 等后面。如:I asked him to see the film, but he didn’t want to. 如果从句的谓语动词与主句的谓语动词一样,从句中的谓语动词可以用 do, did, does 等代替。 4. 习惯上的省略: 由固定短语引导的疑问句。如: What about having a game of chess?What if it’s raining? 习惯性的交际用语。如:
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Not at all. 不用谢。 No matter. 不要紧。 Thanks. 谢谢。 5. 常见考点: 高考对省略的考查主要集中在不定式中的省略和状语从句中的省略。 1) The driver wanted to park his car near the roadside but was asked by the police _____. A. not to do B. not to C. not do D. do not 2) Film has a much shorter history, especially when _____ such art forms as music and painting. A. having compared to B. comparing to C. compare to D. compared to 三、强调: 1. It is / was ... that / who(m) ... 该句型可用于强调除谓语以外的其它句子成分,强调句的结构是:it + is / was +被强调部分+ that / who(m) +其它 部分。 强调的主语是人,可用 who 引导后面的部分,间或用 that;若主语是物,则用 that。 如果强调的宾语或介词宾语是人,用 whom,间或用 that;若宾语是物,用 that。 强调状语时多用 that 引导。 强调句的否定形式:It isn’t / wasn’t +被强调部分+ that / who(m) ...。 一般疑问句形式:Was / Is it +被强调部分+ that / who(m) ...? 特殊疑问句形式:特殊疑问词+ was / is it that ...? not ... until ...的强调句形式为固定结构,即:It is / was not until ... that / who(m) ...。 2. do / does / did + 动词原形: 如果需要强调谓语时,借用助动词 do / does / did,且只能用于一般现在时和一般过去时的肯定句中。如: Do be careful when you cross the street. I’ll tell you something that does sound strange. She did come late, very late. I had marked her absence, of course. 3. 常见考点: 高考对强调句的考查,主要考查强调句的陈述句、一般疑问句、特殊疑问句形式及与其它含 it 句型的区别。 1) It was with the help of the local guide __B___ the mountain climber was rescued. A. who B. that C. when D. how 2) It was only after he had read the papers ___B__ Mr. Gross realized the task before him was extremely difficult to complete. A. when B. that C. which D. what 专项练习: I. 用括号内所给内容的正确形式填空。 1. Seldom ___________ (I read) an article that was so full of lies. 2. Not until I began to work ____________ (realize) how much time I had wasted. 3. Our monitor suggested that the problem just referred to __________________ (be discuss) at the class meeting tomorrow. 4. If you start to do one thing, __________ (devote) yourself to it and finally you’ll be paid off. 5. Only by showing your sincerity ____________ (you can win) the trust of your friends. 6. Only when my sister apologizes for her rudeness ___________ (I speak) to her again. 7. Not once ___________ (it occur) to him that he might be falling in love with her. 8. So easy _______________ (the exercise be) that the student finished it in half an hour. 第二十七讲座:感叹句---基础篇 一、结构: What/ How +被感叹的部分+ 主语+ 谓语!What beautiful flowers they are ! 二、变法: 一断, 二加 ,三调位。 一断表示在谓语动词的后面断开,二加表示在断开的两部分中间加 what 或 how,三调位表示前后两部分对调位 置。They had a good time yesterday. 一断:They had / a good time yesterday . 二加:They had(what)a good time yesterday . 三调位:What a good time they had yesterday. 三、what 引导的感叹句: 1. what + a / an +adj + 单数名词 (+主语+ 谓语)!_______ a clever boy he is ! 2. what + adj + 复数名词 (+主语+ 谓语)!_______ heavy boxes they are ! 3. what + adj + 不可数名词(+主语+ 谓语)!_______ bad weather ! 四、how 引导的感叹句: 1. How + adj / adv + 主语+ 谓语!_________ hard they are working ! 2. How + adj + a / an + 单数名词(+主语+ 谓语)!How tall a boy he is !
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3. How + adj / adv + the + 名词+ 谓语!________ heavily the rain is falling! 五、what 与 how 引导的感叹句之间的转换: 1. What a beautiful girl she is != ______ beautiful the girl is !2. How delicious the food is !=______ delicious food it is ! 六、几个常见的感叹句: 1.______ great fun it is !2.______ important information !3.______ good news ! 4.______ good advice / music !5.______ a heavy rain !6.______a strong wind ! 七、感叹句中常见的不可数名词: food, work, weather, fun, music, information, news, advice... 第二十八讲座:感叹句、祈使句---提高篇 (一) 祈使句: 1. 祈使句的否定式和强调式: (1) 祈使句的否定式是在整个结构前加 don’t 或 never。 e.g. Never come late. Please don’t forget to take your medicine. 注意:以 let 开头的祈使句的否定形式通常是在 let’s 或 let us/me 后加 not。 e.g. Let’s not waste our time arguing about it! (2) 祈使句的强调式是在整个结构之前加 do。e.g. Do give my regards to your parents! 2. 祈使句表假设的情况: 祈使句常用于固定句式―祈使句+and/or/otherwise+一般将来时陈述句‖,若前后表顺承关系,用 and;若前后表 转折关系,用 or 或 otherwise,祈使句则相当于一个条件状语从句。 (1) 祈使句+and+陈述句=名词短语+and+陈述句=if 条件状语从句+主句 e.g. Have a little patience and we’ll look into it soon. =Just a little patience and we’ll look into it soon.=If you have a little patience, we’ll look into it soon. (2) 祈使句+or+陈述句=if...not...+主句 e.g. Work harder,or you’ll fail.=If you don’t work harder, you’ll fail. (二) 感叹句: 表示强烈情绪(喜、怒、哀、乐、惊、恐等)的句子叫感叹句,通常由 what 或 how 引导。 1. 基本形式: (1) What+(a/an)+形容词+名词+主语+谓语!e.g. What a clever boy he is! What wonderful ideas you have! (2) How+形容词+a/an+单数可数名词+主语+谓语 e.g. How difficult a problem it is! (3) How+形容词/副词+主语+谓语!e.g. How clever the boy is! 2. 其他形式的感叹句: (1) how 直接修饰谓语动词:How+主语+谓语!e.g. How (much) we love our motherland! (2) 常见的其他形式 e.g. How can you be so silly!The designs and the colours! 考点归纳: 感叹句、祈使句: (1) what 与 how 引导的感叹句作为宾语从句出现在试题中,其难点有两方面:一是复数名词或不可数名词前面 用 what 还是 how; 二是感叹句的语序。 (2) 祈使句的主要考点是:根据句式特点判断是祈使分句还是状语成分;祈使句+and/or+结果分句。 Read this story, _____ you will realize that not everything can be bought with money. A. or B. and C. but D. so 考查固定句式: 祈使句+and+陈述句。结合句意可知前后两个分句之间为顺承关系, 故选择并列连词 and。A 项 表示两分句之间为转折关系; B 项表示两分句之间为顺承关系; C 项表示两分句之间为转折关系; D 项表示两分句 之间为因果关系。 第二十九讲座:反意疑问句---基础篇 一、结构:陈述句 + 附加疑问句?It’s hot today, isn’t it? 二、原则:1. 前肯后否,前否后肯 2. 前名后代 3. 时态一致 三、变法:一疑、二否、三连、四省、五转换(名变代)。 四、特殊的附加疑问句: 1. I’m …… , aren’t I ?I’m right, ______ ______ ? 2. There be …… , ______ there ?There will be fewer buses in the future,____ ______? 3. 句中有

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