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一:名词解释(4 个)
1. Langue & Parole(语言与言语)
Langue is the linguistic competence of the speaker,which is relatively stable and systematic and also the rule that the speaker should follow. Parole is the actual phenomena or data of linguistics, which is subject to personal and situational constraints and always a naturally occurring event.

2. Phonetics & Phonology (语音学与音位学)
Phonetics is the study of speech sounds, including three main areas: articulatory phonetics (发音 语音学), acoustic phonetics(声学语音学), auditory Phonetics(听觉语音学). Phonology is the study of sound systems—the invention of distinctive speech sounds that occur in a language and the patterns.

3. Open-class word & Closed-class word(开放类词与封闭类词)
Open-class words: whose membership is in principle infinite or unlimited. e.g. n. v. adj. adv. E.g. regarding / with regard to ; throughout, in spite of Closed words : their membership is fixed or limited. E.g. pro. prep. conj. art. etc.

4. Immediate Constituent Analysis(直接成分分析法)
The relation between a sentence and its component elements is a Construction(结构体) and its Constituents(成分). To analyze their relations is IC.

5. Sense & Reference(意义与所指)
Sense: The literal meaning of a word or an expression, independence of situational context. Reference: The relation between words and the things, actions, events and qualities they stand for.

6. Metaphor & Metonymy (隐喻与转喻)
Metaphor involves the comparison of two concepts in that one is construed in terms of the other. E.g. All the world is a stage. Metonymy : in the cognitive literature, is defined as a cognitive process in which the vehicle provides mental access to the target within the same domain. E.g. the crown can stand for a king, and the White House for the American government.

7. Performatives & Constatives(施为句与表述句)
Performatives: In speech act theory an utterance which performs an act, such as Watch out. Constatives: An utterance which asserts something that is either true or false. E.g. Chicago is in the United States.

二:问答题(3 个)
1. What are the designed features of Language?
“Design features” here refer to the defining properties of human language that tell the difference between human language and any system of animal communication, including: 1. Arbitrariness refers to the fact that the forms of linguistic signs bear no natural relationship to their meanings. 2. duality refers to the property of having two levels of structures. 3. creativity means that language is resourceful because of its duality and recursiveness.(递归性) 4. displacement means that human languages enable their users to symbolize objects, events and concepts which are not present at the moment of communication. 5. Cultural Transmission means that language is not biologically transmitted from generation to generation, but that the details of the linguistic system must be learned by each speaker.

2. What is Iconicity(句法像似性)?How to analyze some language phenomena with Iconicity?
In functional-cognitive linguistics, as well as in semiotics, iconicity is the conceived similarity or analogy between the form of a sign and its meaning, as opposed to arbitrariness. We can analyze some language phenomena with the Iconic principles. ?Proximity principle: conceptual distance tends to match with linguistic distance, e.g. “give sb sth” and “give sth to sb” ?Quantity principle: conceptual complexity corresponds to formal complexity, e.g. “apple, tree”, “apple tree” and “apple trees”. ?Sequential order principle: the sequential order of events described is mirrored in the speech chain, e.g. “I came, I saw, I conquered”.

3. What is prototype theory (原形范畴) ? How to analyze some language phenomena with prototype theory?
Prototype theory is a mode of graded categorization in cognitive science, where some members of a category are more central than others. For example, when asked to give an example of the concept furniture, chair is more frequently cited than, say, stool. We can analyze some language phenomena with its three levels in categories. ?basic level: This is the level where we perceive the most differences between “objects” in the word. E.g, all categories of dogs are different, but they still share enough to be distinguished from cats, birds, snakes,etc. ?superordinate level: Superordinate categories are the most general ones. E.g, if someone asks you to think of a plant, you might think of a tree or a flower. ?subordinate level: They have clearly identifiable gestalts(完形) and lots of individual specific features. At this level we perceive the differences between members od the basic level categories, like rain coat,apple juice and wheel chair.

4. What is figure and ground theory? How to analyze some language phenomena with figure and ground theory?
The figure within a scene is a substructure perceived as "standing out" from the remainder(the ground) and accorded special prominence as the pivotal(关键的) entity around which the scene is organized and for which it provides a setting. For example, you see words on a printed paper as the "figure" and the white sheet as the "background". It is believed that the selection and arrangement of the information in syntactic structure are decided by the degrees of salience of it. For example, “The car crashed into the tree” and “The tree was hit by the car”, in these two sentences, the meanings are the same, but by arranging the positions of the subject and object differently, the focus and prominence are different.

5. How to analyze some language phenomena with Metaphor and Metonymy?
We can analyze some language phenomena with metaphor through its three categories. 1. Ontological metaphor: e.g inflation is backing us to conner. In this sentence, regarding inflation as an entity allows human beings to refer to it, identify it, treat it as a case. 2. Structural metaphor imply how one concept is metaphorically structured in terms of another. For example, “Argument is war” leads to an English expression like “Your claims are indefensible”. 3. Orientional metaphor gives a concept a spatial orientation. For example, “I’m feeling up” shows erect posture is related with a positive state, and vise versa.

6. What is Speech Act theory? What is Illocutionary Act? What is Cooperative Principle?
The speech act theory was originated with John Austin. A speech act is an utterance that has performative function in language and communication. Speech acts are commonly taken to include such acts as promising, ordering, greeting, warning, etc. Illocutionary act means when we speak, we not only produce some units of language with certain meanings, but also make clear our purpose in producing them, the way we intend them to be understood, or they also have certain forces. Cooperative Principle refers to the “co-operation” between speakers in using the maxims during the conversation. There are four conversational maxims: the maxim of quantity, the maxim of quality, the maxim of relation, the maxim of manner.

1. Saussure: Course in General Linguistics 结构主义 历时研究 diachronic study 2. Boas: discovered the framework of descriptive linguistics Handbook of American Indian languages 3. Sapir: Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis Language 4. Bloomfield: stimulus-response theory Language(1993) 5. Malinowski: context of situation Coral Gardens and Their Magic 6. Trubetzkoy: Principles of Phonlogy

7. Austin: speech act theory How to do things with words 8. Grice: the cooperative principle Logic and conversation 9. Halliday: systemic-functional grammar the theory of metafunctions of language(元语言功能理论) 10. Chomsky: language acquisition device(LAD) generative grammar 11. Lakoff: cognitive linguistics Metaphors We Lived By 12. Leech: 7 types of meaning in his Semantics 13. Ogden & Richards: Semantic Triangle

Syntactic Structures

1. Language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols used for human communication. 2. 语言的起源:the bow-wow theory, the pooh-pooh theory, the yo-he-yo theory. 3. 语言的功能 :interpersonal function( 人际功能) , performative function( 行事) , emotive , expressive,phatic communication(寒暄) ,recreational,metalingual. 4. 语言学的主要分支: phonetics[articulatory, acoustic(physical properties), auditory], phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics. 5. 语音属于言语,音位属于语言,音位(phoneme)是最小的语音单位,语素(morpheme)是 语法意义中最小的语言单位,单词(word)是语言最小的自由单位。 6. Syntax studies the formation of sentences. 7. Polysemy, Homonymy, Hyponymy(co-hyponyms) 8. Entailment 蕴涵关系, Presupposition 预设 9. Componential Analysis 10. 语言也是一种认知活动,是对客观世界进行互动体验和认知加工的结果, 认知语言学的 核心原则为“现实 -认知-语言” 。 11. 语义学是对抽象语言能力的研究,语用学是对言语行为的研究。 12. 句子:是一个句法学、语义学的概念, 其意义就是词汇意义和语法意义的组合.,话语: 是一个语用学概念,体现的是特定的语境意义。 13. Performatives and constatives 14. Locutionary act (发话行为) ,Illocutionary act(行事行为,目的) ,Perlocutionary act(取 效行为,话语对听话人产生的效果) 15. 会话含义, 就是话语在会话中产生的隐含意义, 即言外之意。 (the theory of conversational implicature) 16. 合作原则具体分析成数量、质量、关系、方式四条准则:数量准则,指的是信息量要恰 如其分,不多不少。 质量准则,指的是说话要真实,要有根据。 关系准则,指的是话语之间要有关联。 方式准则,指的是说话要清楚,有条理,避免晦涩,避免歧义,言简意赅。

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