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机械专业外文翻译


NUmerically-controlled machine tool electric control system's failure diagnosis and maintenance
Abstract:
The numerically-controlled machine tool electric

control system was the numerically-controlled machine tool integration of machinery key component, this article mainly elaborated the numerically-controlled machine tool electric control system failure diagnostic check, the electrical system breakdown elimination method and numerically-controlled machine tool electric control system's questions and so on preventive maintenance.

Keywords:CNC
maintenance

machine tools; electrical control system;field

1

introduction <dnt> the </dnt> numerically-controlled machine tool

is the collection machine, the electricity, the fluid, the gas in a body's integration of machinery equipment, the numerically-controlled machine tool electric control system is its core, its reliability service, the direct relation entire equipment movement is normal or not. When electric control phylogeny breakdown, should diagnose the breakdown rapidly, removes the accident, makes it to restore normally, simultaneously should carry on the preventive maintenance, this regarding raises the numerical control equipment operating efficiency to be important. .

2

electric control system failure diagnostic check

2.1 intuitive judgements it is uses our sense organ attention to have
the spot which the breakdown phenomenon and the diagnosis possibly occurs. When the breakdown scene through observes the breakdown whether to have the different sound, the spark occurrence, where do they come from, where presents Jiao Huwei, where gives off heat exceptionally, where has exceptionally vibration and so on, can the diagnosis main parts. The observation possibly has breakdown each circuit wafer, perhaps each kind of electrically controlled part, relay, thermal relay, abruption end and so on surface condition

2.2

use system software warning function nowadays's CNC system has

from the diagnosis function. In system duration of work, can fixed time use from the diagnostic program to carry on the fast diagnosis to the system. Once examines the breakdown, the way which reports to the police

the breakdown demonstrates immediately on CRT or lightens on the kneading board the alarm indicator lamp, moreover this kind from the diagnosis function can also the classification of defect warning. If misoperation information, related server warning, hypothesis wrong warning, each kind of traveling schedule ultra regulation warning and so on. When service, should search the question according to the warning actual content prompt the crux to be.

2.3

use system hardware's warning function to enhance system's

maintainability, the establishment has the numerous hardware warning indicating device in the modern numerical control system, in processing numerical control system failure process, if the direct-vision method cannot be effective, externally, very difficult to judge the question to be, perhaps the CRT screen cannot lighten (power source module has breakdown) the time, may draw support carefully examines each alarm device, whether there is observes to report to the police the instruction, then according to instructs the processing damage. not only

2.4

the diagnosis function modern numerical control system which

demonstrated using the condition can the failure diagnosis information demonstrate that moreover can diagnose the address and the diagnosis data form provides the diagnosis each condition. This law is also diagnoses the breakdown one essential method, suits the diagnosis complex organization breakdown.

2.5

current check system parameters system parameters change

immediate influence engine bed performance, also will cause the breakdown. When designs and the manufacture numerical control system, although has considered system's reliable question, but is impossible to remove the outside all disturbances. At the same time, the artificial misoperation enables the system parameters also to have the possibility change. In diagnoses in the breakdown process, if the question still could not solve, may check the system parameters, looked whether to cause by the parameter change.

2.6

special handling method numerical control system uses the

software is rich, has the system software, the machine tool construction software, in the software design has some questions unavoidably, causes the engine bed to halt the phenomenon, may adopt the special method, for instance the complete machine power failure, makes the stop slightly again starting, is sometimes possible the trouble clearing.

3

electrical system breakdown elimination method

3.1 Because the initialization resetting eethod arises suddenly the
system warning which the breakdown causes, the available hardware repositions or the switching system power source eliminates the breakdown in turn, if system work memory block, because power failure, pulls out inserts the line board or the battery undervoltage, may carry on the initialization to the system to eliminate, simultaneously, should pay attention completes the data copy record, if after the initialization, the breakdown was still unable to remove, then carries on the hardware diagnosis.

3.2

The parameter change and the procedure correction legal system

series parameter is the determination system function basis, the parameter hypothesis wrong possibly creates system's breakdown or some function is invalid. Because sometimes the user program error also will create the disaster dump, may use system's block search function to carry on the inspection, the correction mistake, will guarantee the normal operation.

3.3 The optimization adjustment law optimization adjustment is with
the mechanical system which drives is realized systematically to the servo drive system the optimum matching integrated control method, this means are simple, are advantageous for the operation, or has the memory function double trace oscilloscope with more than recording instruments, observes the instruction and the velocity feedback or the current feedback response relation separately. Through the adjustable speed regulator's scale-up factor and the integration time, enable the server to achieve namely have the high dynamic response characteristic, and does not vibrate best active status. Does not have the oscilloscope or in recording instrument's situation in the scene, according to the experience, the adjustment causes the electrical machinery starting of oscillation, then to reverse adjusts slowly, until eliminates the shake.

3.4

The improvement power source quality law uses the

voltage-stabilized source generally at present, improves the mains ondulation. May use the electric capacity filtering regarding the high frequency interference, may reduce power panel's breakdown through these preventive actions. The numerical control system's breakdown is many kinds, the service method cannot be the same, the numerical control technology seeps rapidly to various Industry sector, the numerical control technology in national economy's status also along with it enhanc ement, the numerical control system service technology should also adapt the numerical control technology swift development request rapidly.

3.5 The spare parts interchange method uses the line board which the good

spare parts replace diagnosis crashes, makes the initialization to start, causes the engine bed rapid investment normal work, will then crash line board repair.

4

Numerically-controlled machine tool electric control system's

preventive maintenance

4.1

Follows the working instruction numerical control system

programming, the operation and the servicemen strictly must undergo special technical skill training, familiar numerically-controlled machine tool's machinery, numerical control systematic, strong part and so on electricity equipment, hydraulic pressure, gas source uses; According to engine bed and system operating instructions request use. , because avoids the breakdown which as far as possible operates causes improper. Uses for the first time when the numerically-controlled machine tool or the skilled worker operates, in the use first year, the system failure mainly operates improper causes. Should request according to the working instruction to carry on the maintenance work. Some parts need fixed time to refuel with the regular replacement .

4.2

To the tape reader either the floppy disk reading machine's

maintenance routine tape reader or the floppy disk reading machine is the numerical control system input important installment, the numerical control system parameters, the user great procedure and the components procedure must input through it to CNC. The tape reader reads the belt part to have the contamination to be able to cause to read person's paper tape information to present the mistake. Therefore the operator deals with it to carry on the inspection, dips the ethyl alcohol with the gauze to scour the contamination. To tape reader's movement part, like the driving pulley roller, roller each week and so on guides the roller, to contract should fixed time to clean up, to guides the roller, to tighten the arm roller and so on every half year replenishment lubricating oil. Regarding the floppy disk reading machine in disk driver's magnetic head, the application special-purpose clear wash basin carries on the clean regularly.

4.3

Prevents the numerical control equipment overheated regular

cleaning up numerical control installment the radiation ventilation system, inspects the numerical control to install each cooling fan frequently to work whether normally. According to the workshop environmental aspect, one quarter should inspect sweeps clear one time, concrete method: Twists the bolt, dismantles the air strainer; While vibrates filter's slightly, from inside to outside blows down in air

strainer's dust with the compressed air; If too dirty, the available neutral cleanser flushing, puts in the shade to air dry.

4.4

Surveillance numerical control system's network voltage

numerical control system permission network voltage scope in rated value 85%~110%, if outside field, light, then enables the numerical control system the steady work, the heavy piece will create the important electronic part damage. Therefore, must pay attention to the network voltage frequently the fluctuation. Regarding the electrical network quality quite bad area, should dispose the numerical control system special-purpose exchange voltage-stabilized source installment promptly, causes the failure rate to reduce.

4.5

What the periodic inspection and on the replacement direct

current motor electronics brush some numerically-controlled machine tool uses is the direct current motor. This kind of electric motor electronics brush's excessive wear can affect its performance even to damage. Therefore, must the periodic inspection electronics brush. The numerical control lathe, the numerical control milling machine, the machining center and so on, should every year inspect one time, accelerates the engine bed frequently (for example punch press and so on), should two months inspect one time.

4.6

Prevents the dust to enter in the numerical control installment

besides the overhaul, must little operate the electrical cabinet door. Prevents the dust which and the metal powder in the workshop in the air drifts fall in the print circuit wafer and the electrical connector, causes between the part the dielectric resistance to drop, presents the breakdown or causes the part damage. Some numerically-controlled machine tool's main axle control system places in the strong electricity cabinet, the strong electric switch closes not strictly, causes the electric appliance part damage, the main axle control malfunction. When the temperature excessively is in the summer high, some users turn on the numerical control cabinet door, uses electricity the ventilator to catch a chill toward the numerical control cabinet, reduces within the aircraft the temperature. This will cause the system to accelerate to damage. The electric spark machining numerical control equipment and the torch cutoff numerical control equipment。 Sometimes the breakdown isn't the reason of the machine part, and not is to enter to the reason of the servo system, probably is other reason

such as weave distance error margin.Controled such as the FANUC 6 M system number tool machine to once appear to carry to crawl along while slicing to pare to process at a time.Check after careful pit, discover the electric motor breakdown once aroused to carry and replaced electric motor over carry cancellation, can crawl along to still keep existing.Began to look for breakdown reason from the tool machine first, the result pit actually spread a chain all right, and then checked in to have no breakdown for servo system confirmation, carried on a check towards processing procedure later on, discovered processing of work piece curve and adopted the small cent segment arc is approached and carries out, and at weave a distance convenient G61 instructions, also namely each time process 1 will carry on a good enough check of stopping, make tool machine appear and crawl along a phenomenon thus, change to G61 G64 instructionses and slice and pare in a row and crawl along cancellation. If break down the reason of current machine part, and then have into to the reason of the servo system, can hardly distinguish the main antinomy that arouses this breakdown, this is the check and supervision, we quickly check the important factor of breakdown reason.Face this circumstance, carry on various examination, make use of the comprehensive knowledge of machine, electricity, and hydraulic...etc., adopt comprehensive analysis judgment, expel breakdown. Number control tool machine is technique intensively and knowledge intensive equipments, it is diverse to break down a phenomenon, its manifestation also have no simple of the regulation can follow, this technical personnel who will beg to maintain has to have the automation technique of the electronics technique, calculator technique and electricity, examine technique, machine theory and fulfillment technique, hydraulic and spirit move etc. is more overall of comprehensive technique knowledge, also request to have comprehensive analytical and problem-solving ability.


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