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中文题目_英语词汇及双重否定结构显/隐性学习的实证性
研究

外文题目 An Empirical Study on Explicit and Implicit
Learning of English Vocabulary and Double Negatives

姓 学 导

名 号 师 第二语言习得 英语语言学及应用语言学 英语学院

研究方向 专 系 业 别

2015 年

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An Empirical Study on Explicit and Implicit Learning of English Vocabulary and Double Negatives

A Thesis Submitted To

The School of English and International Studies And the Graduate School of Beijing Foreign Studies University In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of
Master of Arts

By

Supervised by Professor

Beijing Foreign Studies University
Beijing, China April 15, 2015

北京外国语大学学位论文原创性声明和使用授权说明

学位论文原创性声明
本人郑重声明:所呈交的学位论文,是本人在导师的指导下,独立进行研 究工作所取得的成果。 除文中已经注明引用的内容外,本论文不含任何其他个人 或集体已经发表或撰写过的作品或成果, 也不包含为获得北京外国语大学或其他 教育机构的学位或证书撰写的或使用过的材料。 对本文的研究做出重要贡献的个 人和集体,均已在论文中以明确方式标明。本声明的法律结果由本人承担。

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Acknowledgements
This thesis could not be finished without the help and support of many people who are gratefully acknowledged here. At the very first, I'm honored to express my deepest gratitude to my dedicated supervisor, with whose guidance I could have worked out this thesis. She has offered me valuable ideas, suggestions and criticisms with her profound knowledge. Her patience and kindness are greatly appreciated. I have learnt from her a lot not only about thesis writing, but also the professional ethics. I'm very much obliged to her efforts of helping me complete the thesis. What's more, I wish to extend my thanks to my classmates, Wang Mengyi and Jiang Siyu, who never failed to give me great encouragement and suggestions. Besides, I’m quite grateful for all my students in Beijing University of Chinese Medicine. Without their cooperation, I couldn’t have finished this thesis. At last, I would like to thank my family for their support all the way from the very beginning of my study. I am thankful to all my family members for their thoughtfulness and encouragement.

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摘要 二语习得的学者对显性和隐性学习已经做了很多研究。 早期的研究通常区分 开这两个领域,强调显性学习和隐性学习的不同。但是,随着更深入的研究,许 多研究者开始寻求两者各自的优势或把两者结合起来。 显性和隐性学习在不同方 面对习得过程都会产生影响, 并且两者具有相互依存、相互转化和相互补充的紧 密关系。 本研究旨在对词汇和语法结构显性及隐性学习的不同进行实证研究。 两组学 生参与了实验。实验共分为四部分:前测,实验处理,测试,后测。前测是为了 检验受试者是否已知实验中所用的目标词汇和语法结构。 实验处理阶段分为两部 分, 第一组学生通过教师讲解对目标词汇进行显性学习,第二组学生通过教师讲 解对目标双重否定结构进行显性学习。测试包括一篇阅读理解和句子翻译,阅读 理解用于隐性学习, 句子翻译用于观察学生通过显性策略和隐性策略对英语词汇 和双重否定结构的学习。 后测是为了研究对英语词汇和双重否定结构显性学习和 隐性学习的持续效果。 最后, 对英语词汇和双重否定结构的显性学习和隐性学习 作出了比较。 结果表明, 在显性和隐性学习策略中, 学生都更容易进行词汇学习, 并且,对词汇的记忆力具有相对更长的持久性。然而,学生很难通过隐性学习来 进行双重否定结构的学习,而且对此结构的记忆持久性相对较短。

关键词:显性学习,隐性学习,词汇,双重否定,测试

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Abstract
Explicit and implicit learning have long been researched by scholars of second language acquisition. The early studies mostly divide the two areas, emphasizing the difference between explicit and implicit learning. However, with further exploration, many researchers start to search for the advantage of each one or join the two together. It has been realized that explicit and implicit learning both have influence on acquisition process, although in different aspects, and the two possess a close relationship of mutual reliance, mutual transformation and mutual complement. This research is devoted to study the differences between implicit and explicit learning on vocabulary and grammatical structures. Two groups of students are involved. Then the experiment is divided into four parts: a pre-test, the treatment, a
following test and a post-test. The purpose of the pre-test is to test whether the target

vocabulary and structure used in the experiment have already been known to the participants. The treatment is divided into two sections with students of group one being exposed to an explicit teaching methodology through elaboration on target vocabulary and student of group two being exposed to an explicit teaching methodology through illustration on target double negative structures. The following test provides a reading passage for implicit learning and sentence translation to observe their learning of English vocabulary and double negatives through both explicit strategy and implicit strategy. The post-test is to research the posterior effects of explicit learning and implicit learning of English vocabulary and double negatives. Finally, a comparison was made between explicit learning and implicit learning of English vocabulary and double negatives. The results show that vocabulary is easier for students to learn through both explicit and implicit strategies and it has a comparatively longer retention in memory. However, double negatives can be hardly learned through implicit learning and they have relatively short duration in memory.

Key words: Explicit learning, Implicit learning, Vocabulary, Double negatives, Test

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Table of Contents
北京外国语大学学位论文原创性声明和使用授权说明 ............................................ i Acknowledgements ......................................................................................................ii 摘要 ............................................................................................................................. iii Abstract ........................................................................................................................ iv Chapter 1 Introduction ................................................................................................ 1 Chapter 2 Literature Review ...................................................................................... 2 2.1 Studies on explicit and implicit learning ....................................................... 2 2.1.1 Theories of explicit and implicit learning ............................................... 3 2.1.2 Empirical studies of explicit and implicit acquisition............................. 6 2.1.3 The implicit and explicit learning mechanisms in second language teaching .......................................................................................................... 10 Chapter 3 Methodology ............................................................................................. 14 3.1 Research design ............................................................................................. 14 3.2 Participants .................................................................................................... 15 3.3 Instruments .................................................................................................... 16 3.3.1 Target forms .......................................................................................... 16 3.3.2 Material for tests ................................................................................... 19 3.4 Procedure ....................................................................................................... 20 3.4.1 Pre-test .................................................................................................. 20 3.4.2 Test ........................................................................................................ 21 3.4.3 Post-test ................................................................................................. 22 3.5 Data analysis .................................................................................................. 23 3.5.1 Evaluation standard ............................................................................... 23 3.5.2 Statistical analysis of data ..................................................................... 24 Chapter 4 Results and Discussion ............................................................................ 25 4.1 Analysis of Data ............................................................................................. 25 4.1.1 Results of the Pre-test ........................................................................... 25 4.1.2 Results of the Test ................................................................................. 26 4.1.3 Results of the Post-test .......................................................................... 29 4.1.4 A comparison between results of the test and the post-test within each class ................................................................................................................ 30 4.2 Discussion of the Results .............................................................................. 32 Chapter 5 Conclusions ............................................................................................... 35 References ................................................................................................................... 37 Appendices .................................................................................................................. 39 Appendix 1 ........................................................................................................... 39 Appendix 2 ........................................................................................................... 40 Appendix 3 ........................................................................................................... 43

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Chapter 1 Introduction
Implicit and explicit learning mechanisms have received increasing attention in second language acquisition. The early research mostly divides the two areas, emphasizing the difference between explicit and implicit learning. However, with further exploration, many researchers start to search for the advantages of each one or join the two together because they realize the two mechanisms have interrelated influences. Early studies on explicit and implicit learning mainly focus on listening, reading and grammar. Some cover the field of vocabulary acquisition. However, most empirical research is confined to either vocabulary or grammar acquisition. Few study both vocabulary and grammar to make a comparison between different structures through explicit and implicit learning. Therefore, the author strives to fill this gap and makes a comparative study of vocabulary and double negatives learning through explicit and implicit learning strategy to examine whether there are differences between vocabulary and double negatives learning. In the field of vocabulary learning, increasing research has paid attention to incidental learning which belongs to implicit learning strategy. Vocabulary can be implicitly learned by students, which has been proved by many empirical studies. However, vocabulary and double negatives are two different structures with the former one being one word and the latter one being usually a grammatical structure with several words. A grammatical structure, double negatives in this case, has a higher level of difficulty in the process of learning because it requires a combination of the meaning of different words and must be comprehended as a whole. Therefore, the author wonders whether the learning strategy which applies to vocabulary learning has the same effect on double negatives learning since these two have different level of difficulty. The author of this paper replicates the empirical study of Virginia M. Scott (1989) and strives to explore the relationship between vocabulary and double negatives learning through explicit and implicit strategies. Since double negatives is a more complicated structure than vocabulary in the process of learning, this study will generally indicate whether grammatical structures with different level of learning difficulty should be learned through different learning strategies. Moreover, it also has implications on teaching in terms of making choices about teaching strategy.

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Chapter 2 Literature Review
2.1 Studies on explicit and implicit learning
Since the1990s, there have been numerous studies on the development of Interlanguage system involving such notions as explicitness, implicitness, consciousness, subconsciousness, intentional learning, unintentional/incidental learning, and interface. Many studies have been done in the second language acquisition area on second language acquisitional pattern. For example, Selinker (1972) discusses some theoretical preliminaries for researchers concerned with the linguistic aspects of the psychology of second language learning and proposes the concept of “interlanguage”; Krashen (1981, 1983, 1985) has elaborated a theory that rests on a distinction between two independent processes, genuine learning, called “acquisition”, which is subconscious, and conscious “learning”, which is of little use in actual language production and comprehention. He also puts forward the theory of “comprehensible input hypothesis”; McLaughlin et al. (1983) states that the basic postulate of information processing theories is that humans are limited capacity processors of information; Gass & Selinker (1992) find that transfer is a psychological term and is generally regarded as the influence of some kind of learning on the others and that a lot of research reveals that anyone who wants to offer sufficient interpretation of second language acquisition has to take the critical factor---language transfer into consideration; White (1991) claims that second language learners often receive negative evidence about the target language in the form of explicit and/or implicit instruction; Doughty & Long (2003) as well as White (2003) states that second language acquisition is a growing field, encompassing a variety of perspectives on how langugaes are learned, including interlanguage pragmatics and approaches in applied linguistics, as well as generative approaches. However, The recognition of the psychological consciousness of second language learners as the central issue of second language acquisition research has merely been seen on stage for about ten years (Gass, Svetics & Lemelin, 2003). With this recognition of psychological consciousness, explicit and implicit mechanisms in English learning have drawn increasing attention and are being applied in the teaching of English as well. Therefore, from both theoretical and applying perspectives, the understanding of the differences between and the functions of explicit and implicit learning mechanism is of great significance.
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It has been a long time since explicit and implicit learning have been the focus of cognitive psychologists. The early studies mostly divide the two areas, emphasizing that explicit and implicit learning are two absolutely different learning processes. However, with further exploration, many researchers no longer emphasize the differences between explicit and implicit learning. Instead, they start to search for the advantages of each one or join the two together. It has been realized that explicit and implicit learning both have influence on acquisition process, although in different aspects, and the two process a close relationship of mutual reliance, mutual transformation and mutual complement. 2.1.1 Theories of explicit and implicit learning Implicit learning of second language is the process of subconsciously learning language knowledge without paying attention to the target structure through the access to complex language materials. Children gain knowledge of intonation, semantic meaning and syntactic rules through communication with people at the beginning of their first language acquisition. Reber (1976) considers the key of implicit learning as the lack of learner consciousness about the target structure one is learning. explicit learning refers to the process in which one has to make efforts and take certain measures to finish the learning task. In second language learning, explicit learning is mainly achieved through the instruction of language rules in the classroom. Compared with implicit learning which is automatic, abstract and stable, explicit learning is relatively motivated, conscious and controllable. From the perspective of the relationship between explicit and implicit learning, three views exist in second language acquisition research area. First, the “No interface theory” has gained popularity with Krashen as a representative. This theory aims at explaining the gap between explicit knowledge and language use. It believes that the formal in-class instruction cannot promote acquisition of implicit knowledge which is required by daily communication. Moreover, it proposes that the task of second language teaching is to provide learners with a large amount of comprehensible input instead of the explicit instruction of grammatical rules and running drills for practice. Second, the “Interface theory” has been widely accepted with Bialystok and Mclaughlin as representatives. It recognizes the mutual transformation of explicit and implicit knowledge. Besides, it believes that the learning and practice of explicit knowledge can promote the acquisition of certain language rules and that practice can compensate for the gap between explicit
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knowledge and language usage. Third, the neutral view which is also known as the “weak interface theory” has R. Ellis as a representative. It holds that explicit learning can help learners notice the gap between language input and language output by applying consciousness raising strategy. However, the improvement resulted from systematic practice is confined to the aspects of item learning and language fluency. In a word, the focus of the three views above is whether explicit knowledge can transform into implicit knowledge through practice. R. Ellis (2005a), Faerch& Kasper (1987) and Faerchet al. (1984) all oppose the strict distinction between explicitness and implicitness of language knowledge. Instead, they are more inclined to regarding the two as locating in a continuum because some knowledge exists in both forms at the same time. The author of this paper agrees with the “interface theory” and believes that explicit learning can promote the learning of certain language rules, especially complicated rules which cannot be noticed through implicit learning. From the perspective of the relationship between explicit and implicit learning, several concepts are important. For example, directivity and controllability of learning motivation and distinction and duration of learning task are representative aspects. Implicit learning is the process of acquiring knowledge without consciousness. The knowledge resides in the brain as an implicit storage and can be automatically extracted into usage when necessary. However, explicit learning emphasizes consciousness and controllability. It proposes that language knowledge should be added to memory through repeated review of the language materials. In second language acquisition, explicit learning mainly refers to the memorization of words and grammatical rules with purpose; while implicit learning refers to the way that learners focus on meaning instead of form of language in some communicative activities. The studies on conscious learning and unconscious learning are lack of valid theoretical explanation and they are mainly confined within the aspect of vocabulary acquisition. (Krashen, 1989; Ellis, 1994; Zahar, 1999; Hulstijn, 2001) Explicit and implicit knowledge rely on completely different access mechanisms and they present dissimilar physiological basis. Although learning process is to some extent related to knowledge type, the distinction between the two kinds of knowledge is frequently independent from the difference between explicit and implicit learning process. Implicit knowledge can be automatically extracted whereas, explicit knowledge is concerned with controlment. As Krashen (1989) has mentioned, explicit knowledge is
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merely used to monitor language output which is acquired through implicit knowledge. However, the explicit knowledge is usually inaccurate. Learners can develop deepness of their explicit knowledge only through continuous accumulation of language rules and application under different language circumstances. their understanding of these rules can be inaccurate. For example, there is over-generalization and under-generalization. Concerning the relationship of explicit and implicit knowledge, DeKeyser (1997) believes that programmed explicit knowledge can be regarded as the “functional counterpart” of implicit knowledge. Paradis (2004) claims that explicit language knowledge cannot be transformed into implicit language competence under any circumstance. In fact, learners extract language knowledge from the two kinds of knowledge sources distinctively when they execute different language tasks. From the perspective of implicit and explicit memory, the relationship is an even more complicated issue. For example, we usually know how to ride a bike. Yet it is difficult to explain the full procedure of how we actually ride it. Therefore, the skill of riding a bike mostly relies on implicit memory. Explicit memory is associative knowledge which is frequently connected with information that has already been stored in the brain. Implicit memory, on the other hand, is usually closely related with athletic skills, conditioned responses and habituation. Studies on implicit memory include child language acquisition, artificial grammar acquisition, priming effect and skill acquisition, etc. Priming effect is considered a persuasive evidence for implicit learning. It mainly studies the positive or negative influence of stimulation on following behaviors concerning the aspects of vision, space, phoneme and semantic meaning. The group which is exposed to stimulation of the target items has better performance in later tests than the group which is not given any stimulation but merely an explicit illustration of target items before the tests. The result of researches indicates that implicit memory which is covered by priming effect has more duration than explicit memory. Besides implicit memory, incidental learning is also an important part of implicit learning. It is learning that takes place without any intent to learn and almost always takes place although people are not always conscious of it. (Marsick & Watkins, 1990). It has long been a focal point in second language acquisition studies, among which incidental vocabulary learning has attracted a lot of attention. Coady (1997) proposes that in incidental learning, most words are learned gradually through repeated exposures in various discourse contexts. Wesche and Paribakhtps (1999) define incidental vocabulary
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learning as the process in which learners focus on comprehending meaning of reading and listening contexts rather on the explicit goal of learning new words and acquire vocabulary only as a by-product; while intentional vocabulary learning means the focal attention during the learning process of the target vocabulary. Vocabulary is learned as a by-product of another activity without the learners’ conscious decision, or intention to learn the words. The researchers also stress the significance of incidental vocabulary learning. Swanborn and Glopper (2002) argue that incidental learning could result from task or purpose demands which cause learners to focus on specific features of input which are crucial for learning. Although the research of incidental learning is fruitful, these researchers merely focused on one part of implicit learning and did not explore the relationship between explicit and implicit learning which the author thinks have mutual reliance on each other. 2.1.2 Empirical studies of explicit and implicit acquisition Empirical studies on explicit and implicit learning have achieved great progress in recent decades. The frequently used experimental methods are artificial grammar, probability learning and language aptitude test. However, no measurement tool has been unanimously considered as effective so far. Many kinds of research methods have been incorporated in the study of explicit and implicit learning. In the field of implicit learning, artificial grammar, probability learning, control of complex system and instantaneous language generation task are applied. Meanwhile, language aptitude test, grammaticality judgment test, meta-language test and oral statement are incorporated in the research of explicit learning. Artificial grammar test triggers exploration of the abstraction and implicitness of knowledge. In terms of abstractness, some scholars refute that in artificial grammar learning experiments, learners merely master concrete segments instead of abstract rules. Mathews et al.(1989) and Shanks et al. (1997) applie artificial grammar task in their research and found out that the effect of implicit learning was influenced by the proximity of testing factors. Considering implicitness, two questions need to be answered. First, is artificial grammar learning implicit? Second, is the knowledge that participants acquired implicit? Some other scholars doubt about learning complex rules through implicit strategy. They point out that most of the time, participants can realize the existence of certain rules in the decision making phase of the experiment and make judgments according to these rules, which means that the knowledge that participants acquired is not entirely implicit
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because they become conscious of certain rules. Moreover, research on the compatibility of consciousness and unconsciousness in implicit learning tries to show that cognitive resources participate during the process of implicit learning. Grammaticality judgment test which is popularly incorporated in explicit and implicit learning research is evaluated from the following aspects: first, recognize the mistakes in ungrammatical sentences; second, correct the sentences; third, state which grammar rule is violated and show the degree of certainty about his/her judgment. In terms of the validity of grammaticality judgment test, a key question is what grammaticality judgment measures. When learners make judgments about sentence grammar, what kind of knowledge are they extracting, explicit knowledge or implicit knowledge, or both of the two? Many researchers have failed to give a clear answer to this question. Besides, the measurement of the knowledge type by grammaticality judgment test depends on the time used in making judgments. If learners can quickly judge whether a sentence is grammatical, it is probably that they are relying on their implicit knowledge. On the other hand, if learners have plenty of time to make judgments, they are most likely to have relied on explicit knowledge. The problem is most grammaticality tests do not take time in consideration. Certainty assessment can add credibility to the experiment. For example, provide participants with four choices: completely grammatical, probably grammatical, completely ungrammatical and probably ungrammatical to observe whether the type of second language knowledge learners are relying on will influence their confidence. If learners refer to explicit knowledge, they are inclined to be doubtful about some judgments. On the contrary, if they refer to implicit knowledge, they are more likely to be certain with their judgments. Yet this is a relatively unexplored area. As presented above, artificial grammar and grammaticality judgment test mainly focus on language forms and ignore meaning. Moreover, these two method cannot affirmatively measure explicit knowledge and implicit knowledge because during the process these two kinds of knowledge frequently interfere with each other and have influence on final results. Therefore, both these two methods of measurement have limitations. In other words, valid research methods under the classroom environment are lacked. The method used in this research is sentence translation which mainly focuses on the meaning of target vocabulary and double negative structure. In recent years, national psychologists and foreign language teaching researchers have made great progress in expanding the research range. The research topics have gained
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increasing diversity. For example, Zhang (2004) conducted a study on the development of English phonological awareness of Chinese children aged four to six and implicit learning. She discussed the development of English phonological awareness of Chinese children who learned English at the beginning stage and implicit learning existed in three ways: syllable awareness, onset-rhyme awareness and phoneme awareness. Results indicated that onset-rhyme and phoneme awareness developed earlier than syllable awareness and they increased along with grade rising. The exam results of onset-rhyme and phoneme awareness on the learned and unlearned material were not significantly different, which indicated that implicit learning existed in the course of English phonological awareness of Chinese children. Li (2005) discussed the relationship between explicit and implicit learning in Chinese teaching and put forwards six comparative principles: natural and controlled, applied and learned, blurry and clear, casual and systematic, individual and standardized, experiential and practice-oriented. These principles have great significance in English teaching as well. Chinese scholars mainly focus on empirical studies of implicit memory and implicit learning, aiming at building up a theoretical model for memory system in which consciousness and unconsciousness are combined (Wu & Yang, 1994). Liu (1997) adopted the artificial grammar learning proposed by Reber (1976) to research implicit learning and its abstractness. Guo (2003) explored the dynamic development during the implicit learning process as well as its lasting effects. From the perspective of grammar research on explicit and implicit learning, Gao and Dai (2004) conducted an empirical research among high school students on the acquisition of relative clause extraposition by Chinese learners of English. They studied the effects of explicit and implicit instruction or the teachability issue from the perspective of acquisition of relative clause extraposition by Chinese learners of English. The results showed that the experimental group, which received explicit instruction of English relative clause extraposition, outperformed the control group with implicit input significantly. However, the post-test results of both groups were still significantly poorer than those of the advanced level students. It was argued that subjects of both the experimental group and control group were ready for learning the target construction but not yet ready for acquiring it implicitly. Thus, explicit instruction in this case helped enhance linguistic knowledge, grammaticality judgment and performance, but was not sufficient for constructing a perfect second language knowledge system. Yet the measurement of grammar research mostly applies grammatical judgment test in which, as mentioned before,
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explicit knowledge interferes with implicit knowledge, which can influence the accuracy of final results. Besides, the time of the experiment is relatively short while it takes a long time and large accumulation for the acquisition of implicit knowledge to take place. As a result, the experiment may end before implicit learning is completed, which consequently influences the final results. From the perspective of vocabulary research on explicit and implicit learning, Zhao (2009) conducted an empirical research on incidental vocabulary acquisition with reference to Ellis (1997). Ellis claimed in his research that both explicit and implicit learning mechanisms were embodied in incidental vocabulary acquisition. However, he believed that the acquisition of form, collocation and grammatical information of the vocabulary was involved with implicit learning and that the acquisition of meaning and function of the vocabulary was completed by explicit learning. Based on Ellis’ theory, Zhao conducted a research among eight Chinese and German advanced English learners. He assigned them a reading comprehension task and asked them to express their thoughts afterwords. After the reading, they were given a vocabulary test to observe their learning of target vocabulary. His result was consistent with Ellis’ theory, that is, the incidental learning of meaning relied on explicit learning and the acquisition of form was completed by implicit learning from noticing to information input. However, different from Ellis who claims explicit and implicit learning processes are separate, Zhao pointed out that explicit learning mechanism seemed to be able to improve the learning of vocabulary form. As a result, he believed explicit and implicit learning mechanisms had mutual reliance instead of being separate. The author of this paper holds a different opinion about the roles that explicit and implicit learning mechanisms play in vocabulary learning. She believes that the acquisition of vocabulary meaning is not confined to explicit learning but can be achieved through implicit learning. Therefore, in her sentence translation test she strives to find out whether students can learn vocabulary meaning through implicit strategy. Moreover, Zhao claimed the learning of vocabulary meaning is involved with explicit learning but he did not cover the area of grammatical structures. The author wonders whether the learning of meaning of grammatical structures is consistent with his result about vocabulary learning. Therefore, the author combines vocabulary and grammar and makes a comparative study of vocabulary and double negatives learning through explicit and implicit learning strategy to examine whether there exist differences between vocabulary and double negatives learning.
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Although empirical studies are fruitful in explicit and implicit learning, they have limitations. First, the duration of the research is relatively short. The accurate measurement of implicit knowledge cannot be guaranteed due to the pressure of time. Any experiment which is short in time will inevitably have unfavorable effects on implicit learning because the accumulation of examples in the memory requires a large amount of time. Second, valid research methods under the classroom environment are lacked. Few researches have been done on the comparison between implicit processing and explicit processing in the real class environment. Besides, little empirical evidence has systematically documented the change of second language knowledge caused by long-term language practice. The discussion mainly focuses on learning but not acquisition. Therefore, most researches incline more to explicit learning rather than implicit learning. Third, the evaluation standard is relatively conservative. The measurement mostly applies grammatical judgment test and blank completion test. Few experiments observe the features of natural discourse or the application of language knowledge it presents. The author of this paper replicates the empirical study of Virginia M. Scott (1989). In Virginia’s research, she conducts an empirical study of explicit and implicit teaching strategies in French. She chooses thirty-four students from two advanced French conversation classes at Emory University as the subjects and adopts two target structures: relative pronouns- qui, que, dont, ce qui, ce que, ce dont; subjunctive- both form and usage. Her experiment is divided into two parts, the first being devoted entirely to the relative pronoun structure and the second to the subjunctive one. For each of the two structures one class of students is exposed to an explicit teaching methodology, while the other is exposed to an implicit one. In this way, each class is exposed to both the explicit and the implicit teaching conditions. Her results suggest that for both the relative pronouns and the subjunctive, students who have been taught the target structures explicitly perform better overall than those who are exposed to an implicit presentation of the same grammar content. 2.1.3 The implicit and explicit learning mechanisms in second language teaching In recent years, the application of explicit and implicit learning mechanism has drawn great attention in second language acquisition field. At present, the emphasis of grammar teaching has shifted from language input to the strengthening of consciousness. This new teaching method strives to enable students to
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build connection between form and meaning of language through drawing their attention to certain form features and resorting to the frequency and salience of language program as well as putting learner characteristics and difficulty of learning tasks into consideration. Wilson (2005) adopts covert grammar teaching which is a directive and inductive learning pattern. It follows the old emphasis on language input and focuses on language form. As a result, it regards the teaching of grammatical points as the central task, but it tries to avoid the using of metalanguage jargon so as to promote the development of learners’ implicit knowledge. However, successful grammar learning should not be measured only by the competence of stating grammatical rules but also by the application of language in interpersonal communication. The explicit grammatical rules can be considered acquired only when learners can apply them in real discourse environment. Consequently, the limitation of explicit teaching of grammar is that some complicated grammatical rules cannot be practiced under normal situation, which leads to the lack of pragmatic competence of second language. While grammar teaching can be conducted through the explicit pattern, the training of linguistic sense requires automatic and unconscious implicit learning pattern. Linguistic sense is a comprehensive perception, understanding and mastery of language from language form to its content including phonetics, semantics, syntax, pragmatics, etc. Learners pick up structural rules of language without consciousness and use them with accuracy in speech acts. Once acquired, linguistic sense will have influence on the transfer of language rules, which enables learners to use these rules more flexibly in later language activities. According to Huang (2006), the reading and reciting in English teaching methodology aim at forming implicit knowledge which cannot be stated but can direct language comprehension and language generation through frequent contact with stimulus material. However, this does not imply the abandoning of explicit language teaching because in order to avoid fossilization in the early stage and reach a relatively high level of second language, the formal classroom teaching of explicit knowledge is required to prevent the occurrence of negative transfer. Ellis (2005) proposes eight general principles of successful second language teaching. Among them, the third principle points out clearly that second language teaching should mainly promote the development of implicit knowledge but meanwhile the teaching of explicit knowledge cannot be ignored. Besides, grammar illustration is not suitable for all learners especially children. Ellis (2005) compares implicit and explicit mechanism with the Yin and Yang in Chinese traditional
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culture and believes that they are dynamically combined together in every cognitive learning activity. From the perspective of practice, second language teaching and learning cannot be separated with a thorough comprehension of the implicit and explicit cognitive psychological process. Second language implicit and explicit learning is a complicated process which involves learners, teachers, teaching material and teaching procedure. Differences of learner language level and styles of information processing should be taken into account. For example, some students prefer completely immersive language learning style and do not need the illustration of grammatical rules from the teacher whereas, some other students consciously rely on explicit illustration of rules and enhance their language level by constant practice. Second language teachers should have a clear distinction of the teaching goal because explicit language input which focuses on grammatical rule teaching in the classroom environment and implicit language input which requires simply a contact with the target structure generate different effects. The teaching content is even more complicated. Since explicit teaching has an advantage in improving the general language ability of learners, no matter in textbook compilation or in learning activities, teachers should take into consideration what and how to present to the students. For example, which part of language knowledge needs to be taught in explicit method? Whether to illustrate pragmatic knowledge besides vocabulary and grammar? How to manage the complexity, frequency of occurrence and degree of salience of the language rules in the teaching material? During the teaching process, there may exist a coordination between conscious explicit cognitive system and unconscious implicit cognitive system. Sometimes the implicit processing is of greater importance while other times the explicit processing possesses the leading position. Learners will form sensitivity about the presentation of the language material during the learning process and internalize language knowledge through frequent language contact and practice. Teachers should avoid the interference of secondary information and tasks and draw students’ attention to primary knowledge to enhance teaching efficiency. Meanwhile, second language learning is a social practice of interpersonal communication which is constrained by implicit knowledge. If learners can realize the implicit clues that produce intercultural differences, the barrier of intercultural communication will be eliminated. Besides, the attitude and respect in implicit social cognition has great influence on the unconscious accumulation of positive attitude in learning a foreign language. As a result, teachers should pay attention to teaching
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environment and class learning atmosphere as well. To sum up, the results of studies in the laboratory and second language researches under natural conditions all suggest that explicit learning has an advantage to a certain degree. On the other hand, the evidence of second language implicit learning is relatively weak and few in-depth researches have been conducted on the relationship between the development of language competence and the consciousness of learners. The interconnection between implicit learning and explicit learning and their influences on each other needs further exploration in the future research. Moreover, the researches on curriculum design, professional training of teachers and teaching strategies in implicit and explicit teaching still stay at a beginning stage. Therefore, the practical value of implicit and explicit learning patterns is worth deeper exploration as well. The author of this paper strives to explore the relationship between vocabulary and double negatives learning through explicit and implicit strategies. The three primary research questions for this study are as follows: 1. Which method promotes better learning of English vocabulary and double negatives, explicit strategy or implicit strategy? 2. What are the long-term effects of explicit strategy and implicit strategy on the learning of English vocabulary and double negatives? 3. What are the differences between vocabulary learning and double negatives learning through explicit and implicit learning strategy, if there are any?

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Chapter 3 Methodology
This chapter explicitly describes the research methods and the procedures of this study. There are six sections in this chapter: the overall research design, participants, target forms, instruments, procedure and data analysis.

3.1 Research design
Two groups of students from two classes were involved in the experiment. One class was at 8:00 am and the other was at 10:00 am. The research target of this study was divided into two forms, the first being devoted to vocabulary and the second to the double negatives structure. Then the experiment is divided into four parts: a pre-test, the treatment, a following test and a post-test. The pre-test consisted of twelve English sentences for translation, including three target words and three target double negative structures. The purpose of the pre-test is to test whether the target vocabulary and structure used in the experiment have already been known to the participants. The treatment is divided into two sections with students of group one being exposed to an explicit teaching methodology through elaboration on target vocabulary and students of group two being exposed to an explicit teaching methodology through illustration on target double negative structures. To be specific, for the first fifteen minutes of the first period of the two-session class, students in the 8:00 class heard an explicit presentation of the meaning, grammatical usage and related phrases of the three target words. The teacher then gave two example sentences of each target word. The target double negative structures were not mentioned. Like group one, for the first fifteen minutes of the first period of the two-session class, students in the 10:00 class heard an explicit presentation of the meaning and grammatical usage of the two target double negative structures. The teacher then gave two example sentences of each target structure. The target words were not mentioned. For each of the two target forms, one class of students was exposed to an explicit teaching strategy while the other was exposed to an implicit one. In this way, each class was exposed to both the explicit and the implicit teaching conditions. The following test provides a reading passage for implicit learning of the target forms and twelve sentences for translation including the three target words and two target double
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negative structures to test….. It was conducted right after the treatment session to observe their learning of English vocabulary and double negatives through both explicit strategy and implicit strategy. The test aims at addressing the first research question. The delayed post-test was composed of another twelve English sentences for translation, including the three target words and two target double negative structures. It was conducted one week after the test to investigate the posterior effects of explicit learning and implicit learning of English vocabulary and double negatives, aiming at answering the second research question. All the three tests in the experiment were conducted as in-class tests which were going to be scored and added to the final grade. Therefore, the students involved in this research treated the tests quite seriously and were not aware of the nature of the experiment. Finally, a comparison was made between explicit learning and implicit learning of English vocabulary and double negatives, aiming at addressing the third research question.

3.2 Participants
Participants were forty eight postgraduate students from two classes in Beijing University of Chinese Medicine who had all passed CET-4, non-English majors. The mean scores of their exams in the former semester are basically the same, which means students from these two classes have basically equivalent English level. The experiment was conducted in class. The course was taught in Chinese, teaching CET-6. In the pre-test, three students of group one and four students of group two had acquired part of the target vocabulary or double negatives. In group one, one student had known one target word and two target double negative structures and the other two students had known one of the target double negative structures already. In group two, one student had known one target word and one target double negative structure and the other three students had known one of the target double negative structures. As a result, these seven students were eliminated from the consideration of this study. Therefore, the total number of participants in this research is forty-one. There are two reasons for choosing participants of this range. First, they had all passed CET-4 so they had a certain level of English ability. Therefore, they would not have much difficulty in understanding the elaboration of the teacher, reading the passage and taking the translation task required in this study. Second, students who were completely strange to the target vocabulary and double negative structure were chosen to guarantee
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that they had acquired the target vocabulary and double negatives through explicit or implicit strategy in this experiment. Consequently, the influence of their former knowledge about the target vocabulary and double negative structure could be excluded.

3.3 Instruments
3.3.1 Target forms The former studies about explicit and implicit learning in literature were mainly on listening and reading or on grammar. Some covered the field of vocabulary acquisition. However, most empirical researches were confined with vocabulary or grammar acquisition separately. Few connected vocabulary and grammar together to make a comparison between different structures through explicit and implicit learning. The author strives to compensate for this gap and makes a comparative study of vocabulary and double negatives learning through explicit and implicit learning strategy to examine whether there exist differences between vocabulary and double negatives learning. First, in terms of vocabulary, three words of CET-6 level and three double negative structures were chosen as target forms before the pre-test. The three words were “enroll” “entrust” and “jeopardize” respectively. The three words were chosen randomly from the CET-6 vocabulary. Since the participants had passed CET-4 but had not passed CET-6, they were supposed to be unfamiliar with these three words. Second, considering the grammar, after reviewing the literature, the author chose English double negative structure as the target grammatical structure in this research. The author has found that this grammatical structure, i.e., the negatives are the main form of presenting negation in processes and results. And negation, as a complicated phenomenon in natural language, has always been an important research subject for linguists. Many schools of grammar have done particular study on English negatives and have published some classics in the research. Moreover, in the last few years, considerable attention has been paid to the system of negation as well. However, both national and foreign studies mainly focus on the structure and usage of English negatives and empirical researches are relatively few. The author of this paper believes more attention should be given to applied linguistics in the future research of English negatives. English has a whole system of expressing negative concepts and it is changeable in
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form and subtle in meaning. It has single negation which can be subdivided into total negation, half negation, partial negation, transferred negation, potential negation and virtual negation. It also has double negation which contains two negative forms and multiple negation that includes three or more than three negative forms in a sentence. From this perspective, English negation is quite different from that of Chinese. Therefore, Chinese learners always encounter various degrees of difficulty in their English learning. As a result, English negatives can be incorporated as a particular representative of grammatical structure in research. This research relies on twelve forms of double negatives which were the most studied area in literature introduced by Yang (1982), Liu (1988), Wang (1991) and Zhang (2004). According to Zhang, double negation sentence means two negative words or words with negative meaning exist in one sentence. It can be divided into three types: affirmative double negative sentence, emphatic double negative sentence and euphemistic double negative sentence. Therefore, the three functions of double negation are affirmation, emphasis and euphemism. The common grammatical structures of double negation will be presented under the three functions in the following. First, affirmative double negative sentence is a sentence in which two negation forms are added to mean affirmation. Moreover, affirmative double negative sentence can be subdivided into two categories: (1) double negative sentence with strengthening effect and (2) double negative sentence with weakening effect. (1) the structures of double negative sentence with strengthening effect: A. Nexal negation + adverbial negation. For example, “She never came without reporting some fresh instance of Wickham’s extravagance or irregularity.” B. Subject negation + adverbial negation. In subject negation, the subject is frequently filled by no-word, for instance, no+noun, nobody, none, nothing, etc. For example, “ In some countries no major business is carried on without eye contact, requiring face-to-face conversation.” C. Subject negation + nexal negation. For example, “Not many students will not succeed in passing the exam.” D. Nexal negation + object negation. For example, “We cannot afford not to believe the missile attack.” E. Subject negation + object negation. For example, “No one has nothing to contribute to society.”
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F. Subject negation + complement negation. For example, “No place is left unexploited.” G. Negative word + word with negative meaning. For example, “There is no denying the fact that your action has affected her normal life.” H. Main clause negation + subordinate clause negation. In this structure, negative words or words with negative meaning are separated in two clauses. The negative words like “not, no, nothing, nobody and never” are frequently used in both main and subordinate clauses and some other words like “until, unless and but” can also appear in subordinate clause. For example, “You cannot take the books away unless you get the special permission from the dean.” (2) the structures of double negative sentence with weakening effect: I. Two negative words used in succession with the first one mostly being “not”. For example, “It is not impossible to pass the Band-Four examination next time if you work harder.” J. In transferred negative sentence, the first negative word is used to modify the opinion verb in the main clause and the second negative word or word with negative meaning appears in the subordinate clause. For example, “I don’t think it it insignificant to invest in such a field.” Second, emphatic double negative sentence is a sentence in which one negative word emphasizes the meaning of the other negative word. Therefore, the meaning of negation is emphasized. K. Words or phrases with negative meaning like “wonder, don’t know, can’t tell” + negative object clause. For example, “I worked and worked, and I didn’t know how much I had not done.” Third, the tone of euphemistic double negative sentence lies in the middle between affirmative double negative sentence and emphatic double negative sentence. It weakens the tone of negation, which makes the sentence more euphemistic. L. Negative words + half negative words like “hardly, barely, scarcely, etc.” For example, “Nobody has hardly visited the newly exploited area.” The three double negative structures were chosen out of the twelve forms listed in most literature as mentioned and above, i.e., “not...until” informal “not/nothing/nobody...hardly/scarcely/seldom”
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“never...but”.

Through

questioning of English major postgraduates at Beijing Foreign Studies University whom

the author believed to be highly proficient English speakers about the eleven forms of double negatives, they all confirmed that “not...until” was among the most frequently used double negative forms; the meaning of “not/nothing/nobody...hardly/scarcely/seldom” could be inferred but sometimes they could not be sure about it; and “never...but” was the least frequently used double negative form which half of them failed to understand its meaning. Therefore, these three double negative structures were at different levels of difficulty and the author incorporated these three structures to find out whether the effects of explicit strategy and implicit strategy on the acquisition of structures with various levels of difficulty were different. The pre-test showed that only two students had been aware of one target word distinctively. Therefore, the three target words all remained their application in the experiment. However, among the forty eight participants, merely six students made mistakes in translating the sentence which included the target structure “not...until”. Consequently, this double negative structure was eliminated because it had already been acquired by most students. Four students had known the structure “not/nothing/nobody...hardly/scarcely/seldom” and three students had been aware of the structure “never...but” in total. For the rest forty one students, these two structures were misinterpreted in the translation. Therefore, these two double negative structures remained in the following experiment. Target vocabulary and double negative structures which were completely strange to the participants were chosen to guarantee that they had acquired the target vocabulary and double negatives merely through explicit or implicit strategy in this experiment. Consequently, the intervention of their former knowledge about the target vocabulary and double negative structure could be excluded. 3.3.2 Material for tests All the sentences for the translation in the pre-test, the test and the post-test were chosen from the sentence translation part of CET-4, with slight changes to some sentences to add the target forms. Each sentence was carefully chosen to ensure that they were about the same level of difficulty. For the ones with the target words or structures, the author examined in particular to guarantee that no other words were unfamiliar to the students except the target. Each test included twelve sentences for translation, three containing
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target words and two containing target double negative structures. The sentences were arranged in a random order. In this way, it would be less likely that students memorized the target words or structures and checked them up after class. As a result, the previous test would not have much influence on the later test. The reading comprehension in the test was chosen from the CET-4 test of 2010. The reading comprehension with five multiple choice questions underneath was to ensure that the students were focusing on the meaning of the passage as well as to check out whether their score of reading comprehension and their ability of explicit or implicit learning were related. In the former studies, testing materials in explicit and implicit learning research area were mainly related to grammar. Moreover, researchers mostly incorporated sentence completion or grammaticality judgment test to test whether students had acquired a certain structure. In these strategies, meaning could not be directly tested and could be influenced by various factors. Therefore, in this research, the author applied the sentence translation strategy which could directly examine and present whether the students acquired the meaning of the target words and double negative structures. All the sentences for translation and the reading comprehension were chosen from the CET-4 test with slight changes to add the target words and structures in order to ensure their credibility.

3.4 Procedure
3.4.1 Pre-test Two groups of students from two classes were involved in the experiment. One class was at 8:00 am and the other was at 10:00 am. The pre-test was conducted as an in-class test. Therefore, students were not aware of the nature of the experiment. At the beginning of both class one (8:00) and class two (10:00), students were required to translate twelve English sentences into Chinese which contained three target words and three double negative structures. The test cost thirty minutes in total. After class, each piece of the sentence translation was evaluated to examine whether the target words and double negative structures had already been known by students. The pre-test showed that only two students had been aware of one target word distinctively and as a result, they were eliminated from the experiment. Therefore, the three target words all
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remained their application in the experiment. However, among the forty eight participants, merely six students made mistakes in translating the sentence which included the target structure “not...until”. Consequently, this double negative structure was eliminated because it had already been acquired by most students. Four students had known the structure “not/nothing/nobody...hardly/scarcely/seldom” and three students had been aware of the structure “never...but” in total. For the rest students, these two structures were misinterpreted in the translation. Therefore, these two double negative structures remained in the following experiment. 3.4.2 Test The test was conducted one week after the pre-test and it was conducted as the mid-term examination whose score was going to be recorded in the final assessment. Therefore, students treated it quite seriously and were not aware of the nature of the experiment. The test was the main part of the experiment, aiming at addressing the first research question “Which method promotes better acquisition of English vocabulary and double negatives, explicit strategy or implicit strategy?” A. Group one: For the three target words, students of the first class(8:00 am) were exposed to an explicit teaching methodology. For the first fifteen minutes of the first period of the two-session class, students in the 8:00 class heard an explicit presentation of the meaning, grammatical usage and related phrases of the three target words. The teacher then gave two example sentences of each target word. The target double negative structures were not mentioned. After the illustration, students were required to take the test including a passage for reading comprehension with five multiple choices underneath and another twelve English sentences for translation which were different from the ones in the pre-test. The reading comprehension and the sentence translation both contained the three target words and two target double negative structures. Students were given forty minutes in total to guarantee that they could finish the whole test. After class, each piece of the sentence translation was evaluated to examine the results of their explicit and implicit learning of target vocabulary and double negative structures.
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B. Group two: For the two target double negative structures, students of the second class(10:00 am) were exposed to an explicit teaching methodology. Like group one, for the first fifteen minutes of the first period of the two-session class, students in the 10:00 class heard an explicit presentation of the meaning and grammatical usage of the two target double negative structures. The teacher then gave two example sentences of each target structure. The target words were not mentioned. After the illustration, students were required to take the test which was the same with group one, including a passage for reading comprehension with five multiple choices and another twelve English sentences for translation which were different from the ones in the pre-test but were the same with the ones group one took in the test. The reading comprehension and the sentence translation both contained the three target words and two target double negative structures. Students were given forty minutes as well to guarantee that they could finish the whole test. Likewise, after class, the multiple choices of reading comprehension and each piece of the sentence translation were evaluated to examine the results of their explicit and implicit learning of target double negative structures and vocabulary. 3.4.3 Post-test The post-test was conducted one week after the test as an in-class test. As the former tests, students were not aware of the nature of the experiment. This test was designed to investigate the posterior effects of explicit learning and implicit learning of English vocabulary and double negatives, aiming at answering the second research question “What are the long-term effects of explicit strategy and implicit strategy on the acquisition of English vocabulary and double negatives?” At the beginning of both class one (8:00) and class two (10:00), students were given thirty minutes in total to translate another twelve English sentences into Chinese which were different from the ones in the pre-test and the test but were the same between the two groups and which contained the three target words and two double negative structures. Likewise, after class, each piece of the sentence translation was evaluated and the average scores of the two classes were compared . When the whole experiment finished, the researcher made a comparison of the translation results between the test and the
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post-test to explore whether the effects of explicit strategy and implicit strategy changed over time.

3.5 Data analysis
3.5.1 Evaluation standard The tests could be divided into two parts in the whole: sentence translation and reading comprehension. Among the sentences for translation, the ones that did not contain target vocabulary or target double negative structures were not evaluated and were excluded from the final data because these sentences were added here simply as a distraction to ensure that students did not notice the nature of this experiment. Sentence translation could be further divided into two parts: target vocabulary and target double negative structures. For a sentence containing target vocabulary, as long as the target word was translated correctly in meaning, the sentence would be scored one point. Likewise, for a sentence containing target double negatives, as long as the target double negative structure was translated correctly in meaning, the sentence would be scored one point. The total score of the target vocabulary translation was three points and the total score of the target double negatives translation was two points. The reading comprehension included five multiple choices. Since the reading comprehension was taken from the CET-4 test of 2010, the answers to the five multiple choices referred to the standard answers of CET-4 test of 2010. The student would gain one point if the answer to the item was in concordance with the standard reference. The total score of the reading comprehension was five points. To guarantee the credibility of the evaluation, a second rater was invited to participate during this procedure. The second rater was an English major postgraduate student of Beijing Foreign Studies University as well. She was told the evaluation standard and graded all the items of the pre-test, the test and the post-test. When the researcher and the second rater had finished the evaluation, the researcher compared the score of each item given by both raters and found that the percentage of similarity in the evaluation by the two raters had reached 98%. Therefore, the evaluation of the test results was valid and could be used for analysis.

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3.5.2 Statistical analysis of data The results show that vocabulary is easier for students to learn through both explicit and implicit strategies and it has a comparatively longer duration in memory. However, double negatives can be hardly learned through implicit learning and they have relatively short duration in memory. First, using Excel, the accuracy of each item of every student in each test was listed and the average score of each item as well as the average score of the target vocabulary as a whole and of the target double negatives as a whole were calculated. The average score of the reading comprehension in the test was calculated for comparison as well. Second, using SPSS (Statistical Packages for Social Sciences) version 16.0, descriptive statistics including means and standard deviations were computed to investigate the interrelationship between the two groups in the test concerning the target vocabulary and double negatives separately (aiming at addressing the first research question); to examine the interrelationship between the two groups and between the test and the post-test concerning the target vocabulary and double negatives separately (aiming at addressing the second research question); and to summarize the results of the test and the post-test to compare the differences between the acquisition of different structures through explicit and implicit learning strategy (aiming at addressing the third research question). Third, a comparison between the acquisition results and the score of reading comprehension was made within each group to examine whether the ability of reading comprehension was interrelated with acquisition.

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Chapter 4 Results and Discussion
In this chapter, the results of each test are presented. Using Excel, the score? of every student in each test was listed and the average score of each item as well as the average score of the target vocabulary as a whole and of the target double negatives as a whole were calculated. The average score of the reading comprehension in the test was calculated for comparison as well. Second, using SPSS (Statistical Packages for Social Sciences) version 16.0, descriptive statistics including means and standard deviations were computed to investigate the interrelationship between the two groups in the test concerning the target vocabulary and double negatives separately (aiming at addressing the first research question: Which method promotes better learning of English vocabulary and double negatives, explicit strategy or implicit strategy?); to examine the retention of the target vocabulary and double negatives separately (aiming at addressing the second research question: What are the long-term effects of explicit strategy and implicit strategy on the learning of English vocabulary and double negatives?); and to summarize the results of the test and the post-test to compare the differences between the acquisition of different structures through explicit and implicit learning strategy (aiming at addressing the third research question: What are the differences between vocabulary learning and double negatives learning through explicit and implicit learning strategy, if there are any?). Third, a comparison between the acquisition results and the score of reading comprehension was made within each group to examine whether the ability of reading comprehension was interrelated with acquisition.

4.1 Analysis of Data
4.1.1 Results of the Pre-test The score of each item was evaluated to examine whether the target words and double negative structures had already been known by students. The pre-test showed that only one student from class one had known the target word “enroll” and another student from class two had been aware of the target word “jeopardize”. None of the other students
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were familiar with the target words. Therefore, the three target words all remained their application in the experiment. Besides, the two students who had known the target words were eliminated from the experiment, which meant that their scores in the following test and post-test would not be calculated and documented. However, as for the double negative structures, the results of the pre-test showed that some changes needed to be done. As mentioned earlier in the target form section, the double negative structure “not...until” was eliminated because it had already been acquired by most students. Yet for most students, the structure “not/nothing/nobody...hardly/scarcely/seldom” and “never...but” were misinterpreted in the translation. Therefore, these two double negative structures remained in the following experiment. In a word, all scores of the three target words and the two target double negative structures of the participants left in the experiment were zero. 4.1.2 Results of the Test In the test, three target words and two target double negative structures were incorporated. The total score of the target vocabulary was three points and the total score of the target double negative structures was two points. The total score of the reading comprehension was five points. The means of the scores of class one whose target vocabulary had been taught under explicit condition and target double negative structures under implicit condition is listed in table1 below.
Table1 Mean score of class one in the test

Class one Item Means

Vocabulary a 1 b 1 c 1

Total score

Double negatives d e

Total score

Reading comprehension

3

0.29

0.38 0.67

4.43

*Notes: In the item column of table1, “a” refers to the target word “enroll”; “b” refers to the target word “entrust”; “c” refers to the target word “jeopardize”; “d” refers to the target double negative structure “never...but”; and “e” refers to the target double negative structure “nobody, nothing, few...hardly, scarcely”.

The results in table1 show that all students from class one have acquired the meaning of target vocabulary under the explicit teaching condition. However, their mastery of target double negative structures is relatively weak under the implicit teaching condition. The
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mean score of the reading comprehension is 4.43, which means generally the students from class one have understood the passage well. Likewise, the means of the scores of class two whose target vocabulary had been taught under implicit condition and target double negative structures under explicit condition is listed in table2 below.
Table2 Mean score of class two in the test

Class two Item Means

Vocabulary a 1 b 0.9 c 1

Total score

Double negatives d e 0.7

Total score

Reading comprehension

2.9

0.8

1.5

4.4

*Notes: In the item column of table2, “a” refers to the target word “enroll”; “b” refers to the target word “entrust”; “c” refers to the target word “jeopardize”; “d” refers to the target double negative structure “never...but”; and “e” refers to the target double negative structure “nobody, nothing, few...hardly, scarcely”.

The results in table2 show that all students from class two have acquired the meaning of the two target words “enroll” and “jeopardize” and 90% of them have successfully inferred the meaning of the target word “entrust” under the implicit teaching condition. On the other hand, their mean scores of target double negative structures are high above the average under the explicit teaching condition. The mean score of the reading comprehension is 4.4, which means generally the students from class two also have understood the passage well. In order to address the first research question “Which method promotes better acquisition of English vocabulary and double negatives, explicit strategy or implicit strategy?”, the scores are divided into two parts concerning target vocabulary and target double negative structures. First, in terms of the target vocabulary, the means of the total score of class one is 3 under explicit teaching condition as compared with the means of the total score of class two which is 2.9 under implicit teaching condition. These two scores indicate that explicit teaching strategy can promote slightly better acquisition of target vocabulary than implicit teaching strategy, but the difference is not eminent. Second, in terms of the target double negative structures, the means of the total score of class one is 0.67 under implicit teaching condition while the means of the total score of class two is 1.5 under explicit teaching condition which is much higher than the former. These two scores indicate that explicit teaching strategy can promote much better acquisition of target double negative structures than implicit teaching strategy. Therefore, generally speaking,
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explicit strategy promotes better acquisition of vocabulary and double negatives than implicit strategy. However, the difference in vocabulary under explicit and implicit conditions is much less prominent than that in double negatives under the two conditions, which is connected with the third research question. The possible reason for this result may be that the acquisition of words is of less difficulty and the meaning can be inferred from the context of the passage. Therefore, they can be acquired through implicit strategies. Whereas, the structures of double negatives are relatively complicated and are of great difficulty of learning. They cannot be learned through implicit strategy unless they are illustrated clearly to the students through explicit strategy. Further more, a comparison is made between class one and class two to investigate whether explicit/implicit learning strategy is an influencing factor in students’ learning of vocabulary and grammar. SPSS is run to test if there were significant differences between the two learning strategies. The result is shown in table3 below. In vocabulary learning, the significance of difference between the two classes is .068>.05. Therefore, the difference of explicit/implicit learning strategy in vocabulary learning is not significant. However, in double negatives part, the significance of difference between the two classes is .001<<.05. Consequently, the difference of explicit/implicit learning strategy in double negatives learning is significant.
Table3: The comparison between class one and class two in the test

class words 1 2 grammar 1 2

N 21 20 21 20

Mean 3.00 2.85 .67 1.50

Std. Deviation .000 .366 .796 .761

Std. Error Mean .000 .082 .174 .170

Sig. (2-tailed) .068 .001

* 1 stands for class one. 2 stands for class two.

In terms of the relationship between reading comprehension and learning ability, the scores of class one show that all students who implicitly learned the target double negatives gained full points in reading comprehension. Besides, the scores of class two show that students who did not explicitly learn the target double negatives gained relatively lower points in reading comprehension. As a result, reading ability is positively correlated with learning ability.
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4.1.3 Results of the Post-test The post-test aims at observing the posterior effects of explicit and implicit learning and addressing the second research question: What are the long-term effects of explicit strategy and implicit strategy on the learning of English vocabulary and double negatives? The means of the scores of class one whose target vocabulary had been taught under explicit condition in the former test and target double negative structures under implicit condition is listed in table4 below.
Table4 Mean score of class one in the post-test

Class one Item Means

Vocabulary a 1 b 1 c 1

Total score

Double negatives d E

Total score

3

0.1

0.29 0.39

*Notes: In the item column of table4, “a” refers to the target word “enroll”; “b” refers to the target word “entrust”; “c” refers to the target word “jeopardize”; “d” refers to the target double negative structure “never...but”; and “e” refers to the target double negative structure “nobody, nothing, few...hardly, scarcely”.

The results in Table4 show that all students from class one remember the meaning of the target words and that the explicit learning of vocabulary is enduring in time. However, the scores of the target double negatives decrease a little compared with those in the former test, which implies that some of the students who implicitly learned the target double negatives have forgotten the meaning of the structure. The means of the scores of class two whose target vocabulary had been taught under implicit condition in the former test and target double negative structures under explicit condition is listed in table5 below.
Table5 Mean score of class two in the post-test

Class one Item Means

Vocabulary a 1 b 0.75 c 0.95

Total score

Double negatives d e 0.6

Total score

2.7

0.6

1.2

*Notes: In the item column of table5, “a” refers to the target word “enroll”; “b” refers to the target word “entrust”; “c” refers to the target word “jeopardize”; “d” refers to the target double negative structure “never...but”; and “e” refers to the target double negative structure “nobody, nothing, few...hardly, scarcely”.

The results in table5 indicate that the majority of students from class two remember
29

the meaning of the target words and that the implicit learning of vocabulary is also enduring in time although the scores decrease slightly. Meanwhile, the same as in class one, the scores of the target double negatives also present a slight decrease compared with those in the former test, which implies that some of the students who explicitly learned the target double negatives have forgotten the meaning of the structure as well. In a word, although the explicit learning of double negatives decreases slightly with time, the explicit learning of vocabulary does not. In contrast, the implicit learning of both vocabulary and double negatives decreases with time. Therefore, the explicit teaching strategy seems to promote better learning in the long-term. Besides, an comparison of the results of the post-test is made between class one and class two to investigate whether explicit/implicit learning strategy is an influencing factor in students’ learning of vocabulary and grammar in the long-term. SPSS is incorporated to test the correlation between classes. The result is shown in table6 below. In vocabulary part, the significance of difference between the two classes is .009<<.05. Therefore, the difference of explicit/implicit learning strategy in vocabulary learning in the long term is significant, explicit learning of vocabulary significantly outperformed implicit learning in the long term. Moreover, in double negatives part, the significance of difference between the two classes is .000<<.01. Consequently, the difference of explicit/implicit learning strategy in double negatives learning in the long term is significant as well, i.e. explicit/implicit learning strategy is closely related to double negatives learning in the long term.
Table6: The comparison between class one and class two in the post-test

class words 1 2 grammar 1 2

N 21 20 21 20

Mean 3.00 2.65 .38 1.20

Std. Deviation .000 .587 .590 .696

Std. Error Mean .000 .131 .129 .156

Sig. (2-tailed) .009 .000

* 1 stands for class one. 2 stands for class two.

4.1.4 A comparison between results of the test and the post-test within each class The results of the test and the post-test between the two classes were computed
30

through SPSS and were listed in the above section. In this section, a comparison will be made between results of the test and the post-test within each class. First, an comparison is made between the results of class one in the test and the post-test to investigate whether time is an influencing factor in students’ explicit learning of vocabulary and implicit learning of grammar. SPSS is incorporated to test the correlation between the two tests within class one. The result is shown in table7 below. In vocabulary part, the mean score does not change at all. Therefore, the influence of time on explicit learning of vocabulary is not significant. Besides, in double negatives part, the significance of difference between the two tests is .194>.05. Consequently, the influence of time on implicit learning of double negatives is not significant as well. However, unlike vocabulary, the mean score of double negatives slightly decreases.
Table7: The comparison between results in the test and the post-test within class one

test words 1 2 grammar 1 2
* 1 stands for the test.

N 21 21 21 21

Mean 3.00 3.00 .67 0.38

Std. Deviation .000 .000 .796 .590

Std. Error Mean .000 .000 .174 .129

Sig. (2-tailed)

.194

2 stands for the post-test. 3 a. t cannot be computed because the standard deviations of both groups are 0.

Second, an comparison is made between the results of class two in the test and the post-test to investigate whether time is an influencing factor in students’ implicit learning of vocabulary and explicit learning of grammar. SPSS is incorporated to test the correlation between the two tests within class one. The result is shown in table8 below. In vocabulary part, the mean score changes slightly and the significance of difference between the two tests is .204>.05. Therefore, the influence of time on implicit learning of vocabulary is not significant. Besides, in double negatives part, the significance of difference between the two tests is .201>.05. Consequently, the influence of time on explicit learning of double negatives is not significant as well. However, unlike the explicit learning of vocabulary in class one which does not change at all during time, the explicit learning of double negatives in class two decreases during time. Both implicit learning of double negatives in class one and implicit learning of vocabulary in class two decreases in the two tests. Therefore, explicit learning has a longer retention than implicit learning.
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Table8: The comparison between results in the test and the post-test within class two

test words 1 2 grammar 1 2
* 1 stands for the test.

N 20 20 20 20

Mean 2.85 2.65 1.50 1.20

Std. Deviation .366 .587 .761 .696

Std. Error Mean .082 .131 .170 .156

Sig. (2-tailed) .204 .201

2 stands for the post-test.

4.2 Discussion of the Results The main issue of this research experiment is whether a difference exists in learning between students who were taught vocabulary and double negative structures under an explicit condition and students who were taught the same content under an implicit one. Two groups of students were exposed to the same target vocabulary and double negative structures under the two conditions. Using translation tests, the results clearly show that for both the target vocabulary and the double negative structures, students who had been taught explicitly performed better overall than those who were exposed to an implicit presentation of the same content. An analysis of the results suggests two primary reasons for the superior performance of the students under the explicit teaching condition. The students who participated in this research were postgraduates in the university. All of them had had several years of previous English study and all of them had passed CET-4. These students were possibly accustomed to a relatively traditional approach to English study and were more receptive to the explicit teaching methodology. Moreover, the explicit method was possibly not only a familiar methodology, but also a quick way of organizing and memorizing language material to some degree. A second possible reason for the superior performance under the explicit teaching involves the length of time that each group was exposed to the two methodologies. Each group had only one week, more specifically one class, of exposure to each methodology. Since students had focused attention with under explicit strategy and were completely aware of the purpose of the task, they had high motivation for listening to the teacher and trying to understand the content. As a result, explicit teaching strategy provided better
32

efficiency in target learning, which in turn, required a relatively short amount of time. Therefore, for the students under the explicit condition, this amount of time was adequate to understand and digest both the target vocabulary and target double negative structures. However, implicit learning might require a large amount of exposure and accumulation because students were not conscious about there being target vocabulary and double negative structures for them to learn. Consequently, students needed a longer time to implicitly learn the target form. the students under the implicit condition simply read the target vocabulary and double negative structures embedded in a meaningful passage for once. This short period of time was relatively enough for the understanding of the target vocabulary but unlikely sufficient for the students under the implicit condition to absorb complicated target double negative structures. While this research experiment shows clearly the superior performance of students exposed to explicit teaching strategies, it also raised several important questions regarding the use of implicit teaching strategies to effect mastery of any given grammar structure. This study gives evidence that students, in a classroom setting, who read target double negative structures embedded in a contextualized passage, do not gain mastery of the grammar structure in question completely. The importance of this observation involves the fact that students, in an effort to understand, focus intensively on the content of the message under any teaching condition. In this study, the content of the message for the students under the explicit teaching condition was the meaning and usage as well as model sentences for target vocabulary and double negative structures. Although it is doubtful that they remembered the examples, they remembered, to varying degrees, the content of the message. The students under the implicit teaching condition focused on the content of the message they read, namely a passage of reading comprehension from CET-4 test. They clearly understood the passage and remembered numerous details, even long after the research experiment was over when they were asked to retell the passage in class a month later. However, the test results suggest that, when students are concentrating on the content and not on the form of the language, they are less likely to learn specific grammatical structures, in this case, double negative structures. While most foreign language teachers would probably agree that actual immersion is the most conducive way to learn a foreign language, the Chinese high school or university classroom cannot duplicate the culture where English is spoken. The results of this study
33

reflect what is true in the classroom setting, indicating that further experimental research data are needed to define the theory and practical application of explicit and implicit teaching strategies before any changes are adopted in the classroom.

34

Chapter 5 Conclusions
While this research experiment shows clearly the superior performance of students exposed to explicit teaching strategies, it also raised several important questions regarding the use of implicit teaching strategies to effectively master any given grammar structure. This study gives evidence that students, in a classroom setting, who read target double negative structures embedded in a contextualized passage, have great difficulty in gaining mastery of the grammar structure in question. On the contrary, vocabulary acquisition can be easily achieved through both explicit and implicit strategies. Regarding the second research question, although the explicit learning of double negatives decreases slightly with time, the explicit learning of vocabulary does not. In contrast, the implicit learning of both vocabulary and double negatives decreases with time. Therefore, the explicit teaching strategy seems to promote better acquisition in the long-term. In terms of the third research question, the difference in vocabulary under explicit and implicit conditions is much less prominent than that in double negatives under the two conditions. The possible explanation for this result may be that the acquisition of words is of less difficulty so they can be acquired through implicit strategies. However, the structures of double negatives are relatively complicated and of great difficulty of learning. As a result, they cannot be learned through implicit strategy but need to be illustrated clearly to the students through explicit strategy. As mentioned before, few research studies both vocabulary and grammar to make a comparison between different structures through explicit and implicit learning. Therefore, the author compensates for this gap and makes a comparative study of vocabulary and double negatives learning through explicit and implicit learning strategy and finds out that vocabulary is easier for students to learn through both explicit and implicit strategies and it has a comparatively longer duration in memory. However, double negatives can be hardly learned through implicit learning and they have relatively short duration in memory. As a result, there exist differences between vocabulary and double negatives learning. Moreover, it throws light upon teaching in terms of making choices about teaching strategy. Although implicit teaching strategy is gaining increasing popularity and can be applied in vocabulary learning, it cannot be generalized to complicated grammar teaching, in this case, double
35

negatives. Teachers should choose explicit and implicit strategies properly according to the level of difficulty of target structure. For words of a low level of difficulty, implicit teaching strategy can be adopted while for grammatical structures of a high level of difficulty, explicit teaching strategy is preferred. The author believes that a combination of both explicit and implicit teaching strategies complicated grammatical structure learning may receive better results in English teaching, which needs to be further explored in future study. Finally, this study has its limitations. Due to the shortage of students, no control group is incorporated in the experiment. Besides, the time span between the test and the post-test is relatively short because of the author ’s limited time and energy. The author hopes to improve these limitations in the future research.

36

References
V. M. Scott (1989), An empirical study of explicit and implicit teaching strategies in French, The Modern Language Journal, Vol. 73, No. 1, pp, 14-22. DeKeyser R M. Beyond explicit rule learning:Automatizing second language morphosyntax[J]. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 1997, 19: 195-221. Ellis N C. (ed.) Implicit and Explicit Learning of Languages[C]. Academic Press Limited, 1994. Ellis N C. At the interface: Dynamic interaction of explicit and implicit language knowledge[J]. Studies in Second Language Acquisition,27, 2005: 305-352. Krashen Stephen. Language Acquisition and Language Education[M]. New York: Prentice Hall International, 1989. Shanks D R, Johnstone T, and Staggs L. Abstraction processes in artificial grammar learning [J].The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1997, 50A: 216-252. Coady, J. (1997). Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition: A Rationale for Pedagogy. Cambridge: CUP. Nation, I. S. P. (1990). Teaching and Learning vocabulary. Boston: Heinle and Heinle. Paribakht. ( Eds. ) S. & Wesche, M. (1999). Incidental L2 Vocabulary Acquisition: Theory, Current Research,and Instructional Implications.[ Special issue]. Studies in Second Language Acquisition , 21, xx-xx. Schmidt, R . (1994). Deconstructing Consciousness in Search of Useful Definitions for Applied Linguistics[ J]. Consciousness in Second Languages.AILA Review, 1994(11): 11-26. Swanborn, M. S. L. & K. De Glopper. (2002). Impact of Reading Purpose on Incidental Word Learning from Context. Language learning 52/1: 95-117. 高海英,戴曼纯.中国学生英语关系从句外置结构的习得, 显性教学与隐性教学实证研 究[J].外语教学与研究, 2004, (6). 张长英等. 幼儿的英语语音发展特点及内隐学习的研究 [ J]. 江苏技术师范学院学报 ,
37

2004, (1). 李学文.语文教学中内隐学习和外显学习的思考和实践[J].内蒙古师范大学学报 (教育 科学版), 2005, (4). 吴敏,杨治良.试论内隐记忆的性质和理论解释[J].心理学动态, 1994, (1): 1-6. 田行宇& 梁梅红& 余倩雯. (2011). 观看美剧对英语词汇附带习得的影响 -基于北京 工业大学非英语专业低年级学生的研究. College English, 8/1, 318-329. 王燕(2009). 影视字幕对词汇附带习得的影响. 疯狂英语教师版(3),XX-XX.

38

Appendices
Appendix 1
Sentence translation: Please translate the following 12 sentences into Chinese. The reference to the dictionary or other online resources is not allowed. 1. Many big cities in the world are facing the problem of lack of water resource. 2. I never take up the book but I think of her, and I do not understand why. 3. The money was used to improve the teaching facilities and to buy books so that more than 160,000 schools would benefit. 4. The disagreement over trade rules could seriously jeopardize relations between the two countries. 5. Both research and practical experience have shown that a balanced diet is essential to health. 6. Enrolling girls in school was probably the best way to improve the poor situation in the developing countries. 7.The problems of blacks and women have gained considerable public attention in recent years. 8. The Foreign Minister said he was resigning, but he refused to further explain why. 9. The theory he advanced has proved to be a challenge to many traditional conceptions. 10. In the competition with her little brother, she did not stop running until she fell down. 11. The professor always encourages his students to keep trying in the task entrusted to them until they succeed. 12. Our teacher has always been telling us that nothing has been done that can hardly be done better.

39

Appendix 2
Please read the following passage and then translate the 12 sentences below the passage into Chinese. The reference to the dictionary or other online resources is not allowed. Reading Comprehension Questions 1 to 5 are based on the following passage. The $11 billion self-help industry is built on the idea that you should turn negative thoughts like “I never do anything right” into positive ones like “I can succeed”because negative thoughts usually jeopardize people’s confidence. But was positive thinking advocate Norman Vincent Peale right? Is there power in positive thinking? Researchers in Canada just published a study in the journal Psychological Science that says trying to get people to think more positively can actually have the opposite effect: it can simply highlight how unhappy they are. They are never asked to think positively but they think of those unhappy moments. The study's authors, Joanne Wood and John Lee of the University of Waterloo and Elaine Perunovic of the University of New Brunswick, begin by citing older research showing that when people get feedback which they believe is overly positive, they actually feel worse, not better. If you tell your dim friend that he has the potential of an Einstein, you're just underlining his faults. In one 1990s experiment, a team including psychologist Joel Cooper of Princeton enrolled participants to write essays opposing funding for the disabled. When the essayists were later praised for their sympathy, they felt even worse about what they had written. In this experiment, Wood, Lee and Perunovic measured 68 students' self-esteem. The participants were then entrusted with the task of writing down their thoughts and feelings for four minutes. Every 15 seconds, one group of students heard a bell. When it rang, they were supposed to tell themselves, “I am lovable.” Those with low self-esteem didn't feel better after the forced self-affirmation. In fact, their moods turned significantly darker than those of members of the control group, who weren't urged to think positive thoughts. However, nothing has been used in treatment that can hardly be changed. This paper
40

provides support for newer forms of psychotherapy (心理治疗) that urge people to accept their negative thoughts and feelings rather than fight them. In the fighting, we not only often fail but can make things worse. Meditation (静思) techniques, in contrast, can teach people to put their shortcomings into a larger, more realistic perspective. Call it the power of negative thinking. 1. What do we learn from the first paragraph about the self-help industry? A) It is a highly profitable industry. B) It is based on the concept of positive thinking. C) It was established by Norman Vincent Peale. D) It has yielded positive results. 2. What is the finding of the Canadian researchers? A) Encouraging positive thinking may do more harm than good. B) There can be no simple therapy for psychological problems. C) Unhappy people cannot think positively. D) The power of positive thinking is limited. 3. What does the author mean by “...you're just underlining his faults” (Line 4, Para.3)? A) You are not taking his mistakes seriously enough. B) You are pointing out the errors he has committed. C) You are emphasizing the fact that he is not intelligent. D) You are trying to make him feel better about his faults. 4. What do we learn from the experiment of Wood, Lee and Perunovic? A) It is important for people to continually boost their self-esteem. B) Self-affirmation can bring a positive change to one's mood. C) Forcing a person to think positive thoughts may lower their self-esteem. D) People with low self-esteem seldom write down their true feelings. 5. What do we learn from the last paragraph? A) The effects of positive thinking vary from person to person. B) Meditation may prove to be a good form of psychotherapy. C) Different people tend to have different ways of thinking. D) People can avoid making mistakes through meditation.
41

Translation(英译汉) 1. The 16-year-old girl decided to travel abroad on her own despite the strong opposition of her parents. 2. In European countries, to be enrolled in a university is much easier than to graduate from it. 3. Because of the noise outside, Nancy had great difficulty concentrating on the experiment. 4. Not until he had finished the mission entrusted to him did he realize that he was seriously ill. 5. The manager who had newly come never laughed; neither did she lose her temper before. 6. I can think of nothing that can hardly be more interesting than the job I am doing now. 7. It is suggested that the air conditioner should be installed by the window because it is good for air circulation. 8. Proper measures must be taken to limit the number of tourists, or the local environment will be seriously jeopardized. 9. We are looking forward to being invited to attend the opening ceremony of the new cinema. 10. Charity groups organized various activities to raise money for the survivors of the earthquake. 11. As a general rule, there is never a new theory but someone objects to it. 12. Production has to be increased considerably to keep pace with the constantly increasing demands of consumers.

42

Appendix 3
Sentence translation: Please translate the following 12 sentences into Chinese. The reference to the dictionary or other online resources is not allowed. 1. It is my mother who keeps encouraging me not to lose heart when I have difficulties in my studies. 2. Although he was interested in philosophy, his father persuaded him into majoring in law. 3. Jane is tired of dealing with consumer complaints and wishes that she could be entrusted with another job. 4. The finding of this study has failed to take the sleeping quality of people into account. 5. She was determined to overcome all the difficulties instead of letting them jeopardize her life. 6. We should learn to be content with all that we have and should not be too critical about the things around us. 7. Nobody is welcome to join the party who hardly shows an interest for art and history. 8. Scientists all come to a consensus that it will be a long time before we find the methods of curing cancers. 9. The problem is that the under-13s can enroll on facebook simply by lying about their age. 10. Countries in South East Asia sustained great losses when the tsunami suddenly came and struck the area. 11. Submitting himself to the temptation of money, he sold out the design of the company to their opponent. 12. The young people never talk about freedom but they complain about being controlled too strictly by their parents.

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