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Vocabulary chapter 1


教师: 刘莎

Activity 1

Story of the Week from BBC 每周一报

Watch a video clipping and then try to remember vocabulary in the news. (Imitate the tone and pronunciation of the speaker if possible.)

http://language.chinadaily.com.cn/bbc/weeksto ry/2013-08/29/content_16929548.htm Knife massage 砍刀按摩术

Activity 2
? Read the article and then find out the features of

words in red. Then think of your ways of keeping them in minds.

Hints: Prefix, Suffix, Root, Abstract Noun, Compound Words, Useful Expression (set phrases, collocation, idioms, etc.) , loan words外来语, New words(Invented word)

Ride into a New Year 马年说马

According to the traditional Chinese lunar calendar, we’ll officially welcome the Year of the Horse following the arrival of Spring Festival on Jan 31.
The horse has played an important role throughout human history all over the world. Horses were used for thousands of years as a means of transport, a weapon of war and a plougher of fields, but the horse was ―more than just a vehicle – it had more character than a car, a tank or a tractor,‖ Clare Balding wrote for The Telegraph. 《每日 电讯报》


In the Middle Ages in Western societies, the horse was a symbol of chivalry[??iv?lri] and nobility. In fact, the word ―chivalry‖ comes from ―cheval‖ in Old French, which meant horse. The idea of chivalry helped to fashion the 19th-century concept of the ―gentleman‖, which was related to courtesy, courage and loyalty to friends. Nowadays, because of economic development, people in Western societies are less likely to see or ride horses. People living in cities, in particular, hardly ever experience horses except through movies, paintings or books. But horse racing, and betting money on horse races, is still popular. The annual Kentucky Derby肯塔基赛马is one of the most popular sporting events in the US. In the UK, the royal police still patrol on horseback and the Queen rides in a traditional horse-drawn carriage on ―ceremonial occasions‖.

The significance of horses in the past is reflected in idioms still used in English today. For example, people still say ―hold your horses‖ to mean ―slow down‖. If someone seems too proud, people might tell him or her to ―get off [his or her] high horse‖. And since horses are strong and energetic, there are expressions such as ―as strong as a horse‖(力大 如牛),―workhorse‖(做重活的人,吃苦耐劳的人) and ―horsing around‖ (嬉

Interestingly, the horse also appears in many Chinese idioms, such as qianlima, which means a talented person. Other Chinese horse idioms include madaochenggong (instant success) and baimawangzi (prince charming). Besides their physical strengths, horses have powerful brains, possessing ―excellent memories‖, according to Discovery News. Maybe that’s why the Chinese idiom says: ―An old horse never gets lost‖.老马识途

Since the horse is honored as a symbol of vigor, loyalty, persistence and intelligence, people born in the Year of the Horse are said to share such good qualities.

Group words into many topics: Eg: the qualities of a horse

1. Lexical change(词汇的变化): changes in lexis.

? 2. Invention: (新造词)

? new entities.,many new lexical items come directly from

the consumer items or their producers or brand names, ? eg: Kodak, coke

?3. Compounding:(合成词)

?New words are sometimes constructed by combining two

old words. ? Eg: teamwork, classmate workforce

? 4. Blending: (混合词):

? It is a relatively complex form of compounding, in which

two roots are blended by joining the initial part of the first root and the final part of the second root, or by joining the initial parts of the two roots. ? Eg: smoke +fog → smog ? teleprinter + exchange → telex motor + hotel → motel

?5. Abbreviation or clipping:(缩写)

?A new word is created by cutting the final part or cutting the

initial part. ?eg: advertise → ad. (cutting the final parts) telephone → phone (cutting the initial parts) influenza → flu (cutting both the initial and final parts) refrigerator → fridge (cutting both the initial and final parts)

? 6. Acronym:(取首字母的缩写词) ? It is made up from the first letters of the name of an

organization, which has a heavily modified headword. ? eg: WTO → World Trade Organization UN → the United Nations

? 7. Back-formation:(逆构词)
? It refers to an abnormal(非正常) type of word-formation

where a shorter word is derived by deleting(去掉) an imagined affix from a longer form already present in the language. ? Eg: n. → v. ? television→ televis peddler小贩 → peddle叫卖 editor → edit

?8. Analogical creation:(类比造词)
?It can account for(说明) the co-existence of two forms,

regular and irregular, in the conjugation(结合) of some English verbs.
? ?

Past Tense Old usage wrought New usage worked

eg: work

?9. Borrowing(借用): ?English in its development has managed to widen her

vocabulary by borrowing words from other languages. ?Eg: loanword: au pair (法) 平等的, 互惠的 loan blend: coconut椰子 china town唐人街 loan shift: artificial satellite(拉丁语)

? 10. Grammatical change(语法变化): ? Changes in both morphology(词法) and syntax(句法)

are listed under this heading. (后面有详细解释),词根,词缀 ? Eg:前缀 inter-, intel-, 表示“在……间,相互” international, interaction, internet

?11. Semantic change:(语义变化)

?It includes broadening,(语义扩大) narrowing,(语义缩 小) meaning shift,(意义转化) class shift(词性转换) and folk etymology.(词源变化) ?Eg: ?bird → young bird → any kind of bird (语义扩大) ?girl → young person of either sex → young woman (语义缩小)

Chapter 1 有效词汇学习
? Tasks: ? Unit 1 词汇学习—总体建议 ? Part A: Read an English passage on Page4 and underline the


? ?

useful words and expressions. Guess the meaning of the word ―Coin‖ in Line2. Part B: 1. a royal family / dissuade sb from doing sth. /crown a king/ up to my ears in work(debt) / independent of sb. / get married to sb. 2. two pairs of scissors/ teaches/ a piece of advice/ lost 4. informal/ formal/ neutral

Unit2 词汇学习– 相关技巧
A. 1. cat: purr mew / paw tail lick scratch / kitten tomcat( queen cat , she-cat) 2. a) child -- children / tooth ----teeth/ mouse-mice ox-oxen b) money milk 3. a) price tag, underpriced , pricey, b) lend sb. A hand, underhand, a handful(一小撮)

Unit2 词汇学习– 相关技巧
B. 1. to look a gift-horse in the mouth 对礼物吹毛求疵

screwdriver 螺丝起子 2. school: pupil, primary, secondary, junior / P.E., physics/ attend , leave /headmaster, be expelled from / caretaker, etc. 3. (stunning/ splendid ) view (catch/ throw ) a ball 4. Put into Chinese 5. drive/ fly/ Riding

Unit 3 自制词汇手册
B. Activities: running/ jogging/diving/ mountain-climbing Accommodation: package tour/ self tour/ travel agency Booking: Syn: Synonym facilities / service/ tickets
Ant: Antonym

Explain the second chart!

Unit 4 与词汇学相关的词
article noun adverb conjunction gerund adjective verb preposition pronoun countable uncountable Infinitive past(present) participle past tense irregular verb direct object prefix, root, suffix antonym synonym phrase capital letter full stop question mark exclamation mark syllable colloquial slang collocation pejorative comma semi-colon apostrophe hyphen dash brackets inverted commas block capitals

Work in pairs. Say the e-mail and website addresses below. Use the following words to help you. @= at .=dot \ = backslash : = colon / = forward slash _= underscore -= hyphen

1. http://www. nokia.com.cn 2. morris _i_t@ zig-zag.de 3. www.thebritishmuseum.ac.uk/ 4. c_lois\79@afe.org.nz

Ex. 3.1
? 1. a word-map or bubble diagram (clock, wristwatch,

hands, minute-hand, hour-hand, face, dial, digital, etc.) ? 2. phrase: tell the time / What time do you make it? ? 3. antonym: drowsy – wide awake ? 4. prep: beneath / under

Unit 5 使用词典
A. n. – noun v. ---verb. (vt. vi) a. adj. – adjective ad. adv.---- adverb prep---- preposition conj. --- conjunction Illustrate the meanings of malignant , hairy in the dictionary


Unit6 复习词汇
B. heart-broken, have your heart in your mouth ? 准备一本生词本, 学期中和学期末检查。 ? 尝试使用金山词霸等App 软件建立生词本。 ? 购买牛津双解词典,下载灵格斯软件到电脑里。 www. iciba.com金山词霸网站和有道翻译。

Unit 7 猜测和解释词义
A. gladiolus
? gladiolus ? / ?gl? d???ul?s; ?ɡl? d?ˋol?s/ n (pl -li / -la?; -la?/ or ~es)

plant with long thin pointed leaves and spikes of brightly-coloured flowers 唐菖蒲属植物(叶长而尖, 花朵鲜艳), 一种剑兰


3. 4.


shelled: with a shell or hard protective cover reptile: kind of animal that lays eggs and uses the heat of the sun to keep its blood warm(e.g. crocodiles, snakes) famed: well-known longevity: living a long life tended: cared for hibernate: go into a sleep-like state throughout the winter (as some animals and insects do)

Ex. 7.2


6. 7.

Buzzards must be some kind of big bird, a sort that eats small animals. A vole must be a kind of small animal, something like a mouse perhaps. A chisel is something you use for shaping marble. It’s a kind of tool used by sculptors. A tureen must be a kind of very large bowl, a bit like a pot, used for soup. To ladle is a way of serving soup by using something like a very large spoon. To clamber means something like climbing with difficulty. Ratty must be a bit like bad-tempered.

Ex 7.3
2. 3.

5. 6.

no sugar special credit cards, member cards kind be terribly busy with work with the trees along both sides of the street mixing cement

Ex 7.4


6. 7.


to change the address on an envelope so that it is sent somewhere else anger that can’t be controlled drinks before dinner a report that comes out either twice every month or every two months the person who used to be my boss feelings that are hostile to tourists to break the telephone connection letters that have not been delivered to people they were addressed to

? Finish off the exercises in Unit 3, 4, 5, 7.
? Review all the knowledge and exercises in Chapter 1 ? Prepare for a quiz of Chapter 1

Quiz of Unit 1
Put the words into Chinese tortoise / shelled reptile/ longevity/ hibernate/ lifespan 2. Put the following words into three categories. sofa boots ketch couch divan settee yacht wellingtons dinghy sailing boat bottees

3. Write English expressions of the following punctuation ? __________________________ ; ___________________________

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