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Harvard Referencing Guide
Contents
Acknowledging Sources................................................................................................................................................. 1 Variations in Referencing Styles within the Australian School of Business .......................................................................................................................................................................... 1 Using footnotes with in-text referencing How to Create a Reference List using a Harvard Style of Referencing ...................................................................... 1 Steps Involved in Referencing ....................................................................................................................................... 2 How to Cite References within the Text of an Assignment ......................................................................................... 2 Authors with the same surname and same publication year……………………………………………………………………2 Works with no author ........................................................................................................................................................ 3 Multiple authors ................................................................................................................................................................. 3 For a work that has more than three authors .................................................................................................................... 3 Writing References or a Bibliography ........................................................................................................................... 3

Book ................................................................................................................................................................................. 3
Book with a single author .................................................................................................................................................. 3 Book with two authors ....................................................................................................................................................... 3 Book with three or more authors ....................................................................................................................................... 3 Book with no author (note edition).................................................................................................................................... 3 More than one item by the same author/organisation published in the same year............................................................ 3

Articles/chapters in book ............................................................................................................................................... 4
Article or chapter in a book (no author) ............................................................................................................................. 4

Books prepared by an editor, translator, reviser or compiler................................................................................... 4 Journal Article ................................................................................................................................................................. 4
Journal Article (no author) ................................................................................................................................................. 4

Periodicals....................................................................................................................................................................... 5
Periodical with one author ................................................................................................................................................. 5 Periodical with two authors................................................................................................................................................ 5 Periodical with three or more authors ................................................................................................................................ 5

Newspapers and magazines ........................................................................................................................................ 5
Newspapers and magazines: author identified.................................................................................................................. 5 Newspapers and magazines: author not identified............................................................................................................ 5

Published conference or seminar proceedings ......................................................................................................... 5 Citation within a citation (secondary source) ............................................................................................................. 5
Minor citation from a secondary source ............................................................................................................................ 5 Significant citation from a secondary source ..................................................................................................................... 6

Unpublished material ..................................................................................................................................................... 6
Unpublished material: Personal communications.............................................................................................................. 6 Unpublished material: Personal manuscripts .................................................................................................................... 6 Unpublished material: Unpublished thesis ........................................................................................................................ 7 Unpublished conference, meeting, seminar papers or unpublished reports ...................................................................... 7 Unpublished material: Lecture, interview .......................................................................................................................... 7 Unpublished lecture notes ................................................................................................................................................. 7

Harvard Referencing Guide Materials produced for students of education institutions ........................................................................................ 8 Publication sponsored by an organisation ................................................................................................................. 8
Publication sponsored by an organisation: Individual authors directly identified ............................................................... 9 Publication written by an organisation: Individual authors indirectly identified................................................................... 9 Publication written by an organisation: Individual authors not identified ............................................................................ 9 Publication written by an organisation: The organisation is the publisher ....................................................................... 10 Publication written by an organisation: Brochures and pamphlets .................................................................................. 10

Publication in which authors cannot be identified ................................................................................................... 10 Encyclopaedia article................................................................................................................................................... 10
Encyclopaedia article: Author identified .......................................................................................................................... 10 Encyclopaedia article: Author not identified..................................................................................................................... 10

Government and Parliamentary Publications .......................................................................................................... 11
Act of Parliament ............................................................................................................................................................. 10 Australian Bureau of Statistics Bulletin ............................................................................................................................ 10 Government Report ......................................................................................................................................................... 10 Audiovisual Examples .................................................................................................................................................. 11 Web Documents and Sites ........................................................................................................................................... 11 Web document (no author).............................................................................................................................................. 12 Website ........................................................................................................................................................................... 12 On-line journal or periodicals........................................................................................................................................... 12 Newspaper: article on WWW .......................................................................................................................................... 12 Online Images ................................................................................................................................................................. 13 Conference Proceedings ................................................................................................................................................. 13 Email ............................................................................................................................................................................... 13 Discussion List ................................................................................................................................................................ 13 Email list server ............................................................................................................................................................... 13 ERIC Document (microfiche) .......................................................................................................................................... 13 Journal Article from Electronic Database ........................................................................................................................ 14 Abstract .......................................................................................................................................................................... 14 Full text journal article from Electronic Database ........................................................................................................... 14 Full text Newspaper Article from Factiva (no author, no page number) ......................................................................... 14

Harvard Referencing Guide

Acknowledging Sources
Referencing is a standardized method of acknowledging sources for information and ideas that you have used in your writing in a way that uniquely identifies their sources. Direct quotations, paraphrases, facts and figures, ideas and theories both from published and unpublished sources must be referenced. Sources for your written (text) and graphic material may include books, journal or magazine articles, newspapers, company, government or institutional reports, websites or personal communication.

Variations in Referencing Styles within the Australian School of Business
There are many styles of referencing, but they can be divided into two main types. The first is the footnote or endnote referencing style and the second is in-text referencing. This Harvard Referencing Guide shows a variation of the Harvard style which is an example of an in-text referencing style. In this system within the text, the author’s name is given first followed by the publication date and usually the page number/s for the source. The list of references or bibliography at the end of the document contains the full details listed in alphabetical order for all the in-text citations. The Schools within the Australian School of Business may have differing referencing requirements, for example, the School of Business Law and Taxation requires the legal footnote method of referencing. If you take courses in this School you will be given information about how to write references using this method. All other Schools prefer the in-text referencing style. There are a number of different styles of in-text referencing. The most common ones are the Harvard style and the APA style. These two styles are very similar, but there are some differences in punctuation. Many lecturers in the Australian School of Business will accept any major style of referencing as long as it is used consistently and correctly. However, some lecturers provide very precise instructions on the style of referencing they expect you to follow in their course outlines. If in doubt, use the Harvard referencing style and be consistent in application of the variation you use. Using footnotes with in-text referencing Additional information, for example, a list of statistics, can be put into a numbered footnote at the bottom of a page and acknowledged by a superior figure placed above the line of type within the text.

How to Create a Reference List using a Harvard Style of Referencing
A list of references contains details only of those works cited in the text. If relevant sources not cited in the text are included, the list is normally called a bibliography. The References or Bibliography is arranged alphabetically, by author. Where an item has no author, it is cited by its title and ordered in the reference list or bibliography in sequence by the first significant word of the title. The Harvard style in this Guide requires that the second line of the reference be indented to highlight the alphabetical order, for example: Butler, J. D. & Walbert, D.F. (eds) 1986, Abortion, Medicine and the Law, Facts on File Publications, New York. 1

Harvard Referencing Guide

Steps Involved in Referencing
Take down full bibliographical details and include the page number(s) from which the information is taken. In the case of a book, "bibliographical details" refers to: ? author/editor ? year of publication ? title ? edition ? volume number ? publisher and place of publication. Note: not all of these details will necessarily be applicable. In the case of a journal article it refers to: ? author of article ? year of publication ? title of article ? journal/serial title ? volume number ? issue number ? page numbers on which the article appears. In the case of electronic information it refers to: ? Author (person or organization), editor or compiler. ? Year of the most recent version. If date of origin is not given, write 'n.d' (no date). ? Title (should be on the first page of the document) ? Version number (if applicable) ? Description of document (if applicable) ? Name and place of the sponsor of the source ? Viewed Day Month Year ? <URL either full location details or just the main site details>. Note: not all of these details will necessarily be applicable

How to Cite References within the Text of an Assignment
When citing references within the text of an assignment use only the name of the author, followed by the year of publication: Or Larsen (1991) was the first to propound the theory The theory was first propounded in 1990 by Larsen (1991).

When directly quoting from another source, ensure that quotation marks are used and the relevant page number(s) are given: Or Larsen (1991, p. 245) noted that ‘many of the facts in this case are incorrect’. 'Many of the facts in this case are incorrect' (Larsen 1991, pp. 245-6).

Authors with the same surname and same publication year Including the initials of the authors in the in-text citation indicates different people: Based upon research conducted in 2003, the theory was developed in early 2004 (Broad, K.L 2005) and was later modified to…(Broad, M.P 2005).

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Harvard Referencing Guide

Works with no author When a work has no author (including legal materials) or the author is anonymous, cite in-text the first few words of the reference list or bibliography entry (usually the title) and the year. Use italics for the title as follows: This was apparently not the case in seventeenth-century England (On travelling to London 1683). Or On travelling to London (1683) reveals that this was not true. Multiple authors When a work by two or three authors is cited in parentheses, the textual reference should be as: (Larsen & Green 1989) Or (Larsen, Green & Withers 1987) When the authors' names are incorporated in the text, the ampersand (&) is replaced by 'and': Larsen and Green (1989) were unable.... Larsen, Green and Withers (1987) agreed.... For a work that has more than three authors In the first instance, cite all authors. In subsequent citations, use the surname of the first listed author, followed by the expression 'et al.' (and others). For example, a work by Larsen, Green, Withers and Gonzales becomes: Larsen et al. (1990) have found.... Or ....is the best example (Larsen et al. 1990). However if the first listed author has also combined with other authors and there is a textual reference to such work, then names of all authors must be given each time they are cited for example: by Larsen, Green, Broome and Southers (1991).

Writing References or a Bibliography
Book ? Author/editor ? year of publication ? title ? edition ? volume number ? publisher and place of publication. Note: not all of these details will necessarily be applicable Book with a single author Adam-Smith, P. 1978, The ANZACS, Thomas Nelson, Melbourne. Book with two authors Butler, J. D. & Walbert, D.F. 1986, Abortion, Medicine and the Law, Facts on File Publications, New York. Book with three or more authors Leeder, S. R., Dobson, A. J., Gibberd, R. W. & Patel, N. K. 1996, The Australian Film Industry, Dominion Press, Adelaide. Book with no author (note edition) The Australian Concise Oxford Dictionary 1992, 2nd edn, Oxford University Press, Melbourne. More than one item by the same author/organisation published in the same year (note the use of a…b…) Anorexia nervosa 1989a, American Society of Holistic Medicine, vol. 2, pp.213-6. 3

Harvard Referencing Guide

Anorexia nervosa 1989b, British Medical Journal, vol. 1, pp.529-530 Dewhirst, C. 1986a, 'Cold water around the Antarctic', World Geographic, vol. 1, no. 5, pp. 8-9. Dewhirst, C. 1986b, 'Hot air over the Himalayas', World Geographic, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 4-5. Articles/chapters in book Bibliographic details are arranged in the sequence: Author of chapter year of publication chapter title title of book editor(s) of book publisher place of publication article or chapter pages For example: Blaxter, M. 1976, 'Social class and health inequalities', in Equalities and Inequalities in Health, eds C. Carter & J. Peel, Academic Press, London, pp.120-135. Article or chapter in a book (no author) 'Solving the Y2K problem' 1997, in Technology Today and Tomorrow, ed. D. Bowd, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, p.67. Books prepared by an editor, translator, reviser or compiler In some circumstances, an editor, translator, reviser or compiler may have primary responsibility for preparing a book using materials from one or more authors with permission. The title page will show the editor's name if the editor has primary responsibility for the publication, otherwise the author's name and not the editor's name will be shown on the title page. Show the name of the editor, translator, reviser or compiler in the first position rather than the author(s) and show the family name followed by the initials. In brackets after the name and initials, show (ed.), (trans.), (rev.) or (comp.) after the name of the editor, translator, reviser or compiler. Parer, M.S. (ed.) 1989, Development, design and distance education, Centre for Distance Learning, Churchill, Victoria. Journal Article Bibliographic details are arranged in the sequence: ? author of journal article ? year of publication ? article title ? title of journal ? volume of journal ? issue number of journal ? article pages Dewhirst, C. 1986, 'Hot air over the Himalayas', World Geographic, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 44-45. Journal Article (no author) ‘Anorexia nervosa’ 1989, British Medical Journal, vol 1, pp.529-530. Periodicals Where there are two or more authors, all authors must be listed. Authors must be listed in the order in which their names appear at the beginning of the article. 4

Harvard Referencing Guide

Periodical with one author Allen, M. 1995, 'The role of instructional designers in Australia', Distance Education, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 26-44. Periodical with two authors Allen, M. & Black, R. 1995, 'The role of instructional designers in Australia', Distance Education, Vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 26-44. Periodical with three or more authors Allen, M., Zuboff, T. & Black, R. 1995, 'The role of instructional designers in Australia', Distance Education, vol. 16, no.1, pp. 26-44. Newspapers and magazines If a newspaper article gives the name of the author, use the same pattern that is used for a journal or periodical, but show the day and month of the issue instead of the volume and issue number. Where 'The' occurs as the first word in the name of the newspaper, it is omitted. The name of the newspaper is shown in italic with maximal capitalisation. If the name of the author is not identified, start with the article title and year of publication, the newspaper's name, the date of issue and page reference. Newspapers and magazines: author identified Reid, I. 1996, 'Face the dilemma of learn versus earn', Australian, 21 August, p. 32. Illing, D. & Healy, G. 1996, 'Campuses fear impact of postgrad cuts', Australian, 21 August, p. 29. Legge, K. 1987, 'Labor to cost the "Keating Factor" ', Times on Sunday, 1 Feb., p. 2. Newspapers and magazines: author not identified 'Diesel rebate stays' 1996, Morning Bulletin, 21 August, p. 4. Published conference or seminar proceedings Papers presented at conferences and seminars are often compiled and published as proceedings. The reference information required and the sequence of elements are the same as those for a chapter in a book. The title of the published proceedings should be in italics followed by supplementary information in Roman type. This supplementary information should include details of the conference, including the location, date and year of the conference. The learned society, association, organisation or professional body responsible for publishing the proceedings should be shown as the publisher. If the papers presented at a conference are not collected and published as proceedings, they should be described using the rules for unpublished material. Smith, A. J. & Veness, D. 1995, 'Print lives! The role of print-based materials in an age of Technology', in Distance education: Crossing frontiers, Papers for the 12th biennial forum of the Open and Distance Learning Association of Australia, Vanuatu, September 1995, F. Nouwens (ed), Open and Distance Learning Association of Australia, Central Queensland University, Rockhampton, pp. 241-246. Citation within a citation (secondary source) You have a publication (the primary source) in which the author cites material from another publication (the secondary source). In your writing you wish to use ideas, words or information from the secondary source. How such a secondary source is cited and referenced depends on how you use the ideas, words or information it presents. Minor citation from a secondary source If the secondary source (Morris in the example given) is claimed only as an authority to support your argument, mention the secondary publication as part of 5

Harvard Referencing Guide

the in-text citation: Morris' study (cited in Smith 2003, p. 23) Or (in Smith 2003, p.23) explained why… and only show the primary source (Smith) in the bibliography, that is: Smith, A.M. 2003, Technology options, CQU Press, Rockhampton. Significant citation from a secondary source If you are using actual words quoted directly from the secondary source (Morris) in the primary source (Smith) or if you wish to make significant use of the ideas or information offered by the secondary source, cite the secondary source in the text: As described in Smith (2003, p. 23), Morris (2002) presents this critical process in detail. Show both primary and secondary references in the reference list using Smith's reference list to provide the reference for Morris: Morris, M.R. 2002, 'Student performance and the use of computer mediated communication in distance education', Journal of Computer Mediated Communication, vol. 3, no. 2, p.3. Smith, A.M. 2003, Technology options, CQU Press, Rockhampton. Unpublished material Research may involve use of work from materials that are not sold or distributed to the public that is not published. Unpublished material may include: ? ? ? ? ? Personal communications like letters or conversations Personal documents such as a manuscript records of meetings papers distributed at a conference but not subsequently published a thesis.

The reference information presented should be selected to guide the reader to the original document should he or she desire to read it. The elements and pattern of the reference information may be different for each source, but it is important to try to present the information in a consistent style where this is possible. Unpublished material: Personal communications Personal communication such as conversations, letters, telephone calls, faxes is not included in the references or bibliography. All the referencing information required to find the material should be given in the text with the citation. It is very important to get permission from your source to use the material. During a telephone conversation on 3 August 2002, Mr S. Towers stated... In an email message on 21 April 1996, Dr A. Bork suggested... If later reference is made to the personal communication it can be cited in the text as: (Mr S. Towers 2002, pers. comm. 3 August) (Dr A. Bork 1996, pers. Comm, 21 April) Or Or Towers (2002, pers. comm. 3 August) Bork (1996, pers. Comm, 21 April)

Unpublished material: Personal manuscripts Personal manuscripts used in a work should be shown in the list of references. The year(s) during which the manuscript was produced should be shown instead of the year of publication. The title of the manuscript is shown in Roman type with minimal capitalization and without quotation marks. The location of the manuscript is usually shown by the name of the person or organisation in possession and their city. The following basic elements are required: Wilkins, G. 1915, The early settlement of Yeppoon, in possession of the Livingstone Shire Council 6

Harvard Referencing Guide

Library, Yeppoon. Wilkins, G. 1915, The early settlement of Yeppoon, in possession of K.A. Wilkins, Yeppoon. Wilkins, K. 1973-75, The early settlement of Yeppoon, in possession of the author, Yeppoon. Unpublished material: Unpublished thesis A thesis used in a work should be shown in the list of references. The year in which the thesis was completed should be shown instead of the year of publication. The title of the thesis is shown in Roman type with minimal capitalisation and without quotation marks. The level of the thesis, for example, 'PhD thesis', 'MA thesis' should also be shown. The following example shows the basic elements are required: Wood, K. 1965, The settlement of Yepp 1852-1872, PhD thesis, Central Queensland University. Unpublished conference, meeting, seminar papers or unpublished reports An unpublished conference, meeting or seminar paper used in a work should be shown in the list of references. The year in which the paper was presented should be shown instead of the year of publication. The title of the paper is shown in Roman type with minimal capitalisation and without quotation marks. The details of the conference, seminar or meeting should include the organisation under whose auspices the conference, seminar or meeting took place, its location and date(s). The following basic elements are required: Smith, A. J. & Veness, D. 1995, Print lives! The role of print-based materials in an age of technology, paper presented at the12th biennial forum of the Open and Distance Learning Association of Australia, Vanuatu, 19-23 September. Wood, K. 1965, The settlement of Yeppoon 1852-1872, paper presented to the Rockhampton Historical Society, Rockhampton, Queensland, 23 September. UNILEARN, 1995, Business plan 1996-1999, confidential report to UNILEARN Management Committee, Brisbane, 13th December 1995. Unpublished material: Lecture, interview This may be presented in the same manner as personal communications. Include notes made by the teacher on blackboards or an overhead projector or PowerPoint slides, if the teacher does not distribute copies on paper. Show all the reference information in your text. It need not be included in the reference list or bibliography at the end of your work. Show the nature of the presentation (lecture, tutorial, workshop etc.), the date, the name of the teaching organisation, the location and the presenter's name. Note that no italics and no quotation marks are shown. In a lecture, English 20101: Introduction to Linguistics, presented on 21 April 2003 at Central Queensland University, Rockhampton, Dr A. Bork suggested... C. Davis, principal at St Peter's College, said in an interview on 2 September 2002, that... Unpublished lecture notes Teachers' handouts that are available to the class but not to the general public are unpublished. They may be referenced in the same way as unpublished seminar papers presented at a conference, seminar or meeting. Show the author's name, year presented, the topic of the presentation, the unit being presented (maximal capitalisation) the name of teaching organisation, location and date. Note that no italics or quotation marks are shown. 7

Harvard Referencing Guide

Bork, A. 2000, Open channel flow, lecture notes distributed in the unit Applied Hydraulics at Central Queensland University, Rockhampton on 21 April, 2000. Materials produced for students of education institutions Teaching organisations may produce books like Study Guides for distance education or resourcebased teaching programs. Usually, these study materials are not 'published' because they are not sold or distributed to the public. Copyright licences restrict use of these materials to enrolled students. These books of study materials often contain copies of published material copied under licence. Reference details, required for information obtained from copies of such published materials (e.g. a book, periodical, etc.), should be presented in the normal form for a book or periodical. In addition, these study materials usually contain the original work prepared by the teaching organisation for the Unit or Subject offered. If you wish to cite such material, the reference material should be presented in a format similar to that shown for unpublished lecturer's notes. Show the author's name, year presented, the name and number of the unit being presented (maximal capitalisation), a description of the item (e.g. study guide, book of readings, audiotape, computer disk) the name of teaching organisation, location and study period. No italics or quotation marks are shown. Bork, A. 2000, Applied Hydraulics 65150, a study guide distributed by Central Queensland University, Rockhampton for Winter Term, 2000. Bork, A. 2000, Applied Hydraulics 65150, audiotape no.3 distributed by Central Queensland University, Rockhampton for Winter Term, 2000. Publication sponsored by an organisation You may need to make some judgment about whether a book sponsored by an organisation was primarily the work of, and expresses the views of individual authors; whether it has been written primarily by the organisation; or whether the publishing organisation has not written the publication but owns and publishes it. If the individual authors are directly identified on the cover, title page or copyright page of the book they should be shown in the reference as authors. If they are not identified directly, follow the examples set out below. For many government publications, the author may be shown as a department or a committee. If the author is also the publisher, show the author as the usual first element in the reference and show the word 'author' where the publisher's name normally occurs (see examples under Publication written by an organisation: The organisation is the publisher). For many government publications where individuals are shown in the reference as the authors, an extra element - supplementary information - may be included in the reference after the title of the publication to show: ? ? ? the status of the publication (e.g. draft report), the chair of the committee writing the publication, the special initiative, government program or department funding the publication

When there is some doubt about how much information to show, show more rather than less information. Note that the government publisher responsible for publishing (that is, making the publication available to the public) is shown as the publisher, while the government department that sponsors the publication should be identified in the supplementary information element described above. Careful study of the following examples shows how these situations are referenced. Publication sponsored by an organisation: Individual authors directly identified 8

Harvard Referencing Guide

Use the rules for setting out a reference for a book when a publication clearly identifies the author(s) on the cover, title page or copyright page. To provide reference information for material in a chapter of an organisational publication when that chapter clearly identifies the author(s) near the chapter title, use the rules for setting out a reference for a chapter in a book. Lally, M. & Myhill, M. 1994, Teaching quality: The development of valid instruments of Assessment, Evaluations and Investigations Program report to the Department of Employment Education and Training, AGPS, Canberra. Muirhead, J. 1994, Promoting mental health, Yangulla Rural Health Training Unit, Rockhampton. Shapiro, B. 1993, 'Mass higher education: Problems and challenges', in conference proceedings The transition from elite to mass higher education, Department of Employment Education and Training, AGPS, Canberra. Publication written by an organisation: Individual authors indirectly identified Where the authors are not identified directly on the cover, title page or copyright page, and the publication was written for the organisation by an identifiable group, then the name of the group, department, organisation, commission, council or committee responsible for writing the publication should be shown as the first element in the reference, that is, as the author. The remaining elements of the reference are laid out following the rules for a book but the following additional elements may be added to clearly identify the publication. Supplementary information may be shown after the title showing the official status of the publication and any other necessary information. Where the authors are not identified directly on the cover, title page or copyright page, but major contributors are identified in a preface such as a letter from the chair of an inquiry, committee or commission responsible for preparing the report, the name of the chairperson and other major contributors may be identified in brackets before the publisher. Industry Task Force on Leadership and Management Skills, 1995, Enterprising nation: Renewing Australia's managers to meet the challenges of the Asia-Pacific century, Executive summary, (D.S. Karpin, chairperson), AGPS, Canberra. Population Issues Committee, 1991, Population issues and Australia's future: Environment, economy, society, National Population Council, (G. Withers, chairperson), AGPS, Canberra. Publication written by an organisation: Individual authors not identified If the individual authors are not identified but the publication was written within an identifiable group or organisation, the group or organisation responsible for writing the material should be shown as the author. The reference may include a supplementary information element after the title showing catalogue numbers, the series title if the publication is part of a series of publications, the official status of the publication, the department funding, the publication and other information required to describe the publication. Australian Bureau of Statistics 1995, Deaths Australia 1994, Cat. no. 3302.0, ABS, Canberra. Bureau of Industry Economics, 1995, Science awareness and understanding: How Australia ranks in international surveys, Occasional Paper no. 30, AGPS, Canberra. Division of Workplace Health and Safety 1994, Health and safety: A guide for the office, Department of Employment Vocational Education Training and Industrial Relations, Goprint, Brisbane. Department of Employment and Industrial Relations 1985, Annual report 1984-85, AGPS, Canberra. 9

Harvard Referencing Guide

State of the Environment Advisory Council 1996, Australia: State of the environment, Executive Summary for the Commonwealth Minister for the Environment, CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne. Xerox Corporation 1988, Xerox publishing standards, Watson-Guptill Publications, New York. Publication written by an organisation: The organisation is the publisher. If the author is both an organisation and the publisher, the reference begins with the author/publisher's name. It then follows the normal pattern for a book, but the word 'Author' is placed before the place of publication instead of the publisher's name. Macquarie Library 1987, The Macquarie dictionary , revised edn, Author, Sydney. University of Chicago Press 1982, The Chicago manual of style, 13th edn revised, Author, Chicago. Publication written by an organisation: Brochures and pamphlets Many organisations and government departments distribute information to the public. This material is 'published' if members of the public can request and obtain the material from the organisation that produces it. Such publications rarely show the names of authors or date of publication. In such cases, show the organisation as the author, the approximate date if the actual date is not shown, the title, the organisation as the publisher and the location of the publisher. Capricornia Electricity 1995a, Water heating, Author, Rockhampton. Capricornia Electricity 1995b, Heating and saving, Author, Rockhampton. Publication in which authors cannot be identified It is not possible to acknowledge authors of publications compiled from the work of many people over many years or identify authors of publications produced from contributions by many authors from a number of organisations. In such circumstances, an organisation (or publisher) cannot claim to be the author though it may be responsible for and own the publication. Note that this situation does not apply where many authors work on one publication for one organisation. This organisation is the author. Such publications are shown with no author. The title is shown first in the reference. Lithographer's manual 1983, 7th edn, The Graphic Arts Technical Foundation, Pittsburgh. The Times atlas of the world 1986, 7th edn, Times Books, London. Webster's new collegiate dictionary 1981, 8th edn, Merriam-Webster, Springfield Ma. Encyclopaedia article In an encyclopaedia where the authors' names are given for major articles, the reference may be set out like a reference for an article in a periodical. Authors of major articles are often identified in the encyclopaedia by initials or a shortened form of their name at the end of their article. For example in the article 'Metabolism' in the following examples, the authors were identified by the short forms Ha.Ko.and S.Ge. The encyclopaedia has an index, 'Initials of Contributors' that gives details of each author. The names of authors of minor articles are not usually given. The reference is set out much like a newspaper article where the author is not identified. Encyclopaedia article: Author identified Korn, H. & Genuth, S. 1991, 'Metabolism', Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edn, vol. 23, pp. 975-7. Encyclopaedia article: Author not identified 'Linoleum' 1991, Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edn, vol.7, p. 381. Government and Parliamentary Publications Act of Parliament Copyright Act 1968 (Cwth), ss.1-3 10

Harvard Referencing Guide

Australian Bureau of Statistics Bulletin Australian Bureau of Statistics, 1985, Domestic travel and tourism survey, Australia, 1983, Cat. no. 9216.0, ABS, Canberra. Government Report Office of the Status of Women 1981, Fair Exposure, AGPS, Canberra.

Audiovisual examples
The following details should be provided in a reference list - title, date of recording, format, publisher, place of recording. Any special credits and other information that might be useful can be noted after the citation. Type DVD Video Motion picture Examples Fahrenheit 9/11 2004, DVD, Columbia TriStar Home Entertainment, Culver City, Calif. Written, produced and directed by Michael Moore. Grumpy meets the orchestra 1992, video recording, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Sydney. Featuring the Sydney Symphony Orchestra. Sunday too far away 1975, motion picture, South Australian Film Corporation, Adelaide. Distributed by Rainbow Products Ltd, Sydney, and starring Jack Thompson, Reg Lye and Max Cullen. What are we going to do with the money? 1997, television program, ABC Television, Sydney, 8 August. The search for meaning 1998, radio program, ABC Radio, Sydney, 24 March. Australia through time 1994, CD-ROM, Random ROM in assoc. with the ABC, Sydney.

Television program Radio program CD-ROM

Web documents and sites
As provided above for electronic sources, the bibliographic details for web documents are: ? Author (person or organization), editor or compiler. ? Year of the most recent version. If date of origin is not given, write 'n.d' (no date). ? Title (should be on the first page of the document) ? Version number (if applicable) ? Description of document (if applicable) ? Name and place of the sponsor of the source ? Viewed Day Month Year ? <URL either full location details or just the main site details>. Examples Anderson, J (Minister for Transport and Regional Services) 2000, CASA approves avgas contamination test, media release, 23 January, Department of Transport and Regional Services, Canberra, viewed 7 February 2000, <http://www.dotrs.gov.au/media/anders/archive/2000/jan_00/al6_2000.htm>. AWB Limited 2006a, AWB and the single desk, AWB Limited, Melbourne, Victoria, viewed 1 June 2006, <http://www.awb.com.au/aboutawb/factsandindustryinformation/ singledeskbenefits/AWBandTheSingleDesk.htm>.

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Harvard Referencing Guide

------- 2006b, Inquiry into the United Nations Oil-for-Food Program - statement from the Board of AWB Limited, AWB Limited, Melbourne, Victoria, viewed 1 June 2006, <http://www.awb.com.au/aboutawb/media/InquiryIntoTheUnitedNationsOilforFoodProgram.htm>. Florek, S 2003, Megafauna extinction: patterns of extinction, fact sheet, Australian Museum, Sydney, viewed 14 June 2008, <http://www.austmus.gov.au/factsheets/megafauna.htm>. Wright, S n.d., Open area test site (OATS) development, undergraduate project, University of Southern Queeensland, Toowoomba, viewed 27 March 2007, <http://eprints.usq.edu.au/archive/00000047>. Web document (no author) Title Year, version number (if applicable), description of document (if applicable), name and place of the sponsor of the source, viewed Day Month Year, <URL either full location details or just the main site details>. Example: Educating America for the 21st century: developing a strategic plan for educational leadership by Columbia University 1993-2000(initial workshop draft) 1994, draft workshop report, Institute for Learning technologies,Columbia University, viewed 16 May 1995, <http://ariel.adgrp.com/~ghb/trips/940717_ICT/policy/ILT/EdPlan.html>. Website Author (the person or organisation responsible for the site) Year (that the site was created or last revised), name and place of the sponsor of the source, viewed Day Month Year,<URL>. for example: American Psychological Association 2004, American Psychological Association, USA, viewed 12 November 2004, <http://www.apa.org/>. To cite a Website within the text of an assignment name the Website, for example: the American Psychological Association’s website (2004). On-line journal or periodicals ? author of journal article ? year of publication ? article title ? title of journal ? volume of journal ? issue number of journal ? page numbers (for pdf articles) or indication of length ? viewed date ? supplier/database name/identifier or number if available/item or accession number von Urff, C.A. 1996, 'Information systems: Agents for change', Journal of Excellence in Higher Education, vol. 1, no. 1, pp37-55, viewed 3 July 1996, <http://204.17.16.101/Journal/Summer96/paper1.htm>. Newspaper article on the WWW Author Year, 'Article title', Newspaper Title, Day Month, page number (if given), viewed Day Month Year, <URL>. Example: Cleary, P & Lewis, S 2001, 'It's the end of a long boom', The Australian Financial Review, 8 March, viewed 8 March 2001, <http://afr.com/australia/2001/03/08/FFXIM9PU0KC.html>. 12

Harvard Referencing Guide

Online images Author (the person or organisation responsible, if available) Year, Title of image (or a description), description of document (if applicable), name and place of the sponsor of the source, viewed Day Month Year, <URL either full location details or just the main site details>. If there is no named author, put the image title first followed by the date. Title of image (or a description) Year, description of document (if applicable), name and place of the sponsor of the source, viewed Day Month Year, <URL either full location details or just the main site details>. Examples: The lunar interior 1999, PlanetScapes, US, viewed 31 January 2003, <http://www.planetscapes.com/solar/browse/moon/moonint.jpg>. Australia 2007, Country map, MapQuest, United Kingdom, viewed 11 March 2008, <http://www.mapquest.co.uk/mq/maps/mapAddress.do>. Lane, M & Cook, J 1775, A general chart of the island of Newfoundland, digital image of cartographic material, Wikimedia Commons, viewed 11 March 2008, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Cooks_Karte_von_Neufundland.jpg>. AC Nielsen 2008, Consumer confidence, concerns, spending and attitudes to recession: a global Nielsen consumer report, digital image, AC Nielsen, viewed 21 August 2008, <http://au.acnielsen.com/site/documents/GlobalNielsenConsConfConcReportJune08b.pdf>. Conference proceedings Willis, S. 1996, 'Interface to interactivity: Technologies and techniques', paper presented at the Australian Computers in Education Conference 1996, viewed 28 August 2000, <http://www.spirit.com.au/ACEC96/papers/canberra.htm>. Email An email may be treated like an unpublished personal communication. Note: it is very important to get the permission of the person being referred to before using any of the information in a document. Such material is not shown in a reference list or bibliography. The full details are shown in the text itself. For example: In an email message on 13 December 1999, Dr Corliss suggested... OR an email may be listed in the reference list as a source for example: Corliss, B. 1999, Seattle News, email to X.Li 13 Dec., viewed 15 January 2000, <Xli@uvmvm.uvm.edu>. Discussion List Berkowitz, P. 2001, April 3, 'Sussy's gravestone', Mark Twain Forum, viewed 3 April 2001, Email: TWAIN-L@yorkvm1.bitnet. Email list server Murphy, L <murphy@rockets.com.au> 2000,’News for old hacks’, list server, 20 January, National Journalists Association, viewed 7 February, <http://www.nja.net.au/listserv/>. ERIC Document (microfiche) Davis, R.K., & Lombardi, T.P. 1996, 'The quality of life of rural high school special Education graduates': A follow-up study in Rural goals 2000: Building programs that work, [Microfiche]. ERIC Document: ED394765 Journal Article from Electronic Database Author Year, 'Article title', Journal Title, volume, issue, paging (if given), viewed Day Month 13

Harvard Referencing Guide

Year, Name of database service, Name of database, item number (if given). For example: Sale, P. & Carey, D.M. 1995, 'The sociometric status of students with disabilities in a full inclusion school', Exceptional Children, vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 6-22, viewed 2 May 2002, [Information Access/Expanded Academic ASAP/A17435391]. Goodyear-Smith, F. 2001, ‘Health and safety issues pertaining to genetically modified foods’, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 371-375, viewed 3 September 2003, [Bell & Howell/ProQuest]. Full text newspaper article from Factiva (no author, no page number) 'Backbytes - spicing up the internet', 1998, Daily Mirror, 24 Jan., 1,130 words, viewed 10 February 2000, [Factiva]. _____________________________________________________________________________ Information for the Harvard Referencing Guide has been adapted from the following: Li, X. & Crane, N. B. 1996, Electronic Styles: A Handbook for Citing Electronic Information, 2nd edn, Information Today, Medford, New Jersey. Nouwens, F., Bennett. S & Meyer, J. 1997 'Referencing: A Basic Guide for Students', prepared by the Division of Distance and Continuing Education at the University of Queensland, viewed 20 May 1999, <http://www.ddce.cqu.edu.au/refandcitation/home/html>. Style Manual for Authors, Editors and Printers 1994, 5th edn, AGPS, Canberra. Style Manual for Authors, Editors and Printers 2002, 6th edn, John Wiley and Sons, Australia. University Southern Queensland, 2009, Referencing guides, viewed 20 May 2009. <http://www.usq.edu.au/library/help/referencing/harvard.htm#Web_documents_and_sites>

May 2009. Updated by Louise Fitzgerald, Education Development Unit. Contact: Email: edu@unsw.edu.au, Phone: 9385 5584

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