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The Art of Public Speaking


The Art of Public Speaking
By Deng Hongfeng

Chapter One Why Public Speaking
If all my talents and powers were to be taken from me by some unscrutable Providence, and I had my choice of keeping but one, I would unhesitatingly ask to be allowed to keep the Power of Speaking, for through it I would quickly recover all the rest. ? —Daniel Webster
?
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Speak to win
? Public

speaking affects every aspect of communication. It refers to your ability to get ideas across and to inform and persuade your audience. Even though most people admit to disliking it, everyone has to rely on his or her speaking abilities
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Thomas Macaulay wrote about William Pitt the Younger, who
became Prime Minister of England at the age of 24:
? "Parliamentary

government is government by speaking. In such a government, the power of speaking is the most highly prized of all the qualities which a politician can possess…
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Macaulay

Pitt

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Examples of the careers of two executives at a large manufacturing firm.
?

She was a highly persuasive speaker who had studied public speaking and ran dynamic meetings. She really knew how to inform and persuade. He, on the other hand, was a dull speaker. After five years, she was vice president of their division, and he was still a manager. Needless to say, the executives may well have been equally competent. If you don't use public speaking to your advantage, someone else will use it to his or hers.
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Chapter Two: Overcome Fear
? The

only thing we have to fear is fear itself. —Franklin Delano Roosevelt ? The mind is a wonderful thing—it starts working the minute you're born and never stops until you get up to speak in public. —Roscoe Drummond
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Fear of Fears :to speak in public
? According

to The Book of Lists, public speaking—not bugs, heights, deep water, or even death—is the foremost fear in the world.
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The Origins of Public-Speaking Panic
? It's

Lonely in the Spotlight ? How Am I Doing? (It's Hard to Tell) ? I Don't Have the Gift ? Fear is nature's way of helping you protect yourself. New or dangerous situations trigger the "fight or flight" response.
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The four fears shared by all speakers
? Fear

of performing poorly. ? Fear of the audience. ? Fear of embarrassment. ? Fear your material is not good enough.

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Fear of performing poorly

Tame the 4 Fears of Public Speaking
? Fear

of Performing Poorly You are not alone. Worrying about your performance comes with the territory. It haunts novice and experienced performers alike.

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? Even

the most practiced public speakers do battle with nerves; it's a sign you're a true speaker. One night at a convention, a woman entered a room and saw the evening's keynote speaker pacing frantically. She asked him why he was so nervous. "What do you mean? Who's nervous?" he demanded. "If you're not nervous," she replied, "What are you doing in the ladies' room?"
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The Power of Privacy
?

Speaking before a group may seem like the most public act possible, but you still have privacy on your side. You don't have to reveal your nervousness; you can keep it to yourself. You gain nothing by letting others know you're worried; if you act confident, you begin to feel that way, too. People rarely look very nervous, no matter how jittery they feel.
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? Let’s

look at the example of the frightened boy walking past the cemetery on a dark night. As long as he walked casually and whistled gaily, he was fine. When he decided to walk faster, he could not resist the temptation to run; and when he ran, terror took over. It's the same with public speaking: Don't take that first fast step. Don't give in, don't show fear, and don't talk about your fear.
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Tap Into Creative Visualization.
Expectations have a way of fulfilling themselves. If you assume your audience is hostile, you will adopt a defensive and abrupt manner, which is sure to alienate some people. ? Instead, form a mental image of how you want to look: Creative visualization is a technique that works for many public speakers and performers
?
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? Close

your eyes and remember the positive points and audience rapport from your last speech. Imagine an audience of friendly, accepting people. Substitute that vision as the reality in your mind's eye and keep it there. ? Imagine a positive audience reaction, and you're halfway to getting just that.

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? Envision

the role you want to play and act the part. Don't worry about seeming phony—we all have many sides to our characters. You want to show your confident side; it is there for you to tap. With practice, confidence becomes natural and comfortable, and visualization is a powerful tool for gaining that confidence.
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Work With Your Body
? The

following three exercises help you feel better physically: ? Proper breathing. Concentrate on deep nasal breathing using your diaphragm. Breathe through your nose so you don't make your mouth dry.

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? Progressive

relaxation. Working up from your feet, tense different parts of your body and then relax them. You'll lose much of that clamminess and nervousness. ? Easing neck strain. Roll your head in a circle from shoulder to shoulder, as if you were a limp rag doll. This relaxes your throat and vocal cords.
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Practice the 5 Ps:
? 1.

Prana: Prana is an Indian term meaning breath. One of the reasons that breathing through your nose helps relieve fear is that the nasal passages are connected to the limbic system, the part of the brain that controls emotions. Deep breaths calm your emotions and help get nervousness under control.
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?

2. Perception: It's not what happens to us that counts—it's how we perceive what happens to us. Public speaking is a perceptive experience. The more judgmental you perceive the audience to be, the more nervous you will be. Most audiences are not there to judge— they are there to learn something or to be entertained. They want you to be good. They are pulling for you. Focus on what you have to say to them instead of what you think they may be thinking about you.
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? 3.

Psyche yourself up: Imagine yourself not as you think you are, but the way you want to be. Hear the applause at the end of your speech, even before you give it. Use your creative visualization in your spare moments—not only prior to a presentation, but every time you have a few spare moments to daydream.
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?

4. Preparation: Preparation is so important that we will discuss it later. Just remember this: There is nothing as frightening as the unknown. You're prepared when you know your subject matter like you know your best friend's telephone number; you're prepared when you've made a checklist of all the props, visual aids, etc., you need for your presentation (and checked the list twice); you're prepared when you familiarize yourself with the space before you get up to speak.
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? 5.

Practice: The more you practice, the more control you have over the entire speaking experience—and the less nervous you are. You don't practice so that you will be absolutely perfect (although that would be nice). You practice so that you will be comfortable in front of the audience, and so that they can be comfortable with you.
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"Confidence Cards."
?

Aptly named, these notecards help speakers by organizing information, including all the points the speaker wants to make. They bring a sense of control to what often seems like an unwieldy situation. It can be a clipboard or anything that helps you remember what comes next and prompts you, should you lose your place or forget.
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Fear of the Audience

Identify With Your Listeners.
? The

more you know about your listeners, the more you will see them as friends and the less nervous you will be. What are their backgrounds, interests, needs? How will they benefit by hearing you? They want to enjoy listening to you; how can you make that happen?
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Give Passion a Place
? Laura

is not a public speaker, but she talks with total confidence to groups of 300 people about the importance of self-defense. She says she's so excited about her subject and about helping her audience learn to defend itself that she doesn't even think about being nervous.
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Communicate Your Excitement
? Focus

on wanting to tell your listeners something—something you feel is really worth your time and theirs. That kind of excitement is contagious; your audience can't help but catch it. And concentrating on teaching your audience something vital gets you thinking more about it than about yourself—the perfect antidote to fear.
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Remember Who the Expert Is
?

A final note on audience fear: Remember the facts. You were invited to speak. You're supposed to know more about your subject than the audience; you are there because you are more capable of covering the subject than most people. Believe it. As Broadway star Ethel Merman used to say, "If the audience could perform better than I can, they'd be up here on stage singing."
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Fear of Embarrassment

FAST FACTS about Staying Cool
? 1>>

We choke under pressure because such conditions thwart the normal brain processing of tasks that are so well learned they have become “automatic.”

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? 2>>

Trying to concentrate on monitoring the quality of your performance is counterproductive because the cerebellum, which controls complex motor tasks, is not consciously accessible. ? 3>> Ratcheting up the pressure at your practice sessions is the best way to avoid failing when it counts.
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Many people are afraid to get up and speak because they think they'll do something foolish—they'll stumble over words, trip and fall, forget to include their most important point. The thing is, they're right! Embarrassing things do happen. It comes with the territory. ? The good news is that audiences understand that we all make mistakes. What they want to know is how well you can handle them.
?
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Fear that Your Material Is Not Good Enough
This is the easiest fear to overcome because you are in control of preparation and content. You won't be on the spot if you know your subject thoroughly.

Construct Your Speech With Care
?

Do your homework. Research. Prepare. The more thorough your preparations, the more you will be convinced the material is good enough. Work and rework your speech until you know it is interesting, worthwhile, and meaningful to the audience. Then edit it. All good writers will tell you there is no such thing as good writing—only rewriting.
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Fear of New Material
? Experienced

speakers are often afraid to try something new: to change an opening that has always worked, to add new material that hasn't been tested. As scary as public speaking may seem, it's important to take risks.

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Practice Can Make Perfect
? Practice

until you are 100-percent confident. One hour for every minute of your speech is a good rule of thumb. Practice in different settings, at different times, testing different presentation techniques. Practice in front of a mirror, into a tape recorder, for a group of friends—anyone who will take the time to listen to you.
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Mind Over Fear
? Fear

may not be welcome, but it is normal. Every successful speaker has his or her own tricks to psych out fear.

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? The

cerebral cortex (pink) is the site of learning and conscious thought. As a skill is mastered, the cerebellum (blue) takes control.
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? Winston

Churchill liked to imagine that each member of the audience was naked. Franklin Roosevelt pretended that the members all had holes in their socks. Carol Burnett thinks of them sitting on the commode. The point is, even though your mind seems to work overtime before a speech, filling you with dread, you can counter with tricks of the imagination that make you feel confident and in control.
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The Best Tip of Them All: Confidence
?

Fear has its good side: The perception of public speaking as difficult and demanding adds to a confident speaker's power, because people are perceived as more knowledgeable and confident simply because of their ability to conquer the dreaded task of public speaking. That confidence comes from within; once you believe you have the ability to be a confident speaker, it's a lot easier to be just that.
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? The

best way to bolster your confidence before a speech or presentation is to think positively. Saturate your mind with positive thoughts. Repeat to yourself any positive catch phrase that appeals: "I am poised, prepared, persuasive, positive, and powerful. I also feel composed, confident, convincing, commanding, and compelling."
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Professional Projects: Work on Your Fear
? Decide

on your personal action plan for controlling your fear. For example: If your voice shakes when you give a presentation, tell yourself that you are going to practice deep breathing the next time you have to begin speaking. Write it on an index card and study it before each presentation.
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? Never

avoid a chance to present. List three opportunities where you could volunteer to speak and when and how you will arrange to be the speaker. Commit to speak up at least once in every meeting you attend. ? Decide on which visualization technique works best for you and then practice it conscientiously.
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Chapter Three Preparation: The Source of a Speaker's Power
The will to win is nothing, unless you have the will to prepare. —Anonymous

all the ways to banish —one stands out: simple, thorough preparation. For the unprepared speaker, the terror is real; it's a feeling all too close to everyone's classic nightmare in which it's exam time and you didn't go to class all term.... ? But the prepared speaker knows no such terror.
? Of
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There is an old saying that a speech well prepared is nine-tenths delivered.
Lack of preparation would make anybody nervous.
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Audiences Sense and Appreciate Preparation
? Preparation

ensures that your audience will never be in doubt about what you are trying to say—and neither will you. Careful preparation sharpens your perceptions and gives you great confidence. The more homework you do, the more spontaneous, confident, and relaxed you are when you deliver the speech.
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Preparation as Process
? How

do you prepare? The traditional answer—taking notes and memorizing them—is just a small part of it. Real preparation means digging something out of yourself; it means gathering and arranging your thoughts, nurturing your ideas, and finding a unique way to express them.
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?

A speech needs time to grow; don't try to manufacture one in a hurry. Select your topic as soon as you can but don't rush to write down your speech. Start a speech file as soon as you know you will be speaking and put everything that comes to mind in this file: thoughts, quotations, and topics. Let the thinking process go on for a long time—at least two or three weeks— depending on your subject and the length of the speech. Sleep on it; dream about it. Let your ideas sink into your subconscious.
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? Then

bring your evolving speech out of hiding. Make it a topic of conversation at the dinner table. Ask yourself questions about your topic. Write down your thoughts and the examples that come to you. Once you have the pot cooking, keep stirring it and adding new ideas and illustrations. Examples will pop into your head at random times—jot down as many of these inspirations as you can.
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Brood With the Best of Them
? As

you brood, you will be in good historical company. Abraham Lincoln was known to brood on a speech for days or weeks. He carried little notes to himself in his hat. Eventually he arranged these jottings in order, wrote, revised, and shaped his speeches. But up until that last moment, he pondered and polished.
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On the Sunday before he was to deliver the speech dedicating the Gettysburg cemetery, he told a friend that the speech wasn't exactly finished. "I have written it over two or three times," he said, "and I shall have to give it another lick before I am satisfied.“ ? The night before, he closeted himself away from the crowds and practiced his speech. He worked on it all night and was still absorbed in thought as he rode to the cemetery. When the moment came, he delivered the nation's most celebrated 266 words in less than five minutes.
?
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The 14 Easy Steps to Preparation
1.

Think About the Purpose of the Speech. Is the purpose of your talk to inform, to entertain, to persuade, or to call your audience to action? Every speech must have its own topic and reason for being.

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2.

Analyze the Audience. A gossip is one who talks to you about others; a bore is one who talks to you about himself; and a brilliant conversationalist is one who talks to you about yourself. Speak to your audience; know its members and understand their interests, attitudes, goals, and fears. Speak to what they know and care about, and you are on your way to a memorable speech.
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3.

Gather Enough Material. What do you already know and believe about this topic as it relates to this audience? What additional research can/ should you do? This has become so much easier with all that data within instant access on the Internet. Start by collecting all your thoughts and notes. After you have exhausted your thinking on your topic, go to the library, ask colleagues, and research. Imitate the great journalists— they never use most of their research, but doing research gives them a reserve they can draw on. It makes them more expert in their topics than before they began.
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? Then

be ready and willing to discard the unnecessary facts. Select only information relevant to your audience and to this particular speech. Your task is not to elaborate but to simplify and reinforce.

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4 . Compose One Concise Sentence That Clearly States Your Purpose. This will become your focus—or even your title—and, as you put the rest of your speech together, you will constantly refer back to this one line that will keep you on target.

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5 Construct an Outline. Would you build a building without a foundation? You couldn't; and you also can't build your speech until you lay its foundation, which is the outline. In the outline you will reduce your ideas to three or four main sentences or key phrases and arrange them in the most convincing order.
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6. Add Support. Now you will fill out the outline by adding explanations, support, facts, anecdotes, and stories to give depth and meaning to your main points. As a rule of thumb, you can spend 5 percent of your time defining the purpose and mood of your speech, 10 percent of your time outlining, another 10 percent on visuals, and 25 percent practicing.
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?

That leaves 50 percent of your time to spend on working on the support that colors your speech and brings it to life. Your mood could be serious, jovial, or closely tied with concerns facing the audience. Whatever the mood, the support you choose must reinforce the mood you have chosen and ensure that your speech is never boring. Although it's easy to gather facts, they don't make an interesting speech by themselves.
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7. Prepare All Visual Aids. If your speech needs visual aids, fine; if you don't need them, or your material does not lend itself to them, then don't try to fit them in.

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? If

used properly, visual aids can be effective. People remember 40 percent more when they hear and see something simultaneously. But remember that visual aids can be simple: I remember a salesman giving a speech suddenly holding up a shoe with a large hole for the audience to see. He made his point about the necessity of pounding the pavement— and memorably, too.
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8. Devise an Opening With Impact. It may be humorous, surprising, informative, challenging—an opening can be anything original that works for your particular speech. You make your first impression in the introduction; it can cloud all that follows or assure people that what follows is worth listening closely to. It's much better to get your audience's attention first and then explain your purpose.
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9. Craft Your Conclusion. Build up to it, even if you are ending by summarizing your main points. Then end the speech with a strong, dynamic challenge that tells the members of the audience what you expect them to do with the information you've given them. Conclusions, like openings, must be memorable.
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10. Write Your Speech, Polish It, and Edit It. Put it aside for a day or two, then go back and rewrite any parts you think need it. Remember Lincoln and his need to tinker. One way to achieve his admirable conciseness is to edit—ruthlessly. Don't be afraid to cut one-third—or even one-half—of your prose; this will leave you with a text that is stronger, leaner, and clearer. Technical presenters, in particular, are prone to excess words.
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Distill your speech down to the essentials, especially if it is technical, so it will be easier for your audience to follow. Don't be afraid of being brief and clear—too few speakers are.

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?

Effective written communication is different from its oral counterpart. A speech is a temporary event—words float in the air and are gone. Your words will have a better chance of staying with your audience if you take advantage of oral communication's greater informality: Use short sentences and words, colorful language, sentence fragments, contractions, repetition, and questions. All of these work to make your words lively and memorable.
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? And

finally, once you are satisfied, practice your delivery.

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11
? Have

Your Confidence Cards Prepared and Ready. Are they legibly numbered so that if you drop them, you can get them back in order?

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12
?

Get Your Timing Down. Part of practicing your delivery is timing your speech. We speak approximately 150 words a minute, so three double-spaced typewritten pages take five minutes to deliver, depending on how quickly you speak. ? Even though you can never time a speech to the precise second, there is no substitute for recording your speech and estimating the time. If you have a lot of jokes, stories, and audience questions, you'll have to allow extra time for them.
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? When

it comes time to deliver the speech, keep a digital clock or a watch on the lectern where you can see it easily, or have somebody in the audience signal you when you have five minutes left. As you approach these final five minutes, you'll know you have just enough time left to finish an important point before going into your closing statement or before asking for questions.
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13
? Make

a Last-minute Checklist. A key aspect of preparation is controlling and preparing your speaking environment. Avoid lastminute problems by making sure you take care of all the little details—such as arranging chairs in a small gathering and clearing away empty cups—before the speech.
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Other details to attend to before you speak can include:
Deciding what you're going to wear. ? Making two copies of your text or notes. ? Bringing your glasses. ? Knowing if you'll have a podium. ? Preparing visual-aid equipment and lighting.
?
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? Lists

compiled by truly prepared speakers are exhaustive and call attention to another crucial aspect of preparation: stage managing— overseeing all the details of your speech that don't have to do with your words.
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14
? Have

I orchestrated the question and answer period? ? Get all possible questions and answers prepared.

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Preparation Knows No Shortcuts
? These

14 steps constitute the ultimate outline for a person giving a speech. Sure, you can skip one, or cut a few corners, but the audience will notice. Every minute of your presentation should be supported by an hour of preparation time.
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Professional Projects: Build Confidence Through Preparation
Go through the preceding questions. Note first your strengths in preparation and then the aspects of issues you tend to avoid. What are you going to do about them? Create a realistic action plan for yourself. ? Make note of how you feel when someone is not prepared. Do you want your listeners to feel the same?
?
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Chapter Four: Mind Your Voice
Your voice is the most important instrument of communication you possess.

Voice Quality
How wonderful is the human voice! It is indeed the organ of the soul.
Henry W. Longfellow

? When

the body produces excellent tones, the voice is not throaty, nasal, or forced; it is produced and resonated effortlessly, It has stentorian, resonant qualities and projection, full pitch range, and rich, warm, colorful timbre.

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?

By "voice," (or vocal fold phonation) we mean experiencing the bone- conducted tonal vibrations of the sound waves that resonate and become amplified in other parts of the body. Generally speaking, "voice" is related primarily to the vowels of our language. When these vowels are sustained, we say we hear singing or chanting; when the vowels are shorter and the consonants occupy a greater proportion of time and significance, we say we hear speech.
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? In

its narrowest sense, "speech" refers primarily to consonant articulatory skills that provide us with crisper and clearer intelligibility. In its broader sense, "speech" usually includes what was just discussed and all other aspects of vocal expression, such as intonation, inflection, accent, emphasis, nuance, modulation— everything used to convey intellectual content as well as emotional impact.
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? Singing,

in the broader sense, should be the same thing except that the vowel sounds are sustained longer than in speech.

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?

Although articulatory consonant skill may be considered the "spine" of speech communication, voice is the very lifeblood of the communicating personality. The call to bridge distance or rise above noise, the expression of enthusiasm, the lyric description, the solemn entreaty, the cry of pain, the adamant emphasis, the forceful but healthy anger, the poetic musical expressiveness—all vocal energies are, in effect, matters of voice.
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? Clearly,

all the vocal arts and all the speech skills form a single discipline. To compartmentalize this discipline into polarized fields would be as counterproductive as training the left and right hands of a pianist separately. The discipline resists compartmentalization because vocal life does not, indeed cannot, exist apart from physical and emotional life.
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Speech Personality
?A

speech personality is made up of seven variables: ? 1. pitch, including pitch range and inflection ? 2. volume ? 3. tempo, or rate of delivery ? 4. vitality, or enthusiasm
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? 5.

voice quality: including: resonance, timbre, and tone ? 6. pronunciation ? 7. articulation

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Voice Analysis

? Speech

organs

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中国海洋大学外国语学院

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HOW OUR VOCAL FOLDS WORK
? Unlike

violin strings, the human sound source—the vocal folds (or vocal cords) in the larynx—has a complex, three-part structure that allows us to generate several octaves of frequencies. At the core of each fold is a stringlike ligament (cross section).
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? Internal

to the ligament are contractile muscles. And covering it all is a highly flexible mucous membrane. Each component brings a special capability to the whole. The ligament’s tensile stress rises rapidly with elongation (by muscles that move the cartilages attached to the folds), which helps to produce higher frequencies.
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? The

vocal-fold muscle can increase tensile stress as it contracts. In doing so, it generates an even larger frequency range. The soft, pliable surface of the outer membrane, which oscillates like a flag in the wind as air from the lungs passes over it, exchanges vibrational energy with the airstream to create sound waves.
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? The

vocal-fold muscle can increase tensile stress as it contracts. In doing so, it generates an even larger frequency range. The soft, pliable surface of the outer membrane, which oscillates like a flag in the wind as air from the lungs passes over it, exchanges vibrational energy with the airstream to create sound waves.
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? Acting

as a tube resonator, the vocal tract adopts certain shapes to better project certain pitches and resonant overtones. To produce powerful high notes, belters often open their mouths as wide as possible. This so-called megaphone configuration resembles a trumpet (top)
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? With

the vocal folds and vestibule serving as the “lips and mouthpiece” and the mouth as the “horn.” Other singing styles are better produced when the vocal tract takes on an inverted megaphone shape—that is, with the mouth narrowed (bottom).
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HOW THE VOCAL AIRWAYS AMPLIFY SOUND

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HOW THE VOCAL AIRWAYS AMPLIFY SOUND
?

Singers use a nonlinear energy-feedback process in the laryngeal vestibule (the airway above the larynx) to resonate, or amplify, sounds created by the vocal folds. This process, called inertive reactance, occurs when singers create special conditions in the vestibule to provide an extra, precisely timed “kick” to each cyclic opening and closing of the folds that reinforces their vibration to create stronger sound waves.
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? The

kick comes in when the motion of the air column in the vestibule lags with respect to the movement of the vocal folds. When the vocal folds start to separate at the beginning of an oscillation (1), lung-driven air flows into the glottal space between the folds and presses against the motionless air column in the vestibule.
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? The

inertia of the stationary air column raises the air pressure in the glottis, which drives the folds even farther apart (2). Then the lungs begin to accelerate the air mass upward. As the air column moves, the elastic recoil of the folds begins to send them back together to close the glottis, cutting off the airflow from the lungs (3).
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? Those

responses leave a partial vacuum in the glottis that acts to slam the folds together strongly (4). Thus, like a well-timed push on a kid’s swing, the inertive reactance—the push-pull action—of the air in the laryngeal vestibule augments each swing of the vocal folds, creating resonance.
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Voice training
breath control and support ? proper tone production ? pitch control and musical intonation ? proper formation of vowels and consonants ? clarity of words
?
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Pitch
? That

property of a tone determined by the frequency of vibration of the sound waves is called pitch. ? Generally speaking, low-pitched voices are more pleasant than highpitched voices. However, good speech demands variety in pitch (inflection)
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? The

vocal folds of a mature woman generally vibrate about twice as fast as those of a mature man, so male voices are generally about an octave lower than female voices. ? Optimum pitch the pitch at which you feel most confortable and are able to produce your most pleasant sounds.
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Optimum pitch
? Most

of us sound best when we are speaking in the lower half of our available pitch range. With practice nearly everyone can achieve a range of between one and two octaves.

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How to determine your optimum pitch.
? The

optimum pitch is that level where the greatest amount of resonance is produced. Resonance is the intensification of vocal tones during speech as the result of vibrations in the chief resonators: the bones of the chest and face, the trachea, the larynx and the pharynx, the mouth, the nose and the sinuses and cheekbones.
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Find your optimum pitch
? By

recording and playing back the test sentences, you will be able to hear, without the distraction of boneconducted sound, what you sound like when you are at or very near your optimum pitch.

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? Or

sit at the piano, sing the scale as low and as high as you comfortably can, striking the note that corresponds with each sound. If your singing voice covers two octaves, your optimum speaking voice should be at about the midpoint in the lower of the two octaves. In other words, optimum pitch is very close to a quarter of the way up from your bottom to your top pitch.
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? Inflection

refers to the altering of the pitch or tone of the voice. Repetious inflection makes some voices singson, while lack of inflection causes others to speak in a monotone. Good speech avoids the extremes and reaches a happy medium. ? Avoid falling into a predictable pattern. Pitch should be altered to give emphasis to words that are important for understanding your message.
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Vocal register
?-

a grouping of adjacent notes made with the same coordination: ? chest voice - This voice resonates primarily in the chest. Marked by a rich, deep timber, this is the register in which we normally speak. The vocal cords are vibrating across their entire length.
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? head

voice - This voice resonates primarily in the head. It is the highest part of your natural range, sometimes producing a softer, hooty sound. The vocal cords zip up about 2/3 or their length leaving 1/3 free to vibrate.

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? falsetto

- This is the lightest of all vocal coordinations. It tends to be airy and lacks volume and depth of sound. ? vocal fry - Though this register is uncommon, it is used by some bass singers to produce the lowest possible sound. The vocal cords vibrate extremely slow.

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? whistle

register - Another uncommon register found primarily in the female voice, the vocal cords zip up almost their entire length leaving just a small opening free to vibrate. ? middle/mixed register - A blend of head and chest registers

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Volume
? Volume

level is seldom a problem in ordinary conversation, but in public speech, one has to know how to use microphones. ? There is an optimum distance from mouth to mic to achieve speech whose quality is suited to the event.
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?A

weak voice, too distant from the microphone, will require an increase in the gain of the console or tape recorder; this in turn will increase the volume of the ambient noise. ? On the other hand, a speaker with a high volume level who is too close to a microphone is likely to produce popping, excessive sibilance or an unpleasant aspirate quality.
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? Establishing

your optimum volume level and microphone placement should be one of your first priorities.

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Tempo
? You

must judge what speed is appropriate to the mood of the event and adjust your rate of delivery accordingly. ? There is no single correct rate at which to speak. Gear you speed to the mood of the occasion or your script.
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? Keep

in mind that most of us speak too rapidly much of the time. Speed is often the enemy of clear articulation. ? The best way to learn to achieve your optimum speaking or reading rate is by continually using an audio tape/digital recorder. Isolate the one problem of tempo, and work on it until a good speed becomes automatic.
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? Aside

from a good basic rate of delivery, you should also work for variety in speed. Speeding up for throwaway phrases and slowing down for emphatic words or phrases will help give more meaning to your message.
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Vitality
? Two

speakers with nearly identical speech qualities may sound quite different if they vary greatly in vitality, or enthusiasm. ? Two objectives of vitality: ? 1. You should use a degree of vitality that is appropriate to your personality.
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? 2.

You should gear the degree of vitality to the mood of the event being described.

? Above

all, do not push yourself up to a level of vitality that is forced, unnatural to you or inappropriate to the occasion.
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Voice quality
? Resonance

vs. Thinness ? A good voice for the electronic media is one with resonance. ? A sensitive, top-quality microphone, such as a condenser mic, can enhance your natural resonance, but even the best equipment can work only with what you give it.
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? Resonance

is the tendency of a system to oscillate at maximum amplitude at certain frequencies, known as the system's resonance frequencies (or resonant frequencies). At these frequencies, even small periodic driving forces can produce large amplitude vibrations, because the system stores vibrational energy.
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If yours is a thin, colorless voice, you should be able to increase resonance by following these suggestions: ? Practice deep breathing. Learn to breathe from the diaphragm (the bottom of the chest from the top of the abdomen). Shallow breathing will result in a shallow or thin voice. While you speak or read, consciously try to increase the force of air coming from your lungs.
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? Make

sure you are moving your articulators. (to work on an exaggerated use of jaw, tongue, and lips.) ? Make sure that there is no blockage of your nasal passages. ? Try to lower your pitch.

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? Read

passages that emphasize vowel sounds (nineteenth- century British poetry is excellent for this purpose), prolonging those sounds when they occur and trying to keep your throat as open as possible. ? If you have a choice of microphones, discover the best instrument for your voice, and establish your optimum distance from it.
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Exercise Song to Celia
? ? ? ? ?

?
? ?

1 Drink to me only with thine eyes, 2 And I will pledge with mine; 3 Or leave a kiss but in the cup, 4 And I'll not look for wine. 5 The thirst that from the soul doth rise 6 Doth ask a drink divine; 7 But might I of Jove's nectar sup, 8 I would not change for thine.
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?

?
?

?
? ? ? ?

9 I sent thee late a rosy wreath, 10 Not so much honouring thee 11 As giving it a hope, that there 12 It could not withered be. 13 But thou thereon didst only breathe, 14 And sent'st it back to me; 15 Since when it grows, and smells, I swear, 16 Not of itself, but thee.
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Exercise Two
9 Bring me my bow of burning gold: ? 10 Bring me my arrows of desire: ? 11 Bring me my spear: O clouds unfold! ? 12 Bring me my chariot of fire. ? 13 I will not cease from mental fight, ? 14 Nor shall my sword sleep in my hand ? 15 Till we have built Jerusalem ? 16 In England's green and pleasant land.
?
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Breathing and Breathing Exercises
?

It is all but impossible to have a strong, resonant voice if you have poor posture and shallow breathing. Correct breathing requires that you maintain good posture, that your neck, shoulders, and face be relaxed, and that you breathe from the diaphragm. Good posture means sitting or standing with a straight spine and with your shoulders drawn back.
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Breathing and breath control

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Larynx Positions

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Exercise Three
? Annabel
? Edgar

Lee

Allan Poe

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? It

was many and many a year ago, ? In a kingdom by the sea, ? That a maiden there lived whom you may know ? By the name of ANNABEL LEE; ? And this maiden she lived with no other thought ? Than to love and be loved by me.
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?I

was a child and she was a child, ? In this kingdom by the sea; ? But we loved with a love that was more than love? I and my Annabel Lee; ? With a love that the winged seraphs of heaven ? Coveted her and me.
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? And

this was the reason that, long ago, ? In this kingdom by the sea, ? A wind blew out of a cloud, chilling ? My beautiful Annabel Lee; ? So that her highborn kinsman came ? And bore her away from me, ? To shut her up in a sepulchre ? In this kingdom by the sea.
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? The

angels, not half so happy in heaven, ? Went envying her and me? Yes!- that was the reason (as all men know, ? In this kingdom by the sea) ? That the wind came out of the cloud by night, ? Chilling and killing my Annabel Lee.
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But our love it was stronger by far than the love ? Of those who were older than we? Of many far wiser than we? And neither the angels in heaven above, ? Nor the demons down under the sea, ? Can ever dissever my soul from the soul ? Of the beautiful Annabel Lee.
?

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For the moon never beams without bringing me dreams ? Of the beautiful Annabel Lee; ? And the stars never rise but I feel the bright eyes ? Of the beautiful Annabel Lee; ? And so, all the night-tide, I lie down by the side ? Of my darling- my darling- my life and my bride, ? In the sepulchre there by the sea, ? In her tomb by the sounding sea.
?
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John F. Kennedy: American University Commencement Address
? President

Anderson, members of the faculty, board of trustees, distinguished guests, my old colleague, Senator Bob Byrd, who has earned his degree through many years of attending night law school, while I am earning mine in the next 30 minutes, distinguished guests, ladies and gentlemen:
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? It

is with great pride that I participate in this ceremony of the American University, sponsored by the Methodist Church, founded by Bishop John Fletcher Hurst, and first opened by President Woodrow Wilson in 1914. This is a young and growing university, but it has already fulfilled Bishop Hurst's enlightened hope for the study of history and public affairs in a city devoted to the making of history and to the conduct of the public's business.
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?

By sponsoring this institution of higher learning for all who wish to learn, whatever their color or their creed, the Methodists of this area and the nation deserve the nation's thanks, and I commend all those who are today graduating. Professor Woodrow Wilson once said that every man sent out from a university should be a man of his nation as well as a man of his time, and I am confident that the men and women who carry the honor of graduating from this institution will continue to give from their lives, from their talents, a high measure of public service and public support.
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? "There

are few earthly things more beautiful than a university," wrote John Masefield in his tribute to English universities and his words are equally true today. He did not refer to towers or to campuses. He admired the splendid beauty of a university, because it was, he said, "a place where those who hate ignorance may strive to know, where those who perceive truth may strive to make others see."
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Chapter Five Body Language

Body Movement

Exercise 1: Rooted Power
? In

this exercise, you will practice staying rooted in one place without unnecessarily moving about. If you like imagery, imagine that the soles of your shoes are glued to the floor on which you stand.

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Exercise 2: Choosing Intentional Movement
? For

this exercise, feel free to move about if the spirit moves you. As you move, make sure you move because you wish to better engage one of your audience members or your entire audience. Try to avoid those little unintentional movements.
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Exercise 3: Moving for Focus
? Experienced

presenters know to use movement as a simple and elegant way of drawing the audience’s attention. A body movement may be initiated to signal an important point in a story. It may be used to redirect an inattentive audience member. It can be deployed to divert the audience from an external distraction.
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Gestures

? use

a variety of gestures ? know what our comfortable resting positions are ? use gestures that support our intended message ? use gestures that are inviting ? remember that there is not just one right gesture, or one right way of gesturing
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Exercise 1
?

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For many speakers, knowing what to do with their hands when they don’t wish to gesture can be as stressful as figuring out what to do with them when they actually want to gesture. In this first exercise, gesture freely when the spirit moves you, but in between bursts of gestural activity bring your arms to your side to rest. This is the most natural resting position, and for many speakers the most uncomfortable one as well.
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?

?

?

?
?

? Rounded, circular gestures are often perceived as inviting—they help extend your personal energy to the group. ? Sharp and pointed gestures can work well to emphasize key points—they may also be perceived as assertive and quite possibly aggressive. ? Small gestures can be extended and made more expansive. ? Expansive gestures can be reigned in and contained. ? Abrupt, staccato gestures can be smoothed and rounded out to become more inviting.
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Eye Contact
Great speakers know how to pause to great effect, and they know how to hold eye contact. Truly, unflinchingly, hold it and sustain it.

? Exercise

1: Holding Eye Contact for a Complete Sentence or Thought ? Exercise 2: Holding Eye Contact When You Don’t Know What to Say ? Exercise 3: Creating Eye Contact in the Face of Resistance
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Chapter Six
Prepared Speech

Test: Your first speech
? Preparing

Your Speech ? Developing the Speech ? Organizing the Speech

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? Delivering

Your Speech ? Speaking Extemporaneously ? Rehearsing the Speech ? Presenting the Speech

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1. Selecting a Topic and a Purpose
? Choosing

a Topic ? Topics You Know a Lot About ? Topics You Want to Know More About 8 ? Brainstorming for Topics

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Choosing a Topic and purpose
?A

well-thought-out purpose is so elemental it's often overlooked . ? In front of an audience, speakers are leaders, and you can only be a leader if you have a clear purpose in mind. ? The purpose of your speech is what you want to leave in the minds of those in your audience and what you want them to do as a result of hearing you.
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? In

fact, every talk needs three elements: a title, a subject, and a purpose. For example:

? Title:

"Buckle Up and Live Longer." ? Subject: Automotive safety. ? Purpose: To make more people wear seat belts.
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? You

can zero in on your purpose by asking: What do I want to accomplish in the minds of those in my audience? What do I want them to do, feel, or know? ? Start by Stating Your Purpose ? When your purpose is defined at the outset, you can make sure all that follows supports your aims and that no one ends up wondering what point you were trying to get across.
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2. Determining the General Purpose

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The 6 main Purposes
? To

inform ? To instruct ? To entertain ? To inspire/motivate ? To activate/stimulate ? To persuade
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3.Determining the Specific Purpose
? Tips

for Formulating the Specific Purpose Statement ? Questions to Ask About Your Specific Purpose

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Don't Let Your Subject Be Too Broad
? The

more focused and specific your talk, the better your chances that some words will resonate. ? Let Purpose Lead the Argument

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Don't Just Inform—Persuade!
? Even

though we just discussed the fact that there are six major purposes, one stands out among the rest: to persuade.

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4. Phrasing the Central Idea
? What

Is the Central Idea? ? Guidelines for the Central Idea

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Chapter Seven Analyzing the Audience

?A

surprising number of speeches simply don't meet the real needs of the audience. The chief reason: The speaker feels it's enough to tell people something the speaker thinks they need to know. ? Always ask yourself how the purpose of your talk relates to your audience's interests.
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? Your

audience are potential skeptics, and your task is to win them over. Because you can't say everything there is to say on your topic, you need to say the things your audience needs to hear.

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? Winning

listeners over is easier if you know the four things people find most interesting: sex, health, money, and themselves. This is somewhat of a cynic's list, but most good speeches will tap into one of the things, usually the last item.
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Adapting to the Audience
? Audience

Adaptation Before the

Speech ? Audience Adaptation During the Speech

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Inspire Your Audience: Make It Impossible Not to Listen
? Because

people do things for their own reasons, you must motivate and inspire people from their perspectives, not yours. If you speak to their real needs, they will be compelled to listen, and listen well.

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? Why

should I as audience care about this speech?" Everyone has a secret radio station called WIIFM, otherwise known as "What's In It For Me?" An effective speaker anticipates this builtin bias and shapes a speech by always thinking, "What benefit or benefits can I offer this particular audience?"

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25 Tricks of the Selling Trade
? To

make money. ? To save money. ? To save time. ? To avoid effort. ? To gain comfort.

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? To

improve health. ? To escape pain. ? To be popular. ? To attract the opposite sex. ? To gain praise. ? To conserve our possessions. ? To increase our enjoyment.

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? To

satisfy curiosity. ? To protect our family. ? To be in style. ? To satisfy an appetite. ? To emulate others. ? To have beautiful things. ? To avoid criticism.

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? To

avoid trouble. ? To take advantage of opportunities. ? To be individual and unique. ? To protect our reputation. ? To gain control over aspects of our lives. ? To be safe.

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Demographic Audience Analysis
? Age ? Gender

? Sexual

Orientation ? Racial, Ethnic, and Cultural Background ? Religion ? Group Membership
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? Left

Brain Right Brain Thinking

? Logical ? Rational ? Analytical ? Objective ? Sequential

Intuitive Instinctive Synthesizing Subjective Random
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Situational Audience Analysis
? Size ? Physical

Setting ? Disposition Toward the Topic ? Disposition Toward the Speaker ? Disposition Toward the Occasion

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Getting Information About the Audience
? Interviewing ? Questionnaires

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Chapter Eight Gathering Materials

Using Your Own Knowledge and Experience

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Doing Library Research
? Librarians ? The

Catalogue ? Periodical Databases ? Newspapers ? Reference Works

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Searching the Internet
? Search

Aids ? Keyword Searches ? Subject Searches ? Bookmarks ? Specialized Research Resources ? Evaluating Internet Documents ? Citing Internet Sources
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Interviewing
? Before

the Interview ? During the Interview ? After the Interview

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Tips for Doing Research
? Start

Early ? Make a Preliminary Bibliography ? Take Notes Efficiently ? Think About Your Materials as You Research

中国海洋大学外国语学院

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Chapter Nine Supporting Your Ideas

PEP: The Formula for Success
? PEP—Point,

Example, Point ? Every major point you make needs to be supported to be memorable. You're taking advantage of how people learn (through repetition and illustration). Retention is the key to a powerful speech.
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Supporting Materials and Critical Thinking Examples
? Brief

Examples ? Extended Examples ? Hypothetical Examples ? Tips for Using Examples

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Statistics
? Understanding

Statistics ? Tips for Using Statistics ? Where to Find Statistics

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Testimony
? Expert

Testimony ? Peer Testimony ? Quoting Versus Paraphrasing ? Tips for Using Testimony

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Chapter Ten Organizing the Body of the Speech

Organization Is Important
? Main

Points ? Number of Main Points ? Strategic Order of Main Points ? Tips for Preparing Main Points ? Supporting Materials

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? Connectives ? Transitions

? Internal

Previews ? Internal Summaries ? Signposts

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Chapter Eleven Beginning and Ending the Speech

The Introduction
? Get

Attention and Interest ? Reveal the Topic ? Establish Credibility and Goodwill ? Preview the Body of the Speech ? Sample Introduction with Commentary ? Tips for Preparing the Introduction
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The Conclusion
? Signal

the End of the Speech ? Reinforce the Central Idea ? Sample Conclusion with Commentary ? Tips for Preparing the Conclusion

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Chapter twelve Outlining the Speech

The Preparation Outline
? Guidelines

for the Preparation Outline ? Sample Preparation Outline with Commentary

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The Speaking Outline
? Guidelines

for the Speaking Outline ? Sample Speaking Outline with Commentary

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Chapter Thirteen Using Language

Language Is Important
? Meanings

of Words ? Using Language Accurately

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? Using

Language Clearly ? Use Familiar Words ? Choose Concrete Words ? Eliminate Clutter

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? Using

Language Vividly ? Imagery ? Rhythm

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? Using

Language Appropriately ? Appropriateness to the Occasion ? Appropriateness to the Audience ? Appropriateness to the Topic ? Appropriateness to the Speaker ? A Note on Inclusive Language
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Chapter fourteen Delivery

What Is Good Delivery?

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Methods of Delivery
? Reading

from a Manuscript ? Reciting from Memory ? Speaking Impromptu ? Speaking Extemporaneously

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The Speaker’s Voice
Volume ? Pitch ? Rate ? Pauses ? Vocal Variety ? Pronunciation ? Articulation ? Dialect
?
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The Speaker’s Body
? Personal

Appearance ? Movement ? Gestures ? Eye Contact

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Practicing Delivery

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Answering Audience Questions
? Preparing

for the Question-andAnswer Session ? Managing the Question-and-Answer Session

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Chapter 15 Using Visual Aids

Advantages of Visual Aids

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Kinds of Visual Aids
? Objects ? Models

? Photographs
? Drawings

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? Graphs ? Charts

? Video
? Transparencies

? Multimedia

Presentations ? The Speaker
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Guidelines for Preparing Visual Aids
? Prepare

Visual Aids in Advance ? Keep Visual Aids Simple ? Make Sure Visual Aids Are Large Enough ? Use Fonts That Are Easy to Read ? Use a Limited Number of Fonts ? Use Color Effectively
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Guidelines for Presenting Visual Aids
? Avoid

Using the Chalkboard for Visual Aids ? Display Visual Aids Where Listeners Can See Them ? Avoid Passing Visual Aids Among the Audience
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? Display

Visual Aids Only While Discussing Them ? Talk to Your Audience, Not to Your Visual Aid ? Explain Visual Aids Clearly and Concisely ? Practice with Your Visual Aids
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Chapter 16 Speaking to Inform

Types of Informative Speeches:
? Analysis

and Organization ? Speeches About Objects ? Speeches About Processes ? Speeches About Events ? Speeches About Concepts

中国海洋大学外国语学院

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Guidelines for Informative Speaking
? Don’t

Overestimate What the Audience Knows ? Relate the Subject Directly to the Audience ? Don’t Be Too Technical ? Avoid Abstractions ? Personalize Your Ideas
中国海洋大学外国语学院

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Chapter 17 Speaking to Persuade

The Importance of Persuasion

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Ethics and Persuasion

中国海洋大学外国语学院

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The Psychology of Persuasion
? The

Challenge of Persuasive Speaking ? How Listeners Process Persuasive Messages ? The Target Audience

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Persuasive Techniques

? 1>>

Six basic tendencies of human behavior come into play in generating a positive response to a request: ? reciprocation, consistency, social validation, liking, authority and scarcity.

中国海洋大学外国语学院

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? Knowledge

of these tendencies can empower you to make betterinformed decisions about, for example, whether to purchase a product or vote for something.

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? The

six key factors are at work in various areas around the world as well, but cultural norms and traditions can modify the weight brought to bear by each factor.

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Reciprocation
? All

societies subscribe to a norm that obligates individuals to repay in kind what they have received. ? Reciprocity includes more than gifts and favors; it also applies to concessions that people make to one another.
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Example:
? To

chaperone juvenile detention center inmates on a day trip to the zoo 17 % volunteers After refusing a request of serving as two years unpaid counselor two hours per week, 50% volunteer to chaperone.

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Consistency
?

In 1998 Gordon Sinclair, the owner of a wellknown Chicago restaurant, was struggling with a problem that afflicts all restaurateurs. Patrons frequently reserve a table but, without notice, fail to appear. Sinclair solved the problem by asking his receptionist to change two words of what she said to callers requesting reservations. The change dropped his no-call, no-show rate from 30 to 10 percent immediately.
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?

The two words were effective because they commissioned the force of another potent human motivation: the desire to be, and to appear, consistent. The receptionist merely modified her request from “Please call if you have to change your plans” to “Will you please call if you have to change your plans?” At that point, she politely paused and waited for a response. The wait was pivotal because it induced customers to fill the pause with a public commitment. And public commitments, even seemingly minor ones, direct future action.
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中国海洋大学外国语学院

? In

another example, Joseph Schwarzwald of Bar-Ilan University in Israel and his co-workers nearly doubled monetary contributions for the handicapped in certain neighborhoods. The key factor: two weeks before asking for contributions, they got residents to sign a petition supporting the handicapped, thus making a public commitment to that same cause.
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Social Validation
? One

fundamental way that we decide what to do in a situation is to look to what others are doing or have done there. If many individuals have decided in favor of a particular idea, we are more likely to follow, because we perceive the idea to be more correct, more valid.
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中国海洋大学外国语学院

? Taking

advantage of social validation, requesters can stimulate our compliance by demonstrating (or merely implying) that others just like us have already complied ? For example, a study found that a fund-raiser who showed homeowners a list of neighbors who had donated to a local charity significantly increased the frequency of contributions; the longer the list, the greater the effect.
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Liking
? “Affinity,”

“rapport” and “affection” all describe a feeling of connection between people. But the simple word “liking” most faithfully captures the concept and has become the standard designation in the social science literature. ? People prefer to say yes to those they like.
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? Physical

attractiveness can be such a

tool. ? 1993 study shows good-looking fundraisers for the American Heart Association generated nearly twice as many donations (42 versus 23 percent) as did other requesters.

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? In

the 1970s researchers Michael G. Efran and E.W.J. Patterson of the University of Toronto found that voters in Canadian federal elections gave physically attractive candidates several times as many votes as unattractive ones. Yet such voters insisted that their choices would never be influenced by something as superficial as appearance.
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中国海洋大学外国语学院

Authority
?

In 1955 University of Texas at Austin researchers Monroe Lefkowitz, Robert R. Blake and Jane S. Mouton discovered that a man could increase by 350 percent the number of pedestrians who would follow him across the street against the light by changing one simple thing. Instead of casual dress, he donned markers of authority: a suit and tie.
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中国海洋大学外国语学院

Scarcity
?A

great deal of evidence shows that items and opportunities become more desirable to us as they become less available. ? Less widely recognized is that scarcity affects the value not only of commodities but of information as well. Information that is exclusive is more persuasive.
中国海洋大学外国语学院

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Knowledge Is Power

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