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A study on emission characteristics of an EFI engine with


Atmospheric Environment 37 (2003) 949–957

A study on emission characteristics of an EFI engine with ethanol blended gasoline fuels
Bang-Quan He*, Jian-Xin Wang, Ji-Ming Hao, Xiao-Guang Yan, Jian-Hua Xiao
State Key Laboratory of Automotive Safety and Energy, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China Received 10 July 2002; accepted 22 November 2002

Abstract The effect of ethanol blended gasoline fuels on emissions and catalyst conversion ef?ciencies was investigated in a spark ignition engine with an electronic fuel injection (EFI) system. The addition of ethanol to gasoline fuel enhances the octane number of the blended fuels and changes distillation temperature. Ethanol can decrease engine-out regulated emissions. The fuel containing 30% ethanol by volume can drastically reduce engine-out total hydrocarbon emissions (THC) at operating conditions and engine-out THC, CO and NOx emissions at idle speed, but unburned ethanol and acetaldehyde emissions increase. Pt/Rh based three-way catalysts are effective in reducing acetaldehyde emissions, but the conversion of unburned ethanol is low. Tailpipe emissions of THC, CO and NOx have close relation to engine-out emissions, catalyst conversion ef?ciency, engine’s speed and load, air/fuel equivalence ratio. Moreover, the blended fuels can decrease brake speci?c energy consumption. r 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Spark ignition engine; Ethanol; Oxygenate; Catalyst; Emission; Acetaldehyde

1. Introduction Exhaust emissions from engines are dependent on fuel composition (DePetris et al., 1993), air/fuel equivalence ratio (McDonald et al., 1994), driving conditions, oxygen content and the chemical structure of additive (Neimark et al., 1994). Since tetraethyl lead as gasoline’s octane improver was banned in the United States on the ?rst day of January in 1996, oxygenates, which have no differences in air toxicity of ozone forming potential (Noorman, 1993), have been used to enhance gasoline’s octane number, reduce summertime smog, wintertime carbon monoxide and volatile organic compounds with the provision of more complete fuel combustion in engines. Although the decrease of exhaust emissions by applying oxygenates to engines is small relative to that by catalysts (Jeffrey
*Corresponding author. Tel.: +86-10-62772515; fax: +8610-62785708. E-mail address: hebq@tsinghua.edu.cn (B.-Q. He).

and Elliott, 1993), the fuels containing oxygenates and with aromatics replaced by isoparaf?ns can reduce hydrocarbon, CO and NOx emissions (Lange et al., 1994). Methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) is one of oxygenated fuels. To meet the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and similar regulations, over 85% of reformulated gasoline (RFG) contains MTBE because of its low cost and good blending characteristics. By 1998, MTBE was ranked fourth in bulk chemical production in the United States (An et al., 2002). MTBE can remarkably reduce exhaust emissions (Kivi et al., 1992). For example, the fuel with 15% MTBE can reduce CO by 10–15%, NOx by 1.0–1.7%, THC by 10–20%, and also improve fuel consumption (Kisenyi et al., 1994). However, MTBE is highly soluble in water. Low levels of its concentration make drinking water unpalatable due to its low taste and odor threshold. Moreover, MTBE is much more dif?cult to be degraded than other gasoline components. Therefore, it has been detected in surface water and ground water because of its widespread use

1352-2310/03/$ - see front matter r 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/S1352-2310(02)00973-1

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B.-Q. He et al. / Atmospheric Environment 37 (2003) 949–957

(Nadim et al., 2001). Besides, MTBE itself can be presented in exhaust gas and it has irritation effects on eyes or lungs (Poulopoulos and Philippopoulos, 2000; Flynn et al., 2001). When research animals inhale high levels of MTBE, they will develop cancers or experience other non-cancerous diseases. MTBE even poses a potential for carcinogenicity to humans at high doses (Nadim et al., 2001). Therefore, it is time to ?nd alternative oxygenates that have no such disadvantages. Ethanol is a promising alternative biomass fuel because of its biodegradable and regenerative characteristic. The use of ethanol to substitute for MTBE in RFG has some bene?ts in reducing water contamination and poses no signi?cant adverse impacts on public health and environment (Nadim et al., 2001). CO2 released by burned ethanol can be ?xed by growing plants and therefore makes no net greenhouse gas contribution to global warming (Wheals et al., 1999). Since oxygen content by weight in an ethanol molecule is approximately twice that of MTBE, less ethanol is required to meet speci?ed oxygen content in fuel. However, the heat value of ethanol is less than that of gasoline. Consequently, the heat value of ethanol blended gasoline fuels will decrease when the proportion of ethanol increases (Hsieh et al., 2002). Addition of ethanol to gasoline not only increases Reid vapor pressure (RVP) of the blended fuel (Pumphrey et al., 2000), but also alters the fuel’s distillation curve and composition (Hsieh et al., 2002; D’Ornellas, 2001). Hence, additional costly steps are needed to reduce evaporative emissions from ethanol blended gasoline fuels. Furthermore, ethanol blended gasoline fuels will yield high unburned ethanol and acetaldehyde emissions (Poulopoulos et al., 2001; Zervas et al., 2002) and acetic acid emissions (Zervas et al., 2001). Ethanol content and engine operating conditions in?uence exhaust emissions. Therefore, much attention is paid to regulated and unregulated emissions from a spark ignition engine in this experiment.

Exhaust gases were sampled from the inlet and outlet of the catalytic converter and then were measured on line by an AVL exhaust analyzer. THC was analyzed with a ?ame ionization detector (FID). CO was analyzed with a non-dispersive infrared analyzer (NDIR). NOx was analyzed with a chemiluminescent detector (CLD). CO, THC and NOx emissions were average values of the acquired data within 20 s for each stable operating condition. Unburned ethanol and acetaldehyde were measured in a GC-17A gas chromatography equipped with a 30 m long, 0.32 mm inner diameter GS-Q type capillary column and a FID.

3. Experimental results and discussions 3.1. Properties of ethanol blended gasoline fuels Three test fuels were used in this study. The ?rst was unleaded gasoline (E0) as a base fuel for ethanol blended gasoline fuels. The second and the third were ethanol blended gasoline fuels containing 10% ethanol (E10) and 30% ethanol (E30) by volume, respectively. Some of the combustion-related properties concerning the three fuels have been summarized in Table 1. Table 1 shows research octane number (RON), motor octane number (MON) and distillation temperature including initial boiling temperature (IBT), 10%, 50%, 90% distillation temperatures and ?nal distillation temperature. As shown in Table 1, RON and MON increase with the increase of ethanol concentration. Compared to E0, RON of the blended fuels is increased by 2.6 and 7.3, respectively. It can also be observed that the addition of ethanol to gasoline increases IBT, but 10%, 50%, 90% and ?nal distillation temperatures decrease; The distillation temperatures below 50% of E10 are lower than those of E30 and then become higher than those of E30, which indicates that distillation temperatures of ethanol blended fuels are dependent on the evaporation of ethanol.

2. Experimental equipment and procedure The engine used in this experiment is a multi-point port injection gasoline engine with a cylinder bore of 90.82 mm, a stroke of 76.95 mm and a compression ratio of 8.2. Its rated power is 66 kW at 5000 rpm and the speed of maximum torque is 3000 rpm.The EFI system will choose a close-loop control mode at part engine loads to keep the engine operating near stoichoimetric air/fuel ratio and then change to an open-loop control mode at full engine loads to produce maximum power. A Pt/Rh based three-way catalytic converter was installed in the tailpipe.

Table 1 Properties of ethanol blended gasoline fuels Property items Density (kg/l at191C) RON MON Distillation temperature (1C) IBP 10 vol% 50 vol% 90 vol% End point E0 0.736 92.4 81.2 E10 0.741 95.0 82.3 E30 0.751 99.7 86.6

36.0 55.2 92.5 153.7 184.5

37.5 49.0 73.2 149.8 181.0

40.0 52.7 72.5 145.7 181.5

B.-Q. He et al. / Atmospheric Environment 37 (2003) 949–957

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3.2. Regulated engine emission characteristics and catalyst conversion ef?ciencies To analyze emissions and catalyst conversion ef?ciencies, the relationship between air/fuel equivalence ratio (l) and brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) is presented in Fig. 1. It can be seen that l is almost the same quantity at most operating conditions. The spark ignition engine operates near stoichiometric air/fuel ratio at part loads and burns rich mixture at full loads. Fig. 2 shows CO emissions under different loads and speeds. It can be seen that ethanol can decrease engineout CO emissions. Compared to E0 at full loads, at 2000 rpm, E10 and E30 decrease engine-out CO emissions by 4.7% and 5.8%, respectively; At 3000 rpm, engine-out CO emissions decrease by 5.7% and 3.1%,
1.5 2000 rpm 1.0 E0 E10 E30

respectively, which can be explained by the fact that the oxygen atom in ethanol molecule is more effective in improving combustion in rich mixture than that in air. Tailpipe CO emissions are also decreased except for few operating conditions. From engine-out emissions and tailpipe emissions, catalyst conversion ef?ciency of emissions can be calculated. Fig. 3 presents catalyst conversion ef?ciency of CO. Compared to E0, at part loads, ethanol can enhance CO conversion at 2000 rpm and only E30 has higher CO conversion at 3000 rpm. However, at full loads, the conversion of CO decreases at above two speeds. Because exhaust temperature of the catalytic converter inlet in Fig. 4 exceeded the catalyst light-off temperature of 3501C, the space velocity of the catalytic converter was between 40 000 h?1 and 120 000 h?1 at all

1.5
3000 rpm E0 E10 E30

1.0
λ

λ
0.5

0.5 0.0

0.0

0.20

0.32 0.48 0.64 BMEP (MPa)

0.80

0.20

0.35 0.54 0.69 BMEP (MPa)

0.86

Fig. 1. The relationship between l and BMEP.

4 3 CO (%) 2 1 0 0.20 0.32 0.48 0.64 0.80
(a)

4 2000 rpm Engine-out E0 CO (%) E10 E30 3 2 1 0 0.20 0.32 BMEP (MPa) 0.48 0.64 BMEP (MPa) 0.80 2000 rpm Tailpipe E0 E10 E30

5 4 CO (%) 3 2 1 0 0.20 0.35 0.54 0.69 BMEP (MPa) 0.86
(b)

3000 rpm Engine-out

CO (%)

E0 E10 E30

5 4 3 2 1 0 0.20 0.35 0.54 0.69 BMEP (MPa) 0.86 3000 rpm Tailpipe

E0 E10 E30

Fig. 2. (a) CO emissions at 2000 rpm and (b) CO emissions at 3000 rpm.

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B.-Q. He et al. / Atmospheric Environment 37 (2003) 949–957

100 CO conversion (%) 80 60 40 20 0 0.20

2000 rpm E0 E10 E30 CO conversion (%)

0.32 0.48 0.64 BMEP (MPa)

0.80

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

3000 rpm E0 E10 E30

0.20

0.35 0.54 0.69 BMEP (MPa)

0.86

Fig. 3. CO conversion.

1000 Temperature (°C) 800 600 400 200 0 0.20 0.32 0.48 0.64 BMEP (MPa) 0.80 E0 E10 E30 Temperature (°C) 2000 rpm

1000 800 600 400 200 0 0.20 0.35 0.54 0.69 BMEP (MPa) 0.86 E0 E10 E30 3000 rpm

Fig. 4. Exhaust temperature of catalytic converter inlet.

2500 THC (ppm) THC (ppm) 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0.20 0.32 0.48 0.64 BMEP (MPa) 0.80
(a)

2500

2000 rpm Engine-out

E0

E10

E30

2000 1500 1000 500 0

2000 rpm Tailpipe

E0 E10 E30

0.20

0.32 0.48 0.64 BMEP (MPa)

0.80

2500 THC (ppm) THC (ppm) 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0.20 0.35 0.54 0.69 BMEP (MPa) 0.86
(b)

2500 3000 rpm Engine-out E0 E10 E30 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0.20 0.35 0.54 0.69 BMEP (MPa) 0.86 3000 rpm Tailpipe E0 E10 E30

Fig. 5. (a) THC emissions at 2000 rpm and (b) THC emissions at 3000 rpm.

B.-Q. He et al. / Atmospheric Environment 37 (2003) 949–957

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100 THC conversion (%) 80 E0 60 40 20 0 0.20 0.32 0.48 0.64 BMEP (MPa) 0.80 E10 E30 THC conversion (%) 2000 rpm

100 3000 rpm 80 60 40 20 0 0.20 0.32 0.48 0.64 BMEP (MPa) 0.80 E0 E10 E30

Fig. 6. THC conversion.

2500 NOx (ppm) NOx (ppm) 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0.20 0.32 0.48 0.64 BMEP (MPa) 0.80
(a)

2500
2000 rpm Engine-out E0 E10 E30

2000 1500 1000 500 0

2000 rpm Tailpipe

E0 E10 E30

0.20

0.32 0.48 0.64 BMEP (MPa)

0.80

3500 3000 NOx (ppm) 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0.20 0.35 0.54 0.69 BMEP (MPa) 0.86
(b)

3000 rpm Engine-out

3500 3000 NOx (ppm) E0 E10 E30 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0.20 0.35 0.54 0.69 BMEP (MPa) 0.86 3000 rpm Tailpipe E0 E10 E30

Fig. 7. NOx emissions at 2000 rpm and (b) NOx emissions at 3000 rpm.

120 NOx conversion (%) NOx conversion (%) 100 80 60 40 20 0 0.20 0.32 0.48 0.64 BMEP (MPa) 0.80 2000 rpm E0 E10 E30

120 3000 rpm 100 80 60 40 20 0 0.20 0.32 0.48 0.64 BMEP (MPa) 0.80 E0 E10 E30

Fig. 8. NOx conversion.

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operating conditions, the catalyst conversion ef?ciency reaches its maximum and keeps constant. As a result, tailpipe CO emissions have close relations with engineout emissions, operating conditions (loads and speeds), ethanol content in the blended fuels and l. THC emissions are illustrated in Fig. 5. Compared to E0, engine-out THC emissions of E10 and E30 are reduced by 6–13% and 15–29.5% at 2000 rpm, respectively and reduced by 5–15.3% and 22.1–25.8% at 3000 rpm, respectively. Those results indicate that ethanol can signi?cantly reduce engine-out THC emissions. Fig. 6 presents THC conversion ef?ciencies. It can be seen that although the conversion of THC of E10 and E30 is less than that of E0 at most operating conditions, tailpipe THC emissions of E10 and E30 is low since

100 75 % 50 25 0 CO THC NOx
Fig. 9. Engine-out emissions at idle speed.

E0 E10 E30

engine-out THC emissions of E10 and E30 are far less those of E0; The degree of THC reduction by catalysts is far more than that by ethanol. NOx emissions are illustrated in Fig. 7. It can be seen that ethanol can decrease engine-out NOx emissions. The main reason is attributed to the properties of ethanol blends. In order to produce the same power at part loads, electronic control unit will decrease the amount of intake air and increase the amount of injected fuel to maintain air/fuel equivalence ratio near 1.0. At full loads, to maintain the maximum power of the engine, more blended fuel is injected. Since ethanol has higher latent heat relative to that of base gasoline, the mixture’s temperature at the end of intake stroke decreases and ?nally causes combustion temperature to decrease. As a result, engine-out NOx emissions decrease. NOx conversion ef?ciencies are shown in Fig. 8. Because of high oxygen concentration in the exhaust when ethanol is used, the NOx conversion of E10 and E30 is lower relative to that of E0 at most operating conditions. But tailpipe NOx emissions of the three fuels are quite close. Engine-out emissions at idle speed are presented in Fig. 9. The emissions of E0 are assumed to be 100% here. The emissions of E10 and E30 are relative values to E0. It can be seen that E10 slightly decreases CO, THC and NOx emissions, but E30 can reduce CO, THC and NOx by 35.7%, 53.4% and 33%, respectively, which indicates that the fuel with high oxygen content can improve combustion.

80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Ethanol (ppm)

Ethanol (ppm)

E10 E30

2000 rpm Engine-out

0.20

0.32 0.48 0.64 BMEP (MPa)

0.80

80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

2000 rpm Tailpipe

E10 E30

0.20 0.32

(a)

0.48 0.64 BMEP (MPa)

0.80

70 60 Ethanol (ppm) 50 40 30 20 10 0

Ethanol (ppm)

3000 rpm Engine-out

E10

E30

70 3000 rpm 60 Tailpipe 50 40 30 20 10 0

E10

E30

0.20

0.35 0.54 0.69 BMEP (MPa)

0.86
(b)

0.20

0.35 0.54 0.69 BMEP (MPa)

0.86

Fig. 10. (a) Unburned ethanol emissions at 2000 rpm and (b) Unburned ethanol emissions at 3000 rpm.

B.-Q. He et al. / Atmospheric Environment 37 (2003) 949–957

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100 Acetaldehyde (ppm) Acetaldehyde (ppm) 80 60 40 20 0 0.20 0.32 0.48 0.64 BMEP (MPa) 0.80
(a)

100

2000 rpm Engine-out

E0

E10

E30

80 60 40 20 0

2000 rpm Tailpipe

E0 E10 E30

0.20

0.32

0.48 0.64 BMEP (MPa)

0.80

120 Acetaldehyde (ppm) 100 80 60 40 20 0

3000 rpm Engine-out

E0

E10

E30 Acetaldehyde (ppm)

120 100 80 60 40 20 0

3000 rpm Tailpipe

E0

E10

E30

0.20

0.35

0.54 0.69 BMEP (MPa)

0.86
(b)

0.20

0.35

0.54 0.69 BMEP (MPa)

0.86

Fig. 11. (a) Acetaldehyde emissions at 2000 rpm and (b) acetaldehyde emissions at 3000 rpm.

500

500 2000 rpm 450 400 350 300 0.2 0.4 0.6 BMEP (MPa) 0.8 0.2 0.4 0.6 BMEP (MPa) 0.8

BSFC (g/kW h)

BSFC (g/kW h)

450 400 350 300

3000 rpm E0 E10 E30

E0 E10 E30

Fig. 12. BSFC of ethanol blended gasoline fuels.

3.3. Unregulated engine emission characteristics Unregulated emissions such as unburned ethanol and acetaldehyde were measured. Unburned ethanol emissions are shown in Fig. 10. It is evident that there are engine-out unburned ethanol emissions at various operating conditions when ethanol is used. Engine-out unburned ethanol emissions of E30 are more than two times those of E10; Tailpipe unburned ethanol emissions are high, which means that the conversion of ethanol is low in the catalysts.

Fig. 11 shows acetaldehyde emissions. It is clear that engine-out acetaldehyde emissions increases as the proportion of ethanol increases. The maximum engineout acetaldehyde emissions of E30 are reached at 0.48 MPa/2000 rpm and 0.2 MPa/3000 rpm, respectively. While engine-out acetaldehyde emissions of E0 are quite low relative to those of the blended fuels, which indicates that more acetaldehyde emissions are formed due to the oxidation of ethanol. But tailpipe acetaldehyde emissions are low except few operating conditions. Those results show that Pt/Rh based catalysts are

956
20 BSEC (kJ/kWh) 18 16 14 12 0.2

B.-Q. He et al. / Atmospheric Environment 37 (2003) 949–957
20 2000 rpm E0 E10 E30 BSEC (kJ/kWh) 18 16 14 12 0.4 0.6 BMEP (MPa) 0.8 0.2 0.4 0.6 BMEP (MPa) 0.8

3000 rpm E0 E10 E30

Fig. 13. BSEC of ethanol blended gasoline fuels.

effective in converting acetaldehyde emissions when compared to the conversion of unburned ethanol. 3.4. Fuel consumption Brake speci?c fuel consumption (BSFC) is presented in Fig. 12. Since ethanol has low heat value, in order to produce the same power at the same operating conditions, more fuel will be burned as the proportion of ethanol increases. As a result, BSFC increases. To properly evaluate combustion ef?ciency of the blended fuels, brake speci?c energy consumption (BSEC) is introduced in Fig. 13. As shown, ethanol can decrease BSEC except for low load using E10 at 2000 rpm. BSEC can be decreased up to 4% for E30. Those results show that ethanol can improve combustion ef?ciency.

tively convert acetaldehyde emissions, but the conversion of unburned ethanol is low. 5. Ethanol blended fuels can decrease BSEC.

Acknowledgements This study was ?nancially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under the contract No. 50136040.

References
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4. Conclusions From the discussions above, we can conclude that: 1. The addition of ethanol to gasoline fuel enhances octane number of the blended fuels and decreases distillation temperature except for IBP. 2. At operating conditions, ethanol blended fuels slightly decrease engine-out CO and NOx emissions, but they can signi?cantly reduce engine-out THC emissions. At idle, E10 has little effect on the decrease of engine-out CO, THC and NOx emissions, but E30 can drastically reduce engine-out CO, THC and NOx emissions. 3. At most cases, ethanol blended fuels can decrease tailpipe CO, THC and NOx emissions. The tailpipe emissions have close relations to engine-out emissions, conversion ef?ciencies, engine operating conditions (speeds and loads), ethanol content and air/ fuel equivalence ratio. 4. With the increase of ethanol content, engine-out unburned ethanol and acetaldehyde emissions increase. Pt/Rh based three-way catalysts can effec-

B.-Q. He et al. / Atmospheric Environment 37 (2003) 949–957 from modern BMW vehicles. SAE Technical Paper Series 941867. McDonald, C.R., Shore, P.R., Lee, G.R., den Otten, J., Humphries, D.T., 1994. The effect of gasoline composition on stoichiometry and exhaust emissions. SAE Technical Paper Series 941868. Nadim, F., Zack, P., Hoag, G.E., et al., 2001. United States experience with gasoline additives. Energy Policy 29, 1–5. Neimark, A., Kholmer, V., Sher, E., 1994. The effect of oxygenates in motor fuel blends on the reduction of exhaust gas toxicity. SAE Technical Paper Series 940311. Noorman, M.T., 1993. The effect of MTBE, DIPE and TAME on vehicle emissions. SAE Technical Paper Series 932668. Poulopoulos, S., Philippopoulos, C., 2000. In?uence of MTBE addition into gasoline on automotive exhaust emissions. Atmospheric Environment 34, 4781–4786.

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Pumphrey, J.A., Brand, J.I., Scheller, W.A., 2000. Vapour pressure measurements and predictions for alcohol–gasoline blends. Fuel 79, 1405–1411. Poulopoulos, S.G., Samaras, D.P., Philippopoulos, C.J., 2001. Regulated and unregulated emissions from an internal combustion engine operating on ethanol-containing fuels. Atmospheric Environment 35, 4399–4406. Wheals, A.E., Basso, L.C., Alves, D.M.G., et al., 1999. Fuel ethanol after 25 years. TIBTECH 17, 482–487. Zervas, E., Montagne, X., Lahaye, J., 2001. C1–C5 organic acid emissions from an SI engine: in?uence of fuel and air/fuel equivalence ratio. Environmental Science and Technology 35, 2746–2751. Zervas, E., Montagne, X., Lahaye, J., 2002. Emission of alcohols and carbonyl compounds from a spark ignition engine. In?uence of fuel and air/fuel equivalence ratio. Environmental Science and Technology 36, 2414–2421.


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