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过去分词作定语


过去分词作定语 1. 单个过去分词作定语, 通常前置 a. 及物动词的过去分词,具有被动和完成的意义。 a broken cup a wounded soldier an unexpected guest the excited crowd b. 不及物动词的过去分词,具有主动和完成意义。 a retired officer C. 合成的过去分词 a much-needed reform state-owned enterprises 2. 过去分词短语作定语:通常后置,其作用相当于定语从句。 a letter written in pencil = a letter which was written in pencil the machines produced last year 过去分词与现在分词的区别: 1 语态不同:现在分词表示主动,及物动词的过去分词表示被动 注:不及物动词的过去分词只有“完成”含义,而不表示被动 The falling leaves the fallen leaves 2 时间关系不同:现在分词作定语,多表示“动作正在 进行”或“与谓语同时进行”或“经常性”。 过去分词作定语,则多表示分词动作“先于位于动词表 示的动作” 或“ 没有一定的时间性” 1.Do you know the boy ____(lie) under the big tree? 2. “Can’t you read?” Mary said angrily ____(point) to the notice. 3 The woman _____(sell) vegetables has gone. 4.The wheat is watered by water _____(bring) from a pond. 5. He is a leader________ (respect) by the people. 3 及物动词的过去分词(done)与现在分词的被动式 (being done)都可以表示“被动”,但前者多表示一个 完成了的动作,而后者则表示一个正在进行的动作. the problem discussed yesterday The problem being discussed 1. We lived in the house __ built by my uncles ________________ (我舅舅们修建的). 2. Any medicine ___ taken_____(服用) without the advice of a doctor can cause trouble. 3. We spent two hours discussing the plan __ made by her __ ______________ (她制定的).

4. _____________ (开水) 5. ________________ (一个破碎的茶杯) 6. three ____________________ (受伤的士兵) 1. Most of the people __ invited to the party _________________ (被邀请参加宴会的) were famous scientists. 2. Lessons ____ learned easily _________ (易学的)are soon forgotten. ** ____ Easily-learned _________ (易学的) lessons are soon forgotten. 3. The computer center ____ opened/started _____________ (开办) last week is popular with the students . 9. Prices of daily goods ___ through a computer can be lower than some store prices. A. are bought B. bought C. been bought D. buying 10. Mr Smith, ____ of the ___ speech, started to read a novel. A. tired; boring B. tiring; bored C. tired; bored D. tiring; boring

分词 分词作定语 分词作状语 连词+分词(短语) 分词作补语 分词作表语 分词作插入语 分词的时态 分词的语态 1 分词作定语 分词前置 We can see the rising sun. 我们可以看到东升的旭日 He is a retired worker. 他是位退休的工人 分词后置 (i.分词词组;ii. 个别分词如 given, left; iii.) There was a girl sitting there. 有个女孩坐在那里 This is the question given. 这是所给的问题 过去分词作定语 与其修饰的词是被动关系,相当于一个被动语态的定语从句。

Most of the people invited to the party were famous scientists. Most of the artists invited to the party were from South Africa. In Africa there is a tribe called cannibal. People live on a small island surrounded by the sea. They have eaten up all the animals, plants and vegetables, so they want to eat everything. (过去分词作后置定语) One day a father and his son saw a ship in distance coming towards them. Suddenly the wind began and the ship sank. They heard, “ help, help.” They saw a beautiful girl lying on the beach. The shouted happily, “daddy, we have food now.” Then the father said, “ no, no, no, don’t eat her, leave her to me. Let’s eat your mother, because your mother is too ugly.” (现在分词作宾语补足语) 典型例题 1) The first textbook ___ for teaching English as a foreign language came out in the 16th century. A. have written B. to be written C. being written D. written 2)What's the language ____ in Germany? A. speaking B. spoken C. be spoken D. to speak What's the language (which is) spoken in German? 1.现在分词作定语 我们刚刚讲过过去分词作定语, 这里再学习现在分词作定语。 我们前面曾经将现在分词 和动名词统统称为“动词的 ing 形式”, 这里我们也无需过细地去分析它们的区别, 大家只 需知道:动词的 ing 形式首先表示“正在发生着”的动作或行为;其次,要知道它表示的是 主动的含义,不是被动的。 示例 1:The most surprising thing about it, however, is that it can land anywhere.(surprising 作定语,修饰 thing) 示例 2:The ball went towards a passing boat.(passing 作定语,修饰 boat) 2.定语从句的继续 定语从句作为一种高级的表达方式,同时作为拉长句子的手段,是一个重点,所以,我 们将不断强化它的运用。同时,我们也接触到了定语从句的简化方式,这里将进行更为系统 化的研究。 请记住:定语从句的简化必须符合一个根本条件:关系代词在定语从句中作主语(作宾 语时可以省略,但不能简化)!如果具备了这个条件,便可以进行简化,而且,简化后的形 式在语言表达的水平上被视为高于定语从句。 再请记住:符合简化条件的定语从句是这样简化的:如果定语从句的谓语动词中有 be 动词的各种形式,那么,砍掉关系代词和 be 动词的各种形式就完成了;如果定语从句的谓 语动词中没有 be 动词的各种形式,那么,需要把谓语动词变为 ing 形式。

示例 1: The Wayle is a small river which/that cuts across the park near my home.(由 下面两句话合并而来:The Wayle is a small river. It cuts across the park near my home.) 简化方式:The Wayle is a small river cutting across the park near my home. 示例 2:There were some people rowing on the river.(划线部分作 some people 的 定语,本身就是简化式,我们可以把它还原为从句) 从句形式:There were some people who were rowing on the river. 示例 3:Some people on the bank called out to the man in the boat. 从句形式:Some people on the bank called out to the man who was in the boat. Part III:综合训练 The Wayle is a small river (1) cuts across the park near my home. I like (2 sit) (3) the Wayle (4) fine afternoons. It was warm last Sunday, (5) I went (6) sat (7) the river bank (8) usual. Some children were playing games (9) the bank (10) there were some people (11) were rowing (12) the river. Suddenly, one of the children kicked a ball (13) hard (14) it went towards a (15 pass) boat. Some people (16) the bank called out (17) the man (18) the boat, (19) he did not hear them. The ball (20 strike) the man (21) hard (22) he nearly fell (23) the water. The man turned to look at the children, (24) there weren’t any (25) sight. (26 see) (27) the ball had struck the man (28) the boat, they all ran away. The man laughed (29) he realized what had happened. He called out (30) the children (31) (32 throw) the ball back (33) the bank. 答案: (1) which//that; (2) sitting; (3) by; (4) on; (5) so; (6) and; (7) on; (8) as; (9) on; (10) and; (11) who; (12) on; (13) so; (14) that; (15) passing; (16) on; (17) to; (18) in; (19) but; (20) struck; (21) so; (22) that; (23) into; (24) but; (25) in; (26) Seeing; (27) that; (28) in; (29) when; (30) to; (31) and; (32) threw; (33) to Part IV:句型转换 将下面句子进行最大程度的合并: 1. The Wayle is a small river. I like sitting by the Wayle on fine afternoons. 同位语 非限制

2. I like sitting by a small river. This river cuts across the park near my home. 定语从句 非谓语 3. It was warm last Sunday. I went and sat on the river bank as usual. 独立主格 4. Some children were playing games on the bank. There were some people. These people were rowing on the river. 5. Suddenly, one of the children kicked a ball very hard. It went towards a passing boat. 6. Some people on the bank called out to the man in the boat. He did not hear them. 7. The ball struck the man very hard. He nearly fell into the water. 8. The man turned to look at the children. There weren’t any in sight. 9. The children saw that the ball had struck the man in the boat. They all ran away. 10. The man laughed. He realized what had happened. 11. He called out to the children. He threw the ball back to the bank. 答案: 1. The Wayle is a small river by which I like sitting on fine afternoons. 2. I like sitting by a small river which cuts across the park near my home. 3. It was warm last Sunday, so I went and sat on the river bank as usual. 4. Some children were playing games on the bank and there were some people who were rowing on the river. 5. Suddenly, one of the children kicked a ball so hard that it went towards a passing boat. 6. Some people on the bank called out to the man in the boat, but he did not hear them. 7. The ball struck the man so hard that he nearly fell into the water.

8. The man turned to look at the children, but there weren’t any in sight. 9. Seeing that the ball had struck the man in the boat, they all ran away. 10. The man laughed when he realized what had happened. 11. He called out to the children and threw the ball back to the bank.


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