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NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines?)

Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast and Ovarian
Version 1.2015 NCCN.org

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Version 1.2015, 03/30/15 ? National Comprehensive Cancer Network, Inc. 2015, All rights reserved. The NCCN Guidelines? and this illustration may not be reproduced in any form without the express written permission of NCCN?.

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NCCN Guidelines Version 1.2015 Panel Members
* Mary B. Daly, MD, PhD/Chair ?
Fox Chase Cancer Center Catherine Klein, MD ? ? University of Colorado Cancer Center Wendy Kohlmann, MS, CGC ? Huntsman Cancer Institute at the University of Utah Allison Kurian, MD, MSc ? ? ? Stanford Cancer Institute Jennifer K. Litton, MD ? The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center Lisa Madlensky, PhD, CGC ? UC San Diego Moores Cancer Center P. Kelly Marcom, MD ? Duke Cancer Institute Sofia D. Merajver, MD, PhD ? University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center Kenneth Offit, MD ? ? ? Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center Tuya Pal, MD ? Moffitt Cancer Center Huma Rana, MD ? Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women’s Cancer Center

Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast and Ovarian

NCCN Guidelines Index Genetics Table of Contents Discussion

Gwen Reiser, MS, CGC ? Fred & Pamela Buffett Cancer Center Mark E. Robson, MD ? ? ? Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center Kristen Mahoney Shannon, MS, CGC ? Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center Elizabeth Swisher, MD Ω University of Washington Medical Center/Seattle Cancer Care Alliance Nicoleta C. Voian, MD, MPH ? & Roswell Park Cancer Institute Jeffrey N. Weitzel, MD ? ? ? City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center Alison Whelan, MD ? ? Siteman Cancer Center at BarnesJewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine Myra J. Wick, MD, PhD Ω ? Mayo Clinic Cancer Center Georgia L. Wiesner, MD, MS ? ? Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center NCCN Mary Dwyer, MS Rashmi Kumar, PhD ? Medical oncology ? Cancer/Medical genetics ? Internal medicine ? Hematology/Hematology oncology Ω Gynecologic oncology/Gynecology ? Breast surgical oncology & Public health and preventive medicine ? Patient advocacy *Discussion Writing Committee Member

* Robert Pilarski, MS, CGC/Vice-chair ?

The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center - James Cancer Hospital and Solove Research Institute Jennifer E. Axilbund, MS, CGC ? The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins Michael Berry, MD ? St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital/ The University of Tennessee Health Science Center Saundra S. Buys, MD ? ? ? Huntsman Cancer Institute at the University of Utah Beth Crawford, MS, CGC ? UCSF Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center Meagan Farmer, MS, CGC ? University of Alabama at Birmingham Comprehensive Cancer Center Susan Friedman, DVM ? FORCE-Facing Our Risk of Cancer Empowered Judy E. Garber, MD, MPH ? Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women’s Cancer Center Seema Khan, MD ? Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center of Northwestern University

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NCCN Guidelines Panel Disclosures

Version 1.2015, 03/30/15 ? National Comprehensive Cancer Network, Inc. 2015, All rights reserved. The NCCN Guidelines? and this illustration may not be reproduced in any form without the express written permission of NCCN?.

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NCCN Guidelines Version 1.2015 Table of Contents

Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast and Ovarian
NCCN Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment Panel Members Summary of the Guidelines Updates Breast and/or Ovarian Cancer Genetic Assessment (BR/OV-1) Hereditary Breast and/or Ovarian Cancer Syndrome (HBOC-1) HBOC Syndrome Management (HBOC-A) Li-Fraumeni Syndrome (LIFR-1) Li-Fraumeni Syndrome Management (LIFR-A) Cowden Syndrome/PTEN Hamartoma Tumor Syndrome (COWD-1) Cowden Syndrome/PHTS Management (COWD-A) Examples of Additional Genetic Mutations Associated with Breast/Ovarian Cancer Risk (ADDIT-1) Multi-Gene Testing (GENE-1)

NCCN Guidelines Index Genetics Table of Contents Discussion

Clinical Trials: NCCN believes that the best management for any cancer patient is in a clinical trial. Participation in clinical trials is especially encouraged. To find clinical trials online at NCCN Member Institutions, click here: nccn.org/clinical_trials/physician.html. NCCN Categories of Evidence and Consensus: All recommendations are category 2A unless otherwise specified. See NCCN Categories of Evidence and Consensus.

The NCCN Guidelines? are a statement of evidence and consensus of the authors regarding their views of currently accepted approaches to treatment. Any clinician seeking to apply or consult the NCCN Guidelines is expected to use independent medical judgment in the context of individual clinical circumstances to determine any patient’s care or treatment. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network? (NCCN?) makes no representations or warranties of any kind regarding their content, use or application and disclaims any responsibility for their application or use in any way. The NCCN Guidelines are copyrighted by National Comprehensive Cancer Network?. All rights reserved. The NCCN Guidelines and the illustrations herein may not be reproduced in any form without the express written permission of NCCN. ?2015.
Version 1.2015, 03/30/15 ? National Comprehensive Cancer Network, Inc. 2015, All rights reserved. The NCCN Guidelines? and this illustration may not be reproduced in any form without the express written permission of NCCN?.

Printed by zhang yu on 6/10/2015 9:08:28 PM. For personal use only. Not approved for distribution. Copyright ? 2015 National Comprehensive Cancer Network, Inc., All Rights Reserved.

NCCN Guidelines Version 1.2015 Updates

Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast and Ovarian

NCCN Guidelines Index Genetics Table of Contents Discussion

Updates in Version 1.2015 of the NCCN Guidelines for Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast and Ovarian from Version 2.2014 include: Global Hereditary Breast and/or Ovarian Cancer Syndrome Testing Criteria: ? “Epithelial” ovarian cancer was replaced by “invasive” ovarian cancer. HBOC-1 ? Footnotes throughout the Guidelines related to risk assessment and counseling ? Two statements were moved from under family history and listed were moved to a new page titled, “Principles of Cancer Risk Assessment and above the criteria. Counseling.” (BR/OV-A). A new footnote was added throughout to reference this Meeting one or more of these criteria warrants further personalized new page, “For further details regarding the nuances of genetic counseling and risk assessment, genetic counseling, and often genetic testing and testing, see BR/OV-A.” management.  Testing of unaffected individuals should only be considered when Breast and Ovarian Cancer Genetic Assessment: an appropriate affected family member is unavailable for testing. BR/OV-1 ? First bullet was revised, “Individual from a family with a known ? First column, heading revised, “An affected individual with a cancer diagnosis deleterious BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation or other cancer susceptibility meeting any with one or more of the following” gene.” 3rd bullet was modified, “Triple negative (ER-, PR-, HER2-) breast cancer ≤60 y.” ? Second bullet, Personal history of breast cancer + one or more of the ? Second column, heading revised, “An unaffected individual with no personal history following of cancer but with a family history of any one or more of the following” 4th bullet was modified, “≥1 invasive ovarian cancer primary from the same side of 2nd sub-bullet, the 1st tertiary bullet was clarified, “An additional breast primary.” family.” ? Bullets regarding prostate and pancreatic cancer were separated and ? Both personal and family history columns revised. 1st bullet was revised, “A known mutation in a breast cancer susceptibility gene within the family.” 5th bullet was revised as, “Personal history of prostate cancer Bullet was revised, “The following bullet was revised, ≥1 family member on same (Gleason score ≥7) at any age with ≥2 1 close blood relative with side of family with a combination of breast cancer and ≥1 of the following Personal breast (≤50 y) and/or invasive ovarian and/or pancreatic or prostate and/or family history of three or more of the following (especially if early onset): cancer (Gleason score ≥7) at any age.” pancreatic cancer, prostate cancer (Gleason score ≥7); sarcoma, adrenocortical 6th bullet was revised as, “Personal history of pancreatic cancer carcinoma, brain tumors, endometrial cancer, leukemia/lymphoma; thyroid cancer, at any age with ≥1 close blood relative with breast (≤50 y) and/or kidney cancer, dermatologic manifestations and/or macrocephaly, hamartomatous invasive ovarian and/or pancreatic cancer at any age.” polyps of GI tract; diffuse gastric cancer (can include multiple primaries in same  7th bullet was revised as, “Personal history of pancreatic cancer, individual).” and Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry, only one additional affected ? Footnote e was modified, “For the purposes of these guidelines, Includes fallopian relative is needed.” tube and primary peritoneal cancers are included. BRCA-related ovarian cancers are associated with epithelial non-mucinous histology. Other cancer genetic ? Footnote f was revised by adding, “Comprehensive genetic testing syndromes may be associated with mucinous ovarian cancer. Non-epithelial full sequencing may be considered if ancestry also includes nonovarian cancer may be associated with PJS and possibly other cancer syndromes.” Ashkenazi Jewish...” Also for footnote e on HBOC-1. HBOC-2 BR/OV-2 ? Footnote g was modified by adding, “Additional testing may be ? Detailed family history indicated if there is also a significant family history of cancer on the 1st bullet was modified, “Expanded pedigree, particularly around affected side of the family without the known mutation.” individuals...” ? Footnote i was modified by adding, “If no mutation found, consider ? Detailed medical and surgical history testing another family member with next highest likelihood of 1st bullet was modified, “Any personal cancer history having a mutation and/or other hereditary breast/ovarian cancer (eg, age, type, histology, laterality).” syndromes...” Similar footnote was revised on LIFR-2 and COWD-2. 4th bullet was modified by adding, “Hormone or oral contraceptive use.” Continued on next page 5th bullet was modified by adding, “Previous breast biopsies and pathology results.” UPDATES Version 1.2015, 03/30/15 ? National Comprehensive Cancer Network, Inc. 2015, All rights reserved. The NCCN Guidelines and this illustration may not be reproduced in any form without the express written permission of NCCN .
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NCCN Guidelines Version 1.2015 Updates

Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast and Ovarian
HBOC-A 1 of 2 ? HBOC syndrome management for women 3rd bullet, Breast screening ??1st sub-bullet was revised, “Age 25–29 y, annual breast MRI screening (preferred) or mammogram if MRI is unavailable or individualize based on earliest age of onset in on family history if breast cancer diagnosis under age 25 is present.” ??New sub-bullet was added, “For women with a BRCA mutation who are treated for breast cancer, screening of remaining breast tissue with annual mammography and breast MRI should continue.” 5th bullet was revised, “Recommend risk-reducing salpingooophorectomy (ideally in consultation with a gynecologist oncologist), ideally typically between 35 and 40 y, and upon completion of child bearing, or individualized based on earliest age of onset of ovarian cancer in the family. See Risk-Reducing Salpingo-Oophorectomy (RRSO) Protocol in NCCN Guidelines for Ovarian Cancer- Principles of Surgery.” ??New sub-bullet was added, “Salpingectomy is not the standard of care and is discouraged outside a clinical trial. The concern for risk-reducing salpingectomy alone is that women are still at risk for developing ovarian cancer. In addition, in premenopausal women, oophorectomy reduces the risk of developing breast cancer by 50%.” with a corresponding reference. 7th bullet was revised, “For those patients who have not elected riskreducing salpingo-oophorectomy, consider concurrent transvaginal ultrasound (preferably day 1–10 of menstrual cycle in premenopausal women) + CA-125 (preferably after day 5 of menstrual cycle in premenopausal women) every 6 mo starting at age 30 35 y or 5–10 y before the earliest age of first diagnosis of ovarian cancer in the family. while there may be circumstances where clinicians find screening helpful, data do not support routine ovarian screening. Transvaginal ultrasound for ovarian cancer has not been shown to be sufficiently sensitive or specific as to support a positive recommendation, but may be considered at the clinician’s discretion starting at age 30–35 y. Serum CA-125 is an additional ovarian screening test with caveats similar to transvaginal ultrasound.”

NCCN Guidelines Index Genetics Table of Contents Discussion

UUpdates in Version 1.2015 of the NCCN Guidelines for Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast and Ovarian from Version 2.2014 include:
8th bullet was revised, “Consider chemoprevention risk reduction agents as options for breast and ovarian cancer...” ? Footnotes Footnote was removed: “There are data that show that annual transvaginal ultrasound and CA-125 are not effective strategies for screening for ovarian cancer in high-risk women. There are limited data regarding the effectiveness of a six-month screening interval. Thus, until such data are available it is reasonable to consider this approach in high-risk women, especially in the context of a clinical research setting.” Footnote text was removed except for reference to See Discussion. “Data suggest that oral contraceptives (OCs) reduce ovarian cancer risk in BRCA mutation carriers. The risk/benefit ratio is uncertain because of contradictory evidence about OCs increasing breast cancer risk; however, OC use for contraception is acceptable. Other chemoprevention risk reduction agents as options for breast cancer include tamoxifen and raloxifene; however, only limited data with these agents are available in patients with BRCA mutations.” HBOC-A 2 of 2 ? HBOC syndrome management for men 2nd bullet was revised, “Clinical breast exam, every 6–12 mo, starting at age 35 y.” Bullet was removed, “Consider baseline mammogram at age 40 y; annual mammogram if gynecomastia or parenchymal/glandular breast density on baseline study.” ? Reproductive options 2nd bullet was revised from “For BRCA2 mutation carriers, risk of a rare (recessive) Fanconi anemia/brain tumor phenotype in offspring should be discussed if both partners carry a BRCA2 mutation” to “BRCA2 gene mutations may be associated with the rare autosomal recessive condition, Fanconi anemia. Thus, for this gene, consideration would be given to carrier testing the partner for mutations in the same gene if it would inform reproductive decision-making and/or risk assessment and management.”

Continued on next page

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UPDATES

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NCCN Guidelines Version 1.2015 Updates

Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast and Ovarian
Li-Fraumeni Syndrome: LIFR-1 ? Fourth bullet was revised, “Individual with breast cancer ≤35 y, TP53 testing can be ordered alone, concurrently with BRCA1/2 testing and/or other gene testing or as a follow-up test after negative BRCA1/2 testing.” ? List of cancers associated with LFS was removed from the page since it is included in the criteria. LIFR-A ? Breast cancer risk for women 3rd bullet, Breast screening ??1st sub-bullet was revised, “Age 20–29 y, annual breast MRI screening (preferred) or mammogram if MRI is unavailable or individualized based on earliest age of onset in family.” ??4th sub-bullet was added, “For women with a TP53 mutation who are treated for breast cancer, screening of remaining breast tissue should continue.” ? Other cancer risks 4th bullet was modified: “Consider colonoscopy every 2–5 y starting no later than at 25 y or 5 y before the earliest known colon cancer in the family (whichever comes first).” Bullet was removed, “Discuss option to participate in novel screening approaches using technologies, such as whole-body MRI, abdominal ultrasound, and brain MRI” and replaced with two bullets, ??Perform annual whole body MRI (rapid non-contrast exams per ACRIN model). ??The brain may be examined as part of whole body MRI or as a separate exam 6th bullet was added, “Perform annual dermatologic examination.” Footnote 4 was removed, “A surveillance study has been published that utilizes these screening approaches (Villani A, Tabori U, Schiffman J, et al. Lancet Oncol 2011;12:559-567). See Discussion” and replaced with “Whole body MRI is being evaluated in multiple international trials. Other components of screening are being evaluated in protocols, including regular blood screening for hematologic malignancies, and biochemical screening.”

NCCN Guidelines Index Genetics Table of Contents Discussion

Updates in Version 1.2015 of the NCCN Guidelines for Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast and Ovarian from Version 2.2014 include:
Cowden Syndrome/PTEN Hamartoma Tumor Syndrome: COWD-1 ? Minor criteria “Intellectual disability” replaced “mental retardation.” ? Footnotes Footnote d was added, “Current evidence does not support testing for succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) gene mutations in patients with PHTS. (Am J Hum Genet 2011;88:674-675).” Footnote g was added, “Multiple polyp types are often seen in patients with PHTS, and less commonly may include adenomas, hyperplastic polyps, and other histologies.” COWD-A ? Cowden syndrome/PHTS management for women 2nd bullet was modified, “Clinical breast exam, every 6–12 mo, starting at age 25 y or 5–10 y before the earliest known breast cancer in the family (whichever comes first).” 3rd bullet was revised by clarifying as ??Breast Screening –– 1st sub-bullet was revised, “Annual mammography and breast MRI screening starting at age 30–35 y or 5–10 y before individualized based on the earliest known breast cancer age of onset in the family (whichever comes first).” –– 2nd sub-bullet was added, “Age >75 y, management should be considered on an individual basis.” –– 3rd sub-bullet was added, “For women with a PTEN mutation who are treated for breast cancer, screening of remaining breast tissue with annual mammography and breast MRI should continue.” ? Cowden syndrome/PHTS management for men and women 2nd bullet was modified, “Annual thyroid ultrasound starting at time of PHTS diagnosis age 18 y or 5–10 y before the earliest known thyroid cancer in the family, whichever is earlier. 3rd bullet was revised, “Colonoscopy, starting at age 35 y unless symptomatic or close relative with colon cancer under age 40 y. Colonoscopy should be done every 5 y or more frequently if patient is symptomatic or polyps found.”

Continued on next page
Version 1.2015, 03/30/15 ? National Comprehensive Cancer Network, Inc. 2015, All rights reserved. The NCCN Guidelines? and this illustration may not be reproduced in any form without the express written permission of NCCN?.

UPDATES

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NCCN Guidelines Version 1.2015 Updates

Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast and Ovarian
Multi-Gene Testing GENE-1 ? This section was extensively revised and text will be included in the corresponding discussion. ADDIT-2 ? A new table was added, “Breast and Ovarian Management Based on Genetic Test Results.”

NCCN Guidelines Index Genetics Table of Contents Discussion

Updates in Version 1.2015 of the NCCN Guidelines for Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast and Ovarian from Version 2.2014 include:

Version 1.2015, 03/30/15 ? National Comprehensive Cancer Network, Inc. 2015, All rights reserved. The NCCN Guidelines? and this illustration may not be reproduced in any form without the express written permission of NCCN?.

UPDATES

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NCCN Guidelines Version 1.2015
CRITERIA FOR FURTHER GENETIC RISK EVALUATIONa

Breast and/or Ovarian Cancer Genetic Assessment
An individual with a cancer diagnosis meeting any of the following: ? A known mutation in a cancer susceptibility gene within the family ? Early-age-onset breast cancerb ? Triple negative (ER-, PR-, HER2-) breast cancer ≤60 y ? Two breast cancer primariesc in a single individual ? Breast cancer at any age, and ≥1 close blood relatived with breast cancer ≤50 y, or ≥1 close blood relatived with invasive ovariane cancer at any age, or ≥2 close blood relativesd with breast cancer and/or pancreatic cancer at any age, or From a population at increased riskf ? Personal and/or family history of three or more of the following (especially if early onset): pancreatic cancer, prostate cancer (Gleason score ≥7); sarcoma, adrenocortical carcinoma, brain tumors, endometrial cancer; thyroid cancer, kidney cancer, dermatologic manifestationsg,h and/or macrocephaly, hamartomatous polyps of gastrointestinal (GI) tract;h diffuse gastric canceri (can include multiple primary cancer in same individual) ? Invasive ovariane cancer ? Male breast cancer
aThe

NCCN Guidelines Index Genetics Table of Contents Discussion

An individual with no personal history of cancer but with a family history of any of the following:f ? A known mutation in a cancer susceptibility gene within the family ? ≥2 breast cancer primaries in a single individuald ? ≥2 individuals with breast cancer primaries on the same side of familyd ? ≥1 invasive ovariane cancer primary ? First- or second-degree relatived with breast cancer ≤45 y ? Personal and/or family history of three or more of the following (especially if early onset): pancreatic cancer, prostate cancer (Gleason score ≥7), sarcoma, adrenocortical carcinoma, brain tumors, endometrial cancer; thyroid cancer, kidney cancer, dermatologic manifestationsg,h and/or macrocephaly, hamartomatous polyps of GI tract;h diffuse gastric canceri (can include multiple primary cancers in same individual) ? Male breast cancer

Referral to cancer genetics professional recommended j

See Assessment (BR/OV-2)

criteria for further risk evaluation and genetic testing are not identical. For the purposes of these guidelines, invasive and ductal carcinoma in situ breast cancers should be included. The maternal and paternal sides of the family should be considered independently for familial patterns of cancer. bClinically use age ≤50 y because studies define early onset as either ≤40 or ≤50 y. cTwo breast cancer primaries includes bilateral (contralateral) disease or two or more clearly separate ipsilateral primary tumors either synchronously or asynchronously. dClose blood relatives include first-, second-, and third-degree relatives. (See BR/OV-B). eIncludes fallopian tube and primary peritoneal cancers. BRCA-related ovarian cancers are associated with epithelial non-mucinous histology. Other cancer genetic syndromes may be associated with mucinous ovarian cancer. Non-epithelial ovarian cancer may be associated with PJS and possibly other cancer syndromes. Ovarian/fallopian tube/primary peritoneal cancers are component tumors of Lynch syndrome; be attentive for clinical evidence of this syndrome. See NCCN Guidelines for Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Colorectal.

fFor

populations at increased risk, requirements for inclusion may be modified (eg, individuals of Ashkenazi Jewish descent with breast or ovarian or pancreatic cancer at any age). gFor dermatologic manifestations, see COWD-1. hFor hamartomatous colon polyps in conjunction with breast cancer and hyperpigmented macules of the lips and oral mucosa, STK11 testing should be considered. See NCCN Guidelines for Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Colorectal—Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. Melanoma has been reported in some HBOC families. iFor lobular breast cancer with a family history of diffuse gastric cancer, CDH1 gene testing should be considered. jFor further details regarding the nuances of genetic counseling and testing, see BR/OV-A.

Note: All recommendations are category 2A unless otherwise indicated. Clinical Trials: NCCN believes that the best management of any cancer patient is in a clinical trial. Participation in clinical trials is especially encouraged.
Version 1.2015, 03/30/15 ? National Comprehensive Cancer Network, Inc. 2015, All rights reserved. The NCCN Guidelines? and this illustration may not be reproduced in any form without the express written permission of NCCN?.

BR/OV-1

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NCCN Guidelines Version 1.2015
ASSESSMENT Patient needs and concerns: ? Knowledge of genetic testing for cancer risk, including benefits, risks, and limitations ? Goals for cancer family risk assessment Detailed family history: ? Expanded pedigree, particularly around affected individuals, to include first-, second-, and third-degree relatives (parents, siblings, children, grandparents, aunts, uncles, nieces, nephews, grandchildren, half-siblings, great-grandparents, great-aunts, great-uncles, great-grandchildren, and first cousins) (See BR/OV-B) ? Types of cancer, bilaterality, age at diagnosis ? History of chemoprevention and/or risk-reducing surgery ? Medical record documentation as needed, particularly pathology reports of primary cancers Detailed medical and surgical history: ? Any personal cancer history (eg, age, histology, laterality) ? Carcinogen exposure (eg, history of radiation therapy) ? Reproductive history ? Hormone or oral contraceptive use ? Previous breast biopsies and pathology results ? History of salpingo-oophorectomy Focused physical exam (conducted by qualified clinician): ? Breast/ovarian ? Cowden syndrome/PHTS specific: Dermatologic,k including oral mucosa Head circumference Thyroid (enlarged or nodular on palpation)
kFor

Breast and/or Ovarian Cancer Genetic Assessment
GENE TESTINGl

NCCN Guidelines Index Genetics Table of Contents Discussion

See Targeted Testing Criteria for Hereditary Breast/Ovarian Syndrome (HBOC-1) Li-Fraumeni Syndrome (LIFR-1) Cowden Syndrome/PHTS (COWD-1)

See Multi-Gene Testing (GENE-1)

Cowden syndrome dermatologic manifestations, see COWD-1 and for PJS dermatologic manifestations, see NCCN Guidelines for Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Colorectal. lIn some cases, multi-gene testing may be a preferable way to begin testing over the single-gene testing process.
Note: All recommendations are category 2A unless otherwise indicated. Clinical Trials: NCCN believes that the best management of any cancer patient is in a clinical trial. Participation in clinical trials is especially encouraged.

Version 1.2015, 03/30/15 ? National Comprehensive Cancer Network, Inc. 2015, All rights reserved. The NCCN Guidelines? and this illustration may not be reproduced in any form without the express written permission of NCCN?.

BR/OV-2

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NCCN Guidelines Version 1.2015
PRINCIPLES OF CANCER RISK ASSESSMENT AND COUNSELING

Breast and/or Ovarian Cancer Genetic Assessment

NCCN Guidelines Index Genetics Table of Contents Discussion

? Cancer risk assessment and genetic counseling is highly recommended when genetic testing is offered (ie, pre-test counseling) and after results are disclosed (ie, post-test counseling).1-5 A genetic counselor, medical geneticist, oncologist, surgeon, oncology nurse or other health professional with expertise and experience in cancer genetics should be involved early in the counseling of patients. ? Pre-test counseling includes: Collection of a comprehensive family history ??Note that when assessing family history, close blood relatives include first-, second-, and third-degree relatives on each side of the family (See BR/OV-B) Evaluation of a patient’s cancer risk Generating a differential diagnosis and educating the patient on inheritance patterns, penetrance, variable expressivity, and the possibility of genetic heterogeneity ? Post-test counseling includes discussions of: Results along with their significance and impact and recommended medical management options Informing and testing at-risk family members Available resources such as disease specific support groups and research studies. Genetic Testing Considerations ? Testing should be considered in appropriate high risk individuals where it will impact the medical management of the tested individual and/or their at-risk family members. It should be, performed in a setting in which it can be adequately interpreted, and impact the medical management of the tested individual and/or their at-risk family members.1 ? The probability of mutation detection associated with these criteria will vary based on family structure. Individuals with unknown or limited family history/structure, such as fewer than 2 female first- or second-degree relatives having lived beyond age 45 in either lineage, may have an underestimated probability of familial mutation detection. The estimated likelihood of mutation detection may be very low in families with a large number of unaffected female relatives. ? Patients who have received an allogenic bone marrow transplant should not have molecular genetic testing via blood or buccal samples due to unreliable test results from contamination by donor DNA. If available, DNA should be extracted from a fibroblast culture. If this source of DNA is not possible, buccal samples can be considered, subject to the risk of donor DNA contamination. ? Comprehensive genetic testing includes full sequencing and testing for large genomic rearrangements. ? Genetic testing for adult onset diseases (eg, BRCA1/2) in children <18 y is generally not recommended.6 Continued on next page

Note: All recommendations are category 2A unless otherwise indicated. Clinical Trials: NCCN believes that the best management of any cancer patient is in a clinical trial. Participation in clinical trials is especially encouraged.
Version 1.2015, 03/30/15 ? National Comprehensive Cancer Network, Inc. 2015, All rights reserved. The NCCN Guidelines and this illustration may not be reproduced in any form without the express written permission of NCCN .
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BR/OV-A 1 OF 2

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NCCN Guidelines Version 1.2015

Breast and/or Ovarian Cancer Genetic Assessment

NCCN Guidelines Index Genetics Table of Contents Discussion

PRINCIPLES OF CANCER RISK ASSESSMENT AND COUNSELING Genetic Testing Approach ? If more than one family member is affected with cancers highly associated with a particular inherited cancer susceptibility syndrome, consider testing first a family member with youngest age at diagnosis, bilateral disease, multiple primary cancers, or other cancers associated with the syndrome, or most closely related to the proband/patient. If there are no living family members with cancer that is a cardinal feature of the syndrome in question, consider testing first- or second-degree family members affected with other cancers thought to be related to the gene in question (eg, prostate, pancreas, melanoma with BRCA1/2). ? Testing for unaffected family members when no affected member is available should be considered. Significant limitations of interpreting test results should be discussed. ? If no mutation is found, consider other hereditary cancer syndromes. For additional information on other genetic mutations associated with breast/ovarian cancer risk for which genetic testing is clinically available, see ADDIT-1 and ADDIT-2. ? Testing family members for a variant of unknown significance should not be used for clinical purposes. Consider a referral to research studies that aim to define the functional impact of variants. Risk to relatives ? Advise about possible inherited cancer risk to relatives, options for risk assessment, and management. ? Recommend genetic counseling and consideration of genetic testing for at-risk relatives. Reproductive options ? For patients of reproductive age, advise about options for prenatal diagnosis and assisted reproduction including pre-implantation genetic diagnosis. Discussion should include known risks, limitations, and benefits of these technologies. See Discussion for details. ? BRCA2 gene mutations may be associated with the rare autosomal recessive condition, Fanconi anemia. Thus, for this gene, consideration would be given to carrier testing the partner for mutations in the same gene if it would inform reproductive decisionmaking and/or risk assessment and management.

1. Robson ME, Storm CD, Weitzel J, Wollins DS, Offit K; American Society of Clinical Oncology. American Society of Clinical Oncology policy statement update: genetic and genomic testing for cancer susceptibility. J Clin Oncol 2010;28:893-901. 2. Berliner JL, Fay AM, Cummings SA, Burnett B, Tillmanns T. NSGC practice guideline: risk assessment and genetic counseling for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer. J Genet Couns 2013;22:155-163. 3: American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists; ACOG Committee on Practice Bulletins--Gynecology; ACOG Committee on Genetics; Society of Gynecologic Oncologists. ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 103: Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome. Obstet Gynecol 2009;113:957-966. 4. Lancaster JM, Powell CB, Chen LM, Richardson DL; SGO Clinical Practice Committee. Society of Gynecologic Oncology statement on risk assessment for inherited gynecologic cancer predispositions. Gynecol Oncol 2015;136:3-7. 5. Weitzel JN, Blazer KR, Macdonald DJ, Culver JO, Offit K. Genetics, genomics, and cancer risk assessment: State of the art and future directions in the era of personalized medicine. CA Cancer J Clin 2011;61:327-359. 6. Committee on Bioethics; Committee on Genetics, and American College of Medical Genetics and; Genomic Social; Ethical; Legal Issues Committee. Ethical and policy issues in genetic testing and screening of children. Pediatrics 2013;131:620-622.
Note: All recommendations are category 2A unless otherwise indicated. Clinical Trials: NCCN believes that the best management of any cancer patient is in a clinical trial. Participation in clinical trials is especially encouraged.
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? ?

BR/OV-A 2 OF 2

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NCCN Guidelines Version 1.2015

Breast and/or Ovarian Cancer Genetic Assessment
PEDIGREE: FIRST-, SECOND-, AND THIRD-DEGREE RELATIVES OF PROBANDa

NCCN Guidelines Index Genetics Table of Contents Discussion

2
Paternal grandfather

2
Paternal grandmother

2
Maternal grandfather

2
Maternal grandmother

3
Great aunt

3
Great uncle

2
Aunt

1
Father

1
Mother

2
Uncle

1
Sister Proband

1
Brother

3
First cousin (male)

2
Nephew

2
Niece Son

1

1
Daughter

2
Granddaughter

2
Grandson

aFirst-degree

relatives: parents, siblings, and children; second-degree relatives: grandparents, aunts, uncles, nieces, nephews, grandchildren, and half-siblings; third-degree relatives: great-grandparents, great-aunts, great-uncles, great-grandchildren, and first cousins.
Note: All recommendations are category 2A unless otherwise indicated. Clinical Trials: NCCN believes that the best management of any cancer patient is in a clinical trial. Participation in clinical trials is especially encouraged.

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BR/OV-B

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NCCN Guidelines Version 1.2015

Hereditary Breast and/or Ovarian Cancer Syndrome

NCCN Guidelines Index Genetics Table of Contents Discussion

HEREDITARY BREAST AND/OR OVARIAN CANCER SYNDROME TESTING CRITERIAa,b Meeting one or more of these criteria warrants further personalized risk assessment, genetic counseling, and often genetic testing and management. Testing of unaffected individuals should only be considered when an appropriate affected family member is unavailable for testing. ? Individual from a family with a known deleterious BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation or other cancer susceptibility gene ? Personal history of breast cancer b + one or more of the following: ? Personal history of prostate cancer Diagnosed ≤45 y (Gleason score ≥7) at any age with ≥1 close Diagnosed ≤50 y with: blood relatived with breast (≤50 y) and/ c ??An additional breast cancer primary or invasive ovariane and/or pancreatic or d ??≥1 close blood relative with breast cancer at any age prostate cancer (Gleason score ≥7) at any ??An unknown or limited family historya age Diagnosed ≤60 y with a: ? Personal history of pancreatic cancer at ??Triple negative breast cancer any age with ≥1 close blood relatived with Diagnosed at any age with: breast (≤50 y) and/or invasive ovariane and/ d ??≥1 close blood relative with breast cancer diagnosed ≤50 y or pancreatic cancer at any age ??≥2 close blood relativesd with breast cancer at any age ? Personal history of pancreatic cancer, and ??≥1 close blood relatived with invasive ovariane cancer Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry ??≥2 close blood relativesd with pancreatic cancer and/or ? Family history only (significant limitations prostate cancer (Gleason score ≥7) at any age d of interpreting test results for an unaffected ??A close male blood relative with breast cancer individual should be discussed): ??For an individual of ethnicity associated with higher  First- or second-degree bloodd relative mutation frequency (eg, Ashkenazi Jewish) no additional meeting any of the above criteria family history may be requiredf e  Third-degree bloodd relative who has breast ? Personal history of invasive ovarian cancer cancerb and/or invasive ovariane cancer and ? Personal history of male breast cancer who has ≥2 close blood relativesd with breast cancer (at least one with breast cancer ≤50 y) and/or invasive ovarianf cancer
aFor

HBOC testing criteria met

See Follow-up (HBOC-2)

If HBOC testing criteria not met, consider testing for other hereditary syndromes

If criteria for other hereditary syndromes not met, then cancer screening as per NCCN Screening Guidelines

further details regarding the nuances of genetic counseling and testing, see BR/OV-A. bFor the purposes of these guidelines, invasive and ductal carcinoma in situ breast cancers should be included. cTwo breast cancer primaries includes bilateral (contralateral) disease or two or more clearly separate ipsilateral primary tumors either synchronously or asynchronously. dClose blood relatives include first-, second-, and third-degree relatives on same side of family. (See BR/OV-B)

eIncludes

fallopian tube and primary peritoneal cancers. BRCA-related ovarian cancers are associated with epithelial non-mucinous histology. Other cancer genetic syndromes may be associated with mucinous ovarian cancer. Non-epithelial ovarian cancer may be associated with PJS and possibly other cancer syndromes. Ovarian/fallopian tube/primary peritoneal cancers are component tumors of Lynch syndrome; be attentive for clinical evidence of this syndrome. See NCCN Guidelines for Genetic/ Familial High-Risk Assessment: Colorectal. fTesting for Ashkenazi Jewish founder-specific mutation(s) should be performed first. Comprehensive genetic testing may be considered if ancestry also includes non-Ashkenazi Jewish relatives or if other HBOC criteria are met. Founder mutations exist in other populations.

Note: All recommendations are category 2A unless otherwise indicated. Clinical Trials: NCCN believes that the best management of any cancer patient is in a clinical trial. Participation in clinical trials is especially encouraged.
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HBOC-1

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NCCN Guidelines Version 1.2015
HBOC FOLLOW-UP FAMILY STATUS GENETIC TESTINGa

Hereditary Breast and/or Ovarian Cancer Syndrome
TEST OUTCOMEa Positive for familial BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation BRCA1/BRCA2 testing not performed Negative for familial BRCA1/BRCA2 mutationi Mutation found Not tested No mutation foundi Variant of unknown significance found (uninformative)i See Multi-Gene Testing (GENE-1)

NCCN Guidelines Index Genetics Table of Contents Discussion SCREENING RECOMMENDATION See HBOC Syndrome Management (HBOC-A) Cancer screening as per NCCN Screening Guidelines See HBOC Syndrome Management (HBOC-A) Offer research and individualized recommendations according to personal and family history

HBOC testing criteria met

Risk assessment and counseling:a ? Psychosocial assessment and support ? Risk counseling ? Education ? Discussion of genetic testing ? Informed consent

Deleterious familial BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation known

Recommend BRCA1/BRCA2 testing for specific familial mutationg

No known familial BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation

Consider comprehensive BRCA1/BRCA2 testing of patient or if unaffected, test family member with highest likelihood of a mutationh or Consider multi-gene testing, if appropriate

aFor

gIf of Ashkenazi Jewish descent, in addition to the specific familial mutation, test

further details regarding the nuances of genetic counseling and testing, see BR/OV-A.

for all three founder mutations. Additional testing may be indicated if there is also a significant family history of cancer on the side of the family without the known mutation. hFor both affected and unaffected individuals of Ashkenazi Jewish descent with no known familial mutation, first test for the three common mutations. Then, if negative for the three mutations and ancestry also includes non-Ashkenazi Jewish relatives

or other HBOC criteria are met, consider comprehensive genetic testing. For both affected and unaffected individuals who are non-Ashkenazi Jewish and who have no known familial mutation, comprehensive genetic testing is the approach, if done. iIf no mutation found, consider testing another family member with next highest likelihood of having a mutation and/or other hereditary breast/ovarian cancer syndromes such as Li-Fraumeni (LIFR-1) and/or Cowden syndrome (COWD-1) or multi-gene testing (GENE-1). For additional information on other genetic mutations associated with breast/ovarian cancer risk for which genetic testing is clinically available, see ADDIT-1.

Note: All recommendations are category 2A unless otherwise indicated. Clinical Trials: NCCN believes that the best management of any cancer patient is in a clinical trial. Participation in clinical trials is especially encouraged.
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HBOC-2

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NCCN Guidelines Version 1.2015

Hereditary Breast and/or Ovarian Cancer Syndrome

NCCN Guidelines Index Genetics Table of Contents Discussion

1Women should be familiar with their breasts and promptly report changes to their health care

HBOC SYNDROME MANAGEMENT (1 of 2) WOMEN ? Breast awareness1 starting at age 18 y. ? Clinical breast exam, every 6–12 mo,2 starting at age 25 y. ? Breast screening3 Age 25–29 y, annual breast MRI4 screening (preferred) or mammogram if MRI is unavailable or individualized based on family history if a breast cancer diagnosis before age 25 is present. Age 30–75 y, annual mammogram and breast MRI4 screening. Age >75 y, management should be considered on an individual basis. For women with a BRCA mutation who are treated for breast cancer, screening of remaining breast tissue with annual mammography and breast MRI should continue. ? Discuss option of risk-reducing mastectomy Counseling may include a discussion regarding degree of protection, reconstruction options, and risks. ? Recommend risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (ideally in consultation with a gynecologist oncologist),5 typically between 35 and 40 y, and upon completion of child bearing. See Risk-Reducing Salpingo-Oophorectomy (RRSO) Protocol in NCCN Guidelines for Ovarian Cancer- Principles of Surgery. Counseling includes a discussion of reproductive desires, extent of cancer risk, degree of protection for breast and ovarian cancer, management of menopausal symptoms, possible short-term hormone replacement therapy to a recommended maximum age of natural menopause, and related medical issues. Salpingectomy alone is not the standard of care and is discouraged outside a clinical trial. The concern for risk-reducing salpingectomy alone is that women are still at risk for developing ovarian cancer. In addition, in premenopausal women, oophorectomy reduces the risk of developing breast cancer by 50%.6 ? Address psychosocial, social, and quality-of-life aspects of undergoing risk-reducing mastectomy and/or salpingo-oophorectomy. ? For those patients who have not elected risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy, while there may be circumstances where clinicians find screening helpful, data do not support routine ovarian screening. Transvaginal ultrasound for ovarian cancer has not been shown to be sufficiently sensitive or specific as to support a positive recommendation, but may be considered at the clinician’s discretion starting at age 30–35 y. Serum CA-125 is an additional ovarian screening test with caveats similar to transvaginal ultrasound. ? Consider risk reduction agents as options for breast and ovarian cancer, including discussing risks and benefits (See Discussion for details). (See NCCN Guidelines for Breast Cancer Risk Reduction). ? Consider investigational imaging and screening studies, when available (eg, novel imaging technologies, more frequent screening intervals) in the context of a clinical trial. Continued on next page
4High-quality breast MRI limitations include having: a need for a dedicated breast coil, the

provider. Periodic, consistent breast self exam (BSE) may facilitate breast self awareness. ability to perform biopsy under MRI guidance, experienced radiologists in breast MRI, and Premenopausal women may find BSE most informative when performed at the end of menses. regional availability. Breast MRI is performed preferably days 7–15 of menstrual cycle for 2Randomized trials comparing clinical breast exam versus no screening have not been premenopausal women. 5Given the high rate of occult neoplasms, special attention should be given to sampling and performed. Rationale for recommending clinical breast exam every 6–12 mo is the concern for interval breast cancers. pathologic review of the ovaries and fallopian tubes. (See Discussion for details.) See the College of 3The appropriateness of imaging modalities and scheduling is still under study. Lowry KP, et American Pathologists, Protocol for the Examination of Specimens from Patients with Carcinoma of al. Annual screening strategies in BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutation carriers: a comparative the Ovary. See NCCN Guidelines for Ovarian Cancer for treatment of findings. effectiveness analysis. Cancer 2012;118:2021-2030. 6SGO Clinical Practice Statement: Salpingectomy for Ovarian Cancer Prevention November 2013.
Note: All recommendations are category 2A unless otherwise indicated. Clinical Trials: NCCN believes that the best management of any cancer patient is in a clinical trial. Participation in clinical trials is especially encouraged.
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? ?

HBOC-A 1 OF 2

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NCCN Guidelines Version 1.2015

Hereditary Breast and/or Ovarian Cancer Syndrome
HBOC SYNDROME MANAGEMENT (2 of 2) MEN7 ? Breast self-exam training and education starting at age 35 y ? Clinical breast exam, every 12 mo, starting at age 35 y ? Starting at age 40 y: Recommend prostate cancer screening for BRCA2 carriers Consider prostate cancer screening for BRCA1 carriers

NCCN Guidelines Index Genetics Table of Contents Discussion

MEN AND WOMEN ? Education regarding signs and symptoms of cancer(s), especially those associated with BRCA gene mutations. ? No specific screening guidelines exist for pancreatic cancer and melanoma, but screening may be individualized based on cancers observed in the family.8 RISK TO RELATIVES ? Advise about possible inherited cancer risk to relatives, options for risk assessment, and management. ? Recommend genetic counseling and consideration of genetic testing for at-risk relatives. REPRODUCTIVE OPTIONS ? For patients of reproductive age, advise about options for prenatal diagnosis and assisted reproduction including pre-implantation genetic diagnosis. Discussion should include known risks, limitations, and benefits of these technologies. See Discussion for details. ? BRCA2 gene mutations may be associated with the rare autosomal recessive condition, Fanconi anemia. Thus, for this gene, consideration would be given to carrier testing the partner for mutations in the same gene if it would inform reproductive decision-making and/or risk assessment and management.9

7There are only limited data to support breast imaging in men. 8Consider full-body skin and eye exam for melanoma and investigational protocols for pancreatic cancer. 9Offit K, Levran O, Mullaney B, et al. Shared genetic susceptibility to breast cancer, brain tumors, and Fanconi

anemia. J Natl Cancer Inst 2003;95:1548-1551.

Note: All recommendations are category 2A unless otherwise indicated. Clinical Trials: NCCN believes that the best management of any cancer patient is in a clinical trial. Participation in clinical trials is especially encouraged.
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? ?

HBOC-A 2 OF 2

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NCCN Guidelines Version 1.2015 Li-Fraumeni Syndrome
LI-FRAUMENI SYNDROME TESTING CRITERIAa ? Individual from a family with a known TP53 mutation ? Classic Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) criteria:b Combination of an individual diagnosed age <45 y with a sarcomac AND A first-degree relative diagnosed age <45 y with cancer AND An additional first- or second-degree relative in the same lineage with cancer diagnosed age <45 y, or a sarcoma at any age ? Chompret criteria:d,e Individual with a tumor from LFS tumor spectrum (eg, soft tissue sarcoma, osteosarcoma, brain tumor, breast cancer, adrenocortical carcinoma, leukemia, lung bronchoalveolar cancer) before 46 years of age, AND at least one first- or second-degree relative with any of the aforementioned cancers (other than breast cancer if the proband has breast cancer) before the age of 56 years or with multiple primaries at any age OR Individual with multiple tumors (except multiple breast tumors), two of which belong to LFS tumor spectrum with the initial cancer occurring before the age of 46 years OR Individual with adrenocortical carcinoma or choroid plexus carcinomae,f at any age of onset, regardless of the family history ? Early-age-onset breast cancer: Individual with breast cancer ≤35 y, TP53 testing can be ordered alone, concurrently with BRCA1/2 testing and/or other gene testing or as a follow-up test after negative BRCA1/2 testing
aFor

NCCN Guidelines Index Genetics Table of Contents Discussion FOLLOW-UP

LFS testing criteria met

See Follow-up (LIFR-2)

LFS testing criteria not met

Individualized recommendations according to personal and family history

further details regarding the nuances of genetic counseling and testing, see BR/OV-A. bLi FP, Fraumeni JF, Jr., Mulvihill JJ, et al. A cancer family syndrome in twenty-four kindreds. Cancer Res 1988;48:5358-5362. cTo date, there have been no reports of Ewing sarcoma, GIST, desmoid tumor, or angiosarcoma in TP53 mutation carriers.

dChompret A, Abel A,

Stoppa-Lyonnet D, et al. Sensitivity and predictive value of criteria for p53 germline mutation screening. J Med Genet 2001;38:43-47. eTinat J, Bougeard G, Baert-Desurmont S, et al. 2009 version of the Chompret criteria for Li Fraumeni syndrome. J Clin Oncol 2009;27:e108-9. fGonzalez KD, Noltner KA, Buzin CH, et al. Beyond Li Fraumeni Syndrome: Clinical characteristics of families with p53 germline mutations. J Clin Oncol 2009;27:1250-1256.

Note: All recommendations are category 2A unless otherwise indicated. Clinical Trials: NCCN believes that the best management of any cancer patient is in a clinical trial. Participation in clinical trials is especially encouraged.
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LIFR-1

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NCCN Guidelines Version 1.2015 Li-Fraumeni Syndrome
LI-FRAUMENI FOLLOW-UP FAMILY STATUS GENETIC TESTINGa TEST OUTCOMEa Positive for familial TP53 mutation TP53 testing not performed Negative for familial TP53 mutation

NCCN Guidelines Index Genetics Table of Contents Discussion SCREENING RECOMMENDATION See Li-Fraumeni Syndrome Management (LIFR-A)

LiFraumeni testing criteria met

Risk assessment and counseling:a ? Psychosocial assessment and support ? Risk counseling ? Education ? Discussion of genetic testing ? Informed consent

Deleterious familial TP53 mutation known

Consider TP53 testing for specific familial mutation (category 2A for adults; category 2B for children)

Cancer screening as per NCCN Screening Guidelines

No known familial TP53 mutation

Consider comprehensive TP53 testing of patient or, if unaffected, test family member with highest likelihood of a mutationg or Consider multi-gene testing, if appropriate

Mutation found Not tested No mutation found h

See Li-Fraumeni Syndrome Management (LIFR-A) Offer research and individualized recommendations according to personal and family history

Variant of unknown significance found (uninformative) h See Multi-Gene Testing (GENE-1)

aFor further details regarding the nuances of genetic counseling and testing, see BR/OV-A. gYoungest age at diagnosis, bilateral disease, multiple primaries, or sarcoma at age <45 y. hIf no mutation is found, consider testing another family member with next highest likelihood

of having a mutation and/or other hereditary breast cancer syndromes such as HBOC (HBOC-1) and/or Cowden syndrome (COWD-1) or multi-gene testing (GENE-1). For additional information on other genetic mutations associated with breast/ovarian cancer risk for which genetic testing is clinically available, see ADDIT-1.
Note: All recommendations are category 2A unless otherwise indicated. Clinical Trials: NCCN believes that the best management of any cancer patient is in a clinical trial. Participation in clinical trials is especially encouraged.

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LIFR-2

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NCCN Guidelines Version 1.2015 Li-Fraumeni Syndrome
LI-FRAUMENI SYNDROME MANAGEMENT

NCCN Guidelines Index Genetics Table of Contents Discussion

BREAST CANCER RISK FOR WOMEN ? Breast awareness1 starting at age 18 y. ? Clinical breast exam, every 6–12 mo, starting at age 20–25 y or 5–10 y before the earliest known breast cancer in the family (whichever comes first). ? Breast screening2 Age 20–29 y, annual breast MRI3 screening (preferred) or mammogram if MRI is unavailable Age 30–75 y, annual mammogram and breast MRI3 screening Age >75 y, management should be considered on an individual basis. For women with a TP53 mutation who are treated for breast cancer, screening of remaining breast tissue with annual mammography and breast MRI should continue. ? Discuss option of risk-reducing mastectomy and counsel regarding degree of protection, degree of cancer risk, and reconstruction options. ? Address psychosocial, social, and quality-of-life aspects of undergoing risk-reducing mastectomy. OTHER CANCER RISKS ? Address limitations of screening for many cancers associated with LFS. Because of the remarkable risk of additional primary neoplasms, screening may be considered for cancer survivors with LFS and a good prognosis from their prior tumor(s). ? Pediatricians should be apprised of the risk of childhood cancers in affected families. ? Annual comprehensive physical exam with high index of suspicion for rare cancers and second malignancies in cancer survivors: include neurologic examination. ? Therapeutic RT for cancer should be avoided when possible. ? Consider colonoscopy every 2-5 y starting at 25 y or 5 y before the earliest known colon cancer in the family (whichever comes first). ? Perform annual dermatologic examination. ? Perform annual whole body MRI (rapid non-contrast exams per ACRIN model).4 ? The brain may be examined as part of whole body MRI or as a separate exam.4 ? Provide additional surveillance based on family history of cancer. ? Provide education regarding signs and symptoms of cancer. Continued on next page
1Women

should be familiar with their breasts and promptly report changes to their health care provider. Periodic, consistent breast self exam (BSE) may facilitate breast self awareness. Premenopausal women may find BSE most informative when performed at the end of menses. 2The appropriateness of imaging modalities and scheduling is still under study. 3High-quality breast MRI limitations include having: a need for a dedicated breast coil, the ability to perform biopsy under MRI guidance, experienced radiologists in breast MRI, and regional availability. Breast MRI is performed preferably days 7–15 of menstrual cycle for premenopausal women. 4 Whole body MRI is being evaluated in multiple international trials. Other components of screening are being evaluated in protocols, including regular blood screening for hematologic malignancies, and biochemical screening.
Note: All recommendations are category 2A unless otherwise indicated. Clinical Trials: NCCN believes that the best management of any cancer patient is in a clinical trial. Participation in clinical trials is especially encouraged.
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? ?

LIFR-A 1 OF 2

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NCCN Guidelines Version 1.2015 Li-Fraumeni Syndrome
LI-FRAUMENI SYNDROME MANAGEMENT

NCCN Guidelines Index Genetics Table of Contents Discussion

REPRODUCTIVE OPTIONS ? For patients of reproductive age, advise about options for prenatal diagnosis and assisted reproduction including pre-implantation genetic diagnosis. Discussion should include known risks, limitations, and benefits of these technologies. See Discussion for details. RISK TO RELATIVES ? Advise about possible inherited cancer risk to relatives, options for risk assessment, and management. ? Recommend genetic counseling and consideration of genetic testing for at-risk relatives.

Note: All recommendations are category 2A unless otherwise indicated. Clinical Trials: NCCN believes that the best management of any cancer patient is in a clinical trial. Participation in clinical trials is especially encouraged.
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? ?

LIFR-A 2 OF 2

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NCCN Guidelines Version 1.2015 Cowden Syndrome/PHTS
COWDEN SYNDROME/PTEN HAMARTOMA TUMOR SYNDROME TESTING CRITERIAa,b,c,d ? Individual from a family with a known PTEN mutation ? Individual meeting clinical diagnostic criteriae for CS/PHTS ? Individual with a personal history of: Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome (BRRS) or Adult Lhermitte-Duclos disease (cerebellar tumors) or Autism spectrum disorder and macrocephaly or Two or more biopsy-proven trichilemmomas or Two or more major criteria (one must be macrocephaly) or Three major criteria, without macrocephaly or One major and ≥3 minor criteriaf or ≥4 minor criteria Major criteria: ? Breast cancer ? Endometrial cancer ? Follicular thyroid cancer ? Multiple GI hamartomas or ganglioneuromasg ? Macrocephaly (megalocephaly) (ie, ≥97%, 58 cm in adult women, 60 cm in adult men)h ? Macular pigmentation of glans penis ? Mucocutaneous lesionsi One biopsy-proven trichilemmoma Multiple palmoplantar keratoses Multifocal or extensive oral mucosal papillomatosis Multiple cutaneous facial papules (often verrucous) ? At-risk individual with a relative with a clinical diagnosis of CS/PHTS or BRRS for whom testing has not been performed The at-risk individual must have the following: ??Any one major criterion or ??Two minor criteria

NCCN Guidelines Index Genetics Table of Contents Discussion FOLLOW-UP CS/PHTS testing criteria met See Follow-up (COWD-2)

CS/PHTS testing criteria not met

Individualized recommendations according to personal and family history

Minor criteria:j ? Autism spectrum disorder ? Colon cancer ? ≥3 esophageal glycogenic acanthoses ? Lipomas ? Intellectual disability (ie, IQ ≤75) ? Papillary or follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer

? Thyroid structural lesions (eg, adenoma, nodule(s), goiter) ? Renal cell carcinoma ? Single GI hamartoma or ganglioneuroma ? Testicular lipomatosis ? Vascular anomalies (including multiple intracranial developmental venous anomalies)

an individual has two or more major criteria, such as breast cancer and nonmedullary thyroid cancer, but does not have macrocephaly, one of the major criteria may be included as one of the three minor criteria to meet testing criteria. aFor further details regarding the nuances of genetic counseling and testing, gMultiple polyp types are often seen in patients with PHTS, and less commonly see BR/OV-A. may include adenomas, hyperplastic polyps, and other histologies. bThese are testing criteria; clinical diagnostic criteria can be found on COWD-3. hRoche AF, Mukherjee D, Guo SM, Moore WM. Head circumference reference cIf two criteria involve the same structure/organ/tissue, both may be included as criteria. data: Birth to 18 years. Pediatrics 1987;79:706-712. dCurrent evidence does not support testing for succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) gene iThe literature available on mucocutaneous lesions is not adequate to accurately mutations in patients with PHTS. (Am J Hum Genet 2011;88:674-675). specify the number or extent of mucocutaneous lesions required to be a major ePilarski R, Burt R, Kohlmann W, Pho L, Shannon KM, Swisher E. Cowden syndrome criterion for CS/PHTS. Clinical judgment should be used. jInsufficient evidence exists in the literature to include fibrocystic disease of the and the PTEN Hamartoma Tumor Syndrome: Systematic review and revised diagnostic criteria. J Natl Cancer Inst 2013;105:1607-1616. breast, fibromas, and uterine fibroids as diagnostic criteria.
Note: All recommendations are category 2A unless otherwise indicated. Clinical Trials: NCCN believes that the best management of any cancer patient is in a clinical trial. Participation in clinical trials is especially encouraged.
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fIf

COWD-1

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NCCN Guidelines Version 1.2015 Cowden Syndrome/PHTS
COWDEN SYNDROME FOLLOW-UP FAMILY STATUS GENETIC TESTING a TEST OUTCOMEa Positive for familial PTEN mutation Consider PTEN testing for specific familial mutation PTEN testing not performed Negative for familial PTEN mutation Consider comprehensive PTEN testing of patient or, if unaffected, test family member with highest likelihood of a mutation or Consider multi-gene testing, if appropriate Mutation found Not tested No mutation foundk Variant of unknown significance found (uninformative)k See Multi-Gene Testing (GENE-1)

NCCN Guidelines Index Genetics Table of Contents Discussion SCREENING RECOMMENDATION See Cowden Syndrome/PHTS Management (COWD-A)

Cowden syndrome/ PHTS testing criteria met

Risk assessment and counseling:a ? Psychosocial assessment and support ? Risk counseling ? Education ? Discussion of genetic testing ? Informed consent

Deleterious familial PTEN mutation known

Cancer screening as per NCCN Screening Guidelines Meets CS/PHTS diagnostic criteria (see COWD-3) See Cowden Syndrome/PHTS Management (COWD-A)

No known familial PTEN mutation

Does not meet CS/PHTS diagnostic criteria (see COWD-3)

Offer research and individualized recommendations according to personal and family history

kIf aFor

further details regarding the nuances of genetic counseling and testing, see BR/OV-A.

HBOC (HBOC-1) and/or Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LIFR-1) or multi-gene testing (GENE-1). For additional information on other genetic mutations associated with breast/ovarian cancer risk for which genetic testing is clinically available, see ADDIT-1.

no mutation is found, consider testing another family member with next highest likelihood of having a mutation and/or other hereditary breast cancer syndromes such as

Note: All recommendations are category 2A unless otherwise indicated. Clinical Trials: NCCN believes that the best management of any cancer patient is in a clinical trial. Participation in clinical trials is especially encouraged.
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COWD-2

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NCCN Guidelines Version 1.2015 Cowden Syndrome/PHTS
REVISED PTEN HAMARTOMA TUMOR SYNDROME CLINICAL DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIAl MAJOR CRITERIA: ? Breast cancer ? Endometrial cancer (epithelial) ? Thyroid cancer (follicular) ? GI hamartomas (including ganglioneuromas, but excluding hyperplastic polyps; ≥3) ? Lhermitte-Duclos disease (adult) ? Macrocephaly (≥97 percentile: 58 cm for females, 60 cm for males) ? Macular pigmentation of the glans penis ? Multiple mucocutaneous lesions (any of the following): Multiple trichilemmomas (≥3, at least one biopsy proven) Acral keratoses (≥3 palmoplantar keratotic pits and/or acral hyperkeratotic papules) Mucocutaneous neuromas (≥3) Oral papillomas (particularly on tongue and gingiva), multiple (≥3) OR biopsy proven OR dermatologist diagnosed

NCCN Guidelines Index Genetics Table of Contents Discussion

MINOR CRITERIA: ? Autism spectrum disorder ? Colon cancer ? Esophageal glycogenic acanthoses (≥3) ? Lipomas (≥3) ? Intellectual disability (ie, IQ ≤75) ? Renal cell carcinoma ? Testicular lipomatosis ? Thyroid cancer (papillary or follicular variant of papillary) ? Thyroid structural lesions (eg, adenoma, multinodular goiter) ? Vascular anomalies (including multiple intracranial developmental venous anomalies)

Operational diagnosis in an individual (either of the following): 1. Three or more major criteria, but one must include macrocephaly, Lhermitte-Duclos disease, or GI hamartomas; or 2. Two major and three minor criteria. Operational diagnosis in a family where one individual meets revised PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome clinical diagnostic criteria or has a PTEN mutation: 1. Any two major criteria with or without minor criteria; or 2. One major and two minor criteria; or 3. Three minor criteria.

lPilarski

R, Burt R, Kohlman W, Pho L, Shannon KM, Swisher E. Cowden syndrome and the PTEN Hamartoma Tumor Syndrome: Systematic review and revised diagnostic criteria. J Natl Cancer Inst 2013;105:1607-1616.
Note: All recommendations are category 2A unless otherwise indicated. Clinical Trials: NCCN believes that the best management of any cancer patient is in a clinical trial. Participation in clinical trials is especially encouraged.

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COWD-3

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NCCN Guidelines Version 1.2015 Cowden Syndrome/PHTS
COWDEN SYNDROME/PHTS MANAGEMENT

NCCN Guidelines Index Genetics Table of Contents Discussion

WOMEN ? Breast awareness1 starting at age 18 y. ? Clinical breast exam, every 6–12 mo, starting at age 25 y or 5–10 y before the earliest known breast cancer in the family (whichever comes first). ? Breast screening Annual mammography and breast MRI screening starting at age 30–35 y or 5–10 y before the earliest known breast cancer in the family (whichever comes first).2,3 Age >75 y, management should be considered on an individual basis. For women with a PTEN mutation who are treated for breast cancer, screening of remaining breast tissue with annual mammography and breast MRI should continue. ? For endometrial cancer screening,4 encourage patient education and prompt response to symptoms (eg, abnormal bleeding). Consider annual random endometrial biopsies and/or ultrasound beginning at age 30–35 y. ? Discuss option of risk-reducing mastectomy and hysterectomy5 and counsel regarding degree of protection, extent of cancer risk, and reconstruction options. ? Address psychosocial, social, and quality-of-life aspects of undergoing risk-reducing mastectomy and/or hysterectomy. MEN AND WOMEN ? Annual comprehensive physical exam starting at age 18 y or 5 y before the youngest age of diagnosis of a component cancer in the family (whichever comes first), with particular attention to thyroid exam. ? Annual thyroid ultrasound starting at time of PHTS diagnosis ? Colonoscopy, starting at age 35 y unless symptomatic or close relative with colon cancer under age 40 y. Colonoscopy should be done every 5 y or more frequently if patient is symptomatic or polyps found. ? Consider renal ultrasound starting at age 40 y, then every 1–2 y ? Dermatologic management may be indicated for some patients ? Consider psychomotor assessment in children at diagnosis and brain MRI if there are symptoms. ? Education regarding the signs and symptoms of cancer.
1Women

Continued on next page

should be familiar with their breasts and promptly report changes to their health care provider. Periodic, consistent breast self exam (BSE) may facilitate breast self awareness. Premenopausal women may find BSE most informative when performed at the end of menses. 2The appropriateness of imaging modalities and scheduling is still under study. 3High-quality breast MRI limitations include having: a need for a dedicated breast coil, the ability to perform biopsy under MRI guidance by experienced radiologists in breast MRI, and regional availability. Breast MRI is preferably preformed on days 7–15 of a menstrual cycle for premenopausal women. 4There are limited data regarding the lifetime risk of endometrial cancer in CS/PHTS. Surveillance screening and surgical intervention should be on an individual basis. 5Oophorectomy is not indicted for CS/PHTS alone but may be indicated for other reasons.
Note: All recommendations are category 2A unless otherwise indicated. Clinical Trials: NCCN believes that the best management of any cancer patient is in a clinical trial. Participation in clinical trials is especially encouraged.
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NCCN Guidelines Version 1.2015 Cowden Syndrome/PHTS
COWDEN SYNDROME/PHTS MANAGEMENT RISK TO RELATIVES ? Advise about possible inherited cancer risk to relatives, options for risk assessment, and management. ? Recommend genetic counseling and consideration of genetic testing for at-risk relatives.

NCCN Guidelines Index Genetics Table of Contents Discussion

REPRODUCTIVE OPTIONS ? For women of reproductive age, advise about options for prenatal diagnosis and assisted reproduction including pre-implantation genetic diagnosis. Discussion should include known risks, limitations, and benefits of these technologies. See Discussion for details.

1Women

should be familiar with their breasts and promptly report changes to their health care provider. Periodic, consistent breast self exam (BSE) may facilitate breast self awareness. Premenopausal women may find BSE most informative when performed at the end of menses. 2The appropriateness of imaging modalities and scheduling is still under study. 3High-quality breast MRI limitations include having: a need for a dedicated breast coil, the ability to perform biopsy under MRI guidance by experienced radiologists in breast MRI, and regional availability. Breast MRI is preferably preformed on days 7–15 of a menstrual cycle for premenopausal women. 4There are limited data regarding the lifetime risk of endometrial cancer in CS/PHTS. Surveillance screening and surgical intervention should be on an individual basis. 5Oophorectomy is not indicted for CS/PHTS alone but may be indicated for other reasons.
Note: All recommendations are category 2A unless otherwise indicated. Clinical Trials: NCCN believes that the best management of any cancer patient is in a clinical trial. Participation in clinical trials is especially encouraged.
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NCCN Guidelines Version 1.2015
MULTI-GENE TESTING

Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast and Ovarian

NCCN Guidelines Index Genetics Table of Contents Discussion

Overview of multi-gene testing ? The recent introduction of multi-gene testing for hereditary forms of cancer has rapidly altered the clinical approach to testing at-risk patients and their families. Based on next-generation sequencing technology, these tests simultaneously analyze a set of genes that are associated with a specific family cancer phenotype or multiple phenotypes. ? Patients who have a personal or family history suggestive of a single inherited cancer syndrome are most appropriately managed by genetic testing for that specific syndrome. When more than one gene can explain an inherited cancer syndrome, than multi-gene testing, may be more efficient and/or cost-effective. ? There is also a role for multi-gene testing in individuals who have tested negative (indeterminate) for a single syndrome, but whose personal or family history remains strongly suggestive of an inherited susceptibility. ? As commercially available tests differ in the specific genes analyzed (as well as classification of variants and many other factors), choosing the specific laboratory and test panel is important. ? Multi-gene testing can include “intermediate” penetrant (moderate-risk) genes. For many of these genes, there are limited data on the degree of cancer risk and there are no clear guidelines on risk management for carriers of mutations. Not all genes included on available multi-gene tests are necessarily clinically actionable. As is the case with high-risk genes, it is possible that the risks associated with moderate-risk genes may not be entirely due to that gene alone, but may be influenced by gene/gene or gene/environment interactions. Therefore, it may be difficult to use a known mutation alone to assign risk for relatives. In many cases the information from testing for moderate penetrance genes does not change risk management compared to that based on family history alone. ? There is an increased likelihood of finding variants of unknown significance when testing for mutations in multiple genes. ? It is for these and other reasons that multigene testing are ideally offered in the context of professional genetic expertise for pre- and posttest counseling. References (GENE-2)

See Breast and Ovarian Management Based on Genetic Test Results (ADDIT-2)

Note: All recommendations are category 2A unless otherwise indicated. Clinical Trials: NCCN believes that the best management of any cancer patient is in a clinical trial. Participation in clinical trials is especially encouraged.
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NCCN Guidelines Version 1.2015
MULTI-GENE TESTING REFERENCES

Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast and Ovarian

NCCN Guidelines Index Genetics Table of Contents Discussion

1. B  ombard Y, Robson M, Offit K. Revealing the incidentalome when targeting the tumor genome. JAMA 2013;310:795-796. 2. W  alsh T, Lee MK, Casadei S, et al. Detection of inherited mutations for breast and ovarian cancer using genomic capture and massively parallel sequencing. Proc Natl Acad Sci 2010;107:12629-12633. 3. W  alsh T, Casadei S, Coats KH, et al. Spectrum of mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, and TP53 in families at high risk of breast cancer. JAMA 2006;295:1379-1388. 4. W  alsh T, Casadei S, Lee MK, et al. Mutations in 12 genes for inherited ovarian, fallopian tube, and peritoneal carcinoma identified by massively parallel sequencing. Proc Natl Acad Sci 2011;108:18032-18037. 5. R  ainville IR, Rana HQ. Next-generation sequencing for inherited breast cancer risk: counseling through the complexity. Curr Oncol Rep 2014;16:371. 6. C  ragun D, et al. Panel-based testing for inherited colorectal cancer: a descriptive study of clinical testing performed by a US laboratory. Clin Genet epub 20 Mar 2014. 7 .Antoniou AC , Casadei S, Heikkinen T, et al. Breast Cancer Risks in Families with Mutations in PALB2. N Engl J Med 2014,7:497-506. 8. Laduca H, Laduca H, Stuenkel AJ, et al. Utilization of multigene panels in hereditary cancer predisposition testing: analysis of more than 2,000 patients. Genet Med, 2014 Nov;16(11):830-7. 9. Tung N, Battelli C, Allen B, et al. Frequency of mutations in individuals with breast cancer referred for BRCA1 and BRCA2 testing using next-generation sequencing with a 25-gene panel. Cancer 2014,doi:10.1002/cncr29010 10. Castéra L, Krieger S, Rousselin A, et al. Next-generation sequencing for the diagnosis of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer using genomic capture targeting multiple candidate gene. Eur J Hum Genet 2014; 22: 1305–1313. 11. Kurian AW, Hare EE, Mills MA, et al. Clinical Evaluation of a Multiple-Gene Sequencing Panel for Hereditary Cancer Risk Assessment. J Clin Oncol 2014;32:2001-2009. 12. Mauer CB, Pirzadeh-Miller SM, Robinson LD, Euhus DM. The integration of next-generation sequencing panels in the clinical cancer genetics practice: an institutional experience. Genet Med 2014;16:407-412.

Note: All recommendations are category 2A unless otherwise indicated. Clinical Trials: NCCN believes that the best management of any cancer patient is in a clinical trial. Participation in clinical trials is especially encouraged.
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GENE-2

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NCCN Guidelines Version 1.2015

Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast and Ovarian

NCCN Guidelines Index Genetics Table of Contents Discussion

EXAMPLES OF ADDITIONAL GENETIC MUTATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH BREAST/OVARIAN CANCER RISK

? Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer Syndrome (See NCCN Guidelines for Gastric Cancer) CDH1 gene Diffuse gastric cancer — 67%–83% risk Lobular cancer of the breast — 39%–52% risk ? Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome (See NCCN Guidelines for Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Colorectal for more information) STK11/LKB1 gene Breast cancer — 44%–50% risk Ovarian cancer — 18%–21% risk (ovarian sex cord tumors are the most common) ? Lynch Syndrome (See NCCN Guidelines for Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Colorectal for more information) Mismatch Repair (MMR) genes — MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2 EPCAM gene deletion Ovarian cancer — 9% risk Breast cancer — conflicting data regarding increased risks

Note: All recommendations are category 2A unless otherwise indicated. Clinical Trials: NCCN believes that the best management of any cancer patient is in a clinical trial. Participation in clinical trials is especially encouraged.
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ADDIT-1

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NCCN Guidelines Version 1.2015

Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast and Ovarian
BREAST AND OVARIAN MANAGEMENT BASED ON GENETIC TEST RESULTSa Recommend MRIc (>20% risk of breast cancerd) Intervention ATM Warranted based on BRCA1 gene and/or risk level BRCA2 CDH1 CHEK2 PALB2 PTEN STK11 TP53 Insufficient evidence for interventionb BARD1 BRIP1 Recommend RRSO BRCA1 BRCA2 Lynch syndromee

NCCN Guidelines Index Genetics Table of Contents Discussion

Discuss Option of RRM BRCA1 BRCA2 CDH1 PTEN TP53

BARD1 BRIP1 PALB2 RAD51C RAD51D

ATM BARD1 CHEK2 PALB2 STK11

aOther genes may be included in multi-gene testing. bIntervention may still be warranted based on family history or other clinical factors. cSee NCCN Guidelines for Breast Cancer Screening and Diagnosis. dMay be modified based on family history or specific gene mutation. eSee NCCN Guidelines for Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Colorectal. Note: All recommendations are category 2A unless otherwise indicated. Clinical Trials: NCCN believes that the best management of any cancer patient is in a clinical trial. Participation in clinical trials is especially encouraged.
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ADDIT-2

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NCCN Guidelines Version 1.2015 Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast and Ovarian
Discussion
This discussion is being updated to correspond with the newly updated algorithm. Last updated 08/08/13

NCCN Guidelines Index Genetics Table of Contents Discussion

Risk Assessment ........................................................................... 16? Genetic Counseling ....................................................................... 18?

NCCN Categories of Evidence and Consensus Category 1: Based upon high-level evidence, there is uniform NCCN consensus that the intervention is appropriate. Category 2A: Based upon lower-level evidence, there is uniform NCCN consensus that the intervention is appropriate. Category 2B: Based upon lower-level evidence, there is NCCN consensus that the intervention is appropriate. Category 3: Based upon any level of evidence, there is major NCCN disagreement that the intervention is appropriate. All recommendations are category 2A unless otherwise noted.

Genetic Testing ............................................................................. 19? Risk Assessment, Counseling, and Management: Hereditary Breast/Ovarian Cancer Syndrome ................................................. 20? Screening Recommendations........................................................ 22? Risk Reduction Surgery ................................................................. 24? Chemoprevention .......................................................................... 25? Reproductive Options .................................................................... 27? Risk Assessment, Counseling, and Management: Li-Fraumeni Syndrome ........................................................................................ 28? Risk Assessment, Counseling, and Management: Cowden Syndrome ........................................................................................ 30? Table 1. Glossary of relevant genetic terms (from the National Cancer Institute [NCI]) .................................................................... 33? Table 2. Genetic test results to determine the presence of a cancer-predisposing gene ............................................................. 34? References ...................................................................................... 35?

Table of Contents
Overview............................................................................................ 2? Hereditary Breast or Breast/Ovarian Cancer Syndromes .............. 3? Hereditary Breast/Ovarian Cancer Syndrome .................................. 3? Li-Fraumeni Syndrome .................................................................... 8? Cowden Syndrome ........................................................................ 11? Other Genetic Lesions Associated with Breast/Ovarian Cancer .... 14? Initial Risk Assessment .................................................................. 15? Formal Risk Assessment and Genetic Counseling ...................... 16?

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MS-1

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NCCN Guidelines Version 1.2015 Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast and Ovarian
Overview
All cancers develop as a result of mutations in certain genes, such as those involved in the regulation of cell growth and/or DNA repair,1,2 although not all of these mutations are inherited from a parent. For example, sporadic mutations can occur in somatic/tumor cells only, and de novo mutations can occur for the first time in a germ cell (i.e., egg or sperm) or in the fertilized egg itself during early embryogenesis. However, family studies have long documented an increased risk of several forms of cancer among first-degree relatives (i.e., parents, siblings, and children) and second-degree relatives (i.e., grandparents, aunts or uncles, grandchildren, and nieces or nephews) of affected individuals. These individuals may have an increased susceptibility to cancer as the result of one or more gene mutations present in parental germline cells; cancers developing in these individuals may be classified as hereditary or familial cancers. Hereditary cancers are often characterized by mutations associated with a high probability of cancer development (i.e., a high penetrance genotype), vertical transmission through either mother or father, and an association with other types of tumors.3,4 They often have an early age of onset, and exhibit an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern (i.e., occur when the individual has a mutation in only one copy of a gene). Familial cancers share some but not all features of hereditary cancers. For example, although familial breast cancers occur in a given family more frequently than in the general population, they generally do not exhibit the inheritance patterns or onset age consistent with hereditary cancers. Familial cancers may be associated with chance clustering of sporadic cancer cases within families, genetic variation in lower penetrance genes, a shared environment, or combinations of these factors.5-8

NCCN Guidelines Index Genetics Table of Contents Discussion

Assessment of an individual’s risk of familial or hereditary cancer is based on a thorough evaluation of the family history. With respect to hereditary cancers, advances in molecular genetics have identified a number of genes associated with inherited susceptibility to breast and/or ovarian cancers (e.g., BRCA1, BRCA2, PTEN, TP53, CDH1) and provided a means of characterizing the specific gene mutation or mutations present in certain individuals and families exhibiting an increased risk of cancer. The field of cancer genetics has implications for all aspects of cancer management of individuals with hereditary or familial cancers, including prevention, screening, and treatment. The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines?) for Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast and Ovarian were developed with an acute awareness of the preliminary nature of much of our knowledge regarding the clinical application of the rapidly emerging field of molecular genetics, and with an appreciation for the need for flexibility when applying these guidelines to individual families. Furthermore, it should be emphasized that these guidelines were not developed as a substitute for professional genetic counseling. Rather, they are intended to serve as a resource for healthcare providers to identify individuals who may benefit from cancer risk assessment and genetic counseling, to provide genetic counselors with an updated tool for the assessment of individual breast cancer and ovarian cancer risk and to guide decisions related to genetic testing, and to facilitate a multidisciplinary approach in the management of individuals at increased risk of hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer. Although cancers other than breast and ovarian cancers are associated with these hereditary syndromes, the main focus of this NCCN Guidelines is on the management of breast and ovarian cancer risk in these individuals. During the last few years, a number of genetic aberrations that may contribute to increased risks for development of MS-2

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NCCN Guidelines Version 1.2015 Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast and Ovarian
breast and/or ovarian cancers have been identified. The current NCCN Guidelines for Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast and Ovarian focus specifically on assessment of mutations in the genes BRCA1/BRCA2, TP53 and PTEN, and recommended approaches to genetic testing/counseling and management strategies in individuals with these genetic mutations. A glossary of genetic terms is included in Table 1 for reference.

NCCN Guidelines Index Genetics Table of Contents Discussion

Furthermore, germline CDH1 mutations may be associated with lobular breast cancer in the absence of diffuse gastric cancer.17 These hereditary syndromes share several features beyond elevation of breast cancer risk. These syndromes arise from germline gene mutations that are not within sex-linked genes; hence, the mutations can be inherited from either parent. The syndromes are associated with breast cancer onset at an early age and development of other types of cancer, and exhibit an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern (see Table 1). Offspring of an individual with one of these hereditary syndromes have a 50% chance of inheriting the mutation. In addition, individuals with these hereditary syndromes share increased risks of multiple cases of early onset disease as well as bilateral disease. The gene mutations associated with these hereditary syndromes are considered to be highly penetrant, although a subsequent alteration in the second copy of the gene without the hereditary mutation is believed to be necessary for the initiation of cancer development (i.e., 2-hit hypothesis).18,19 In addition, the manifestations (i.e., expression) of these hereditary syndromes are often variable in individuals within a single family (e.g., age of onset, tumor site, and number of primary tumors). The risk of developing cancer in individuals with one of these hereditary syndromes depends upon numerous variables including the gender and age of the individual. Hereditary Breast/Ovarian Cancer Syndrome The overall prevalence of disease-related mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes has been estimated as 1 in 300 and 1 in 800, respectively.20,21 Currently, hundreds of unique mutations have been identified in both BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. However, a number of founder effects (see Table 1) have been observed in certain populations, wherein the same mutation has been found in multiple, MS-3

Hereditary Breast or Breast/Ovarian Cancer Syndromes
Breast cancer is the most prevalent type of cancer in women in the U.S. and the second leading cause of cancer death in women.9 In the U.S., approximately 234,580 new cases of breast cancer and 40,030 deaths are estimated in 2013 (estimated figures include both genders).9 Up to 10% of breast cancers are due to specific mutations in single genes that are passed down in a family.6,8 Specific patterns of hereditary breast/ovarian cancers are linked to mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes.10,11 In addition, two very rare hereditary cancer syndromes exhibiting an increased risk of breast cancer are Li-Fraumeni syndrome and Cowden syndrome, which are related to germline mutations in the TP53 and PTEN genes, respectively.12,13 Similar to the BRCA 1/2 genes, the TP53 and PTEN genes encode for proteins involved in processes related to tumor suppression, such as DNA repair and cell cycle regulation. Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is another rare hereditary syndrome that is also associated with development of lobular breast cancer. This syndrome arises from mutation(s) in the CDH1 (cadherin 1, type 1, E-cadherin [epithelial]) gene which encodes for a tumor suppressor gene product.14 In an analysis of 4 predominantly gastric cancer pedigrees from Newfoundland with a specific CDH1 mutation, the cumulative risk of female lobular breast cancer by the age of 75 was estimated to be as high as 52%.15,16

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NCCN Guidelines Version 1.2015 Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast and Ovarian
unrelated families and can be traced back to a common ancestor. Among the Ashkenazi Jewish population, for example, the frequency of 187delAG and 5385insC mutations in BRCA1 and the 6174delT mutation in BRCA2 approximates 1 in 40.6,22 Certain founder mutations have also been identified in other populations.20,23-28 It has been estimated that over 90% of early onset cancers in families with both breast and ovarian cancers are caused by mutation(s) in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes.29 Hence, the degree of clinical suspicion for a BRCA mutation in a single individual with both breast and ovarian cancer or someone with a family history of both breast and ovarian cancer should be very high. Both the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes encode for proteins involved in tumor suppression. The BRCA1 gene is located on chromosome 17 and is believed to be involved in both DNA repair and in the regulation of cell-cycle checkpoints in response to DNA damage. However, the molecular mechanism through which BRCA1 functions to preserve genomic stability remains unclear.30 The BRCA2 gene, located on chromosome 13, is involved in repair of replication-mediated doublestrand DNA breaks.31,32 Mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes can be highly penetrant (for definition, see Table 1) although the probability of cancer development in carriers of BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations is variable, even within families with the same mutation.33-35 Estimates of penetrance range from 41% to 90% lifetime risk for breast cancer, with an increased risk of contralateral breast cancer.36-42 In addition, female carriers of these genes have an estimated 8% to 62% lifetime risk for ovarian cancer, depending upon the population studied.37 54,38-44 In a meta-analysis (2007) of published data that evaluated BRCA1 and BRCA2 penetrance, estimates for mean cumulative risks of breast cancer and ovarian cancer by age 70 years for BRCA1 mutation carriers were 57%

NCCN Guidelines Index Genetics Table of Contents Discussion

and 40%, respectively.38 The corresponding estimates for BRCA2 mutation carriers were 49% and 18%, respectively. In a recent prospective analysis of risk estimates from individuals with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in the UK (N=1887), estimates for mean cumulative risks of breast cancer and ovarian cancer by age 70 years for BRCA1 mutation carriers were 60% and 59%, respectively.41 The corresponding estimates for BRCA2 mutation carriers were 55% and 16.5%, respectively. Among the patients diagnosed with unilateral breast cancer (n=651), the mean cumulative risks for contralateral breast cancer by age 70 years were estimated to be 83% for BRCA1 carriers and 62% for BRCA2 carriers.41 At present, it is unclear whether penetrance is related to the specific mutation identified in a family or whether additional factors, either genetic or environmental, affect disease expression. It is generally accepted, however, that carriers of mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes have an excessive risk for both breast and ovarian cancer that warrants consideration of more intensive screening and preventive strategies. Some histopathologic features have been reported to occur more frequently in breast cancers characterized by a BRCA1/2 mutation. For example, several studies have shown that BRCA1 breast cancer is more likely to be characterized as ER-,PR-negative, and HER2negative (i.e., “triple negative”).45-50 Studies have reported BRCA1 mutations in 9% to 28% of patients with triple-negative breast cancer.5056 In addition, it appears that among patients with triple-negative disease, BRCA mutation carriers were diagnosed at a younger age compared with non-carriers.53,57 A recent study in a large cohort of patients with triple-negative breast cancer (N=403) reported a median age of diagnosis of 39 years among carriers of BRCA1 mutations (n=65).52 Patients in this population-based study were unselected for family history or age. Among the group of patients with early onset (age MS-4

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NCCN Guidelines Version 1.2015 Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast and Ovarian
at diagnosis <40 years) triple-negative breast cancer (n=106), the incidence of BRCA1 mutations was 36%; among those diagnosed before age 50 years (n=208), the incidence was 27%. For patients with triple-negative breast cancer with a family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer (n=105), BRCA1 mutations were found in 48%.52 An increased incidence of BRCA mutations was reported in triple-negative breast cancer cases from at-risk populations. Among Ashkenazi Jewish women with breast cancer unselected for family history (N=451), triplenegative disease was observed in 14% and BRCA founder mutations were found in 11% of patients.58 Among the subgroup with triplenegative breast cancer (n=65), the incidence of BRCA mutations was 39% (BRCA1 mutation in 30%; BRCA2 mutation in 9%).58 Although many of the mutation studies in triple-negative breast cancer have reported on the association with BRCA1 mutations, several reports have also suggested the role of BRCA2 mutations in triple-negative breast cancer. The incidence of BRCA2 mutations range from 4% to 17% in studies of triple-negative breast cancer cases unselected for age or family history.51,58,59 An increased frequency of other malignancies has been reported in families with mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene.39,60,61 Germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations have been associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer in numerous reports.39,60-67 In particular, BRCA2 mutations have been associated with 2- to 6-fold increase in risk of prostate cancer,62-64,67,68 while increased risks were not observed for BRCA1 mutation carriers in some studies.62-64,68 Prostate cancer with germline BRCA mutations appear to have a more aggressive phenotype (e.g., more frequently associated with Gleason score ≥8) than tumors from non-carrier patients.69,70 A recent study in a large cohort of patients with prostate cancer from Spain (N=2019) showed that the group of patients with BRCA mutations had significantly higher rates of

NCCN Guidelines Index Genetics Table of Contents Discussion

aggressive prostate cancer (Gleason score ≥8), nodal involvement and distant metastasis compared with non-carriers.69 Moreover, causespecific survival outcome was significantly poorer in BRCA mutation carriers compared with non-carriers (median survival 8.6 years vs. 15.7 years; P=0.015). Subgroup analysis by mutation type showed poor outcomes in patients with BRCA2 mutations (n=61); the role of BRCA1 mutations was not well defined, possibly due to the small patient size (n=18) and limited follow-up in this subgroup.69 Prostate cancer in patients with BRCA2 mutations has also been associated with a higher histologic grade in other studies.62,63 In addition, analyses of data obtained from cancer registries and treatment center databases showed that BRCA2 mutation carriers with prostate cancer had more aggressive or rapidly progressive disease, and significantly decreased survival compared with patients who were BRCA1 mutation carriers or noncarriers.71-73 In a study of patients with prostate cancer from a population-based cancer registry in Iceland (N=596), patients with BRCA2 mutations had significantly decreased median survival compared with non-carriers (having wild type BRCA2) patients (2 years vs. 12 years; P<0.001).73 Moreover, in a study of patients with prostate cancer using data obtained from cancer center databases (N=301), patients with BRCA2 mutations had significantly decreased median survival compared with patients with BRCA1 mutations (4 years vs. 8 years; P<0.01).71 BRCA2 mutation carriers have also been reported to have a higher risk of pancreatic cancer and melanoma.60,61,67,74,75 Both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations have been associated with increased propensity for developing pancreatic cancer.67,75-78 In an analysis of samples taken from patients with familial pancreatic cancer (kindreds in which ≥3 family members had pancreatic cancer, at least 2 of which were first-degree relatives), BRCA2 mutations were detected in 17% of patient samples.78 Among the Ashkenazi Jewish population, BRCA2

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NCCN Guidelines Version 1.2015 Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast and Ovarian
mutations have been identified in about 4% of patients with pancreatic cancer.74,79 Some data related to the risk of cancers in this population at some sites other than the breast/ovary are contradictory.80 For example, it has been suggested that the increased risk of endometrial cancer observed in some BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers is mainly due to the use of tamoxifen therapy by these women rather than the presence of a gene mutation.81 Germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 are responsible for 5% to 10% of epithelial ovarian cancers (i.e., ovarian cancer developing on the surface of the ovary).82 Increased risks of cancers of the fallopian tube and primary peritoneal cancer are also observed in this population. In the setting of an invasive ovarian cancer diagnosis, as many as 15% of unselected individuals will have a germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation.42,83 However, it has been reported that about half of families showing a genetic predisposition to ovarian cancer do not have identifiable mutations in BRCA1/2 genes.84 Hence, other gene mutations predisposing to ovarian cancer are likely to exist.85 Of note, ovarian cancer is a component tumor of Lynch syndrome which is associated with germline mutations in mismatch repair genes.86 Interestingly, results from a prospective study suggest that women from families at increased risk of hereditary breast cancer without sitespecific BRCA mutations are not at increased risk for ovarian cancer, although these results may have been confounded by the ethnic characteristics and size of the study population.87 It is interesting to note that several recent studies have reported more favorable survival outcomes among BRCA1/2 mutation carrier patients with ovarian cancer compared with non-carrier patients.88-93 In a casecontrol study of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (N=66), patients

NCCN Guidelines Index Genetics Table of Contents Discussion

with BRCA1/2 mutations had improved outcomes compared with patients with non-hereditary ovarian cancer, including significantly longer median survival from time of diagnosis (101 months vs. 35 months; P<0.002).92 In a large case-control study of Jewish patients with epithelial invasive ovarian cancer (N=779), patients with BRCA1/2 mutations had significantly longer median survival compared with noncarrier patients (54 months vs. 38 months; P=0.002).91 Results from a recent pooled analysis from 26 observational studies that included invasive epithelial ovarian cancer cases from BRCA1/2 mutation carriers (n=1213) and non-carriers (n=2666) showed favorable survival outcomes for patients with BRCA1/2 mutations.89 The 5-year survival rate for non-carriers, BRCA1 carriers and BRCA2 carriers was 36%, 44%, and 52%, respectively. The survival advantage compared with non-carriers was significant for both the BRCA1 carriers (hazard ratio=0.78; 95% CI, 0.68-0.89; P <0.001) and BRCA2 mutation carriers (hazard ratio=0.61; 95% CI, 0.50-0.76; P <0.001).89 In a recent population-based case-control study of women with invasive epithelial (nonmucinous) ovarian cancer (N=1001) from the Australian Ovarian Cancer Study Group, BRCA1/2 mutation carriers had improved survival outcomes compared with non-carriers in terms of median progressionfree survival (20 months vs. 16 months; not statistically significant) and median survival (62 months vs. 55.5 months; P=0.031).88 Moreover, BRCA mutation carriers appeared to be more responsive to cytotoxic chemotherapy (regardless of class of agent) compared with non-carrier patients. Outcomes appeared to be most favorable for BRCA2 mutation carriers; in the subgroup of patients with BRCA2 mutations (n=53), the median survival was 70 months.88 In an observational study of patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer (N=316), patients with BRCA2 mutations had significantly favorable survival outcomes (hazard ratio=0.33; 95% CI, 0.16–0.69; P=0.003; 5-year rate: 61% vs. 25%) and progression-free survival (hazard ratio=0.40; 95% CI, 0.22–0.74; MS-6

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NCCN Guidelines Version 1.2015 Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast and Ovarian
P=0.004; 3-year rate: 44% vs. 16%) compared with non-carrier patients (having wild type BRCA).93 Additionally, BRCA2 mutations were associated with significantly higher response rates (compared with noncarriers or with BRCA1 mutation carriers) to primary chemotherapy. In contrast, BRCA1 mutations were not associated with prognosis or improved chemotherapy response.93 The histology of ovarian cancers in carriers of a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation is more likely to be characterized as serous adenocarcinoma and high grade compared with ovarian cancers in non-mutation carriers, although endometrioid and clear cell ovarian cancers have also been reported in the former population.82,94-97 In studies of women with BRCA1/2 mutations who underwent risk reduction salpingooophorectomy (RRSO), occult gynecological carcinomas were identified in 4.5%-9% of cases based on rigorous pathological examinations of the ovaries and fallopian tubes.98-100 Tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (TIC) is thought to represent an early precursor lesion for serous ovarian cancers, and TIC (with or without other lesions) was detected in 5% to 8% of cases from patients with BRCA1/2 mutations who underwent RRSO.98,101,102 The fimbriae or distal tube was reported to be the predominant site of origin for these early malignancies found in patients with BRCA1/2 mutations.98,102,103 Although TIC appeared to present more frequently among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers compared with non-carriers undergoing RRSO,102,103 TIC has also been documented among patients with serous carcinomas unselected for family history or BRCA mutation status.104 Because TIC was identified in individuals who underwent surgery for risk reduction (for BRCA1/2 mutation carriers) or other gynecological indications, the incidence and significance of these early lesions within the general population is unclear. Hence, at the present time, there is no justifiable role for BRCA

NCCN Guidelines Index Genetics Table of Contents Discussion

testing for cases based solely on the finding of TIC during pathology evaluation for gynecological indications. Male carriers of a BRCA gene mutation also have a greater risk for cancer susceptibility.61 In one study of 26 high-risk families with at least one case of male breast cancer, 77% demonstrated a BRCA2 mutation.29 Among male patients with breast cancer who were not selected on the basis of family history, 4% to 14% tested positive for a germline BRCA2 mutation.105-108 In a recent series of male breast cancer cases (N=115; primarily from cancer registry data), BRCA2 mutations were detected in 16% of cases; the incidence of BRCA2 mutations was 40% among patients selected for family history of breast cancer and 13% among those unselected for family history.107 For males with a BRCA2 mutation, the cumulative lifetime risk of breast cancer has been estimated at 7% to 8%.109,110 In contrast, for men without such a mutation, the lifetime risk of breast cancer has been estimated at approximately 0.1% (1 in 1,000).107,111 The NCCN panel recommends that individuals from a family with a known deleterious BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation be considered for testing (see Guidelines section on HBOC Syndrome Testing Criteria). In individuals from a family without a known deleterious BRCA mutation, testing should be considered for those individuals who meet the testing criteria discussed below. In evaluating risks based on family history factors, the maternal and paternal sides should be considered independently. For the testing criteria mentioned below, “close relatives” pertain to first-, second- or third-degree blood relatives on the same side (either maternal or paternal side) of the family. Individuals with a limited family history (e.g., having fewer than 2 first- or second-degree relatives or female relatives surviving beyond 45 years of age on either the maternal or paternal side) may have an underestimated probability MS-7

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NCCN Guidelines Version 1.2015 Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast and Ovarian
of a familial gene mutation. The panel recommends that patients with a personal history of breast cancer in addition to one or more of the following criteria be considered for BRCA1/BRCA2 testing: ? ? Diagnosed at age 45 years or younger; Having 2 breast primaries (bilateral tumors or 2 or more clearly separate ipsilateral tumors, occurring synchronously or asynchronously) with the first breast cancer diagnosed at age 50 years or younger; Diagnosed at 50 years or younger with 1 or more close relative with breast cancer at any age (or with a limited family history); Diagnosed with triple-negative breast cancer at age 60 years or younger; Diagnosed at any age with 1 or more close relative with breast cancer diagnosed at age 50 years or younger; Diagnosed at any age with 2 or more close relatives with breast cancer at any age; diagnosed at any age with 1 or more close relative with epithelial ovarian cancer diagnosed at any age; Diagnosed at any age with 2 or more close relatives with pancreatic cancer or aggressive prostate cancer (Gleason score ≥7) at any age; or Having a close male relative with breast cancer at any age. ?

NCCN Guidelines Index Genetics Table of Contents Discussion

Pancreatic cancer or aggressive prostate cancer (Gleason score ≥7) diagnosed at any age, with 2 or more close relatives with breast cancer and/or ovarian cancer and/or pancreatic or aggressive prostate cancer diagnosed at any age.

? ? ? ?

In unaffected individuals with a family history only (i.e., no personal history of breast or ovarian cancer), significant limitations of interpreting test results should be discussed prior to any testing. Moreover, testing of unaffected individuals should only be considered when an appropriate affected family member is unavailable for testing. Clinical judgement should be used to evaluate each unaffected individual for his/her likelihood of carrying the mutation based on factors such as the unaffected individual’s current age and the age of unaffected female relatives who link the individual with an affected close relative. Individuals not meeting testing criteria, including those with an increased risk of familial breast cancer, should be followed according to the recommendations in the NCCN Guidelines for Breast Cancer Screening and Diagnosis. Li-Fraumeni Syndrome Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is a rare hereditary cancer syndrome associated with germline TP53 gene mutations.13 It has been estimated to be involved in only about 1% of hereditary breast cancer cases,112 although results from a recent study suggest that germline TP53 gene mutations may be more common than previously believed.113 The tumor suppressor gene, TP53, is located on chromosome 17,114,115 and the protein product of the TP53 gene (i.e., p53) is located in the cell nucleus and binds directly to DNA. It has been called the “guardian of the genome” and plays important roles in controlling the cell cycle and apoptosis. 114-116 Germline mutations in the TP53 gene have been observed in over 50% (and in over 70% in some studies) of families MS-8

?

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In patients with a personal history of breast cancer and with an ethnic background associated with higher mutation frequency (e.g., Ashkenazi Jewish heritage), no additional family history may be needed to meet testing criteria. In addition, the NCCN panel recommends testing for patients with a personal history of the following: ? ? Epithelial ovarian cancer diagnosed at any age; Male breast cancer diagnosed at any age; or

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NCCN Guidelines Version 1.2015 Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast and Ovarian
meeting the classic definition of LFS (see Guidelines section on LiFraumeni Syndrome Testing Criteria).13,113,117 Additional studies are needed to investigate the possibility of other gene mutations in families meeting these criteria not carrying germline TP53 mutations.118 LFS, a highly penetrant cancer syndrome associated with a high lifetime risk of cancer, is characterized by a wide spectrum of neoplasms occurring at a young age. It is associated with soft-tissue sarcomas, osteosarcomas (although Ewing’s sarcoma is less likely to be associated with LFS), premenopausal breast cancer, acute leukemia, and cancer of the colon, adrenal cortex, and brain tumors.13,113,116,119-124 Sarcoma, breast cancer, adrenocortical tumors and certain brain tumors have been referred to as the “core” cancers of LFS since they account for the majority of cancers observed in individuals with germline mutations in the TP53 gene, and in one study, at least one of these cancers was found in one or more members of all families with a germline TP53 gene mutation.113 Interestingly, recent retrospective studies have reported a very high frequency of HER2-positive breast tumors (67%–83% of evaluated breast tumors) among patients with germline TP53 mutations, which suggest that amplification of HER2 may arise in conjunction with TP53 mutations.125,126 This association between HER2-positive breast cancer and germline TP53 mutations warrants further investigation, as such patients may potentially benefit from chemoprevention therapies that incorporate HER2-targeted agents. Individuals with LFS often present with certain cancers (e.g., soft-tissue sarcomas, brain tumors, and adrenocortical carcinomas) in early childhood,121 and have an increased risk of developing multiple primary cancers during their lifetimes.127 Results of a segregation analysis of data collected on the family histories of 159 patients with childhood soft tissue sarcoma showed carriers of germline TP53 mutations to have

NCCN Guidelines Index Genetics Table of Contents Discussion

estimated cancer risks of approximately 60% and 95% by age 45 and 70 years, respectively.128 Although similar cancer risks are observed in men and women with LFS when gender-specific cancers are not considered, female breast cancer is commonly associated with the syndrome.113 It is important to mention that estimations of cancer risks associated with LFS are limited to at least some degree by selection bias since dramatically affected kindreds are more likely to be identified and become the subject of further study. A number of different sets of criteria have been used to help identify individuals with LFS. For the purposes of the NCCN Guidelines, 2 sets of these criteria are used to facilitate the identification of individuals who are candidates for TP53 gene mutation testing. Classic LFS criteria, based on a study by Li and Fraumeni involving 24 LFS kindreds, include the following: member of a kindred with a known TP53 mutation; combination of an individual diagnosed at age 45 years or younger with a sarcoma, and a first-degree relative diagnosed with cancer at age 45 years or younger, and an additional first- or seconddegree relative in the same lineage with cancer diagnosed at age younger than 45 years or a sarcoma at any age (see Guidelines section on Li-Fraumeni Syndrome Testing Criteria). Classic LFS criteria have been estimated to have a high positive predictive value (estimated at 56%) as well as a high specificity, although the sensitivity is relatively low (estimated at 40%).113 Thus, it is not uncommon for individuals with patterns of cancer outside of these criteria to be carriers of germline TP53 mutations.124,129 Classic LFS criteria make up one set of criteria included in the Guidelines to guide selection of individuals for TP53 gene mutation testing (see Guidelines section on Li-Fraumeni Syndrome Testing Criteria).

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Other groups have broadened the classic LFS criteria to facilitate identification of individuals with LFS,119,130-132 One set of these less strict criteria proposed by Birch and colleagues shares many of the features of classic LFS criteria, although a larger range of cancers are included.113,119 Uncommonly, individuals with de novo germline TP53 mutations (no mutation in either biological parent) have been identified.113,120,133 These cases would not be identified as TP53 testing candidates based upon classic LFS criteria due to requirement of a family history. This issue is circumvented, in part, by the criteria for TP53 testing proposed by Chompret and colleagues, which recommends testing for patients with multiple primary tumors of at least 2 “core’ tumor types (i.e., sarcoma, breast cancer, adrenocortical carcinoma, brain tumors) diagnosed at age <36 years or patients with adrenocortical carcinoma diagnosed at any age, regardless of family history (see Guidelines section on Li-Fraumeni Syndrome Testing Criteria).131 The Chompret criteria have an estimated positive predictive value of 20% to 35%,113,131 and when incorporated as part of TP53 testing criteria in conjunction with classic LFS criteria, have been shown to improve the sensitivity to 95% (i.e., the Chompret criteria added to classic LFS criteria detected 95% of patients with TP53 mutations).113 The Chompret criteria are the second set of criteria included in the NCCN Guidelines. Although not part of the original published criteria set forth by Chompret et al., the panel recommends adding lung bronchoalveolar cancer and leukemia as one of the core tumor types (for inclusion in criterion 1 and 2 of the Chompret criteria) and also recommends testing individuals with choroid plexus carcinoma diagnosed at any age and regardless of family history (for inclusion in criterion 3), based upon reports of high incidence of TP53 mutations found in patients with this rare form of brain tumor.113,120,134,135 The above inclusion of lung bronchoalveolar cancer and leukemia as one of the core tumors and recommendation for testing for individuals with choroid

NCCN Guidelines Index Genetics Table of Contents Discussion

plexus carcinoma (i.e., updated Chompret criteria) was recently proposed by Tinat et al,135 and is supported by the NCCN Guidelines panel. The panel also supports the broader age cut-offs proposed by Tinat et al, based upon a study in a large number of families, which detected germline TP53 mutations in affected individuals with later tumor onsets.134,135 Women with early-onset breast cancer (age of diagnosis ≤35 years), with or without family history of core tumor types, are another group for whom TP53 gene mutation testing may be considered. Several recent studies have investigated the likelihood of a germline TP53 mutation in this population.113,134,136-139 In a study of TP53 mutations evaluated at a single reference laboratory, Gonzalez et al. found that all women younger than 30 years of age with breast cancer who had a first- or second-degree relative with at least one of the core cancer types (n=5), had germline TP53 mutations.113 In a recent analysis of data of patients with early-onset breast cancer (age of diagnosis <30 years) tested for TP53 mutation at a single institution (N=28), 6 patients (33%) were found to have TP53 mutations.140 Among the patients who were tested, a TP53 mutation was found in approximately 8% who did not meet traditional LFS criteria for testing. In another recent study in patients with BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation-negative early-onset breast cancer (age of diagnosis ≤35 years) tested for TP53 mutation at a single institution (N=83), approximately 5% were found to have TP53 mutations.138 Deleterious TP53 mutations were identified in 3 of 4 patients (75%) with a family history of at least 2 LFS-associated tumors (breast cancer, bone or soft tissue sarcoma, brain tumors or adrenocortical cancer) and in 1 of 17 patients (6%) with a family history of breast cancer only.138 Among women <30 years of age with breast cancer and without a family history, the incidence of TP53 mutations has been reported at 3% to 8%.113,137,139,140 Other studies have found an even lower incidence of MS-10

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NCCN Guidelines Version 1.2015 Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast and Ovarian
germline TP53 gene mutations in this population. For example, Bougeard et al reported that only 0.7% of unselected women with breast cancer before age 33 were carriers of a germline TP53 mutation.134 Furthermore, Ginsburg and colleagues found no germline TP53 mutations in 95 unselected women with early-onset breast cancer who previously tested negative for BRCA mutations.136 Finally, a member of a family with a known TP53 mutation is considered to be at sufficient risk to warrant gene mutation testing, even in the absence of any other risk factors. Individuals not meeting testing criteria should be followed according to recommendations tailored to his/her personal cancer history and family history. Cowden Syndrome Cowden syndrome, a rare hereditary cancer syndrome, was first described in 1963 and named after the Cowden family, the first family documented with signs of the disease.141 The incidence of Cowden syndrome has been reported to be 1 in 200,000, although it is likely to be underestimated due to difficulties associated with making a clinical diagnosis of the disease.142,143 Cowden syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder associated with germline mutations in the PTEN (“phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10”144) tumor suppressor gene located on chromosome 10q23; the gene is thought to be involved in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and other cell survival pathways.12 It is considered to be part of the spectrum of PTEN hamartoma tumor syndromes (PHTS), which also includes BannayanRiley-Ruvalcaba syndrome (BRRS), Proteus syndrome, and Proteuslike syndrome.12,145,146 Additional clinical syndromes related to germline mutations in PTEN include Lhermitte-Duclos disease and autism spectrum disorders with macrocephaly, both of which have been associated with Cowden syndrome.12,146,147 The estimated penetrance of

NCCN Guidelines Index Genetics Table of Contents Discussion

PTEN mutation is high, at approximately 80%.148 Hamartomas, a common manifestation of these syndromes, are benign tumors resulting from an overgrowth of normal tissue. Cowden syndrome is associated with multiple hamartomatous and/or cancerous lesions in various organs and tissues, including the skin, mucous membranes, breast, thyroid, endometrium and brain.12,149 This syndrome is the only PHTS disorder associated with a documented predisposition to malignancies; hence, it is included in these Guidelines. However, it has been suggested that patients with other PTHS diagnoses associated with PTEN mutations should be assumed to have Cowden-associated cancer risks. In a study of patients meeting diagnostic criteria for Cowden syndrome (N=211; identified from published literature and records from a single institution), the cumulative lifetime risk of any cancer was 89%.150 PTEN mutations had been identified in 97 of 105 patients (92%) who underwent testing. The cumulative lifetime cancer risks for all evaluable patients (n=210) were 81% for female breast cancer, 21% for thyroid cancer, 19% for endometrial cancer, 15% for renal cancer, and 16% for colorectal cancer.150 In a recent prospective study that evaluated genotypephenotype associations between PTEN mutations and cancer risks, a large number of patients meeting modified (relaxed) International Cowden Consortium criteria (N=3399) were enrolled and tested for PTEN mutations.151 Deleterious germline mutations in PTEN were identified in 368 patients (11%). Calculation of age-adjusted standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) using cancer incidence data from the SEER database showed elevated SIRs among individuals with PTEN mutations for breast cancer (25), thyroid cancer (51), endometrial cancer (43), colorectal cancer (10), renal cancer (31), and melanoma (8.5). The estimated cumulative lifetime cancer risks were 85% for breast, 35% for thyroid, 28% for endometrial, 9% for colorectal, 34% for MS-11

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renal and 6% for melanoma.151 In another recent study in individuals with PHTS found to have deleterious germline PTEN mutations (N=154; detailed information available in n=146), age- and gender-adjusted SIRs were elevated for female breast cancer (39), endometrial cancer (49), female thyroid cancer (43), male thyroid cancer (199.5), female melanoma (28), and male melanoma (39).152 The cumulative lifetime risks in these individuals were 77% for female breast cancer and 38% for thyroid cancer. The cumulative lifetimes risk for any cancer was 85% overall, and women with PHTS were found to have a 2-fold greater cancer risk compared with men with PHTS.152 Women diagnosed with Cowden syndrome have a high risk of benign fibrocystic breast disease and their lifetime risk of breast cancer has been estimated at 25% to 50% with an average age of 38 to 46 years at diagnosis.12,149,153 Recent studies (as discussed above) have reported a higher cumulative lifetime risk of breast cancer (77–85%) in individuals with Cowden syndrome or PTEN mutations.150-152 There have been only 2 cases of breast cancer reported in men with Cowden syndrome.12 Thyroid disease, including benign multinodular goiter, adenomatous nodules, and follicular adenomas have been reported to occur in up to approximately 70% of individuals with Cowden syndrome154 and the lifetime risk of thyroid cancer (follicular or papillary) has been estimated at 3% to 10%.12,155 A higher cumulative lifetime risk of thyroid cancer (21–38%) was reported in several recent studies in individuals with Cowden syndrome or PTEN mutations (as discussed earlier).150-152 As in many other hereditary cancer syndromes, affected individuals are more likely to develop bilateral and multifocal cancer in paired organs.148 Although not well defined, women with Cowden syndrome may have a 5% to 10% risk of endometrial cancer,12,156 and an increased risk of uterine fibroids. Recent studies showed a higher lifetime risk of endometrial cancer (19–28%) in women with Cowden syndrome or

NCCN Guidelines Index Genetics Table of Contents Discussion

PTEN mutations.150,151 As discussed earlier, increased lifetime risks for colorectal cancer (9–16%), renal cancer (15–34%) and melanoma (6%) were also reported recently in individuals with Cowden syndrome or PTEN mutations.150,151 In addition, brain tumors and vascular malformations affecting any organ are occasionally seen in individuals with Cowden syndrome, although the risks for developing these conditions are not well defined.12 It is important to note, however, that most of the data on the frequencies of the clinical features of Cowden syndrome are from compilations of case reports of relatively young individuals who may have subsequently developed additional signs of the disease (i.e., new cancerous lesions), and these data are also likely to be confounded by selection bias.12 Furthermore, a considerable number of these studies were published prior to the establishment in 1996 of the International Cowden Consortium operational diagnostic criteria for the syndrome which were based on published data and the expert opinion of individuals representing a group of centers mainly in North America and Europe.12,157 Classic features of Cowden syndrome include mucocutaneous papillomatous papules, palmoplantar keratoses, and trichilemmomas (i.e., benign tumors derived from the outer root sheath epithelium of a hair follicle).12,158 Most individuals with Cowden syndrome exhibit characteristic mucocutaneous lesions by their twenties, and such lesions have been reported to occur in 99% of individuals with Cowden syndrome, a syndrome showing nearly complete penetrance.82,145 The presence of 2 or more trichilemmomas has been reported to be pathognomonic for Cowden syndrome.159,160 However, since most of this evidence is from the older literature, it is possible that the association between these 2 entities is somewhat overestimated.12 There are reports of individuals with a solitary trichilemmoma who do not have Cowden syndrome.159,160 Nevertheless, due to the strong association MS-12

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NCCN Guidelines Version 1.2015 Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast and Ovarian
between these lesions and Cowden syndrome and the difficulty in clinically distinguishing between a trichilemmoma and another mucocutaneous lesion, it is important that a diagnosis of trichilemmoma is histologically confirmed. It has historically been reported that about 40% individuals with Cowden syndrome have gastrointestinal polyps (often colonic), although more recent data suggest that this risk may be 80% or higher. Indeed, a recent analysis of PTEN mutation carriers reported gastrointestinal polyps in 93% of patients.161 Most of the polyps are hamartomatous, although ganglioneuromas (i.e., rare, benign peripheral nervous system tumors) have also been reported to occur.12,162 However, early-onset (age <50 years) colorectal cancer has been reported in 13% of patients with PTEN mutation-associated Cowden syndrome, suggesting that routine colonoscopy may be warranted in this population.161 Adult Lhermitte-Duclos disease (LDD) and autism spectrum disorder characterized by macrocephaly are strongly associated with Cowden syndrome.145,148,150,163 A rare, slow growing, benign hamartomatous lesion of the brain, LDD is a dysplastic gangliocytoma of the cerebellum.12,150 In a study of individuals meeting the diagnostic criteria for Cowden syndrome, the cumulative lifetime risk of LDD was reported to be 32%.150 The preponderance of evidence supports a strong association between adult-onset LDD and the presence of a PTEN gene mutation,148 although exceptions have been reported.164 In addition, there is a relatively large body of evidence to support that 10% to 20% of individuals with autism spectrum disorder and macrocephaly carry germline PTEN mutations.147,165-168 Macrocephaly (defined as head circumference greater than the 97th percentile)169 is a common finding in patients with Cowden syndrome. It has been estimated that approximately 80% of individuals with this syndrome will exhibit this clinical finding.12

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The BRRS variant of PHTS has been characterized by the presence of multiple lipomas, gastrointestinal hamartomatous polyps, macrocephaly, hemangiomas, developmental delay, and in males, pigmented macules on the glans penis,170 although formal diagnostic criteria have not been established for this syndrome. PTEN gene mutations testing in individuals characterized with BRRS have been reported in approximately 60% of these patients.171 Further, in another study, 10% of patients with BRRS for whom a PTEN gene mutation test was negative were shown to be carriers of large PTEN gene deletions.163 The PTEN mutation frequency in individuals meeting International Cowden Consortium criteria for Cowden syndrome has been estimated at about 80%.12,171 However, a recent evaluation of data based on samples analyzed at a single academic pathology laboratory (N=802 evaluable) reported a much lower frequency (34%) of PTEN mutations among individuals meeting diagnostic criteria143 for Cowden syndrome.146 The authors concluded that the current Consortium diagnostic criteria are not as sensitive in identifying individuals with PTEN mutations as previously estimated. The International Cowden Consortium criteria have been updated several times since 199612,143,145,172,173 and they have largely served as the basis for the list of PTEN mutation testing criteria included in the NCCN Guidelines. On the basis of literature reports and expert consensus, the panel has recently revised both the list of criteria associated with this genetic syndrome as well as the combinations of criteria that establish which individuals are candidates for PTEN gene mutation testing (see Guidelines section on Cowden Syndrome Testing Criteria). Similar to earlier versions, criteria are grouped into 3 general categories. A patient is considered for PTEN gene mutation testing based on whether he/she meets certain criteria or combinations of criteria from these 3 categories. The first criteria category includes individuals meeting diagnostic criteria for Cowden MS-13

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NCCN Guidelines Version 1.2015 Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast and Ovarian
syndrome172; or a personal history of BRRS, adult LDD, autism spectrum disorder with macrocephaly, or 2 or more biopsy proven trichilemmomas. Any individual presenting with one or more of these diagnoses warrants PTEN testing. Previously, some of the criteria from this group have sometimes been referred to as “pathognomonic” although it is unlikely that any of these conditions can stand alone as a definitive diagnostic criterion of Cowden syndrome. Another criterion which can be considered to be sufficient to warrant PTEN gene mutation testing is a family history which includes the presence of a known deleterious PTEN mutation. The next category of criterion represents “major” features associated with Cowden syndrome.143,146,172,174 The major criteria include the presence of breast cancer, macrocephaly (i.e., megalocephaly),169 endometrial cancer, follicular thyroid cancer, multiple gastrointestinal hamartomas or ganglioneuromas, macular pigmentation of glans penis, and certain mucocutaneous lesions that are often observed in patients with Cowden syndrome (i.e., one biopsy proven trichilemmoma, multiple palmoplantar keratoses, multiple or extensive oral mucosal papillomatosis, multiple cutaneous facial papules). With respect to decisions related to the presence of mucocutaneous lesions, the panel did not consider the available literature to be adequate to accurately specify the number or extent of these lesions required for the condition to be defined as a major criterion for Cowden syndrome, and clinical judgment is needed when evaluating such lesions. An individual exhibiting 2 or more major criteria where one of these is macrocephaly meets the testing threshold. An individual with 3 or more major criteria (without macrocephaly) are also considered to meet the threshold for testing. In addition, individuals exhibiting 1 major criterion with 3 or more minor criteria (discussed below) also meet the testing threshold; if an individual exhibits 2 or more major criteria (e.g., breast cancer and

NCCN Guidelines Index Genetics Table of Contents Discussion

follicular thyroid cancer) but does not have macrocephaly, then one of the major criteria may be included as one of the 3 minor criteria to meet the testing threshold. The final category of criteria represents features with a “minor” association with Cowden syndrome.143,146,172,174 These include autism spectrum disorder (without macrocephaly), colon cancer, esophageal glycogenic acanthosis (3 or more), lipomas, mental retardation, papillary or follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer, thyroid structural lesions other than follicular thyroid cancer (e.g., adenoma, nodules, goiter), renal cell carcinoma, a single gastrointestinal hamartoma or ganglioneuroma, testicular lipomatosis, or vascular anomalies (including multiple intracranial developmental venous anomalies). The panel felt that evidence from the literature was insufficient to include fibrocystic breast disease, fibromas or uterine fibroids as part of the testing criteria. An individual would need to exhibit 4 or more minor criteria or as discussed above, 3 or more minor and one major criterion to meet testing criteria (see Guidelines section on Cowden Syndrome Testing Criteria and the Discussion section below on Risk Assessment, Counseling, and Management: Cowden Syndrome). Lastly, an at-risk individual (first-degree relative of an affected individual) with one or more major criterion or 2 or more minor criteria, along with a relative diagnosed with Cowden syndrome or BBRS (for whom testing has not been performed), would also meet the threshold for PTEN testing. Individuals not meeting testing criteria should be followed according to recommendations tailored to his/her personal cancer history and family history. Other Genetic Lesions Associated with Breast/Ovarian Cancer Although the highly penetrant BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations (together with genomic rearrangements in BRCA and other highMS-14

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NCCN Guidelines Version 1.2015 Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast and Ovarian
penetrance mutations such as TP53 or PTEN mutations discussed above) are thought to account for a large proportion of familial breast cancers, other breast and/or ovarian cancer susceptibility genes have been identified. For instance, germline mutations in CDH1 are associated with hereditary diffuse gastric cancer and lobular breast cancer, and studies have reported a cumulative lifetime risk of breast cancer of 39% to 52% among women who carry CDH1 mutations.15,175 Germline mutations in STK11 is associated with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by gastrointestinal polyps, mucocutaneous pigmentation, and elevated risk of gastrointestinal cancers as well as breast or ovarian cancers. Further information on Peutz-Jeghers syndrome can be found in the NCCN Guidelines for Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Colorectal. Other breast and/or ovarian cancer susceptibility genes with lower or moderate penetrance have been identified in recent years, and include mutations in CHEK2, PALB2, BRIP1, RAD51C, among others.176-179 In a study of breast cancer patients in the U.S. with strong family history of breast or ovarian cancer but who tested negative for BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations, 12% were found to have large genomic rearrangements (deletion or duplication) in BRCA, and 5% had CHEK2 mutations.178 Deleterious CHEK2 mutations have been reported to occur with a higher frequency in Northern and Eastern European countries compared with North America.176,177,180,181 The cumulative lifetime risk of breast cancer in women with CHEK2 mutations and familial breast cancer has been estimated to range from approximately 28% to 37%.182,183 In the NCCN Guidelines for Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast and Ovarian, the panel specifically focuses on assessment of known high-penetrance mutations (i.e., BRCA1, BRCA2, TP53 and PTEN) and recommendations for genetic testing, counseling and management strategies in individuals with these mutations. A comprehensive review of other lower or moderate-penetrance

NCCN Guidelines Index Genetics Table of Contents Discussion

susceptibility genes is beyond the scope of the Guidelines, but has been reviewed in a recent publication.176 With recent advances in genomic sequencing technologies, it is now possible to test for multiple breast and/or ovarian cancer susceptibility genes in parallel using multigene or multiplex panels.176,179,184 Although multigene sequencing approaches may be resource efficient in terms of time and costs, several issues must be addressed before multiplex testing panels can be incorporated as part of standard clinical practice. At the present time, no consensus exists on recommendations for optimal management or surveillance approaches for carriers of lower or moderate penetrance genes, and no data are available to address cancer risk assessments in individuals who are found to carry multiple gene mutations with moderate penetrance.184 Importantly, additional genetic counseling approaches must be vetted and developed in order to adequately address the limitations and implications associated with interpretation of multiplex testing results.

Initial Risk Assessment
For a patient concerned about or suspected of having a hereditary propensity to breast and/or ovarian cancer, an initial risk evaluation should be performed in order to determine if a formal risk assessment should be undertaken (see Guidelines section on Criteria for Further Genetic Risk Evaluation). The first step in this preliminary assessment is a broad and flexible evaluation of the personal and family history of the individual with respect to breast and/or ovarian cancer.185,186 The magnitude of the risk increases with the number of affected relatives in the family, the closeness of the relationship, and is affected by the age at which the affected relative was diagnosed.187,188 The younger the age at diagnosis, the more likely it is that a genetic component is present. When assessing a family history for a hereditary pattern, the equal MS-15

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NCCN Guidelines Version 1.2015 Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast and Ovarian
likelihood of paternal or maternal transmission of a gene that predisposes to breast cancer must also be kept in mind. If an individual or a close family member of that individual meets any one of the criteria presented in the NCCN Guidelines (see Guidelines section on Criteria for Further Genetic Risk Evaluation), that individual may be at increased risk for breast and/or ovarian cancer, and a referral for genetic assessment is recommended. The maternal and paternal sides of the family should be considered independently for familial patterns of cancer. For individuals potentially meeting established criteria for one or more of the hereditary cancer syndromes, genetic testing should be considered along with appropriate pre-test counseling. A genetic counselor and/or a medical geneticist should be involved in this process. Those not meeting criteria for testing who are still considered at increased risk of familial breast cancer are also likely to benefit from appropriate riskreduction strategies (e.g., a change in the frequency of, or modalities used for, breast cancer screening).5 The panel recommends that these individuals follow recommendations in the NCCN Guidelines for Breast Cancer Screening and Diagnosis.

NCCN Guidelines Index Genetics Table of Contents Discussion

of breast and/or ovarian cancer as well as an estimation of the likelihood that the individual has a heritable genetic mutation in his/her family. Genetic risk assessment is a dynamic process and can change if additional relatives are diagnosed with cancer. Statistical models based on personal and family history characteristics have been developed to estimate a person’s interval and lifetime risks of developing breast cancer. For example, the Claus tables may be useful in providing breast cancer risk estimates for white women without a known cancer-associated gene mutation who have one or two first- or second-degree female relatives with breast cancer.189 In addition, decision models developed to estimate the likelihood that a BRCA1/2 mutation is present include BRCAPRO190,191 and the Breast and Ovarian Analysis of Disease Incidence and Carrier Estimation Algorithm (BOADICEA)190; A lifetime risk of breast cancer of 20% to 25% or greater as assessed by models based largely on family history has been used in some guidelines to identify a woman as being at high risk of breast cancer. For example, this risk threshold was used in updates to the American Cancer Society (ACS) guidelines on breast screening which incorporates magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).192,193 First-degree relatives of individuals with a known deleterious gene mutation in BRCA1/2, TP53 or PTEN genes are considered to have a 50% risk of carrying that mutation.
Evaluation of Patient’s Needs and Concerns

Formal Risk Assessment and Genetic Counseling
Risk Assessment Cancer genetic risk assessment and genetic counseling is a multi-step process of identifying and counseling individuals at risk for familial or hereditary cancer. Cancer genetic risk assessment involves use of pedigree analysis with available risk assessment models to determine whether a family history is suggestive of sporadic, familial, or hereditary cancer. Risk assessment includes both an evaluation of an individual’s absolute risk

The first step in evaluating a individual’s risk for hereditary breast cancer is to assess her/his concerns and reasons for seeking counseling and to guarantee that her/his personal needs and priorities will be addressed in the counseling process. Several studies have documented a highly exaggerated perception of risk among women with a family history of breast cancer who seek cancer risk counseling.194 MS-16

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NCCN Guidelines Version 1.2015 Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast and Ovarian
This is a situation that can interfere with the adoption of appropriate health behaviors. In addition, the patient’s knowledge about the benefits, risks, and limitations of genetic testing should be assessed as well as the patient's goals. A positive, supportive interaction with the counseling team is an important determinant of ultimate satisfaction with the counseling process and of adherence to recommended health behaviors.
Detailed Family History

NCCN Guidelines Index Genetics Table of Contents Discussion

small family size, a small number of individuals of the susceptible gender for sex-limited cancers, reduced penetrance, early deaths in family members (which precludes the possibility that they will develop adult diseases), prophylactic surgeries that remove an organ from subsequent risk of cancer (e.g., hysterectomy for uterine fibroids in which the ovaries are also removed), adoptions, and inaccurate or incomplete information on family members.5,197 A recent prospective registry study of 306 women diagnosed with breast cancer at < 50 years of age, who had no first- or second-degree relatives with breast or ovarian cancer, showed that those individuals with a limited family history (defined as fewer than 2 first- or seconddegree female relatives or fewer than 2 female relatives surviving beyond age 45 years in either lineage) may have an underestimated probability of a BRCA1/2 gene mutation based on models dependent on family history.198
Medical and Surgical History

A detailed family history is the cornerstone of effective genetic counseling. An examination of family history involves development of an expanded pedigree collected beginning with the health of the proband (index case) and proceeding outward to include first-, second-, and third-degree relatives on both the maternal and paternal sides. Standardized pedigree nomenclature should be used.195,196 Unaffected family members, both living and deceased, are also included, as their histories also provide information about the magnitude of genetic risk. Information collected includes cancer diagnoses by primary site, age at diagnosis, bilaterality (when appropriate), and current age or age at death. Whenever possible, cancer diagnoses in the family are verified by obtaining medical records, pathology reports, or death certificates. This is particularly important in the case of a report of an “abdominal” cancer in a female relative—a situation in which cancers of the cervix, uterus, ovary, and/or colon is often confused. It is also important to know the ancestry/ethnicity of the individual. Other medical conditions that may be associated with or predispose an individual to breast and/or ovarian cancer should also be noted. Family history data are then graphically represented on a pedigree that follows standard nomenclature to illustrate family relationships and disease information. Factors that limit the informativeness of the pedigree are

The collection of a detailed medical and surgical history from the proband allows the counselor to estimate the contribution of other risk factors that may interact with or modify family history to determine the risk of breast cancer. A history of previous breast biopsies, especially those in which the pathology revealed atypical hyperplasia or lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS), is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer.199,200 Pathologic verification of these diagnoses is encouraged. History of salpingo-oophorectomy and potential exposure to carcinogens (e.g., radiation therapy) should also be included in the patient’s assessment. When taking the medical history, the clinician should also be alert to the physical manifestations of Cowden syndrome, especially skin conditions (see below under Focused Physical Examination). MS-17

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NCCN Guidelines Version 1.2015 Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast and Ovarian
Reproductive variables are important determinants of risk for both breast and ovarian cancer, suggesting a significant contribution of hormones to the etiology of these cancers. This possible link is supported by the increased breast cancer risk seen among women who have had prolonged exposure to exogenous estrogens and progestins and the reduction in risk for ovarian cancer observed among women who report using oral contraceptives.201-204
Focused Physical Examination

NCCN Guidelines Index Genetics Table of Contents Discussion

medical, and psychosocial information and be able to integrate this information before they can make an informed decision. The presentation of information is most effective when tailored to the age and education of the person undergoing counseling, and that individual’s personal exposure to the disease, level of risk, and social environment.7 Pre-test counseling is an essential element of the genetic counseling process in the event that genetic testing for a gene mutation associated with a hereditary cancer syndrome is under consideration.7 The foundation of pre-test genetic counseling is based on the principle of informed consent. Pre-test counseling should include a discussion of why the test is being offered and how test results may impact medical management, cancer risks associated with the gene mutation in question, the significance of possible test results (see section on Genetic Testing, below), the likelihood of a positive result, technical aspects and accuracy of the test, economic considerations, risks of genetic discrimination, psychosocial aspects, confidentiality issues, as well as other topics.7 A discussion of confidentiality issues should include an explanation of the federal Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA) enacted in 2008 which prohibits health insurers and employers from discrimination on the basis of genetic test results.205 Post-test counseling must also be performed and includes disclosure of results, a discussion of the significance of the results, an assessment of the impact of the results on the emotional state of the individual, a discussion of the impact of the results on the medical management of the individual, and how and where the patient will be followed. In addition, identification of a gene mutation associated with a hereditary predisposition to breast and/or ovarian cancer in an individual necessitates a discussion of possible inherited cancer risk to relatives MS-18

A physical examination performed by a physician or nurse should be part of the risk assessment. Particular attention should be paid to organs/areas of the body known to be affected in individuals with specific hereditary breast and/or ovarian syndromes. For example, certain patterns of mucocutaneous manifestations are associated with Cowden syndrome, as discussed earlier; a focused physical examination for Cowden syndrome should include a comprehensive dermatologic examination (including oral mucosa), evaluation of head circumference (to determine presence of macrocephaly) and palpation of the thyroid (see section above on Cowden Syndrome). Genetic Counseling Genetic counseling is a critical component of the cancer risk assessment process. Counseling for hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer uses a broad approach to place genetic risk in the context of other related risk factors, thereby customizing counseling to the experiences of the individual. The purpose of cancer genetic counseling is to educate individuals about the genetic, biological, and environmental factors related to the individual’s cancer diagnosis and/or risk of disease to help them derive personal meaning from cancer genetic information, to and empower them to make educated, informed decisions about genetic testing, cancer screening, and cancer prevention. Individuals need to understand the relevant genetic,

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NCCN Guidelines Version 1.2015 Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast and Ovarian
and the importance of informing family members about test results.7 It may also be appropriate to offer genetic testing to both parents of an individual who tests positive for one of these gene mutations (i.e., BRCA1/2, PTEN, TP53) when the lineage is in question. Genetic Testing The selection of appropriate candidates for genetic testing is based on the personal and familial characteristics that determine the individual’s prior probability of being a mutation carrier, and on the psychosocial degree of readiness of the person to receive genetic test results. The potential benefits, limitations, and risks of genetic testing are also important considerations in the decision-making process. Many women feel that they are already doing everything they can to minimize their risk of developing breast cancer, and others fear the emotional toll of finding out that they are a mutation carrier, especially if they have children who would be at risk of inheriting the mutation. For those who choose not to proceed with testing, the counseling team tailors recommendations for primary and secondary prevention based on the individual’s personal and family history. In the statement on Genetic Testing for Cancer Susceptibility from the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) updated in 2003, genetic testing is recommended when there is: (i) a personal or family history suggesting genetic cancer susceptibility (ii) the test can be adequately interpreted and (iii) the results will aid in the diagnosis or influence the medical or surgical management of the patient or family members at hereditary risk of cancer.206 These recommendations were reiterated in the latest 2010 ASCO update on Genetic and Genomic Testing for Cancer Susceptibility with respect to testing individuals for gene mutations known to cause hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer(s).207

NCCN Guidelines Index Genetics Table of Contents Discussion

As part of pre-test counseling, the counselor reviews the distinctions between true-positive, true-negative, indeterminate (or uninformative), and inconclusive (or variants of unknown significance) test results (see Table 2), as well as the technical limitations of the testing process. A clear distinction is made between the probability of being a mutation carrier and the probability of developing cancer. The probabilistic nature of genetic test results and the potential implications for other family members must also be discussed. Individuals who have received allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) should not have molecular genetic testing performed on blood samples, as these blood cells would represent donor-derived DNA. In such cases, DNA of the individual being tested should be extracted from a fibroblast culture, if available. If this is not possible, buccal cells may be considered as an alternative source for DNA; however, a study has reported that over time, buccal epithelial cells are replaced by donor-derived cells in allogeneic HSCT recipients.208,209 Therefore, genetic testing using buccal swab samples may be limited given this known risk of donor DNA contamination. The genetic testing strategy is greatly facilitated when a deleterious mutation has already been identified in another family member. In that case, the genetic testing laboratory can limit the search for mutations in additional family members to the same location in the gene. In most cases, an individual testing negative for a known familial gene mutation predisposing to breast cancer can be followed with routine breast screening. Individuals who meet testing criteria but do not undergo gene testing should be followed as if a gene mutation (i.e., BRCA, PTEN, or TP53 gene mutation) is present, if they have a close family member who is a known carrier of the deleterious mutation. For the majority of families in whom mutation status is unknown, it is best to consider testing an affected family member first, especially a MS-19

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NCCN Guidelines Version 1.2015 Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast and Ovarian
family member with early-onset disease, bilateral disease, or multiple primaries, because that individual has the highest likelihood for a positive test result. Unless the affected individual is a member of an ethnic group for which particular founder gene mutations are known, comprehensive genetic testing (i.e., full sequencing of the genes and detection of large gene rearrangements) should be performed. For individuals with family histories consistent with a pattern of hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer on both the maternal and paternal sides, the possibility of a second deleterious mutation in the family should be considered, and full sequencing may be indicated. In the situation of an unaffected individual with a family history only, the testing of the unaffected individual (or of unaffected family members) should only be considered when no affected family member is available for testing. In such cases, the unaffected individual or unaffected close relative with the highest likelihood of testing positive for the mutation should be tested. A negative test result in such cases, however, is considered indeterminate (see Table 2) and does not provide the same level of information as when there is a known deleterious mutation in the family. Thus, one should be mindful that when testing unaffected individuals (in the absence of having tested affected family members), significant limitations may exist in interpreting the test results. In the case of hereditary breast/ovarian cancer (i.e., BRCA mutation), if no family member with breast or ovarian cancer is living, consideration can be given to testing first- or second-degree family members affected with cancers thought to be related to the deleterious mutation in question (e.g., prostate or pancreatic cancer). Another counseling dilemma is posed by the finding of a variant or mutation of unknown significance (see Table 2), a mutation that may

NCCN Guidelines Index Genetics Table of Contents Discussion

actually represent a benign polymorphism unrelated to an increased breast cancer risk or may indicate an increased breast cancer risk. The individual must be counseled in such a situation, because additional information about that specific mutation will be needed before its significance can be understood. These patients should be considered for referral to research studies that aim to define the functional impact of the gene variant. Finally, it is important to mention that certain large genomic rearrangements are not detectable by a primary sequencing assay, thereby necessitating supplementary testing, in some cases.210-213 For example, there are tests that detect rare, large cancer-associated rearrangements of DNA in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes that are otherwise not detected by direct sequencing of the BRCA1/2 genes. Therefore, the NCCN Guidelines panel emphasizes the need for comprehensive testing, which encompasses full BRCA1/2 sequencing and detection of large gene rearrangements.

Risk Assessment, Counseling, and Management: Hereditary Breast/Ovarian Cancer Syndrome
Detailed in the NCCN Guidelines is a set of specific risk assessment criteria which form part of the decision-making process in evaluating whether an individual suspected of being carriers of a BRCA1/2 mutation should be considered for genetic testing (see Guidelines section on Hereditary Breast and/or Ovarian Cancer Syndrome Testing Criteria). Following risk assessment and counseling, genetic testing should be considered for individuals for whom hereditary breast/ovarian cancer syndrome testing criteria are met. Testing is generally not recommended in children under the age of 18 years. Individuals from a family with a known deleterious BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation should be tested for the specific familial mutation. For MS-20

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NCCN Guidelines Version 1.2015 Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast and Ovarian
individuals from a family without a known BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation (and who meet testing criteria), genetic testing should be comprehensive, including full sequencing of BRCA1 and BRCA2, and testing for large genomic rearrangements. Individuals from a family with a known deleterious BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation who test positive for the familial mutation, or for whom BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation testing is not performed, should follow the screening recommendations outlined under the Guidelines section on HBOC Syndrome Management (and discussed below). Individuals of Ashkenazi Jewish descent with no known familial BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations should first be tested for the three known founder mutations; if the tests are negative for founder mutations, and if the individual’s ancestry also included non-Ashkenazi ethnicity (or if other BRCA1/BRCA2 testing criteria are met), comprehensive genetic testing should be considered. Comprehensive genetic testing (i.e., full sequence of BRCA1/2 and testing for large gene rearrangements) is also recommended for individuals from other ethnic groups who meet testing criteria. In cases where testing of unaffected individuals are being considered, an affected family member with the highest likelihood of carrying the BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation should be tested first. If more than one family member is affected, members with the following factors should be considered for testing first: youngest age at diagnosis; having bilateral disease or multiple primaries; or having ovarian cancer. If no living family member with breast or ovarian cancer exists, consider testing first- or second-degree family members affected with cancer thought to be related to deleterious BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations (e.g., prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer, melanoma). As previously discussed, testing of unaffected individuals should only be considered when an appropriate affected family member is not available for testing; importantly, the significant limitations of interpreting testing results for

NCCN Guidelines Index Genetics Table of Contents Discussion

an unaffected individual should be discussed prior to testing. Individuals from a family with no known deleterious BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation who test positive for a mutation should follow the screening recommendations outlined under the Guidelines section on HBOC Syndrome Management (and discussed below). Those who test negative for BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations can be considered for risk assessment/genetic testing for other hereditary breast/ovarian cancer syndromes such as Li-Fraumeni syndrome or Cowden syndrome, if testing criteria for these syndromes are met. For individuals who have not been tested or for those in whom variants of unknown significance are found (uninformative testing results), participation in a research program or individualized recommendations based on personal history and family history should be offered. Counseling issues specific for both female and male carriers of a BRCA1/2 mutation include the increased incidence of pancreatic cancer and melanoma. In addition, the risks to family members of individuals with a known BRCA1/2 gene mutation (see Discussion sections on Risk Assessment and Genetic Testing) should also be discussed as well as the importance of genetic counseling for these individuals. Counseling issues pertaining specifically to male breast cancer have also been described, and include an increased risk of prostate cancer in male carriers of a BRCA1/2 mutation.214-216 Recommendations for the medical management of hereditary breast/ovarian cancer syndrome are based on an appreciation of the early onset of disease, the increased risk of ovarian cancer, and the risk for male breast cancer in BRCA1/2 carriers. An individual with a known deleterious BRCA1/2 mutation in a close family member who does not undergo gene testing should be followed according to the same screening/management guidelines as a carrier of a BRCA1/2 mutation. An individual from a family with a known deleterious BRCA1/2 mutation MS-21

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NCCN Guidelines Version 1.2015 Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast and Ovarian
who tests negative for the familial mutation should be followed according to the recommendations in the NCCN Guidelines for Breast Cancer Screening and Diagnosis. In situations where an individual (or family member) from a family with no known familial BRCA1/2 mutations undergoes genetic testing, and no mutation is found, testing for other hereditary breast syndromes should be considered if testing criteria are met (see sections on Li-Fraumeni Syndrome Testing Criteria and Cowden Syndrome Testing Criteria). Screening Recommendations The emphasis on initiating screening considerably earlier than standard recommendations is a reflection of the early age of onset seen in hereditary breast/ovarian cancer.217 For a woman who is a carrier of a BRCA1/2 mutation, training in breast awareness with regular monthly practice should begin at age 18 years, and semiannual clinical breast examinations should begin at age 25 years. The woman should have annual mammograms and breast MRI screening (to be performed on day 7-15 of menstrual cycle for premenopausal women) beginning at age 25 years or on an individualized timetable based on the earliest age of cancer onset in family members.192,217-220 Mammography has served as the standard screening modality for detection of breast cancer during the last few decades. False-negative mammography results have been correlated with factors such as presence of BRCA1/2 mutation and high breast tissue density,221-224 both of which may occur more frequently among younger women. Rapidly growing or aggressive breast tumors—also more common among younger women—have also been associated with decreased sensitivity of mammographic screening methods.221,225 Prospective studies on comparative surveillance modalities in women at high risk for familial breast cancer (i.e., confirmed BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation or

NCCN Guidelines Index Genetics Table of Contents Discussion

suspected mutation based on family history) have consistently reported higher sensitivity of MRI screening (77–94%) compared with mammography (33–59%) in detecting breast cancers; false-positive rates were higher with MRI in some reports, resulting in a slightly lower or similar specificity with MRI screening (81–98%) compared with mammography (92–100%).217-219,226-228 The sensitivity with ultrasound screening (33–65%) appeared similar to that of mammography in this high-risk population.217,226-228 In a recent prospective screening trial (conducted from 1997–2009) that evaluated the performance of annual MRI and mammography in women (age 25–65 years; N=496) with confirmed BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation, sensitivity with MRI was significantly higher compared with mammography during the entire study period (86% vs. 19%; P<0.0001).229 Sensitivity with MRI was higher during the early years (1997–2002; 74% vs. 35%) as well as the later years of the study (2003–2009; 94% vs. 9%). Factors such as age, mutation type or invasiveness of the tumor did not significantly influence the relative sensitivity of the 2 screening modalities. Importantly, the large majority (97%) of cancers detected by MRI screening were early stage tumors.229 Among previously unaffected women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer during the study (n=28), 1 patient had died due to the cancer and 3 additional patients died due to other causes; the annual breast cancer-specific mortality rate was 0.5%. At a median follow up of 8 years from diagnosis, none of the surviving patients (n=24) has developed distant recurrence.229 All of the studies discussed above evaluated a screening strategy that was conducted on an annual basis, and many of the studies included individuals without confirmed BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation status. A recent retrospective study evaluated a different screening interval, using alternating mammography and MRI screening every 6 months in women with confirmed BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation (N=73).230 After a median follow up of 2 years, 13 breast cancers were detected among 11 women; 12 of the tumors were MS-22

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NCCN Guidelines Version 1.2015 Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast and Ovarian
detected by MRI screening but not by mammography obtained 6 months earlier. The sensitivity and specificity with MRI screening was 92% and 87%, respectively.230 The optimal surveillance approach in women at high risk for familial breast cancer remains uncertain, especially for women between the ages of 25 and 30 years. Although earlier studies have reported an unlikely association between radiation exposure from mammography and increased risk of breast cancer in carriers of BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation,231,232, a recent report from a large cohort study suggested an increased risk in women exposed to radiation at a young age.233 A retrospective cohort study (from the GENE-RAD-RISK study) showed that exposure to diagnostic radiation (including mammography) prior to age 30 years was associated with increased risk of breast cancer in women with BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation (N=1993).233 Thus, one of the potential benefits of incorporating MRI modalities into surveillance strategies may include minimizing the radiation risks associated with mammography, in addition to the higher sensitivity of MRI screening in detecting tumors. The use of MRI, however, may potentially be associated with higher false-positive results and higher costs relative to mammography. The appropriate imaging modalities and surveillance intervals are still under investigation. In a recent report based on a computer simulation model that evaluated different annual screening strategies in BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers, a screening approach that included annual MRI starting at age 25 years combined with alternating digital mammography/MRI starting at age 30 years was shown to be the most effective strategy when radiation risks, life expectancy and false-positive rates were considered.234 Future prospective trials are needed to evaluate the different surveillance strategies in individuals at high risk for familial breast cancer. Annual MRI as an adjunct to screening mammogram and clinical breast

NCCN Guidelines Index Genetics Table of Contents Discussion

examination for women aged 25 years or older with a genetic predisposition for breast cancer is supported by guidelines from the ACS.192 Post-test counseling in women with confirmed BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation (or highly suspected of having the mutation based on presence of known deleterious mutation in the family) includes discussion of riskreducing mastectomy and/or salpingo-oophorectomy. Counseling for these risk-reducing surgeries may include discussion of extent of cancer risk reduction/protection, risks associated with surgeries, reconstructive options, management of menopausal symptoms, and discussion of reproductive desires. It is important to address the psychosocial and quality-of-life aspects of undergoing risk-reducing surgical procedures. For women who have not elected ovarian cancer risk-reducing surgery, concurrent transvaginal ultrasound and CA-125 determination should be considered every 6 months, starting at age 30 years or 5 to 10 years earlier than the earliest age of first diagnosis of ovarian cancer in the family, for the early detection of ovarian cancer (see Guidelines section on HBOC Syndrome Management). Although there are retrospective data indicating that annual ovarian screening using transvaginal ultrasound and measurement of serum CA-125 levels is neither an effective strategy for the early detection of ovarian tumors nor a reasonable substitute for a bilateral risk-reduction salpingooophorectomy,235,236 the data are limited regarding the effectiveness of these screening interventions when used every 6 months. Investigational imaging and screening studies may be considered for this population. Men testing positive for a BRCA1/2 mutation should have a semiannual clinical breast examination, and undergo training in breast selfexamination with regular monthly practice starting at age 35 years. MS-23

Version 1.2015, 03/30/15 ? National Comprehensive Cancer Network, Inc. 2015, All rights reserved. The NCCN Guidelines? and this illustration may not be reproduced in any form without the express written permission of NCCN?.

Printed by zhang yu on 6/10/2015 9:08:28 PM. For personal use only. Not approved for distribution. Copyright ? 2015 National Comprehensive Cancer Network, Inc., All Rights Reserved.

NCCN Guidelines Version 1.2015 Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast and Ovarian
Baseline mammography should be considered at age 40 years, followed by annual screening with mammography for those men with gynecomastia or parenchymal/glandular breast density on baseline study. In addition, screening for prostate cancer starting at age 40 years should be considered. Involvement in population screening guidelines for prostate cancer is recommended. For both men and women testing positive for a BRCA1/2 mutation, a full body skin exam for melanoma screening and investigational protocols for pancreatic cancer screening should be considered. Although no specific screening guidelines exist for these tumor types, individualized screening approaches may be provided according to personal or family history of cancer. Risk Reduction Surgery
Bilateral Total Mastectomy

NCCN Guidelines Index Genetics Table of Contents Discussion

surgical breast reconstruction options. Immediate breast reconstruction is an option for many women following RRM, and early consultation with a reconstructive surgeon is recommended for those considering either immediate or delayed breast reconstruction.242
Bilateral Salpingo-oophorectomy

Retrospective analyses with median follow-up periods of 13-14 years have indicated that bilateral risk reduction mastectomy (RRM) decreased the risk of developing breast cancer by at least 90% in moderate- and high-risk women and in known BRCA1/2 mutation carriers.237,238 Results from smaller prospective studies with shorter follow-up periods have provided support for concluding that RRM provides a high degree of protection against breast cancer in women with a BRCA1/2 mutation. 239,240 The NCCN Guidelines panel supports discussion of the option of RRM for wome

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