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高中英语语法权威解析一---名词性从句(附练习题)


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在句子中起名词作用的句子叫名词性从句(Noun Clauses) 名词性从句 。 的功能相当于名词词组, 它在复合句中能担任主语、宾语、表语、同位语、 介词宾语等,因此根据它在句中不同的语法功能,名词从句又可分别称为主 语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句。 一. 主语从句 主语从句是在复合句中充当主语的从句, 通常放在主句谓语动词之前或由形 式主语 it 代替,而本身放在句子末尾。 1. It 作形式主语和 it 引导强调句的比较 It 作形式主语代替主语从句,主要是为了平衡句子结构,主语从句的连接词没 有变化。 it 引导的强调句则是对句子某一部分进行强调, 而 无论强调的是什么成 分,都可用连词 that。被强调部分指人时也可用 who/whom。例如: a) It is a pity that you didn’t go to see the film. 你不去看那场电影真可惜。 b) It doesn’t interest me whether you succeed or not. 我对你成功与否不感兴 趣。 c) It is in the morning that the murder took place. 谋杀案是在早上发生的。 (强调句型) (强调句型) d) It is John that broke the window. 是 John 打碎的窗户。 2. 用 it 作形式主语的结构 (1) It is + 名词 + 从句 It is a fact that … It is an honor that It is common knowledge that (2) It is + 形容词 + 从句 It is natural that… It is strange that… (3) It is + 不及物动词 + 从句 It seems that… It happened that… It appears that… (4) It + 过去分词 + 从句 It is reported that… It has been proved that… It is said that…

事实是… …非常荣幸 …是常识 很自然… 奇怪的是… 似乎… 碰巧… 似乎… 据报道… 已证实… 据说…

3. 主语从句不可位于句首的五种情况: (1)if 引导的主语从句不可居于复合句句首。 (2)It is said /reported…结构中的主语从句不可提前。例如: 正确表达:It is said that President Jiang will visit our school next week. 错误表达:That President Jiang will visit our school next week is said. (3)It happens/occurs…结构中的主语从句不可提前。例如: 正确表达:It occurred to him that he failed in the examination.

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错误表达:That he failed in the examination occurred to him. (4)It doesn’t matter how/whether …结构中的主语从句不可提前。例如: 正确表达:It doesn’t matter whether he is wrong or not. 错误表达:Whether he is wrong or not doesn’t matter. (5)含主语从句的复合句是疑问句时,主语从句不可提前。例如: 正确表达:Is it likely that it will rain in the evening? 错误表达:Is that will rain in the evening likely? 4. what 与 that 在引导主语从句时的区别 what 引导主语从句时在句时在从句中充当句子成分,如主语.宾语.表语, 而 that 则不然。例如: a) What you said yesterday is right. b) That she is still alive is a consolation

二.宾语从句 宾语从句就是在复合句中作宾语的名词性从句, 通常放在主句谓语动词 (及物动 词) 或介词之后。 1. 作动词的宾语 (1) 由 that 引导的宾语从句(that 通常可以省略), 例如: I heard that be joined the army. 我听说他参军了。 (2) 由 what, whether (if) 引导的宾语从句,例如: a) She did not know what had happened. 她不知道发生了什么。 b) I wonder whether you can change this note for me. 我想知道你是 否能帮我改一下笔记。 (3) 动词+间接宾语+宾语从句。例如: She told me that she would accept my invitation. 她对我说她会接受我 的邀请。 2. 作介词的宾语,例如: Our success depends upon how well we can cooperate with one another. 的成功取决于我们之间的合作。 3. 作形容词的宾语,例如: I am afraid (that) I’ve made a mistake.

我们

我恐怕我已经犯了一个错误。

注意:that 引导的从句常跟在下列形容词后作宾语:anxious, aware, certain, confident, convinced, determined, glad, proud, surprised, worried, sorry, thankful, ashamed, disappointed, annoyed, pleased, hurt, satisfied, content 等。也可以将此类 词后的 that 从句的看作原因状语从句。 4. it 可以作为形式宾语

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it 不仅可以作为形式主语,还可以作为形式宾语而真正的宾语 that 从句则 放在句尾,特别是在带复合宾语的句子中。 例如: We heard it that she would get married next month. 我听说她下个朋就会结婚 了。 5. 后边不能直接跟 that 从句的动词 这类动词有 allow, refuse, let, like, cause, force, admire, condemn, celebrate, dislike, love, help, take, forgive 等。这类词后可以用不定式或动名词作宾语,但不 可以用 that 引导的宾语从句。如: 正确表达:I admire their winning the match. 错误表达:I admire that they won the match. 6. 不可用 that 从句作直接宾语的动词 有些动词不可用于 “动词+间接宾语+that 从句 “结构中, 常见的有 envy, order, accuse, refuse, impress, forgive, blame, denounce, advise, congratulate 等。例 如: 正确表达:He impressed the manager as an honest man. 错误表达:He impressed the manager that he was an honest man. 7. 否定的转移 若主句谓语动词为 think, consider, suppose, believe, expect, fancy, guess, imagine 等,其后的宾语从句若含有否定意义,一般要把否定词转移到主句谓语 上,从句谓语用肯定式。例如: I don’t think this dress fits you well. 我认为这件衣服不适合你穿。 三. 表语从句 表语从句在复合句中作表语的名词性从句,放在系动词之后,一般结构是“主语 +连系动词+表语从句” 。可以接表语从句的连系动词有 be, look, remain, seem 等。 引导表语从句的 that 常可省略。 另外, 常用的还有 the reason is that… 和 It is because 等结构。例如: 1) The question is whether we can make good preparation in such a short time. 2) This is why we can’t get the support of the people. 3) But the fact remains that we are behind the other classes. 4) The reason he is late for school is that he missed the early bus. 四. 同位语从句 同位语从句就是在复合句中作名词的同位语的名词性从句。 1. 同位语从句的功能 同位语从句对于名词进一步解释,说明名词的具体内容,一般由 that 引导, 例如: 1) The king’s decision that the prisoner would be set free surprised all the people. 2) The order that all the soldiers should stay still is given by the general.

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2. 同位语在句子中的位置 同位语从句有时可以不紧跟在它所说明的名词后面,而是被别的词隔开。例 如: He got the news from Mary that the sports meeting was put off. 3. 同位语从句与定语从句的区别 (1) 定语从句中的 that 既代替先行词, 同时以在从句中作某个成分 (主语或宾语) , 而同位语从句中的 that 是连词,只起连接主句与从句的作用,不充当句中任何成 分。 (2) 定语从句是形容词性的,其功能是修饰先行词,对先行词加以限定,描述定 的性质或特征;同位语从句是名词性的,其功能是对名词进行补充说明。例如: 1) The news that he told me is that Tom would go abroad next year. (他告诉我的消息 是汤姆明年将出国。 ) (第一个 that 引导的从句是定语从句, 在从句中作宾语) that 2)The news that Tom would go abroad is told by him.(汤姆将出国的消息是他讲 的。(同位语从句,that 在句中不作任何成分) )

名词性从句专项练习 1.____he does has nothing to do with me. A. whatever B. No matter what C. That D. If 2. The manager came over and asked the customer how____ A. did the quarrel came about B .the quarrel had come about C. had the quarrel come about D. had the quarrel come about 3. Energy is ____makes thing work.. A. what B. something C. anything D. that 4. Information has been put forward ____ more middle school graduates will be admitted into universities. A. while B. that C. when D. as 5. This is ___the Shenzhou V Spaceship landed. A. there B. in which C. where D. when 6. They have no idea at all____. A. where he has gone B. where did he go C. which place has he gone D. where has he gone 7. The doctor did a lot to reduce the patient’s fear ____he would die of the disease. A. that B. which C. of which D. of that 8. The order came ___the soldiers ____the small village the next morning. A. that ;had to leave B. that; should leave C. /; must leave D. when; should leave 9. ___is no possibility ____Bob can win the first prize in the match. A. There; that B. It; that C. there; whether D. It; whether 10. The question came up at the meeting_____ we had enough money for our

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research. A. that B. which C. whether D. if 11. Is _____he said really true? A. that B. what C. why D. whether 12.____the meeting should last two days or three days doesn’t matter. A. That B. Whether C. If D. Where 13. It worried her a bit _____her hair was turning gray. A. while B. if C. that D. for 14. ???_____more countries can use natural energy in the future remains to be seen. A. Whether B. This C. who D. If 15.____he will go to work in a mountain village surprises all of us. A. What B. That C. Whether D. If 16. ____you don’t like him is none of my business. A. What B. That C. Who D. How 17.____all the inventions have in common is ____they have succeeded. A. What; what B. That; that C. what; that D. That ; what 18. ____appeared to me that he enjoyed the food very much. A. What B. It C. All that D. That 19. It is widely ______that smoking can cause cancer. A. believed B. think C. say D. hoped 20. ____caused the accident is still a complete mystery. A. What B. That C. How D. Where Keys: 1—5 ABABC

6—10 AABAC

11—15 BBCAB 16—20 BCBAA


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