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高中英语必修1unit2课文


第二单元 Reading 阅读 THE ROAD TO MODERN ENGLISH At the end of the 16th century, about five to seven million people spoke English.

Nearly all of them lived in England. Later in the next century, people from England made voyages to conquer other parts of the world and because of that, English began to be spoken in many other countries. Today, more people speak English as their first, second or

foreign language than ever before. 通向现代英语之路 在 16 世纪末,大约有五至七百万人讲 英语。 几乎所有这些讲英语的人都住在 英格兰。在其后的一个世纪中,英格兰 人为征服世界航海到了世界其他一些 地方, 结果世界的其他地方的人们也开

始说英语了。今天,把英语作为自己的 第一语言、 第二语言或外语来使用的人 比以往任何时候都多。 Native English speakers can understand each other even if they don’t speak the same kind of English. Look at this example:

British Betty: Would you like to see my flat? American Amy: Yes, I’d like to come up to your apartment. 以英语作为母语的人, 即使他们所讲不 是同一种英语,他们也能彼此听懂。请 看看这个例子:

英国人贝蒂:来看看我的公寓吗? 美国人艾米:好的,我来看看你的公寓 吧。 So why has English changed over time? Actually all languages change and develop when cultures meet and communicate with each other. At first the

English spoken in England between about AD 450 and 1150 was very different from the English spoken today. It was based more on German than the English we speak at present. Then gradually between about AD 800 and 1150, English became less like German

because those who ruled England spoke first Danish and later French. These new settlers enriched the English language and especially its vocabulary. So by the 1600’s Shakespeare was able to make use of a wider vocabulary than ever before. In 1620 some British settlers

moved to America. Later in the 18th century some British people were taken to Australia too. English began to be spoken in both countries. 那么, 随着时间的推移英语为什么发生 了变化呢?实际上, 当不同文化相互交 流渗透时, 所有的语言都会有所发展和

变化。开始,英格兰人在大约公元 450 年到 1150 年之间所说的英语与我们今 天所说的英语很不一样。 当时的英语更 多的是以德语为基础的, 不像我们现在 说的英语。后来,大约在公元 800 年至 1150 年之间,英语慢慢变得不那么像 德语, 因为统治英格兰的那些人开始是

说丹麦语,后来说法语。这些新来的定 居者丰富了英语语言, 尤其是丰富了英 语词汇。所以到 17 世纪初的时候,莎 士比亚能够得以使用比以往任何时候 都丰富的词汇。1620 年一些英国定居 者来到了美洲,后来到了 18 世纪的时 候,一些英国人还被带到了澳大利亚。

英语也就开始在这两个国家使用。 Finally by the 19th century the language was settled. At that time two big changes in English spelling happened: first Samuel Johnson wrote his dictionary and later Noah Webster wrote The American Dictionary of the English Language. The

latter gave a separate identity to American English spelling. 最后到 19 世纪的时候,英语这种语言 就变得稳定了。当时,英语的拼写发生 了两个很大的变化:先是塞缪尔·约翰 逊编写了他的英语词典,后是诺亚·韦 伯斯特出版了《美国英语词典》 。后者

使得美式英语的拼写有了其独特的个 性。 English now is also spoken as a foreign or second language in South Asia. For example, India has a very large number of fluent English speakers because Britain ruled India from 1765 to 1947.

During that time English became the language for government and education. English is also spoken in Singapore and Malaysia and countries in Africa such as South Africa. Today the number of people learning English in China is increasing rapidly. In fact, China may

have the largest number of English learners. Will Chinese English develop its own identity? Only time will tell. 现在英语在南亚地区也被作为外语或 第二语言使用。比如,印度就有很多人 说英语说得很流利,因为在 1765 年到 1947 年之间英国统治着印度。在此期

间, 英语成了印度政府和教育所用的语 言。 在新加坡和马来西亚以及像非洲的 南非,人们现在也说英语。当今,在中 国学英语的人数正在快速增加,事实 上,中国可能是学英语人数最多的国 家。 中国式英语是否也能发展成一种具 有自己独特个性的语言?这还有待时

间去证明。

Using Language STANDARD

语言运用 ENGLISH AND

DIALECTS What is standard English? Is it spoken in Britain, the US, Canada, Australia, India and New Zealand? Believe it or not, there is no such thing as standard English. Many people believe the English spoken on TV and the radio is standard English.

This is because in the early days of radio, those who reported the news were expected to speak excellent English. However, on TV and the radio you will hear differences in the way people speak. When people use words and expressions different form “standard language”, it is

called a dialect. American English has many dialects, especially the midwestern, southern, African American and Spanish dialects. Even in some parts of the USA, two people from neighbouring towns speak a little differently. American English has so many dialects because

people have come from all over the world. Geography also plays a part in making dialects. Some people who live in the mountains of the eastern USA speak with an older kind of English dialect. When Americans moved form one place to

another, they took their dialects with them. So people from the mountains in the southeastern USA speak with almost the same dialect as people in the northwestern USA. The USA is a large country in which many different dialects are spoken. Although many Americans

move a lot, they still recognize and understand each other’s dialects. 什么是标准英语?是在英国、美国、加 拿大、澳大利亚、印度、新西兰所说的 英语吗?信不信由你, (世界上)没有 什么标准英语。许多人认为,电视和收

音机里所说的英语就是标准英语, 这是 因为在早期的电台节目里, 人们期望新 闻播音员所说的英语是最好的英语。 然 而,在电视和收音机里,你也会听出人 们在说话时的差异。 当人们使用不同于“标准语言”的词语 和表达时,那就叫做方言。美国英语有

许多方言, 特别是中西部地区和南部地 区的方言, 以及美国黑人和西班牙人的 方言。即使在美国有些地区,两个相邻 城镇的人所说的方言也可能稍有不同。 美国英语之所以有这么多的方言是因 为美国人是来自世界各地的缘故。 地理位置对方言的形成也有所影响。 住

在美国东部山区的一些人说着比较古 老的英语方言。 当美国人从一个地方搬 到另一个地方时, 他们也就把他们的方 言随着带去了。因此,美国东南部山区 的人同美国西北部的人所说的方言就 几乎相同。美国是一个大国,有着许许 多多彼此不同的方言。 虽然许多美国人

经常搬家, 但是他们仍然能够辨别和理 解彼此的方言。

Reading and speaking

读与说

1 Amy and her American friends are

visiting London. They plan to visit Amy’s aunt and decide to go there by underground, but cannot find the nearest underground station. So she asks directions and then tells her friends. Read the dialogue and circle the words that mean the same.

1 艾米和她的美国朋友正在参观伦 敦。她们计划去拜访艾米的姑妈,并决 定乘地铁去, 但是她们找不到最近的地 铁站。所以她问问了路,然后告诉她的 朋友。 读对话, 然后圈出意思相同的词。 AMY: Excuse me, Ma’ma. Could you tell me where the nearest subways is?

LADY: Er...the underground? Well, go round the corner on your left-hand side, straight on and cross two streets. It’ll be on your right-hand side. AMY: Thanks so much. FRIENDS: What did she say, Amy? AMY: She told us to go around the

corner on the left and keep going straight for two blocks. The subway will be on our right. 艾米:对不起,夫人,你能告诉我去最 近的地铁站怎么走吗? 夫人: 呃??地铁?哦, 往左边拐过去, 一直往前走,走过两条街,地铁就是右

边。 艾米:多谢了。 朋友:艾米,她说什么? 艾米:她叫我们往左边拐过去,一直往 前走,走过两条街,地铁就是右边。 【意思相同的词】 subway←→underground (地铁)

right-hand side←→right (右边) street←→block 街道,街区


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