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三年高考(2017-2019)英语真题分项版解析——专题20 完形填空说明文、议论文(原卷版)


专题 20 完形填空说明文、议论文

一、2019 年高考真题(无)

二、2018 年高考真题(无)

三、2017 年高考真题(无)

【2016·上海】Reading Comprehension

2016 年高考题

Section A

Directions: For each blank in the following passage there are four words or phrases marked A, B, C and D. Fill

in each blank with the word or phrase that best fits the context.

In the 1960s, Douglas McGregor, one of the key thinkers in the art of management, developed the mow

famous Theory X and Theory Y. Theory X is the idea that people instinctively 51 work and will do anything

to avoid it. Theory Y is the view that everyone has the potential to find satisfaction in work.

In any case, despite so much evidence to the 52 , many managers still agree to Theory X. They believe,

53 , that their employees need constant supervision if they are to work effectively, or that decisions must be

imposed from 54 without consultation. This, of course, makes for authoritarian (专制的) managers.

Different cultures have different ways of 55 people. Unlike authoritarian management, some cultures,

particularly in Asia, are well known for the consultative nature of decision-making—all members of the department or

work group are asked to 56 to this process. This is management by the collective opinion. Many western

companies have tried to imitate such Asian ways of doing things, which are based on general 57 . Some

experts say that women will become more effective managers than men because they have the power to reach

common goals in a way that traditional 58 managers cannot.

A recent trend has been to encourage employees to use their own initiative, to make decisions on their own

without 59 managers first. This empowerment (授权) has been part of the trend towards downsizing: 60

the number of management layers in companies. After de-layering in this way, a company may be 61 with

just a top level of senior managers, front-line managers and employees with direct contact with the public.

Empowerment takes the idea of delegation (委托) much further than has 62 been the case. Empowerment and

delegation mean new forms of management control to 63 that the overall business plan is being followed, and

that operations become more profitable under the new organization, rather than less.

Another trend is off-site or 64 management, where teams of people linked by e-mail and the Internet

work on projects from their own houses. Project managers evaluate the 65 of the team members in terms of

what they produce for projects, rather than the amount of time they spend on them.

51. A. desire

B. seek

C. lose

D. dislike

52. A. contrary

B. expectation

C. degree

D. extreme

53. A. vice versa

B. for example

C. however

D. otherwise

54. A. outside

B. inside

C. below

D. above

55. A. replacing

B. assessing

C. managing

D. encouraging

56. A. refer

B. contribute

C. object

D. apply

57. A. agreement

B. practice

C. election

D. impression

58. A. bossy

B. experienced

C. western

D. male

59. A. asking

B. training

C. warning

D. firing

60. A. doubling

B. maintaining

C. reducing

D. estimating

61. A. honored

B. left

C. crowded

D. compared

62. A. economically B. traditionally

C. inadequately

D. occasionally

63. A. deny

B. admit

C. assume

D. ensure

64. A. virtual

B. ineffective

C. day-to-day

D. on-the-scene

65. A. opinion

B. risk

C. performance

D. attractiveness

2015 年高考试题议论文类


阅读下面短文,掌握其大意,然后从 1~15 各题所给的 A、B、C 和 D 项中,选出最佳选项,并在答题


How long can human beings live? Most scientists who study old age think that the human body is ___1___ to

live no longer than 120 years. However, 110 years is probably the longest that anyone could hope to live — if he or

she is ___2___ healthy and lucky. Some scientists even say we can live as long as 130 years! Yet, our cells simply

cannot continue to reproduce ___3___. They wear out, and as a result, we get old and ___4___ die.

Even though we can’t live forever, we are living a ___5___ life than ever before. In 1900, the average American life span (寿命) was only 47 years, but today it is 75 years!

When does old age begin then? Sixty-five may be out-of-date as the ___6___ line between middle age and old age.

After all, many older people don’t begin to experience physical and mental ___7___ until after age 75.

People are living longer because more people ___8___ childhood. Before modern medicine changed the laws

of nature, many children died of common childhood ___9___. Now that the chances of dying ___10___ are much

lower, the chances of living long are much higher due to better diets and health care.

On the whole, our population is getting older. The ___11___ in our population will have lasting effects on our

social development and our way of life. Some people fear such changes will be for the worse, while some see

___12___, not disaster, many men and women in their “golden years” are healthy, still active, and young in

___13___ if not in age.

As the society grows old, we need the ___14___ of our older citizens. With long lives ahead of them, they

need to ___15___ active and devoted.

1. A. designed

B. selected

C. improved

D. discovered

2. A. completely

B. generally

C. apparently

D. extremely

3. A. rapidly

B. harmlessly

C. endlessly

D. separately

4. A. eventually

B. hopelessly

C. automatically

D. desperately

5. A. busier

B. longer

C. richer

D. happier

6. A. finishing

B. guiding

C. waiting

D. dividing

7. A. stress

B. damage

C. decline

D. failure

8. A. survive

B. enjoy

C. remember

D. value

9. A. problems

B. fears

C. worries

D. diseases

10. A. poor

B. young

C. sick

D. quiet

11. A. changes

B. recovery

C. safety

D. increases

12. A. dreams

B. chances

C. strengths

D. choices

13. A. mind

B. appearance

C. voice

D. movement

14. A. protection

B. suggestions

C. contributions

D. permission

15. A. sound

B. appear


C. turn

D. stay

2014 年高考试题议论文类

Parents feel that it is difficult to live with teenagers. Then again, teenagers have 1 feelings about their

parents, saying that it is not easy living with them. According to a recent research, the most common 2

between parents and teenagers is that regarding untidiness and daily routine tasks. On the one hand, parents go mad

over 3 rooms, clothes thrown on the floor and their children’s refusal to help with the 4 . On the

other hand, teenagers lose their patience continually when parents blame them for 5 the towel in the

bathroom, not cleaning up their room or refusing to do the shopping at the supermarket.

The research, conducted by St. George University, shows that different parents have different 6 to

these problems. However, some approaches are more 7 than others. For example, those parents who yell at

their children for their untidiness, but 8 clean the room for them, have fewer chances of changing their

children’s 9 . On the contrary, those who let teenagers experience the 10 of their actions can do

better. For example, when teenagers who don’t help their parents with the shopping don’t find their favorite drink in

the refrigerator, they are forced to 11 their actions.

Psychologists say that 12 is the most important thing in parent-child relationships. Parents should 13

to their children but at the same time they should lend an ear to what they have to say. Parents may 14 their

children when they are untidy but they should also understand that their room is their own private space.

Communication is a two-way process. It is only by listening to and 15 each other that problems between

parents and children can be settled.

1.A. natural

B. strong

C. guilty

D. similar

2.A. interest

B. argument

C. link


3.A. noisy

B. crowded

C. messy

D. locked

4.A. homework

B. housework C. problem

D. research

5.A. washing

B. using

C. dropping

D. replacing

6.A. approaches

B. contributions C. introductions D. attitudes

7.A. complex

B. popular

C. scientific

D. successful

8.A. later

B. deliberately C. seldom

D. thoroughly

9.A. behavior

B. taste

C. future

D. nature

10.A. failures

B. changes

C. consequences D. thrills

11.A. defend

B. delay

C. repeat

D. reconsider

12.A. communication B. bond

C. friendship

D. trust

13.A. reply

B. attend

C. attach

D. talk

14.A. hate

B. scold

C. frighten

D. stop

15.A. loving

B. observing

C. understanding D. praising


2015 说明文

Imagine the first days in a new time zone. Slow to respond to the 28 , your body clock is confused. You’re sleepy all day, but when it’s time for bed, you can hardly fall asleep. Obviously you are 29 jet lag(时差反应).

Travelers have traditionally fought this 30 with sleeping pills or alcohol. There are actually healthier

ways that can work just as 31.

For example, the moment you get on the airplane, start 32 your biological block to the destination’s time. If it’s daytime in your destination, try to stay 33 . Walking around the cabin(客舱) can be of help. When it’s

nighttime, try to sleep. In that case, eat before the flight, 34 an empty stomach will prevent you from sleeping.

These tips will help you start a new 35of sleep and wakefulness.

28. A. flight

B. change

C. demand

D. climate

29. A. suffering from

B. working on

C. looking into

D. leading to

30. A. danger

B. problem

C. waste

D. fear

31. A. briefly

B. slowly

C. suddenly

D. effectively

32. A. checking

B. sending

C. adjusting

D. stopping

33. A. awake

B. alone

C. hungry

D. calm

34. A. though

B. so

C. whole

D. or

35. A. understanding

B. cycle

C. research

D. trend

2.Directions: For each blank in the following passage there are four words or phrases marked A, B, C and D. Fill in

each blank with the word or phrase that best fits the context.

If you studied pictures that ancient people left on rock walls and you tried to determine their meaning, you

would not detect interest in romance among the artists. 51 , you would see plenty of animals with people

running after them. Life for ancient people’s earned to center on hunting and gathering wild foods for meals.

In modern times, when food is available in grocery stores, finding love is more 52 in people’s lives. The

53 is all around us. It is easy to prepare a list of modern stories having to do with love. An endless number of

books and movies qualify as love stories in popular culture.

Researchers are studying whether love, a highly valued emotional state, can be 54 . They ask, what is

love? Toothpaste companies want us to think attraction is all about clean teeth, but clean teeth go only so far.

Scientists wonder how much the brain gets involved. You have probably heard that opposites attract but that 55

attract, too. One thing is certain: The truth about love is not yet set in stone.

First Impression

To help determine the 56 of attraction, researchers paired 164 college classmates and had them talk for 3,

6 or 10 minutes so they could get a sense of each other’s individuality. Then students were asked to 57 what

kind of relationship they were likely to build with their partners. After nine weeks, they reported what happened.

As it turned out, their 58 judgments often held true. Students seemed to 59 at an early stage who

would best fit into their lives.

The 60 Knows

Scientists have also turned to nonhumans to increase understanding of attraction. Many animals give off

pheromones — natural chemicals that can be detected by, and then can produce a response in, other animals of the

same species. Pheromones can signal that an animal is either ready to fight or is feeling 61 to partnerships. In

contrast, humans do not seem to be as 62 as other animals at detecting such chemicals. Smell, however, does

seem to play a part in human attraction. Although we may not be aware of chemicals like pheromones consciously,

we give and receive loads of information through smell in every interaction with other people.

Face Value

Being fond of someone seems to have a number of factors, including seeing something we find attractive.

Researchers had people judge faces for 63 . The participants had 0.013 seconds to view each face, yet

somehow they generally considered the images the same as people who had more time to study the same faces. The

way we 64 attractiveness seem to be somewhat automatic.

When shown an attractive face and then words with good or bad associations, people responded to 65 words

faster after viewing an attractive face. Seeing something attractive seems to cause happy thinking.

51. A. Instead

B. Therefore

C. Moreover

D. Otherwise

52. A. romantic

B. stressful

C. central

D. artificial

53. A. priority

B. proof

C. possibility

D. principle

54. A. tested

B. impressed

C. changed

D. created

55. A. appearances B. virtues

C. similarities D. passions

56. A. illustrations

B. implications C. ingredients D. intentions

57. A. predict

B. investigate C. diagnose

D. recall

58. A. critical

B. initial

C. random

D. mature

59. A. memorize

B. distinguish C. negotiate

D. question

60. A. Nose

B. Eye

C. Heart

D. Hand

61. A. open

B. alert

C. resistant

D. superior

62. A. disappointed B. amazed

C. confused

D. gifted

63. A. emotion

B. attractiveness C. individuality D. signals

64. A. enhance

B. possess

C. maintain

D. assess

65. A. familiar

B. plain


C. positive

D. irritating

2014 高考题说明文

Cultural differences occur wherever you go. When visiting another country, you should be aware of those

differences and 28______ them. Here are some 29______ on how to fit in.

Every traveler to a foreign country feels 30_____ at some point. What you do can make locals laugh. Your best

defense is a sense of 31_____. If you can laugh off eating with the wrong hand in India, locals will warm to you as

“that crazy foreigner.”

Wearing proper cloths is important too, 32_____ locals will judge by what you wear. In some Middle Eastern

countries, exposing your flesh is 33______, especially if you are a woman. So leave your torn jeans at home.

Also be cautious about expressing 34______. Getting angry in Southeast Asia just makes you look silly. In

some countries it is 35______ to kiss in public.

1. A. reject

B. recite

C. respect

D. remove

2. A. plans

B. tips

C. arguments

D. choices

3. A. unsafe

B. excited

C. satisfied

D. awkward

4. A. relief

B. belonging

C. humor

D. direction

5. A. but

B. for

C. so

D. or

6. A. forbidden

B. allowed

C. expected

D. tolerated

7. A. emotions

B. concern

C. interest

D. views

8. A. natural

B. advisable

C. unwise

D. unnecessary