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新世纪高等院校英语专业综合教程第四册(修订版)Unit5


Unit 5
THE TAPESTRY OF FRIENDSHIP

Audiovisual supplement

Cultural information

Watch the movie clip and have a discussion about friends and friendship. 1. What do you think makes a good friend? A good friend is one who is loyal, considerate and honest … 2. What can a friend give? A friend can give help, pleasure, company …

Audiovisual supplement

Cultural information

Audiovisual supplement

Cultural information

Little Vivi:

[pouring something from a jar into a glass] This is the blood of our people, the wolf people, the alligator people, and the moon women from which we gain our strength to rule all worlds. [Hands glass to Little Teensy. Little Teensy shakes head no.] Its ok. It’s just chocolate. Little Vivi: [Teensy drinks.] Teensy Melissa Whitman: I declare you, Little Vivi: Princess-Naked-As-A-Jaybird. [whispers] Hot Cha Cha! Little Teensy:[turns to Little Caro] Caro Eliza Bennett: I Little Vivi: declare you, Duchess Soaring Hawk.

[turns to Little Necie] Little Vivi: Necie Rose Kelleher: I declare you, Countess Singing Cloud. And I: Viviane Joan Abbott, am hereby and forever Queen Dancing Creek. [pulls a knife out of a shield] Little Necie: Now, wait just one second ... I don’t think we should be cutting ourselves with that knife ... Little Vivi: Silence! [nicks her hands with knife and passes it down to Little Teensy] Little Vivi: We are the flames of fires, the whirling of the winds. We are the waters of the rains and the rivers and the oceans. We are the rocks and the stones. And now, by the power invested in

me, I declare we are the mighty Ya-ya priestesses. Let no men put us under. Now our blood flows through each other as it’s done for all eternity. Loyal forever. Raise our voices in the words of Mumbo Gumbo … YA-YA! All little Ya-Yas: YA-YA!
Little Vivi:

Audiovisual supplement

Cultural information

Friendship English Quotes about Friendship: -Tell me what company thou keepst, and I’ll tell thee what thou art. - Miguel de Cervantes, Spanish novelist -My friends are my estate. - Emily Dickinson, American Poet -My best friend is the one who brings out the best in me. - Henry Ford, American Industrialist -The only reward of virtue is virtue; the only way to have a friend is to be one. - Ralph Waldo Emerson, American Essayist

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-True happiness consists not in the multitude of friends, but in their worth and choice. -Samuel Johnston, American Statesman -Friendship makes prosperity more shining and lessens adversity by dividing and sharing it. -Cicero, Roman author, orator and politician -Be courteous to all, but intimate with few, and let those few be well tried before you give them your confidence. True friendship is a plant of slow growth, and must undergo and withstand the shocks of adversity before it is entitled to the appellation. - George Washington, First president of the U.S

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-The holy passion of Friendship is of so sweet and steady and loyal and enduring a nature that it will last through a whole lifetime, if not asked to lend money. -Mark Twain, American humorist, novelist, short story author

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Chinese Sayings about Friendship:
-近朱者赤,近墨者黑。 -Keep good men company and you shall be of the number. -亲兄弟,明算账。 -Even reckoning makes long friends. -物以类聚,人以群分。 -Birds of a feather flock together. -君子之交淡如水。 -A hedge between keeps friendship green. -海内存知己,天涯若比邻。 -A bosom friend afar brings a distant land near. -有朋自远方来,不亦乐乎! -Isn’t it great when friends visit from distant places?

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Cultural information

Gender Patterns in Friendship Women’s Friendship Female friendships are often seen as having elements of intimacy and support. Women typically describe their friendships in terms of closeness and emotional attachment. What characterizes friendships between women is the willingness to share important feelings, thoughts, experiences, and support. Women devote a good deal of time and intensity of involvement to friends. Friendships between women, more so than between men, are broad and less likely to be divided.

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Cultural information

Men’s Friendships Unlike women, men are typically socialized by society to be less social and have more difficulty with friendships; they are often raised to compete with other men and not cooperate with them, to hide their vulnerabilities and not share their inner experiences. However, like women, men can benefit from the social bonds of friendship. The great friendships recorded in history have been between men, and friendships among men have often been romanticized and idealized. Men’s friendships have typically been described in terms of bravery and physical sacrifice in providing assistance to others. Despite this historical romanticization of the

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Cultural information

male friendship, researchers have found that men have significantly fewer friends than women, especially close friendships or best friends.

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Cultural information

Friendship between Men and Women There is much debate about the possibilities of male and female friendships. Much of this debate has had to do with the idea that sexual attraction will prevent men and women from forming a strong platonic bond. There can be many challenges to female-male friendships. For instance, in a society where men have typically had more power and dominance, equality can be an issue. Both genders may benefit from these interactions: Men may learn more about sharing and establishing emotional support, while women might enjoy interactions that are less emotionally challenging.

General analysis

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In the text, the author discusses the differences between a buddy and a friend in a forceful way. The main idea of the text can be summarized in one sentence: a buddy is a fine life companion while a friend is that part the race with which you can be human.

General analysis

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This text distinguishes two kinds of friendship: that between men and that between women. It can be divided into four parts. Part I

(Paragraphs 1 — 2): the prelude, where the author reveals what kind of film the woman had just seen.

Part II (Paragraphs 3 — 6): the introduction, where the author advances the double standard of friendship on the basis of the personally observed shift of focus of the cinema lens.

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Part III (Paragraphs 7 — 18 ): the body, where the distinctions of the two types of friendship are detailed. Part IV (Paragraphs 19 ): the conclusion, which summarizes the fundamental difference between male companionship and female friendship.

General analysis

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To show the differences between buddiness and friendship effectively, the author of the text coordinates sentences in various ways. Sometimes he uses conjunctions such as but, yet and while. And sometimes he simply puts two clauses together without using any conjunction at all. For examples: Well, she thought, on the whole, men had buddies, while women had friends. Buddies bonded, but friends loved. Buddies faced adversity together, but friends faced each other. There was something palpably different in the way they spent their time. Buddies seemed to “do” things

General analysis

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together; friends simply “were” together. (paragraph 8) Buddies hang tough together; friends hang onto each other. (paragraph 11) Practice: Please find more examples of coordinating sentences without using any conjunction.

Detailed reading

THE TAPESTRY OF FRIENDSHIP Ellen Goodman 1 It was, in many ways, a slight movie. Nothing actually happened. There was no big-budget chase scene, no bloody shoot-out. The story ended without any cosmic conclusions. 2 Yet she found Claudia Weill’s film Girlfriends gentle and affecting. Slowly, it panned across the tapestry of friendship - showing its fragility, its resiliency, its role as the connecting tissue between the lives of two young women.

Detailed reading

3 When it was over, she thought about the movies she had seen this year - Julia,The Turning Point and now Girlfriends. It seemed that the peculiar eye, the social lens of the cinema, had drastically shifted its focus. Suddenly the Male Buddy movies had been replaced by the Female Friendship flicks. 4 This wasn’t just another binge of trendiness, but a kind of cinema vérité. For once the movies were reflecting a shift, not just from men to women but from one definition of friendship to another.

Detailed reading

5 Across millions of miles of celluloid, the ideal of friendship had always been male — a world of sidekicks and “partners” of Butch Cassidys and Sundance Kids. There had been something almost atavistic about these visions of attachments — as if producers culled their plots from some pop anthropology book on male bonding. Movies portrayed the idea that only men, those direct descendants of hunters and Hemingways, inherited a primal capacity for friendship. In contrast, they portrayed women picking on each other, the way they once picked berries.

Detailed reading

6 Well, that duality must have been mortally wounded in some shootout at the You’re OK, I’m OK Corral. Now, on the screen, they were at least aware of the subtle distinction between men and women as buddies and friends. 7 About 150 years ago, Coleridge had written, “A woman’s friendship borders more closely on love than a man’s. Men affect each other in the reflection of noble or friendly acts, whilst women ask fewer proofs and more signs and expressions of attachment.”

Detailed reading

8 Well, she thought, on the whole, men had buddies, while women had friends. Buddies bonded, but friends loved. Buddies faced adversity together, but friends faced each other. There was something palpably different in the way they spent their time. Buddies seemed to “do” things together; friends simply “were” together. 9 Buddies came linked, like accessories, to one activity or another. People have golf buddies and business buddies, college buddies and club buddies. Men often keep their buddies in these categories, while women keep a special category for friends.

Detailed reading

10 A man once told her that men weren’t real buddies until they had been “through the wars” together - corporate or athletic or military. They had to soldier together, he said. Women, on the other hand, didn’t count themselves as friends until they had shared three loathsome confidences. 11 Buddies hang tough together; friends hang onto each other. 12 It probably had something to do with pride. You don’t show off to a friend; you show need. Buddies try to keep the worst from each other; friends confess it.

Detailed reading

13 A friend of hers once telephoned her lover, just to find out if he was home. She hung up without a hello when he picked up the phone. Later, wretched with embarrassment, the friend moaned, “Can you believe me? A thirty-five-yearold lawyer, making a chicken call?” Together they laughed and made it better. 14 Buddies seek approval. But friends seek acceptance. 15 She knew so many men who had been trained in restraint, afraid of each other’s judgment or awkward with each other’s affection. She wasn’t sure which. Like buddies in the movies, they would die for each other, but never hug each other.

Detailed reading

16 She had reread Babbitt recently, that extraordinary catalogue of male grievances. The only relationship that gave meaning to the claustrophobic life of George Babbitt had been with Paul Riesling. But not once in the tragedy of their lives had one been able to say to the other: You make a difference. 17 Even now men shocked her at times with their description of friendship. Does this one have a best friend? “Why, of course, we see each other every February.” Does that one call his most intimate pal long distance? “Why, certainly, whenever there’s a real reason.”

Detailed reading

Do those two old chums ever have dinner together? “You mean alone? Without our wives?” 18 Yet, things were changing. The ideal of intimacy wasn’t this parallel playmate, this teammate, this trenchmate. Not even in Hollywood. In the double standard of friendship, for once the female version was becoming accepted as the general ideal. 19 After all, a buddy is a fine life-companion. But one’s friends, as Santayana once wrote, “are that part of the race with which one can be human.”

Detailed reading

What kind of movie did the woman see? What did she think of it? (paragraphs 1-2) It was a movie that portrayed all aspects of the friendship between two women: its fragility, its resiliency and its connecting function. It was quite an ordinary film, without thrilling scenes like a long-time car chase or a fierce gunfight. The end was of no great significance either. The movie was gentle and moving to the woman, because, as the following paragraphs show, with the other two movies it brought about a new definition of friendship that stood against the traditional view of friendship.

Detailed reading

What led the woman to think that the cinema has drastically shifted its focus? (paragraph 3) It was the fact that at present there were many more movies about Female Friendship than movies about Male Buddiness. In contrast, in the past, the friendship between men had dominated the movies, giving a false impression that only men were capable of making friends. What was the shift? (paragraph 4) On the surface, it was a shift from the friendship between men to that between women; but in nature the shift highlighted a different type of friendship: Male Buddiness is subtly distinct from Female Friendship.

Detailed reading

What is the fundamental difference between buddies and friends? (paragraphs 7-18) Buddies are men’s companions; they are connected by common activities. Friends, in the narrow sense in the text, are women’s companions; they are associated by emotional attachment. Without shared activities, there would be no buddies for men; without love there would be no true friends for women.

Detailed reading

What are the conditions of men becoming buddies and of women becoming friends? (paragraphs 7-18)

Men become buddies only when they have weathered storms in commercial or athletic or military “wars” together, while women have to exchange at least three loathsome secrets before they consider themselves as friends.

Detailed reading

slight: a. of no importance or consideration; trifling e.g. There was a slight increase in her weight after the winter holidays. 寒假结束后,她好像有点儿发胖。 Translation: 他是个高个子德国人,讲一口漂亮的英语,只带一丁点 口音。 He was a tall German who spoke perfect English with ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ only a slight trace of accent.

Detailed reading

cosmic: a. (1) very great e.g. This earthquake was a disaster of cosmic scale. (2) relating to the universe or cosmos e.g. The other great cosmic reality is time. Some people believe that what happens in their lives is influenced by cosmic forces.

Detailed reading

shift one’s focus (onto/to): move one’s attention from one thing to another e.g. It was not until the last year that we began to shift our focus onto the drive for modernization. That is why I insisted that the focus of our work should be rapidly shifted to the economic development.

Detailed reading

flick: (slang) n. a movie Symonyms: movie, film, motion picture, moving picture, picture, picture show, show

Detailed reading

Americans are suckers for action flicks that are famous for senseless explosions, car chases, bar brawls and shoot-outs. What kind of movies are they? Please translate the following into English. 言情片 romance/love story 动作片 恐怖片 惊悚片 动画片 悬疑片 贺岁片 action film horror film thriller

cartoon/animation
mystery New Year greetings pictures / New Year blockbuster

Detailed reading

binge: n. a period of unrestrained, immoderate self-indulgence, esp. in food and drink e.g. When she was depressed, she went on an ice-cream binge. During Christmas, Canadians spent a whopping $40.3 billion as they went on a spending binge.

Detailed reading

sidekick: (slang) n. a close companion or comrade

e.g. He is Sam’s sidekick, to my knowledge. Mark has been Luke’s sidekick since junior high school.

Detailed reading

cull: v. choose from various sources e.g. Here are a few facts and figures I’ve culled from a lifetime of experience. It’s a collection of fascinating stories culled from a lifetime of experience.

Detailed reading

inherit: v. (1) receive or take over from a predecessor e.g. William inherited a fortune but ran it through in no time. My brother inherited the lion’s share of our father’s money. The new administration inherited the economic problems of the last four years. (2) be born with e.g. Rosie inherited her red hair from her mother.

Detailed reading

pick on: (1) (Informal) criticize or blame; tease; harass

e.g. His older brother always picked on him. The older children liked to pick on the younger ones.
(2) single out; choose e.g. The professor always picks on me to translate long passages. He always picks on small points to criticize.

Detailed reading

border on: come near or verge on, resemble, come nearer in quality, or character
e.g. His rigid translation of this literary work borders on literalness. Some of his statements are so incorrect that they border on fraudulence.

Detailed reading

adversity: n. difficulties; misfortune e.g. Adversity is a good discipline. 逆境是最好的磨练。 Translation: Prosperity makes friends and adversity tries them. 富贵交友易,患难显真情。 ____________________________________________________________ In times of prosperity, we have to be prepared for adversity.

顺境时,我们要居安思危。 ____________________________________________________________

Detailed reading

count: v. consider or be considered as e.g. I count myself fortunate to have had such a good education. I think we can count this meeting a great success. I hope you won’t count it against me if I don’t come to your birthday party.

Detailed reading

chicken: n. (1) (Informal) a young or inexperienced person, esp. a young girl
e.g. Well, she’s certainly no spring chicken. (2) (Slang) a cowardly or fearful person e.g. “Don’t be scared, Chickens!” came her voice with teasing gaiety. chicken out (Slang) refrain from doing sth. because of fear or cowardice e.g. I chickened out when I saw how deep the water was.

Detailed reading

What kind of person are they ? ① He has been said to be the black sheep of the family ever since he quit school three years ago. ( 害群之马; 败家子) ② After graduation he has become very successful and he has turned into a real fat cat. ( 暴发户) ③ My neighbor is such an old crab. Whenever I turn on my radio or television set, he knocks on my door and angrily orders me to stop. ( 脾气暴躁的人 ) ④ In the city I was nothing, but there in the countryside I was considered a big fish. ( 重要人物 ) ⑤ The lions at her party included two famous authors and a musician. ( 社交场合的显贵;名流 )

Detailed reading

It was, in many ways, a slight movie. Nothing actually happened. There was no big-budget chase scene, no bloody shoot-out. The story ended without any cosmic conclusions.

Paraphrase: In many aspects it was a simple, ordinary movie. It was quite an ordinary scene, without the spectacle of cars chasing each other and bloodshed gunfight. The end was of no great significance.

Detailed reading

This wasn’t just another binge of trendiness, but a kind of cinema verité.
Paraphrase: This was not simply a shift from one fashion to another, but a truthful description of friendship.

Detailed reading

A woman’s friendship borders more closely on love than man’s.
Paraphrase: The friendship between women resembles more to love than that between men.

Detailed reading

A man once told her that men weren’t real buddies until they had been “through the wars” together — corporate or athletic or military. Paraphrase: … men wouldn’t become real friends unless they had experienced trying moments together, like being business partners, sports pals or comrades-in-arms.

Detailed reading

The only relationship that gave meaning to the claustrophobic life of George Babbitt had been with Paul Riesling. Paraphrase: What made the confined and fearful life of George Babbitt meaningful had been his relationship with Paul Riesling; without his relationship with Paul Riesling, George Babbitt would have found his life meaningless.

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Synonym / Antonym

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1) fragile a. → fragility n. e.g. 这个花瓶易碎,拿的时候小心一点儿。 This vase is fragile, please handle it with care. 她柔弱的外表下隐藏着坚强的意志。 She has a strong will hidden within her fragile body. 很多发言人警告说世界秩序很脆弱。 Many of the speakers warned of the fragility of the world order.

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2) drastic a. → drastically ad.

e.g. 法国大革命导致剧烈的社会变革。
The French Revolution has brought drastic social changes. 政府警告要采取严厉措施。 The government is threatening to take drastic action. 随着一场大雪的降临,气温急剧下降。 With a heavy snow, the temperature dropped drastically.

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3) replace v. → replacement n. e.g. 课堂上的电脑永远不会取代老师。 Teachers will never be replaced by computers in the classroom. 我们需要一个人来接替离职的秘书。

We need a replacement for the secretary who left.

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4) athlete n. → athletic a. e.g. 我听说他当运动员时获过许多奖项。 I heard that he won a lot of prizes when he was an athlete.

很多女孩儿都喜欢美国小伙子,就是因为他们体格健壮。
A lot of girls like American guys, simply because they are athletic.

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5) portray v. → portrait n. e.g.也许正是这个原因,漫画家们才没有想好该怎样来刻画他。 Perhaps it was for this reason that cartoonists did not work out how they would portray him. 书桌上方挂着一幅总统的肖像,很可能是在他三十来岁时 画的。 Over the desk was a portrait of the President, probably painted in his thirties.

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6) inherit v. → inheritance n. e.g. 他打算让他的儿子继承他的生意。 He intended that his son should inherit the business. 这一头衔按世袭传给长子。 The title passes by inheritance to the eldest son.

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7) confident a. → confidence n. e.g. 他看起来沉着而又自信,我肯定他能得到那个工作。
He seemed cool and confident. I’m sure he is going to obtain the job.

没有通过这次考试,他彻底失去了信心。
After he failed the exam, his confidence was totally destroyed.

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8) embarrass v. → embarrassing a. → embarrassment n. e.g. 记者询问他的私生活使他感到很尴尬。 The reporter’s questions about his private life embarrassed him. 夜里在走廊上遇见陌生男人使她感到很不好意思。 It was embarrassing to her to meet strange men in the corridor at night. 这段小插曲令所有相关人员都感到非常尴尬。 The episode was a huge embarrassment for all concerned.

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1. At the critical moment of presidential election, the candidate urged his supporters to hang together . _______________ 2. Stop ___________ each other like that. At this picking on moment, what we should do is to find a way to get out of this total mess. 3. He actually enjoys his newly-bought Jaguar and has decided to start showing it off . _________ ____

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make a 4. It is sad to see him go because it really will ________ to the way we conduct our daily affairs. difference ___________ 5. An invitation to have dinner together is usually treated as a means of achieving intimacy with another __________ person in eastern culture.

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1. hang together: stand united; stick together e.g. 他们必须团结一致,否则肯定会失败。 They had to hang together or they would surely fail. 只要我们团结一致,我们就可以度过任何危机。 We can come through any crisis if we hang together.

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2. pick on: a. single out for criticism, teasing or bully b. choose or select e.g. 她是唯一一个没有指责他的人。

She was the only person that didn’t pick on him. 我知道得有人再去捡些木柴,但为什么挑上了我?
I know somebody has to go and fetch some more logs, but why pick on me?

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3. show off: display or behave in an ostentatious or conspicuous way e.g. 他喜欢在姑娘们面前炫耀他的男子汉体格。 He likes to show off his masculine physique in front of girls. 麦克驾车来到酒馆,只是为了向大家炫耀他的那辆 新车,他平时总是步行来的! Mike has only driven to the pub to show off his new car - he usually walks!

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4. make a/no/great difference (to): have an effect (on) e.g. 这将改变大气的化学成分。 This would make a difference to the chemistry of the atmosphere. 没有必要那样添油加醋,那不会有任何分别。 There’s no need to color it up like that; it won’t make a difference.

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5. intimacy: the state of having a close personal relationship with sb. e.g. 遥远的距离会使朋友间不再那么亲密。 Long distances between friends discourage intimacy. 围墙的消失创造了一种不可思议的亲密关系,在其 中没人知道什么是隐私。 The absence of fences created a mysterious intimacy in which no one knew privacy.

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1. It seemed that the peculiar eye, the social lens of the cinema, had drastically shifted its focus. Synonym: alter, transfer, change 2. For once the movies were reflecting a shift, not just from men to women but from one definition of friendship to another. Synonym: show, indicate, manifest, exhibit

3. Now on the screen, they were at least aware of the subtle distinction between men and women as buddies and friends.
Synonyms: delicate, slight, nice, fine

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4. Buddies faced adversity together, but friends faced each other. Antonym: prosperity, success 5. Women, on the other hand, didn’t count themselves as friends until they had shared … Synonym: consider, regard, deem, judge 6. She knew so many men who had been trained in restraint, afraid of each other’s judgment or awkward with each other’s affection. Synonyms: embarrassed, uneasy, uncomfortable

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7. Like buddies in the movies, they would die for each other, but never hug each other. Synonyms: embrace, hold, cuddle 8. She had reread Babbitt recently, that extraordinary catalogue of male grievances.

Synonym: astonishing, amazing

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Ellipsis

Rather vs. fairly
Direct & indirect speech

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Ellipsis occurs when part of the sentence is omitted, but the omission is clearly understood. It is a grammatical technique that avoids repetition and clumsiness. In a compound sentence, it works in the following way: a. ellipsis of the subject (only in imperatives and some idiomatic expressions) e.g. Thank you for your help. See you tomorrow. b. ellipsis of the predicate or part of the predicate e.g. His face is tanned and his hands (are) big and strong. Gold is more expensive than silver (is).

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e.g. I would like to help build the scout hut, but I can’t (help you build the scout hut). c. ellipsis in a clause ending with why, how, where or what e.g. He mocks his teachers without knowing why (he mocks his teachers).

Many countries intend to fight crime, but they don’t know how (to fight it). I’m sure we’ll find your friend, but God only knows where (we will find her).

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Practice: Choose the best answer from the four choices given. ① If ______ , we’ll continue our experiment after office D hours. A. being necessary B. be necessary C. is necessary D. necessary ② -Do you think it’s going to rain over the weekend? - ______ . D A. I don’t believe B. I don’t believe it C. I believe not so D. I believe not

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③ Generally speaking, ______ according to directions, the B drug has no side effect. A. when taking B. when taken C. when to take D. when to be taken

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Both strengthen or weaken the adjective or adverb that follows. Fairly is used before “positive” adjectives; while rather is used before “negative” adjectives. e.g. The book is fairly interesting but the film is rather boring.
However, you can use both fairly and rather before “neutral” adjectives, but the meaning is different: e.g. The tea is fairly/rather hot.

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When you say: “The tea is fairly hot,” you imply that you like to drink hot tea. So hot is “positive” for you. When you say: “The tea is rather hot,” you imply that you don’t like hot tea, or that the tea is too hot for you to drink. So hot is “negative” for you. To make things more complicated, rather can also be used before “positive” adjectives: e.g. Fiona is rather clever. Paul is rather tall. “Fiona is rather clever” means almost the same as “Fiona is very clever”. “Rather clever” is much more of a compliment than “fairly clever”.

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Practice: Fill in the blanks with rather or fairly. ① The sofa looks ________ shabby in the room. rather fairly ② The suitcase is ________ light. I think I can carry it. ③ It’s _______cold outside. Put on your overcoat. rather fairly ④ It’s ________ warm today. Let’s go for a walk along the river.

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Direct speech is quoted speech that is presented without modification, as it might have been uttered by the original speaker. e.g. “Today’s lesson is on presentations,” she said. Indirect speech (sometimes called reported speech), doesn’t use quotation marks to enclose what the person said and it doesn’t have to be word for word. In reported speech, changes should be made accordingly in the sentence structure, tense, adverbials of time and place, word order and others.

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Direct speech Personal pronouns Adverbials first person second person this/these now today yesterday tomorrow this week (month, etc.) last week (month, year, etc.) next week (month, etc.) here

Indirect speech third person first/third person that/those then that day the day before the next/following day that week (month, etc.) the week (month, etc.) before the next/following week (month, etc.) there

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Tense

simple present simple past present perfect past perfect present continuous future

simple past past perfect past perfect past perfect past continuous future in the past that clause if/whether + statement order wh-words + statement order ask/tell sb. (not) to do sth.

Sentence declarative Structure general interrogative special interrogative imperative

Others

bring come borrow

take go lend

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Consolidation Play a game The game is called “Tell me what he/she said.” A student tells a sentence to the second one. The listener tells the next one what he/she said. The last one writes down the sentence.

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Translate the following sentences into English. 1. 你的话的确有理,但你的表达方式近于粗暴。(border on) border on: come near or verge on, resemble Your remarks do make sense, but the way of expression borders on rudeness.

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Practice: 他是本地队的球迷,狂热到了近乎盲目崇拜的地步了。 He supported his local team with a fervour that borders on idolatry.
他的某些说法很不真实,几乎可以算作欺诈了。 Some of his statements are so incorrect that they border on fraudulence.

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2. 总的来说,我对这项实验是相当满意的。(on the whole)

on the whole: considering everything On the whole I am quite satisfied with the experiment.

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Practice: 总体上看,房屋和土地价格在涨而非降。 House and land prices tend on the whole to go up rather than down.
总的来说,我们的财政体系是比较集中化的。 On the whole, our financial system is comparatively centralized.

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3.公众关注的中心再次转移到了城市环境的变化问题。 (shift focus)

shift focus: give special attention, effort, etc. to sth. else Public interest has once again shifted its focus to the changes in the urban environment.

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Practice: 中国政府号召汽车生产商要将重心转移到节能车型上来。 The Chinese government calls on automakers to shift focus on energy-saving designs.

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4. 新型列车可以以500公里左右的时速平稳地行驶,相比之 下,那些旧车显得又慢又笨拙。(in contrast)

in/by contrast is used when you are comparing two things or people and saying that the second one is very different from the first. The new type of trains can run smoothly at the speed of about 500 kilometres per hour; in contrast, the old ones are slow and clumsy.

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Practice: 与前一篇作文相比,我们在这篇作文中没有发现大的语法错误。 In contrast with the previous composition, we found no major grammar mistake in this one.

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Dictation Cloze

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Dictation You will hear a passage read three times. At the first reading, you should listen carefully for its general idea. At the second reading, you are required to write down the exact words you have just heard (with proper punctuation). At the third reading, you should check what you have written down.

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Dictation I once said that a friend is a friend all the way, / but now I believe that’s a narrow point of view. / For the friendships I have and the friendships I see / are conducted at many levels of intensity, / serve many different purposes, / meet different needs / and range from those as all-the-way / as the friendship of the soul sisters mentioned above / to that of the most casual playmates. The best of friends, I believe, / totally love and support and trust each other, / and bare to each other the secrets of their souls, / and run to help each other, / and tell harsh truths to each other / when they must be told.

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But we needn’t agree about everything / to tolerate each other’s point of view. / We need to accept without judgment. / To give and to take without ever keeping score. / And to be there, / as I am for them / and as they are for me, / to comfort our sorrows, / to celebrate our joys.

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Fill in each blank in the passage below with ONE appropriate word.
Just ____ (1) scientists are discovering more ways as that friendship enhances our lives, overstuffed schedules make ___ (2) hard to keep up with our pals. But many it friendships need just a little nurturing to help them flourish. Here are some tips from (3) sociologist Jan Yager, author _____ of Friendshifts and When Friendship Hurts:?

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??Stop feeling guilty that you can’t spend lots of time _____ (4) with old friends, like you did years ago. Acknowledge that your lives have changed, and do whatever you can now ___ (5) maintain the relationship. Use e-mail, instant to messaging and ______ (6) electronic devices to stay in other touch when you have small bits of time. ??Meet for coffee or an early-morning walk before (7) _______ you start your workday. ??Schedule one weeknight a month a regular “Friends up Time Out,” in which you catch ___ (8) with your buddies.

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??Invite a friend to share everyday activities you normally ___ (9) alone, like exercising, doing errands or do going to your kid’s soccer game. ??Try to be there for key events in your friend’s life - weddings, graduations, funerals. Your presence will difference make a ____________(10).

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The two clauses in this compound sentence should be connected by a conjunction. Since the first clause indicates the reason for the second one, and the conjunction comes at the beginning of the sentence, as is the most proper words to fill in here. Just ____ (1) scientists are discovering more ways as that friendship enhances our lives, overstuffed schedules make ___ (2) hard to keep up with our pals. But many it friendships need just a little nurturing to help them flourish. Here are some tips from (3) sociologist Jan Yager, author _____ of Friendshifts and When Friendship Hurts:?

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The real object of the verb make is the phrase to keep up with our pals at the end of the sentence. As the object is longer than the object complement, in order to keep the balance of the sentence, a formal object it is necessary. Just ____ (1) scientists are discovering more ways as that friendship enhances our lives, overstuffed schedules make ___ (2) hard to keep up with our pals. But many it friendships need just a little nurturing to help them flourish. Here are some tips from (3) sociologist Jan Yager, author _____ of Friendshifts and When Friendship Hurts:?

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As the tips are given by the sociologist, the origin of the source is indicated by from. Just ____ (1) scientists are discovering more ways as that friendship enhances our lives, overstuffed schedules make ___ (2) hard to keep up with our pals. But many it friendships need just a little nurturing to help them flourish. Here are some tips from (3) sociologist Jan Yager, author _____ of Friendshifts and When Friendship Hurts:?

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Judging from the context, the sentence means that you may feel guilty that you cannot be with your old friends for some time. Besides, spend some time with sb. is also an idiomatic ??Stop feeling guilty that you can’t spend lots of time _____ expression. (4) with old friends, like you did years ago. Acknowledge that your lives have changed, and do whatever you can now _________(5) maintain the relationship. Use e-mail, instant other messaging and ___ to (6) electronic devices to stay in touch when you have small bits of time. ??Meet for coffee or an early-morning walk before (7) _______ you start your workday. ??Schedule one weeknight a month a regular “Friends up Time Out,” in which you catch ___ (8) with your buddies.

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Maintain the relationship, indicating the purpose of do whatever you can, serves here as an infinitive to complement theguilty maintain. ??Stop feeling verb that you can’t spend lots of time _____ (4) with old friends, like you did years ago. Acknowledge that your lives have changed, and do whatever you can now _________(5) maintain the relationship. Use e-mail, instant other messaging and ___ to (6) electronic devices to stay in touch when you have small bits of time. ??Meet for coffee or an early-morning walk before (7) _______ you start your workday. ??Schedule one weeknight a month a regular “Friends up Time Out,” in which you catch ___ (8) with your buddies.

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As e-mail and instant messaging are both electronic devices for communication, something additional of the type already mentioned is indicated by other. ??Stop feeling guilty that you can’t spend lots of time _____ (4) with old friends, like you did years ago. Acknowledge that your lives have changed, and do whatever you can now _________(5) maintain the relationship. Use e-mail, instant other messaging and ___ to (6) electronic devices to stay in touch when you have small bits of time. ??Meet for coffee or an early-morning walk before (7) _______ you start your workday. ??Schedule one weeknight a month a regular “Friends up Time Out,” in which you catch ___ (8) with your buddies.

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As is mentioned in the passage, coffee or an early-morning walk takes place earlier before the workday starts. ??Stop feeling guilty that you can’t spend lots of time _____ (4) with old friends, like you did years ago. Acknowledge that your lives have changed, and do whatever you can now _________(5) maintain the relationship. Use e-mail, instant other messaging and ___ to (6) electronic devices to stay in touch when you have small bits of time. ??Meet for coffee or an early-morning walk before (7) _______ you start your workday. ??Schedule one weeknight a month a regular “Friends up Time Out,” in which you catch ___ (8) with your buddies.

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To catch up with sb. is an idiomatic expression indicating to find out what someone has been doing since you last met. For example: What are you doing this afternoon? I’m ??Stop feeling guilty that youI can’t spend lots of ages. _____ catching up with my friend as haven’t seen her in time (4) with old friends, like you did years ago. Acknowledge that your lives have changed, and do whatever you can now _________(5) maintain the relationship. Use e-mail, instant other messaging and ___ to (6) electronic devices to stay in touch when you have small bits of time. ??Meet for coffee or an early-morning walk before (7) _______ you start your workday. ??Schedule one weeknight a month a regular “Friends up Time Out,” in which you catch ___ (8) with your buddies.

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In the attributive clause, the predicate is missing, which is also the transitive verb proclaiming activities. As do is a general and informal verb, it is proper to predicate the everyday activities. ??Invite a friend to share everyday activities you normally ___ (9) alone, like exercising, doing errands or do going to your kid’s soccer game. ??Try to be there for key events in your friend’s life - weddings, graduations, funerals. Your presence will difference make a ____________(10).

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The sentence means that it is important that if you are there for the key events in your friends’ life. Make a difference means to have an important effect on something, especially a good effect. For example: This scheme will certainly make a difference to the way I do my job.
??Invite a friend to share everyday activities you normally ___ (9) alone, like exercising, doing errands or do going to your kid’s soccer game. ??Try to be there for key events in your friend’s life - weddings, graduations, funerals. Your presence will difference make a ____________(10).

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Having a dialogue Having a discussion

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Having a dialogue Suppose a friend of yours is suffering a setback in his/her love affair. Have a conversation with him/her, letting him/her tell you what has actually happened between the two of them, and trying to help him/her put the matter in perspective. Structures and patterns: - Are you still seeing …? - How are you going with your girlfriend/boyfriend? - Oh, I’m sorry to hear that. I didn’t know that …? What happened?

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- Did she/he tell you why she/he …? - Don’t be cynical. I don’t think you will have any difficulty in finding another girlfriend/boyfriend. There are plenty of fish in the sea.

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Having a discussion Topic: Is Confucius’ teaching “make no friends inferior to ourselves (无友不如己者)” still constructive in modern society? Would you like to follow it? Have a debate over the issue in two opposing groups. Viewpoints: Group A. Everybody is equal in the modern society. There is no inferior or superior friend in this sense. Group B. Friends who are less capable or less righteous than you may adversely affect your life or career.

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1. Essay writing: An introduction Expository essay/exposition The purpose of an expository essay is to inform, explain, clarify, define or instruct. It requires the student to investigate an idea, evaluate evidence, expound on the idea, and set forth an argument concerning that idea in a clear and concise manner. This can be accomplished through comparison and contrast, definition, example, cause and effect analysis, etc.

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The expository essay is held together by the following structure: a. A clear, concise, and defined thesis statement in the first paragraph of the essay. b. Clear and logical transitions between the introduction, body, and conclusion. c. Body paragraphs that include evidential support whether factual, logical, statistical, or anecdotal. d. A conclusion that does not simply restate the thesis, but readdresses it in light of the evidence provided.

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2.Practice/Task Write an exposition on the topic: what makes a good student? Sample: In most Chinese teachers’ and parents’ eyes, a good student is one who obeys what teachers and parents ask him/her to do and who gets high marks in exams. However, grade results and academic achievement are far from enough to make a good student. Then what distinguishes a student? What makes the student stand out from the rest of the class? As far as I am concerned, the most important traits that make a good college

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student include: attitude, academic skills and awareness. First of all, attitude is primarily a genuine desire to learn, and the willingness to do hard intellectual work to achieve understanding. It is also shown by how well you apply yourself even to subjects in which you have little interest, and how much you can achieve even when a professor’s style isn’t to your liking. In addition, academic skills include ability to read with comprehension, intelligent use of resources (including library resources), logical and mathematical skills, efficient study habits, and the ability to

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communicate clearly and fluently in speaking and writing. Last but not least, be aware of what’s going on in the world around you, and intelligently relate it to your academic courses. For example, when taking a course in political science, you should relate what you are learning in class to what’s happening on the national and world political scene. When taking a science course, you should relate scientific principles to phenomena you observe in everyday life, and go out of your way to find applications and examples of science in the real world.

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All of these add up to a word: ability - a word frequently used above. The goal of education is to achieve the ability to apply one’s knowledge in new, creative and correct ways. A good student is the one with such abilities through dedicated and focused efforts.

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Lead-in questions Text Questions for discussion

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Lead-in questions
1) How do you communicate with your parents?

Key: chatting; writing; doing things together …
2) How would you describe your relationship with your mother/father? Key: intimate; remote; rebellious …

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MY DAUGHTER, MY FRIEND Patricia Lorenz 1 When my daughter Julie was six years old, she wrote a letter to the tooth fairy and put it under her pillow with her tooth. I wrote back, telling her to be a good girl and always brush her teeth carefully. I didn’t know we were starting a tradition. 2 By the time Julie was in the fourth grade, she had figured out that handwritten notes could do more than welcome the tooth fairy. Once, after a heated discussion we’d had about why she couldn’t buy a pair of clogs, Julie wrote the following:

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3 Dear Mom, Here are the reasons I want clogs: (1) You wanted boots for a long time and you finally got them. (2) If clogs hurt my feet, that’s my problem. (3) When grandma gave us money for Christmas she said we could get whatever we wanted with it. love, Julie 4 I gave in — and Julie learned the power of the written word.

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Over the next few years, Julie and I exchanged notes 5 about boys, homework, phone calls and chores. Some notes were apologies after shouting matches. Others were just happy thoughts spilling onto paper. When Julie was in the eighth grade, she responded to a love note of mine: 6 Dear Mom, Your letters make me feel great no matter what kind of mood I’m in. Sometimes they even make me cry because they touch me so deeply. I’m really glad we have the kind of relationship that we do, even though we have our arguments. I guess that’s life with a teenager or with a 39year-old! I love you. Julie

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P. S. Writing my feelings down to you is much easier for me than trying to express them verbally. 7 Julie’s postscripts explained why the note system worked so well for us. She was going through the traumas of adolescence, and I was having some problems of my own. Writing was the most effective way for us to communicate our feelings. 8 One day during the summer before Julie started high school, she left her razor on the tub where her five-yearold brother might have cut himself. After I pointed out her carelessness, I asked Julie what she thought her punishment should be. She stomped off in a huff, but an hour later left a note on the kitchen counter.

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9 I’m sorry for being so thoughtless. For my punishment I will not: (1) go to the mall after school; (2) watch television in the afternoon; (3) snack before dinner. 10 She never left her razor on the tub again. 11 Two months later, on Julie’s first day of high school, we had a fight about whether it was appropriate for her to wear makeup. 12 That evening I received a six-page, handwritten letter from her.

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13

Dear Mom, I’m sorry if I acted snotty this morning, but I really got mad. You didn’t even give me a chance to say anything! If you could at least discuss things with me maybe it would be a little easier for us. Instead of telling how awful my eyes look, you could help me to make them look better. 14 Page three contained all the logic my tormented teen could muster. 15 (1) I think I’m very responsible and can learn to put makeup on in ways that both you and I would like. (2) I don’t cake it on like some of my friends do — I read the directions on the package and advice in magazine articles on how to apply it.

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(3) I’m growing up; I want to add to my looks and bring out my eyes. (4) How about a three-week trial period to test my ability to wear it? 16 Needless to say, my daughter wore makeup — discreetly — from then on. Her whole face seemed to light up. 17 Not long after that, my husband and I separated. The next few months were chaotic. Besides trying to provide stability to my four children, I had to budget our funds and work longer hours. As my raw emotions caused my mothering skills to dwindle, Julie came to the rescue with a note.

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18

Dear Mom, I know you’re going through a hard time and I wish I could make all your problems disappear. Unfortunately, I can only tell you how much I love you. We’re all upset about the divorce, but you’re still a great, helpful and loving mom. Love, Julie 19 There were quite a few times that year when I took my frustrations out on the children. After one particularly nasty tirade, Julie dropped this message in my purse for me to read at work:

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20

Dear Mom, I know things are difficult for you right now, and we all understand. I think you should go out more often to distract yourself. We are all growing up and have our own interests and friends. We’ll always be your kids and you won’t lose us. I love you! Julie 21 A few weeks before her 18th birthday I asked Julie what she wanted. “I’m working on it,” she said. 22 I should have known that Julie was writing me the letter of her life. Here’s what some of it said: 23 Soon I will be living on my own at college. I feel I have matured by following your rules with very few exceptions.

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For my 18th birthday I would like to be treated and respected as a mature and responsible person. I’d like: (1) a later curfew or none at all; (2) permission to make and receive telephone calls after 10 p.m.; (3) the freedom to make my own decisions; (4) to be thought of as a close friend. 24 Now it was my turn to respond. I sat writing late into the night. 25 Dearest Julie, Adulthood isn’t a sudden jolt of freedom to do whatever you want. It is simply being responsible. If you believe you can behave like an adult, I will treat you as one.

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26 I next addressed her birthday proposition list, asking her to be considerate about curfews and phone calls. I agreed that she should make decisions and said I would offer advice only when requested. 27 I ended with this: 28 Julie, I wish you a bright future filled with love and solid decisions based on solid values. I hope you continue to develop the many talents God has given you. Happy birthday, my friend! Mom 29 My daughter left home for college a few years ago. I’ve missed her tremendously, but our tradition had pulled us through again. Her letters from college have been wonderful!

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bring out my eyes (Paragraph 15) ― make my eyes easily visible

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I had to budget our funds …(Paragraph 17) ― I had to make a plan of how to spend our income sparingly.

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... but our tradition had pulled us through again. (Paragraph 29) ― ... but our written communication had helped us survive our tremendous yearnings for each other.

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the tooth fairy (Paragraph 1) - a fairy that children are told will collect their baby teeth when they have fallen out. Children place a tooth that has fallen out under their pillow and the fairy is said to take it and replace it with money once they have fallen asleep.

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clogs (Paragraph 2) - a type of shoes made completely of wood

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shouting matches (Paragraph 5) - quarrels

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spilling (Paragraph 5) - coming out in a sudden flow

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the traumas of adolescence (Paragraph 7) - the unpleasant experiences of an adolescent

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stomped off (Paragraph 8) - walked away with intentionally heavy steps

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discreetly (Paragraph 16) - carefully

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distract yourself (Paragraph 20) - take your attention away for a short period

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curfew (Paragraph 23) - a rule that everyone must stay at home between particular times, usu. at night, esp. during a war or political trouble

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1. Why did the mother and the daughter choose letterwriting as their form of communication? Because both the mother and the daughter found it a very effective way to express their feelings to each other. Through note-writing, the daughter told her mother how she felt and what growing pains she had experienced as an adolescent and the mother told her daughter how she felt as a middle-aged woman. We can say that frequent exchange of feelings helped to bring them closer to each other.

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2. Have you ever communicated with your parents by writing? If yes, under what circumstance did it happen? Open-ended.

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3. What is the advantage of this form of communication? Open-ended. Some hints: (1) It can avoid possible embarrassment in face-to-face communication. (2) It can avoid potential conflicts in face-to-face communication. (3) It is an easier way to express one’s feelings than verbal communication. (4) It makes your communication reasonable and orderly, thus mightier than verbal communication. (5) It is an efficient way of communication, thus saving time.

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1. What is a friend? A single soul dwelling in two bodies. — Aristotle 2. In prosperity our friends know us; in adversity we know our friends. — Churton Collins

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Aristotle (384-322 B.C.), Greek philosopher and scientist whose thought determined the course of Western intellectual history for two millennia. He is a towering figure in ancient Greek philosophy, making contributions to logic, metaphysics, mathematics, physics, biology, botany, ethics, politics, agriculture, medicine, dance and theatre.

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John Churton Collins (1848-1908) was a distinguished literary critic of the late 19th and early 20th century. His first book was a study of Sir Joshua Reynolds (1874), and later he edited various classical English writers, and published volumes on Bolingbroke and Voltaire in England (1886), a Study of English Literature (1891), a study of Dean Swift (1893), Essays and Studies (1895), Ephemera Critica (1901), Essays in Poetry and Criticism (1905), and Rousseau and Voltaire (1908), his original essays being sharply controversial in tone, but full of knowledge.

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Debate Between men and women there is no friendship possible. There is passion, enmity, worship, love, but no friendship. - Oscar Wilde, Irish Poet, Novelist, Dramatist and Critic

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Topic: The pure friendship between men and women does exist.
For: Friendship attraction, devoid of sexual attraction, is a type of bond that men and women can experience. Against: A platonic bond will always be compromised by sexual chemistry.

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Notation (type here)


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