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美国老爹--Earnest Hemingway 海_图文

美国老爹--Earnest Hemingway 海 明威
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No one was as influential to 20th century American literature as Ernest Hemingway 海明威. He not only became a literary icon in America but also was highly regarded in many foreign countries. His style is unique, and it is crucial to read his works in English because translations of his works lose all their essence. Let us take a look at the life of this true giant in American literature. From an internet source :

life
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Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961), born in Oak Park, Illinois, started his career as a writer in a newspaper office in Kansas City at the age of seventeen. After the United States entered the First World War, he joined a volunteer ambulance unit in the Italian army. Serving at the front, he was wounded, was decorated by the Italian Government, and spent considerable time in hospitals. He had 12 operations,and the doctor got out 237shrapnels from his bodyAfter his return to the United States, he became a reporter for Canadian and American newspapers and was soon sent back to Europe to cover such events as the Greek Revolution.

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During the twenties, Hemingway became a member of the group of expatriate Americans in Paris, which he described in his first important work, The Sun Also Rises (1926). Equally successful was A Farewell to Arms (1929), the study of an American ambulance officer's disillusionment in the war and his role as a deserter. Hemingway used his experiences as a reporter during the civil war in Spain as the background for his most ambitious novel, For Whom the Bell Tolls (1940). He fought in World War II and then settled in Cuba in 1945. In 1954, Hemingway was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature. After his expulsion from Cuba by the Castro regime, he moved to Idaho. He was increasingly plagued by ill health and mental problems, and in July, 1961, he committed suicide by shooting himself. Among his later works, the most outstanding is the short novel, The Old Man and the Sea (1952), the story of an old fisherman's journey, his long and lonely struggle with a fish and the sea, and his victory in defeat.

Personal interests
Boxing ? Hunting ? Fishing ? Bull-fight ? Alcohol ? Women
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Hemingway - himself a great sportsman liked to portray soldiers, hunters, bullfighters - tough, at times primitive people whose courage and honesty are set against the brutal ways of modern society, and who in this confrontation lose hope and faith. His straightforward prose, his spare dialogue, and his predilection for understatement are particularly effective in his short stories, some of which are collected in Men Without Women (1927) and The Fifth Column and the First Forty-Nine Stories (1938).

Love—Permanent Motivation for Hemingway's Creation
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Ernest Hemingway is one of the world's best known authors to date. Aside from being known for his many novels, stories and newspaper columns, Hemingway was known in a more infamous way. Hemingway became known for his many love affairs. Between the years of 1920 and 1961, Hemingway had been married four times to four different women and had many different affairs. Hemingway developed a lack of staying power. There were a number of different women in Ernest Hemingway’s life, all quite different. With such an enormously complex man, it is no wonder that he had multiple marriages and relationships

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Elizabeth Hadley Richardson Pauline Pfeiffer Martha Gelhorn Mary Welsh

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社会上,海明威是一位富有使命感的大作家。可是在家庭,却是一位不负 责任的丈夫。1918年他在米兰医院,与护士艾格尼丝一见钟情,信誓旦旦, 可是一转眼那女人便投入别人怀抱。为此海明威一直耿耿于怀。难以弥补 心里的创伤,导致他后来婚姻中,总是吃着锅里,看着碗里,以防妻子不 忠时陷于寂寞和痛苦。 1921年海明威与音乐家哈德莉结婚,生下一子。4年后与女记者波林拍拖, 1927年第二次结婚。波林貌不惊人,善良温柔,自己花8000美元买下这幢 别墅,供海明威写作。在这里生下两个儿子,都是剖腹产。可是难以拴住 海明威心猿意马,先后勾引了两个女人。波林一忍再忍,才是他们的婚姻 维持了14年。1941年终于忍无可忍,办了离婚手续,判决书上写明男方遗 弃女方,每月付给两个儿子500美元抚养费。1944年,海明威与女作家玛莎 结婚,战争中匆匆分手。1946年与女记者玛丽结婚,还是放荡不羁,到处 寻花问柳,垂涎一个个贵妇人和名演员。后来病魔缠身,高血压、糖尿病、 皮肤癌,精神抑郁症,健康每况愈下,再没有精力投入一生的打猎、捕鱼 中去了。他开始大量喝酒,时常吵闹,脾气变的异常烦躁,尝到了自我怜 悯的痛苦。终于在1961年7月2日,用这只陪他走遍世界的双筒猎枪伸进嘴 里,扳动了扳机……这个一手持笔,一手持枪,闯荡天下,四处冒险,打 死过无数狼虫虎豹,塑造出许多硬汉子形象,魁梧的大胡子砰然倒下。

Hemingway’s Suicide
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Hemingway's life is examined through a review and discussion of biographies, psychiatric literature, personal correspondence, photography, and medical records. Significant evidence exists to support the diagnoses of bipolar disorder, alcohol dependence, traumatic brain injury, and probable borderline and narcissistic personality traits. Late in life, Hemingway also developed symptoms of psychosis likely related to his underlying affective illness and superimposed alcoholism and traumatic brain injury. Hemingway utilized a variety of defense mechanisms, including self–medication with alcohol, a lifestyle of aggressive, risk–taking sportsmanship, and writing, in order to cope with the suffering caused by the complex comorbidity of his interrelated psychiatric disorders. Ultimately, Hemingway's defense mechanisms failed, overwhelmed by the burden of his complex comorbid illness, resulting in his suicide. Hemingway committed suicide on July 2, 1961 with a shotgun blast to the head. Ironically, his father, brother, and sister also committed suicide, and later, tragically, his granddaughter, Margaux, would follow suit.


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