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大学英语听说4历次形成性练习


使用说明 1.复制选项内容,注意不要复制 a.b.c.d.如:Eighty thousand people. 2.然后选择编辑,查找,粘贴复制的内容,查找即可找到选项 注意:题号位置 1. A) Eighty thousand people. B) Eighteen thousand people. C) One hundred million people. D) One million people. 2. A) For his father B) For his wife. C) For his daughter. D) For his mother. 3. A) In 1956. B) In 1948. C) In 1966. D) In 1958. 4. A) They were greatly excited. B) They were indifferent to it. C) They were very sad. D) They felt proud of him. 5. A) He died in a battle. B) He died of starvation. C) He died in an accident. D) He died from a heart attack. Passage Two 6. A) $ 10 million. B) $ 100 million. C) $ 1 million. D) $ 1000 million. 7. A) She hopes they are as rich as her. B) She wants them to drop out of school early. C) She wants them to live a normal life. D) She wants them to grow up in the same way as she did. 8. A) He didn’t care about his daughter at all. B) He gave too much love to his only daughter. C) He didn’t like children at all. D) He had no time to play with her daughter. 9. A) He wanted Lisa to live above the average people. B) He wanted his daughter to lead a normal life. C) He wanted his daughter to be around people her age. D) He wanted his daughter to be a singer. 10. A) To lead a rich life. B) To lead a poor life. C) To lead a quiet and normal life. D) To lead an eventful life. 答案: ADACDBCBAC 1.A) In a cinema. B) At a party. C) At the speakers’ home. D) In the office. 2.A) They share the housework. B) They go to the cinema once a week. C) The wife should do more house work. D) They should talk a lot to each other after work. 3.A) They are having a quarrel. B) They are doing house work together. C) They are recalling their past D) They are walking in the rain. 4.A) He is willing to accept them. B) He is angry about them. C) He is delighted to hear them. D) He is ready to correct his shortcomings. 5 A) He will go out to take a walk in the rain. B) He will go to the cinema alone. C) He will go shopping alone. D) He will go to live with his parents.

答案: CAABD 1. A) He tells the woman to take some new tubes. B) He asks the woman to leave the tubes where they are. C) He wants the woman to watch what he is doing. D) He asks the woman to finish her work quickly. 2. A) Only if it is always in sight. B) No, because she asked him to turn it off between problems. C) He should leave it on the table. D) No, because he asked for it. 3. A) Because you must take the stairs. B) Because nine is an odd number. C) Because the elevator gets stuck. D) Because there are too many people in the elevator. 4. A) Last summer was even hotter. B) This summer is terribly hot. C) If you lose some weight, you'll not feel too hot. D) This woman is happy since hot weather helps her lose weight. 5. A) The tour was worth the time but not the money. B) The tour was not worth the time or the money. C) The tour was worth the money but not the time. D) The tour was worth both the time and the money. 6. A) They were both busy doing their own work. B) They waited for each other at different places. C) They went to the street corner at different times. D) The man went to the concert but the woman didn't. 7. A) He is afraid of being beaten by the woman again. B) He is in poor health. C) He was beaten by the woman yesterday. D) He did too much exercise yesterday. 8. A) Two tourists. B) Driver and passenger. C) Nurse and patient. D) Manager and secretary. 9. A) She is always laughed at by the clerks. B) She hates going shopping with her friends. C) She feels embarrassed about her stature. D) She is in the habit of doing window-shopping. 10. A) He will drive his grandmother to the airport. B) He will meet his grandmother at the airport. C) He will send his grandmother to a wedding party. D) He will take his grandmother to the hospital. 答案: BBBBBBDBCA Most Brazilians are very class-conscious, and everything from education and jobs to behavior and communication __1__ is affected by it. Conversation between members of different classes is frowned upon, except when specific __2__ such as between a customer and a clerk require it. Because a stranger's class is usually impossible to __3__, most Brazilians refrain from __4__ passing exchanges, such as 'hello" and "have a nice day". And people may __5__ use deferential(谦恭的) titles like

"doctor" and "senhor" to __6__ that the person being __7__ is someone of higher class. Secondly, Brazil is a "polychromic" culture, which means that attitudes toward time are much more elastic(弹性的)than they are in North America or Japan. _8_____________________________________________. If the present conversation is pleasant, it is more important to appreciate and extend it than to rush off to next one. _9________________________________________________. In fact, if you are invited to dinner at someone's house, _10_____________________________________________. 答案:1. style 2. interactions 3. determine 4. informal 5. regularly 6. imply 7. addressed 8. While buses and trains usually run on schedule throughout Brazil, meetings and appointments seldom do 9. Whether the appointment is professional or personal, one is not expected to arrive on time 10. it would be rather rude to arrive sooner than an hour late 1. A) He regards friends as particularly important B) He regards friends as important as his family members C) He doesn’t think of friends as particularly important D) He thinks friends can help him when he is in trouble. 2. A) His family B) His friends. C) His colleagues D) His classmates. 3. A) It is more important than life. B) It is more important than love. C) It is more important than anything else. D) Friendship is unnecessary in her life. 4. A) Love may lead to a lot of bitterness. B) Love may lead to great happiness. C) Love may lead to unimaginable success in a career. D) Love may lead to many quarrels. 5. A) People who are active and talk all the time. B) People who remain silent all the time. C) People who will help him when he needs help. D) People who can just stay together and not say very much sometimes. 答案: CABAD 1. A) Two years. B) Three years. C) One year. D) Two and a half years 2. A) They decided to get married in April. B) They decided to make new friends separately. C) They decided to make some new friends together. D) They decided to have a baby. 3. A) She decided to leave Peter forever. B) She liked this way to make friends. C) She thought it easier to make friends like this. D) She felt lonely and that her life was quite dull.

4. A) They were frightened. B) They felt excited. C) They felt surprised and were at a loss for words. D) They felt angry about the experience. 5. A) It is hard for them to arrange a blind date again. B) Rhoda is a good match for Peter and they will finally get married. C) They think something went wrong with the computer. D) They will try another computer date. Passage 2: 6. A) To talk to her about his work. B) To go to bed as soon as possible. C) To talk to George. D) To get a new job in an insurance company. 7. A) He felt worried. B) He felt embarrassed. C) He felt hopeless. D) He felt tired. 8. A) He graduated three months ago. B) He left school three years ago. C) He graduated three days ago. D) He will leave school in three days 9. A) He wanted to work in a bank. B) He hoped to work in an insurance company. C) He intended to travel and see the world. D) He planned to stay at home. 10. A) George’s mother will continue to talk to her son. B) George’s mother doesn’t think they can change their son’s mind. C) George will listen to his parents in the future. D) George’s father does not want to talk to his son any more. 答案: ABDCBCDACB 1. A) Go hiking with her friend. B) Stay at home and do her exercise. C) Rest and take care of herself. D) Catch up with her reading. 2. A) He and his wife enjoyed the play. B) He enjoyed the play but his wife didn't. C) Neither of them enjoyed the play. D) His wife enjoyed the play, but he didn't. 3. A) She can only use the dictionary in the library. B) She can use the dictionary as long as she likes. C) She gets one for herself. D) She can take one out. 4. A) That her teaching assistant would correct the examination papers. B) That she would collect the examination papers. C) That she would not give her students a final exam. D) That she would correct the examination papers. 5. A) They both liked it. B) The mother didn't like it, but the father did. C) Neither liked it. D) The mother didn't like it because it wasn't English. 6. A) He doesn't have the right tools. B) He can't afford it. C) He wants to wait until the next day. D) He doesn't need one. 7. A) At the bank. B) At the market. C) At the nursery. D) At the hardware store. 8. A) To go early. B) To leave the stadium early. C) To buy his tickets early. D) To listen to the radio. 9. A) He'll get angry. B) He's looking for a parking space. C) He has to buy a parking ticket. D) He will discover it himself. 10.A) In an electrical shop. B) At a college.

C) In an airport 答案: CBCDBBBAAB Unit 7

D) At a voting booth.

Setting Goals Why is setting goals important? Because goals can help you do, be, and 1)______ everything you want in life. Instead of just letting life happen to you, 2)______ allow you to make your life happen. Successful and happy people have a 3)______ of how their life should be and they set lots of goals, both 4)______ and long-range, to help them reach their vision. By 5)______ goals you are taking control of your life. It's like having a map to show you where you want to go. 6)______ in life set goals and follow through on them. Winners decide what they want in life and then get there by making plans and setting goals. Unsuccessful people just let life happen by 7)______. Goals aren't difficult to set—and they aren't difficult to reach. It's up to you to find out what your goals, ideals, and visions really are. 8)_______________________________ ______________ . Research tells us that when we write a goal down we are more likely to achieve it. 9)_____________________________________________. Like an agreement with yourself, they are harder to neglect or forget. Also 10)_____________________________________________ to be continuously aware of situations that will further your goal. Key: 1. experience 2. goals 3. vision 4. short-term 5. setting 6. Winners 7. accident 8. You are the one who must decide what to go after and in what direction to aim your life . 9. Written goals can be reviewed regularly, and have more power. 10. when you write your goals in a particular fashion you are able to stimulate your subconscious Unit 8 American Money American money can be quite 1) ______. The bills - or paper money - are all the same color and 2) ______. One has to look carefully to be sure he is giving out a $1 bill and not a $10 bill, for example. Furthermore, new bills 3) ______ together easily. Be sure this does not happen to you. Coins are also confusing. This is partly because some of them have two names, partly because the size does not 4) ______ the value. The ten-cent coin is smaller than the five-cent coin, for example. In addition, all coins are 5) ______ (except for the penny or one cent) which is brown color or copper-colored. One cent, or penny, is the coin of smallest value, equal to 1/100 of a dollar. It is useful for some parking meters and some sales taxes, but a penny does not buy very much! Five pennies are equal to one nickel. A coin of 10 cents, the smallest in size of all the coins, is one of the most useful. It is used for pay-phones, buying newspapers, coin-operated machines, and some bus 6) ______. The 25 cent coin, or quarter, is larger than the nickel but is easily mistaken for it. This is the 7) ______ tipping coin,

also commonly used for paying bridge and road tolls. 8) _____________________________________________, especially in cities which require exact change for buses. Sales taxes also require a lot of small coins, although stores will give change. 9) _____________________________________________. Bills come in the following denominations: $1, $5, $10 and $20. 10) _____________________________________________! Keep small value bills with you. Taxi drivers and some store clerks will not change anything larger than a $5 bill; most big department stores will, however. Key: 1. confusing 2. size 3. stick 4. indicate 5. silver-colored 6. fares 7. normal 8. One has to keep considerable change on hand 9. Bus drivers, however, are often not allowed to give change in many cities 10. They also come in $50 and $100 bills, but these are seen less often by most of us Long Conversation Questions 1 to 5 are based on the conversation you’ve just heard. 1. A).Parents. B) Environment. C) Genes. D) Both A) and B). 2. A) Proteins. B) A sequence of DNA C) All of the above. D) Cells. 3. A) Individual humans share 99.9 percent of their DNA. B) Individual humans share 90 percent of their DNA. D) Individual humans share 95 percent of their DNA. C) Individual humans share 99 percent of their DNA. 4. A) Chimpanzees. B) Whales. C) Gorillas. D) Monkeys. 5. A) It’s hard to say. B) No, it will not. C) It depends. D) Yes, it will. Key: D B AA D Questions 1 to 5 are based on the conversation you've just heard. 1. A) Close to a beach. B) One a beach. C) In a computer room. D) In an arcade. 2. A) To travel around the world.

B) To see the world on the Net. C) To sunbathe on a beach. D) to play a chess game outdoors. 3. A) He will be easy to get along with. B) He will be too weak. C) He will be stupid. D) He will be intelligent. 4. A) It’s good to have plenty of sunshine. B) It’s good to breathe fresh air. C) It’s an opportunity to play with a friend. D) There is no opportunity to play with a chess master. 5. A) She will pay attention to chess games. B) She will pay attention to the man. C) She wants the man to pay attention to her. D) She wants the man to pay attention to important chess games. Key:A. B. C. D. C. Questions 1 to 5 are based on the conversation you've just heard. 1. A) A journey to Canada. B) An impression of a foreign country. C) Culture shock in a new environment. D) A hard experience in a foreign country. 2. A) The anxiety that results from losing all the familiar signs and symbols of social communication. B) The anxiety that others will laugh at him. C) The anxiety that one will lose something in a foreign country. D) The anxiety that one will have to be faced with reality in a foreign country. 3. A) A feeling as if a fish is out of water. B) A feeling that series of props have been knocked out from under you. C) A feeling that one has experienced some frustration and anxiety. D) A feeling that one is rejected by the society. 4. A) Excessive concern over drinking water, food and bedding. B) Terrible longing to be back home. C) Concentration on one's work. D) A feeling of helplessness. 5. A) A person needs to go back home frequently. B) A person needs adjustment in a new environment. C) A person needs to experience some frustration. D) A person needs to depend on others. Key:CADCB Passage 1 1、A) To give his son a pleasant day in the countryside. B) To introduce a local farmer to his son. C) To show his son how poor people can be. D) To show his son how rich they are.

2.、A) For showing him the value of wealth. B) For showing him how rich they are. C) For showing him how farming is conducted. D) For showing him how poor they are. 3.、A) They look at things from different perspectives. B) They belong to two different generations. C) The father knows what poverty means but the son does not. D) The father knows what true wealth means but the son does not. 4.、A) Those who are in want of material comforts. B) Those who are poor of spirit. C) Those who have no sense of humor. D) Those who own a lot of money. 5.、A) There is only a thin line between the rich and the poor. B) Poverty is not too terrible to those who have a positive attitude toward life. C) The rich are spiritually poor while the poor are spiritually rich. D) Whether one is rich or poor is just a matter of opinion. Key:C. D. A. B. B 1.A) Her family wanted her to study medicine. B) A family friend suggested it to her. C) Her sickness caused her to make that decision. D) She wanted to do something no women had done before. 2.A) Geneva medical College accepted her. B) Her parents taught her. C) A doctor tutored her. D) She taught herself by reading books on medicine. 3.A) In Geneva. B) In London. C) in Britain. D) In New York. 4. A) To prevent disease B) To cure patients C) To offer free medical care for the poor D) To teach people basic hygiene 5.A) Outstanding. B) Aggressive. C) Full of curiosity. D) Eager to excel in everything. Key:B. C. D. A. A. Passage 3 Questions 1 to 5 are based on the passage you have just heard. 1.A) The structure of genes. B) The completion of the human genetic map. C) The transformation of medical care. D) The diagnosis of diseases. 2.A) Medicines will be targeted more accurately. B) Scientists can identify and replace the faulty genes. C) Diseases can be diagnosed earlier. D) All of the above. 3.A) They will fire those with faulty genes.

B) They will increase the medical insurance of employees. C) They will ask employees to do more research work. D) They will place that information above everything else. 4.A) People in Asian countries. B) People in African countries. C) People in wealthy countries. D) People in underdeveloped countries. 5.A) Biological companies. B) Nobody. C) Scientists. D) Government. Key:B D A C A Questions 6 to 10 are based on the passage you have just heard. 6.A) My teacher. B) The chairman. C) The chairman’s wife. D) The supervisor. 7. A) She was the first black student at the college. B) She made the highest mark on the exam. C) She made the lowest mark on the exam. D) She did very well in the speech contest. 8. A) Chinese students. B) Indian students. C) Light-skinned students. D) Dark-skinned students. 9.A) She wanted to congratulate her. B) She wanted to grant her scholarship. C) She asked her to take the exam again. D) She wanted to know more about her. 10.A) She hated her deeply. B) She felt angry. C) She was shocked. D) All of the above. Key:C B C C D 1. A) The man hates to lend his tools to other people. B) The man hasn't finished working on the bookshelf. C) The tools have already been returned to the woman. D) The tools the man borrowed from the woman are missing. Key:D 2.A) Save time by using a computer. B) Buy her own computer. C) Borrow Martha's computer. D) Stay home and complete her paper. Key:B

3.A) He has been to Seattle many times. B) He has chaired a lot of conferences. C) He holds a high position in his company. D) He lived in Seattle for many years. KeyA 4.A) Teacher and student. B) Doctor and patient. C) Manager and office worker. D) Travel agent and customer. KeyC 5.A) She knows the guy who will give the lecture. B) She thinks the lecture might be informative. C) She wants to add something to her lecture. D) She'll finish her report this weekend. Key:B 6.A) An art museum.. B) A beautiful park. C) A college campus. D) An architectural exhibition. KeyC 7.A) The houses for sale are of poor quality. B) The houses are too expensive for the couple to buy. C) The housing developers provide free trips for potential buyers. D) The man is unwilling to take a look at the houses for sale. KeyD 8.A) Talking about sports. B) Writing up local news. C) Reading newspapers. D) Putting up advertisements. KeyC 9.A) The pear. B) The weather. C) The sea food. D) The cold. 答案:C 10A) Mary has never studied mathematics. B) Mary must be good at mathematics. C) Mary enjoy learning mathematics. D) Mary probably is poor at mathematics. 答案:D B 11. A) The value of genetic research has been overestimated. B) Common diseases will be predicted and even prevented through gene tests.

C) New genetics will not revolutionize the traditional ways of treating diseases. D) The first genetic map has been center of attention since it was completed. C 12. A) For about 50 years. B) For about 80 years. C) For about 100 years. D) For about 150 years. D 13. A) Physical health is most important when choosing the spouse. B) People are very realistic today. C) It’s not easy to find the right person. D) Genetic science may change people’s way of choosing the spouse. C 14. A) Yes, an injection. B) Yes, an operation. C) Yes, genetic treatment. D) No. A 15. A) Inspiration. B) Perspiration. C) Environment. D) Education. D 16. A) 2038. B) 2000. C) 2010. D) 2007. A 17. A) He will not live long. B) He will live long. C) He will live as long as other people. D) It’s hard to say. B 18. A) Success might come from cooperative work. B) No pains, no gains. C) Failure is the mother of success. D) A strong belief is the key to success. A 19. A) To take some gene tests. B) To do exercises regularly. C) To take Vitamin A every day. D) To eat genetically-modified food. C 20. A) Genetically-modified food.

B) High-tech food. C) Organic food. D) Extensively-advertised food. 1.A) George’s brother. B) George’s wife. C) George’s father. D) George’s wife’s father. 答案: C 2.A) She can use his car. B) She can borrow someone else’s car. C) She must get her car fixed. D) She can’t borrow his car. 答案:D 3.A) At 02:35 B) At 02:45 C) At 03:00 D) At 03:20 答案:B 4.A) Around 5:00 B) Around 3:00 C) At 2:00 D) At 1:00 答案:B 5A) He had to work overtime. B) He was held up in traffic. C) His car ran out of gas. D) He had a traffic accident. 答案:B 6.A) John Smith isn’t in right now. B) John Smith can’t come to the phone right now. C) John Smith doesn’t want to speak to the caller. D) The caller dialed the wrong number. 答案:D 7.A) Yesterday. B) Three days ago. C) Two days ago. D) Early last week. 答案:C 8.A) She got up later than usual. B) The bus was late. C) She forgot she had classes. D) Her clock was slow. 答案:A 9.A) She paid ¥40.00 for the coat.

B) Her husband presented it to her as a gift. C) She bought the coat on her fortieth birthday gift. D) Her friend send it to her as a birthday gift. 答案 B 10A) To keep his old car and get a new one. B) To leave it in the garage to be repaired. C) To sell his car for a new one. D) To get his car repaired later. 答案:C C 11. A) 1865. B) 1864. C) 1863. D) 1861. B 12. A) Because she sat together with whites. B) Because she refused to give up her seat. C) Because she got on the bus. D) Because she did not respect the policeman. A 13. A) 60 percent. B) 20 percent. C) 64 percent. D) 40 percent. D 14. A) He’s a self-made man. B) He was a patient man full of tolerance. C) He devoted his life to his people. D) He saved the Union. B 15. A) 1878. B) 1888. C) 1898. D) 1908. D 16. A) Oppression. B) Hatred. C) War. D) Tolerance. D 17. A) Basketball. B) Volleyball. C) Football. D) Pingpong. D 18. A) Whites did not like his songs. B) Whites felt he was not a decent man. C) Whites refused to hear him sing. D) He was black. A 19. A) In the 1860s. B) In 1889. C) In 1919. D) In 1816. B 20. A) Abraham Lincoln. B) Martin Luther King. C) George Washington. D) Thomas Jefferson. Unit 3 (Band 4) Directions: Now you will hear ten short conversations. A question will follow each conversation. Listen carefully and choose the best answer from the four possible choices. 11. A) The wheelchair was hit by a car in the middle of the street. B) The wheelchair could not go forward. C) The man destroyed the wheelchair. D) The brake of the wheelchair did not work. 12. A) The driver of the car in the traffic accident. B) Sue's injury in the traffic accident. C) What the doctor said about Sue. D) A lecture about stream of consciousness. 13. A) Go to a movie with her daughter. B) Go to a Chinese opera with her daughter. C) Go to a restaurant with the man. D) Go to dinner at the man's house. 14. A) She doesn't want to insure her package. B) She doesn't want to fill out the forms.

C) She refused to state the contents and value of the package. D) She doesn't want to mail her package on second thoughts. 15. A) A clerk in a shop. B) A customer in a store. C) A tourist guide. D) A caseworker. 16. A) The bus is very crowded in the rush hour. B) Riding a bicycle to work can help the man to lose weight. C) The man doesn't know how to ride a bicycle. D) The woman is going to help the man to lose weight. 17. A) To give information about the thief. B) To complain of the noisy neighbor. C) To report a car accident. D) To make a complaint about her stolen car. 18. A) She wants to meet the man every fortnight. B) She wants the man to direct the band. C) She wants the man to attend the band. D) She wants to learn violin from the man. 19. A) His leaky roof has not yet been repaired. B) The apartment manager refused his request. C) The man could not repair the leaky roof himself. D) The man has to move to another apartment. 20. A) She doesn't believe the man. B) She is interested in the unidentified flying object. C) She wishes she were a witness. D) She is going to write a report about the unidentified flying object. Key: BBBAA BDCAA Directions: Now you will hear a long conversation followed by five questions. Listen carefully and choose the best answer from the four possible choices. Questions 1 to 5 are based on the conversation you’ve just heard. 1. A) A landlord. B) A tenant. C) A lawyer. D) A trouble maker. 2. A) To fix up the hot water system and provide ventilation in the kitchen. B) To decrease the rent by $6.00 a week when the lease is expired (期满). C) To give him reasonable notice before asking him to leave. D) To pay him if he makes the alteration himself. 3. A) Yes, he’s made a lot of improvements in the house. B) Yes, he’s never been behind with his rent. C) No, he’s not up to date with his rent. D) No, he’s never done any work in the house. 4. A) To threaten the landlord. B) To tell the landlord that he agrees to the increase of the rent. C) To point out his legal right. D) To get a picture of him. 5. A) At the Tenants’ Action Union. B) At the tenant’s house. C) At the landlord’s house.

D) On the phone. Key: BABCA Directions: Listen to the following two passages. Each passage is followed by five questions. After you hear a question, there’ll be a break of 10 seconds. During the break, you’ll read the four choices marked A), B), C) and D), and decide which one is the best answer. Passage Five Questions 21 to 25 are based on the passage you have just heard. 21. A) Lawyer. B) Customer. C) Client. D) Caseworker. 22. A) People who can pay high fees. B) People who can pay little or nothing. C) Shopkeepers and landlords. D) Criminals only. 23. A) It is fair. B) It is modern. C) It is reasonable. D) It is unfair. 24. A) Civil cases only. B) Criminal cases only. C) Wealthy clients' cases. D) Criminal and civil cases. 25. A) A tenant(房客)is threatened to be driven out of the house. B) A landlord refuses to fix a dangerous staircase. C) A murderer is arrested. D) A store sells a faulty radio. Key: CBDDC Questions 26 to 30 are based on the passage you have just heard. 26. A) The doctor gets more active professional support from the primary nurse. B) Each patient is taken care of by a primary nurse day and night. C) The primary nurse writes care plans for every patient. D) The primary nurse keeps records of the patient's health conditions every day. 27. A) Nurses at Beth Israel Hospital are more patient compared with other hospitals. B) Patient care in most hospitals is inadequate from the professional point of view. C) In most hospitals nurses get low salaries. D) Nurses at Beth Israel Hospital have to work longer hours compared with other hospitals. 28. A) The present one is refused by the patient. B) The patient complains about the present one. C) The present one proves to be ineffective. D) The patient is found to be unwilling to cooperate. 29. A) A nurse manager is a member of the Medical Executive Committee of the hospital. B) A nurse manager has to arrange the work shifts of the unit's nurses. C) A nurse manager can make decisions concerning the medical treatment of a patient. D) A nurse manager has full responsibility in the administration of the unit's nurses. 30. A) Negative. B) Neutral. C) Critical. D) Positive.

Key: ABCDD We find that bright children are (1) ______ held back by mixed ability teaching. On the (2) ______, both their knowledge and experience are enriched. We feel that there are many disadvantages in streaming pupils. It does not take into account the fact that children develop at different rates. It can have a bad effect on both the bright and the not so bright child. After all, it can be quite discouraging to be at the (3) ______ of the top grade! Besides, it is rather unreal to grade people just according to their (4) ______ ability. This is only one aspect of their total (5) ______. We are concerned to develop the abilities of all our pupils to the full, not just their (6) ______ ability. We also value personal qualities and social skills, and we find that mixed ability teaching (7) ______ to all these aspects of learning. In our classrooms, we work in various ways. The pupils often work in groups: this gives them the opportunity to learn to cooperate, to share, and to develop leadership skills. (8) __________________________. The pupils learn from each other as well as from the teacher. (9) ___________________________. They also have some formal class teaching when this is appropriate. We encourage our pupils to use the library, and we teach them the skills they need in order to do this efficiently. An advanced pupil can do advanced work: it does not matter what age the child is. (10) __________________________. Key: rarely contrary bottom intellectual personality academic contributes They also learn how to cope with personal problems as well as learning how to think, to make decisions, to analyze and evaluate, and communicate effectively Sometimes the pupils work in pairs; sometimes they work on individual tasks and assignments, and they can do this at their own speed We expect our pupils to do their best, not their least, and we give them every encouragement to attain this goal Unit 4 Directions: In this section you will hear a passage three times. For the first time, Television can be a powerful influence in developing value systems and shaping behavior. Unfortunately, much of today’s television programming is violent. (1) ______ viewing of television violence by children causes greater (2) ______. Sometimes, watching a single violent program can increase aggressiveness. The (3) ______ of TV violence may be immediately evident in the child’s behavior or may be shown years later. American parents are (4) ______ to protect their children from (5) ______ TV violence in the following ways: 1. Pay attention to the programs their children are watching and watch some with them; 2. Set (6) ______ on the amount of time they spend with the television; 3. Point out that although the actor has not actually been hurt or killed, such (7) ______ in real life results in pain or death; 4. Refuse to let the children see shows known to (8) ______________________,

with an explanation of what is wrong with the program; 5. Disapprove of the violent episodes in front of the children, (9) ____________________. Contact other parents and (10) ______________________. KEY: (1) Extensive (2) aggressiveness (3) impact (4) advised (5) excessive (6) limits (7) violence (8) be violent and change the channel or turn off the TV set when something offensive comes on (9) stressing the belief that such behavior is not the best way to resolve a problem (10) agree to enforce similar rules about the length of time and type of program the children may watch Directions: Listen to the passages and choose the best answer to each question you hear. Passage 1 Questions 1 to 5 are based on this passage: 1. A) Ask your colleagues in private. B) Ask the boss questions about it until you understand. C) Ask the boss to clarify it just once. D) Watch how your colleagues do the same job. 2. A) Questions about daily routine. B) Long-term goals. C) The role of your job in the company’s aim. D) All of the above. 3. A) One B) Two C) Three D) Four 4. A) Her principle boss. B) The quality control manager. C) The human resource manager. D) Her colleagues. 5. A) The boss was displeased with her ambition. B) Her colleagues were unhappy about her ambition. C) The boss used it to asses her annual performance. D) The boss used it to asses all employees’ annual performance. Passage 2 Questions 6 to 10 are based on this passage: 6. A) Only the CEO. B) Only his immediate boss. C) All executives on the distribution list he made. D) All executives on the distribution list his boss made. 7. A) His boss was pleased. B) His boss looked angry. C) The CEO congratulated him on his good report.

D) His colleagues got angry. 8. A) He got them back immediately. B) He asked his secretary to get them back. C) The report was already in the CEO’s hands. D) The copies were already lost. 9. A) She thought Adams went above her power. B) She thought the CEO would be upset. C) Adams didn’t meet the deadlines. D) She didn’t want the CEO to read the report. 10. A) An employee will be fired only for big mistakes. B) An employee will be demoted for a small mistake. C) An employee should not bypass his immediate superior. D) An employee should report to the CEO regularly. KEY: 1-5 BDDAC 6-10 DBCAC Directions: Listen to the long conversation and choose the best answer to each question you hear. 1. A) He never took illegal commissions. B) He sold the company’s products at higher prices. C) He sold more products than other salespeople. D) He is getting along well with his colleagues. 2. A) He knows more customers than any other employee. B) Only he knows how to get a certain large contract. C) He used to be a manager of a large company. D) A relative of his is the manager of a large company. 3. A) She mistook the man for Carl Smith. B) She raised the man’s pay by mistake. C) She praised the wrong person. D) She almost fired the wrong person. 4. A) He often works overtime. B) He is a lazy worker. C) He works neither too hard nor lazily. D) He is often late for work. 5. A) A salary increase for the first time. B) A salary increase for the second time. C) A promotion. D) A demotion. KEY: 1-5. CBDAA Directions: Listen to the short conversations and choose the best answer to each question you hear. 1. A) A poor team player but a good leader. B) Neither a leader nor a team member. C) Either a team member or a leader.

D) A weak leader but a good team player. 2. A) In a coffee shop. B) In an office. C) In a restaurant. D) At a railway station. 3. A) He won’t be promoted. B) His colleague instead of him will be promoted. C) The boss is going to fire him. D) His close friend is going to leave. 4. A) She praises Mr. Jones for being faithful. B) She admired Mr. Jones. C) She is a self-made millionaire. D) She wants to employ an accountant. 5. A) The woman like working there but worries about too much responsibility. B) The man likes working there but worries about too much responsibility. C) The man will be promoted to be an office manager. D) The woman may be promoted to be an office manager. 6. A) To find a better science journal in the library. B) Not to miss any chance to collect useful information. C) To buy the latest issue of the magazine. D) Not to subscribe to the journal. 7. A) She wants to borrow the man’s student ID card. B) The tickets are less expensive than she expected. C) She won’t be able to get any discount for the ticket. D) The performance turned out to be disappointing. 8. A) Do the assignments towards the end of the semester. B) Quit the history course and choose another one instead. C) Drop one course and do it next semester. D) Take courses with a lighter workload. 9. A) The organization of a conference. B) The cost of renting a conference room. C) The decoration of the conference room. D) The job of cleaning up the dining-room. 10. A) Meet his client. B) Work at his office. C) Prepare the dinner. D) Fix his car. KEY: 1-5. CBABD 6-10. DCCBA

读写部分试题

Unite 1 {1}Directions For many women choosing whether to work or not to work outside their home is a luxury; they must work to____1___. Others face a hard decision. One husband said, “ Marge and I decided after careful consideration that for her to go back to work at this moment was an extravagance (奢侈) . We simply couldn’t afford it.” With two preschool children, it soon became clear in their figuring that with babysitters, transportation, and increased taxes, rather than having more money, they might actually end up with less. Economic factors are usually the first to be ___2___, but they are not the most important. The most important aspects of the decision have to do with the ___3____ needs of each member of the family. It is in this area that husbands and wives find themselves having to face many confusing and conflicting feelings. There are many women who find that homemaking is boring or who feel __4____ if they have to stay home with a young child or several children. On the other hand, there are women who think that homemaking gives them the

deepest satisfaction. From my own experience, I would like to suggest that sometimes the decision to go back to work is made in too much haste. There are few decisions that I now ___5___ more. I wasn’t mature enough to see how much I could have gained at home. I regret my impatience to get on with my career. I wish I had allowed myself the luxury of watching the world through my little girl’s eyes. A. needs emotional E. considered mature Key:BEDGC F. perceive G. imprisoned H. B. survive C. regret D.

{2} Every fruit, vegetable, grain and domestic animals we see today is the result of genetic modification. Biotechnology refines and ___1___ methods that produce new plants and animals. 1. A. enlarge C. donates 2. A. production B. extends D. recollects B. creation D. profession B. bleeding D. exceeding B. compared to D. identical to B. energetic D. theoretic B. undesirable D. unnecessary

Biotechnology has a long history of use in food ___2__ C. invention and processing. For ten thousand years fermentation, a 3. A. proceeding form of biotechnology has been used to produce wine, horses and dogs has been going on for centuries. The same thing has been done in farming. People have created many local varieties of essential foods such as wild ancestors. C. breeding C. contrary to 5. A. genetic C. magnetic C. original beer and bread. Selective __3___ of animals such as 4. A. similar to

rice, corn and wheat with improved yields __4___ their 6. A. inherited

Today, through newer biotechnology and __5___ engineering, scientists can do even more. They can move one gene, the inherited instruction for specific traits, from organism to another and omit the __6___

7. A. manner C. mode 8. A. indicate C. display

B. possibility D. means B. produce D. invent B. characteristics D. trait B. cure D. prevention B. In the end D. On the whole B. discharging D. introducing B. reversion D. conversion B. transfer D. transmission B. however D. and B. single D. plain B. field D. employment B. system B. approach D. invention B. encloses D. enables D. cell

traits. This enables food producers to obtain animal and 9. A. quality crop improvements in a much more precise, controlled C. quantity and predictable __7___. The potential benefits of biotechnology are enormous. new products with desirable characteristics. These include characteristics such as disease-and drought-resistant plants, leaner meat and enhanced has also been used to develop life-saving vaccines, 药品) to improve quality of life. __11___, plant breeders were greatly limited. They were limited to __12__ wheat to wheat. Only pollen (花粉) from a compatible parent wheat could be used to fertilize the seed-producing plant. The __13___ of traits possible from this combination was limited by these genetic compatibility barriers. Today, gene __14___ does not have the same limitations. It is not confined within cross-breeding species __15___ can cross genetic trait can be identified and transferred from many sources. The news doesn’t stop there, however. The work of researchers in this __17___ had even broader applications. Modern techniques have been used to change a trait in its native plant __18___. For example a tomato transfer can control softening and ripening of the fruit. Another __19___ is the transfer of modified forms of plant virus genes to plants to create a plant with complete resistance to that virus. It is easy to see how the use of new scientific techniques __20___ much wider application of nature’s diversity. And it’s exciting to see how it is improving our lives. (Key: BACBA BABAC CDCBA BBBCD) 10. A. remedy C. treatment

Food producers can use new biotechnology to __8___ 11. A. On time C. In the past 12. A. revealing C. establishing C. diversity C. transition 15. A. but C. yet C. unique 17. A. topic C. focus C. element 19. A. access C. application C. endures 18. A. structure

flavor and nutritional __9___ of foods. This technology 13. A. monotony insulin, cancer __10___ and other pharmaceuticals (医 14. A. transform

Traits within the same botanical (植物的) family, such as 16. A. lonely

barriers such as corn to tomato. A gene for a __16__ 20. A. engages

{3} Choose the best answer to complete each of the following sentences. 1. It is test _____ to judge a person’s ability only by the result of his written examinations. A) loving B) warshipping C) admiring D) worshipping 22. He was ______ murder and sentenced to death A) accused of B) blamed C) responsible for D) guilty of D) unoccupied 33. There are two _____ rooms in this house, which are meant for rent. A) empty B) vacant C) blank the same people everyday! A) boring B) tiring C) hated D) bored 5. Her way of walking is quite_____ from that of her sisters. A) distinctive B) clear C) distinct D) unique 6. We made a _____ examination of the jewel before we decided to buy it. A) little B) small C) tiny D) minute 7. I borrowed a lot of interesting books from the public library for my son in order to ____ B) sustain C) carry on D) improve D) protests his interest in reading. A) support 8. 99. them. A) chase 10. A) prove B) pursue B) justify C) tell D) blame C) testify D) explain If you can’t _____ your absence from the class, you will be punished. 6-10 D B C A B) If no one _____, we will have a picnic this Saturday. Those books I ordered still haven’t come; I will have to ____ the manager about 4. I am fed up! I’ve been ____ of catching the same bus, doing the same work and meeting

A) opposes B) agrees C) objects

(Key: 1-5 D A B D C

{4}Directions: Fill in the blanks with the appropriate word forms of the words given in the brackets. 1. To raise the yield of crops, _____ farming is very important. (intense) 2. When people came to get the boy out of the water, he was already_____. (drowning) 3. The bus broke down on my way to school; as a result, I missed Mr. Johnson’s history class, but it was a _____absence. (justify) 4. The tyrant’s _____ enraged all the people in his country and finally a rebellion broke out. (cruel) 5. She owes her success to _____ hard work. (sustain) 6. If no one has any _____, I will declare the meeting closed. (object) 7. The police reported that three men and a woman were involved in the bank _____ last week. (rob) 8. Experts have _____ the possibility of a second earthquake in the area.(count) 9. Those events are just a /an____ memory now.(distinct) 10. Our students are being _____ by his extreme right wing ideas! (contamination) Key:1,intensive 7,robbery 2,drowned 3,justifiable 4,cruelty 5,sustained 6,objections 8,discounted 9,indistinct 10,contaminated

{5}英译汉 1.They develop a style that agents market aggressively to hasten popularity, and their ride on the express elevator to the top is a blur. 2.The public simply discounts styles other than those for which the artist has become famous. Key: 1.答案:他们形成自己的风格,为了迅速走红,其经纪人极力吹捧他们这种风格,他们青云直上的 过程让人雾里看花。 2.答案:公众对于艺术家们籍以成名的艺术风格以外的任何风格形式完全不屑一顾。

Unit2
{1} Talent in any age is just as great. Our ___1___ of what talent is may change. It 1. A. deception C. perception B. conception D. reception B. influenced D. effected B. unless D. except for B. coming D. previous B. worthiest D. supreme B. pre-formers D. perceivers B. in place of D. in regard of B. disturbing D. experiencing B. resulted from D. ended in B. used to D. proved to B. enormous D. humorous D. therefore B. in a way D. in return B. reforming B. the worst D. conforming

may be ___2___ by time and culture, but 2. A. predicted the great geniuses never diminish, ___3___ C. involved in the public memory. Many greats in the And yet few would argue that Charles Chaplin was probably the ___5___ of all. Charlie, a native of London, was born in poverty on April 16, 1889 to music hall his first break by performing ___7___ his mother. She was ___8___ from severe mental illness. Later, half-brother Sydney early work in the US was with Mack Sennet’s slapstick (闹剧) comedies which ___9___ be funny. And it was considered ___11___ “pie-in-the-face”. Comedy required athleticism, ___12___ to be one of the greats it required so much more. The greats of the era had trademarks. For Chaplin it was his Little Tramp. And ___13___, he was one of the first to use the camera fir his humor—staring into it and ___14___ directly to the audience. 3. A. except 4. A. later C. prior arts were produced in the ___4___ century. C. besides

5. A. greatest C. furthermost C. performers 7. A. in spite of C. in terms of C. distressing C. ended with C. seemed to C. miraculous 12. A. so C. although C. in addition C. performing

___6___. He was a small child when he got 6. A. producers

got him work with the Karno Company. His 8. A. suffering Keystone Studio. Sennet was famous for his 9. A. resulted in chases. With no sound, the visual ___10___ 10. A. had to to do a pratfall or score a bull’s eye with a 11. A. ridiculous

B. but

13. A. in a sense 14. A. transforming

15. A. the upsetting

His childhood was filled with ___15___ kind of poverty. And it was this poverty from which he would develop his ___16___ with that childhood to create his own style. This style was a(n) ___18___ of comedy and melodrama. And it is ___19___ as “pathos”, pity or sorrow. It hadn’t ___20___ to many scenes that would tug at the audience’s heartstrings. Charlie became the master and such films as The Gold Rush, The Kid, and City Lights are considered to be treasures for just that reason. Key: CBADACBADADBCCBACBDD

C. the evil C. classification C. misery

D. the awful B. realization D. detection B. mystery D. monetary B. combination D. connection B. famous B. happened

16. A. identification

the “little person”. He used the ___17___ of 17. A. mastery 18. A. assortment C. presentation C. defined C. reacted

a quality that arouses emotions, especially 19. A. regarded comedians to color their performances with 20. A. considered

D. known D. occurred

{2} Directions: There are two factors which determine an individual’s intelligence. The first is the sort of brain he is born with. Human brains ___1___ considerably, some being more capable than others. But no matter how good a brain he has to begin with, an individual will have a low ___2___ unless he has opportunities to learn. So the second factor in what happens to the individual is the sort of environment he is reared. If an individual is handicapped ___3___, it is likely that his brain will fail to develop. And he will never attain the level of intelligence of which he is ___4___. The importance of environment in determining an individual’s intelligence can be ___5___ by the case history of the identical twins, Peter and Mark. A) individual E) able Key: BFCDH B) differ F) intelligence C) environmentally G) reared D) capable H) demonstrated

{3} Directions: Choose the best answer to complete each of the following sentences. 1. The schoolmaster ______ the girl’s bravery in his opening speech. A) applauded A) crude A) delayed B) applied C) elevated D) exploded 2. Petrol is refined from the ______ oil we take out of the ground. B) raw C) coarse D) original D) dismissed D) ordinary 3. The plane was ______ for two hours because of the heavy fog. B) detained B) extra C) postponed C) special 4. The students in Prof. Fielding’s class had a/an ______ passion for William Shakespeare. A) extraordinary 5. She is so disappointed that it is very difficult to ______ her enthusiasm or ______ her to any action of hope.

A) rouse…arouse

B) arouse…rouse

C) excite…raise

D) raise…excite

66. The morning news says a school bus ______ with a train at the junction and a group of policemen were sent there immediately. A) bumped dormitory. A) incidence A) belief B) matters C) incidents D) accidents 8. To our ______, Geoffrey’s illness proved not to be as serious as we had feared. B) relief C) release D) anxiety D) message D) cut it off D) confrontation 9. The service is a ______ to those who died for the independence of the nation. A) memory A) cut it in A) collision B) memorial B) cut it down B) collaboration C) monument C) cut it short C) corrosion 10. At first, the seller wanted 150 dollars for the suit, but at last I ______ to 40 dollars! 11. It is reported that thirty people were killed in a ______ on the railway yesterday. 12. In Britain today women ______ 44% of the workforce, and nearly half the mothers with children are in paid work. A) build up A) conflict B) stand for B) contrast C) make up C) comparison D) conform to D) contradiction 13. In sharp ______ to John, who is frank, Henry is too sophisticated. (Key: 1-5 A A A A B 6-10 B C B B B 11-13 A C B) B) collided C) crashed D) crushed 7. Arriving home, the boy told the parents about all the ______ which occurred in his

{4} Word Building 1. The statue was erected as a _____ to all the people who were killed in the war. (memory) 2. The new government would immediately _____ the coal and steel industries and the railways. (nationality) 3. The expression on her face was _____ and anxious as I was telling my story. (doubt) 4. She was shocked by the _____ of his remarks. (crude) 5. There’s higher _____ of left-handedness among boys than girls. (incident) 6. It is said that he is an _____ proud person. (immense) 7. My family was _____ at the news of my safe arrival. (relief) 8. Before you set your targets, make sure that they are _____. (achieve) 9. His uncle is the _____ of his mother’s will. (execute) 10. The audience were amazed at the extraordinary _____ of the actors. (perform) Key: 1,memorial 7,relieved 2, nationalize 3,doubtful 4,crudity 5,incidence 6,immensely 8,achievable 9,execution 10,performance

{5}翻译题 1. It was such a beautiful place that very few can resist the urge to stop and sit in one of the small roadside restaurants and simply soak up the atmosphere.

2. When doing things unjust or immoral, immoralists would do so with the slogans of justice and morality on their lips. 1, 答案: 这地方如此美丽, 几乎人人都会情不自禁在路边的一个小饭馆坐下, 就为了呼吸一下这里的空气。 2,答案:无道德的人做不公正或不道德的事时,满嘴是公正和道德的口号。

Unit 3 to 4
{1} Choose the best answer to complete each of the following sentences 1. He was driven out of the house by the landlady since he had failed to pay his ______ for two months. A) bill B) fee C) fare D) rent C) convicted D) condemned 2. Once ______ of doping (using excitant), the long distance runner will face a life ban. A) sentenced B) accused 3. On this special occasion, we’d love to have Eight Treasure Pudding for ______ which is a specialty in this Chinese restaurant. A) dessert down. A) pension ______. A) crude B) originally C) rude D) raw D) champion 6. The defending ______ snatched the gold medal by setting a new world record. A) champagne B) campaign A) liberal A) recipe A) height B) liberate B) receipt B) summit C) companion D) literate D) cheque D) highlight D) notifying 7. More ______ attitudes toward divorce were held responsible for the rise in divorce rate. C) literal C) label C) peak 8. You can claim a refund (退款) provided you keep the ______. 9. The undoubted ______ of the opening ceremony was a grand display of fireworks. 10. The babysitter handed the mother a piece of paper ______ that she was in good health. A) certifying A) thrived B) justifying B) boomed C) clarifying 11. Businesses ______ in those few weeks; but soon an economic crisis crushed them. C) prospered D) flourished (Key:1-5 D C A B D 6-11 D A B D A B) B) compensation C) commission D) substitution 5. Some vegetables like tomatoes and carrots are more nutritious while eaten cooked than B) desert C) deserve D) desertion 4. The insurance company paid the Johnsons $ 20,000 in ______ after their house was burnt

{2} Fill in the blanks with the appropriate word forms of the words given in the blankets. 1. The kid’s ______ appetite showed that he had not had a decent meal for days. (wolf) 2. For more professional advice about a healthy weight loss, please consult our ______. (diet) 3. These ______ CD cases are the best seller in this souvenir shop. (hamburger) 4. This ______-brown metal proves to be a good conductor of electricity. (red) 5. With the rise in casualties, another medical team including both ______ and nurses was

sent to the earthquake-hit island. (physic) 6. In his latest book, the distinguished British ______ goes back to the 19 th century to uncover the origins of such national extremism. (history) 7. By no means could you expect to fool your boss with such a ______ story. (baby) 8. ______ T-shirts and jeans are all the rage among youngsters this season. (big) 9. Hispanic Americans refer to U. S. citizens of ______ descent. (Spain) 10. In the ______ silence, a whisper may run like sirens. (death) Key: 1,wolfish 7,babyish 2,dietician 3,hamburger-like 10,Deathlike 4,reddish 5,physicians 6,historian 8,Biggish 9,Spanish

{3} 英译汉两句 1. There needs to be lawyer who can act as a champion for the rights of welfare clients, because the system so easily lends itself to abuse by the welfare givers as well as by the client. 2. He had helped me lift the veil that grows so quickly over our eyes in this busy world, to see a whole new realm I’d failed to appreciate before. 1. 2. 答案:真需要有一位律师来捍卫福利救济对象的权利,因为这一福利体制不仅容易使福利提供者滥 答案: 在这个繁忙喧嚣的世界,一层快速形成的遮蔽物遮住了我们的双眼,是他帮我揭开了它, 用权利,也很容易使福利救济对象滥用权利。 见到了一个以前从未欣赏到的崭新世界。

{4} Choose the best answer to complete each of the following sentences. 1. The editors ______ the manuscript to half its original length. A) condensed A) integral A) leaked A) punch A) invested B) condemned B) intentional B) clicked B) scrape C) concealed D) concentrated 2. They would receive ______ training under the watching eyes of the government. C) intensive D) intense 3. Being very hungry, the cat ______ the saucer clean. C) licked C) tear D) scraped 4. In Chinatown one may buy a scratcher to ______ one’s back. D) scratch D) integrated D) switched 5. He ______ every spare minute in trying to improve his mind. B) involved C) invented 6. CCTV programs are ______ by satellite to the remotest areas in the country. A) transmitted A) appliances A) appliances A) spare A) tap B) submitted C) transformed 7. One of the ______ our students have is a large library. B) facilities B) facility B) severe B) tag C) utilities C) utilities C) serious D) sigh D) instruments D) instruments D) strategic 8. Today, household chores have been made much easier by electrical ______. 9. The ______ defense of the country depends on a powerful air force 10. Each coat in the store has a ______ with the price-mark on it. C) sign 11. Although not an economist himself, Dr. Smith has long been a severe critic of the

government’s ______ policies A) economical A) economical B) economy B) economy C) economic C) economic D) economics D) economics 12. She is an ______ housekeeper and feeds her family cheaply and fairly well. Key: 1-5A C C D A 6-12 A B A D B C A

{5}构词法应用 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. The United States is now considered to be both a military and economic ______ in the The film was based on the ______ (自传) of the famous writer. (biography) She placed her house at my ______ during my holidays. (dispose) The local government has given priority to the construction of infrastructure so as Malaria is ______ to humans by mosquitoes. (transmission) Computers are not always ______ . (rely) The carpet is six feet in length and four feet in ______. (wide) The child was ______ to be found, and his parent believed he must have been You don’t have to sacrifice environmental protection to ______ economic growth. world. (power)

to attract foreign ______ (invest)

kidnapped. (where) (promotion) 10. The union took a ______ decision to sign the agreement. (strategy) Key: 1,superpower 2,autobiography 3,disposal 4,investment 5,transmitted 6,reliable 7,width 8,nowhere 9,promote 10,strategic

{6}英译汉 1. All these developing regions see advanced communications as a way to leap over whole stages of economic development. 2. Mobile phones have become the rage among businesspeople, who can remain in contact despite the traffic jams. 1.答案:所有这些发展中地区都把先进的通信技术看作一种跨越经济发展诸阶段的途径。 2. 答案:移动电话在商务人士中成为时尚,他们在交通堵塞时也能与外界保持联系。

Unit 5
{1} 1. Employees at ______ posts have to carefully weigh up the employer’s words and B) humble C) modest D) simple D) controlled closely watch his expression. A) underestimated 2. 3. A) tamed Over the years, the dam has ______ the might of the river. B) undermined C) domesticated Premier Wen Jiabao’s encouraging remarks ______ confidence in the disaster hit

people... A) insured 4. 5. 6. 7. A) appeal A) grassy A) climbed B) increased C) stirred D) inspired D) apology The visitor made an ______ for breaking the vase. B) anthropology B) slippery B) crawled C) anthology In the rainy summer, the wooden bridge became very ______. C) smooth C) crept D) even D) peeped C) operation D) holly D) distract D) obsession The late student ______ in from the back door with breakfast in his mouth. After a week’s ______, I found the dog and the cat living in harmony. B) conservation C) wholly

A) observation A) holy

8. The festival was regarded as a ______ occasion when all ordinary works stopped. B) hollow 9. Professor Brewer’s books are very ______ and hard to read. A) abstract B) subtract C) contract 10. We got lost because the directions to the place of the party were too ______. 我们迷路了,因为有关晚会地点的说明/路线图太复杂了! A) complex [a.复杂的,n. 复杂物,情节,狂恋症] B) comprehensive [综合的,全面的] C) sophisticated [尖端的,老于世故的,狡猾的] D) complicated [复杂的,难懂的;复杂化的] 固定搭配有:complex sentence 复杂/合句,complex word 派生词,complex ideas/thearies 复杂 观念/理论,building complex 建筑群 complicated machines/questions/explanations 复杂的机器/问题/解释/说明 Key: BADDBCAAAD

{2} Word Building 1. San Lu Dairy owes its consumers an ______ for making contaminated milk powder. (apologize) 2. I wouldn’t lend him any money, he’s a real ______ guy. (slip) 3. I haven’t started writing the article yet. I’m still waiting for ______. (inspire) 4. There were sharp contrasts between ______ Diana and Prince Charles who was 17 years older than Diana. (prince) 5. I’m afraid we ______ his abilities----he is not competent for the job at all. (estimate) 6. People working for the private mines complaint that they are usually ______. (pay) 7. Everyone felt ______ on hearing the news that many babies had got kidney stones after having the contaminated milk powder. (depress) 8. When I got home, I found everything was in ______ but nothing seemed to be stolen. (order) 9. Luckily, my parents are ______ of my choice of music. (tolerate) 10. The little girl lived a poor and ______ life after her parents died in the accident. (solitude) Key: 1,apology 2,slipper 3,inspiration 4,Princess 5,overestimated 6,underpaid 7,depressed 8,disorder 9,tolerant 10,solitary

{3}翻译:

1. The more modest and humble we feel, the more we suffer from solitude, feeling ourselves inadequate company. 2. Many schools have started conflict resolution programs to calm tensions that otherwise can build up like a volcano preparing to explode ultimately resulting in physical violence. 1. 答案:我们越感觉谦卑,就越受孤独的折磨,感到仅与自己相处远远不够。 2.答案:许多学校都启动了化解冲突的工作项目,以舒缓紧张形势,要不然它们就像火山一样蓄势待发, 最终导致侵犯人身的暴力行为。 {4} 1. His views lack ______: one day he is a conservative, the next he is a liberal. (consistent) 2. The case was dismissed because of ______ evidence. (sufficient) 3. They won the battle because of their massive ______ in numbers. (superior) 4. He is thinking of going into ______, trying to become a Member of Parliament. (political) 5. A standard criticism of ______ research is that it tries to prove what most people with common sense already know. (social) 6. The light went out and the entire hall sank into complete ______. (dark) 7. A new _____ of teaching would be carried out in our school next semester. (method) 8. ______ is a branch of science and technology that deals with the behavior of electrons. (electron) 9. The ______ of confidence when faced by difficulties is one of his big problems. (adequate) 10. He told us that he was the ______ of Queen Victoria. (descend) Key: 1,consistency 2,insufficient 3,superiority 4politics 5,sociological 7,methodology 8,Electronics 9,nadequacy 10,descendant 6darkness

{5} Translate the English sentences into Chinese. 1. The same map, in combination with ancient human bones, confirms that Africa was the birthplace of humanity and thus the starting point of the original human movements. 2. Activists for native populations fear that the scientists could exploit these peoples: genetic material taken from blood sample could be used for commercial purposes without adequate payment made to the groups that provide the DNA 1. 地。 2. Key: 保护土著人权益活动家们担心科学家可能会利用土著人谋利:从当地人血样中提取的基因物质可 Key: 结合对远古人骨的研究,这一图谱证实了非洲是人类的诞生地,因而也是人类迁移的石始发

被用于商业目的,却不给 DNA 提供者以足够的报酬。

Unit 6 to 8
{1} 1. The company will (center) 2. The company now has three times as many 3. The conflict which lasted for a month has as it did a year ago. (employ) the whole region. (stable) its operations next year and open several offices in the region.

4. The number of 5. He looked 6. He was accused of

has been on the rise for years now. (divorce) around and knocked on the door. (caution) an official and sentenced to 5 years in prison. (bribery) of her marriage to the young men, whom they didn’t like at . (depression)

7. The girl’s family strongly all. (approval)

8. The news of job cuts made the employees in the office very 9. The currency of the country became 10. I used to work as a reporter with that journal. (train)

because of the increasing prices. (value)

Key: 1,decentralize 2,employees 3,destabilized 4,divorcees 5,cautiously 6,bribing 7,disapproved 8,depressed 9,devalued 10,trainee

{2}Translate the English sentences into Chinese 1. Someone is always at my elbow reminding me that I am the granddaughter of slaves. But it fails to register depression with me. 2. We enter charting about any little things that we have in common and the white man would sit calmly in his seat, listening to me with interest 1. 答案: 身边总有人提醒我自己是奴隶的后代,但这并没有使我沮丧。 2. 答案:我们闲谈一些都经历过的琐事,白人会安静地坐着,兴味盎然地听我讲

{3}Choose the best answer to complete each of the following sentences. 1. Please the rope. the night. it to the teacher Chinese. bottle. out of many. until it burst. A) lose B) loose C) close D) rouse 2. It stopped raining 3. He found a purse and 4. He speaks English 5. Give me a(n) 6. This is only one 7. The balloon 8. It is 9. It is A) among B) for C) during D) past A) gave B) sent C) supply D) advise A) as for B) as if C) as well D) as well as A) vacant B) empty C) eminent D) valid A) sample B) examples C) instance D) instant A) expedited B) extended C) expanded D) expected to dispute about such things. for a man to walk in his sleep. from sight in the distance. C) disappeared D) disapproved A) courteous B) funny C) radical D) ridiculous A) abnormal B) usual C) C common D) normal 10. I watched him until he A) vanish B) disappointed key: BCADBCCDAC

{4}Choose the best answer to complete each of the following sentences. 1. It is necessary to ______ to a rapidly changing society. A. adopt A. assured A. emigrate A) expose A) adjustments A) restrain B. adapt C. adhere D. adept D. assumed D. remove D) exploit D) modifications D) confine 2. The captain of the ship ______ the passengers that there was no danger. B. ensured B. immigrate C. insured C. transfer C) exhaust C) varieties C) restrict 3. The young girl managed to ______ from Asia to Europe after she married a French man. 4. They are trying to ______ the waste discharged by the factory for profit. B) exhibit B) variations 5. The dial records very slight ______ in pressure 6. The teacher told the students in her conversation class to ______ their talk to the topic. B) condense 7. If the diver is in deep water, he must come to the surface slowly in order to allow his body to ______ to the change in pressure. A. alert A. insured well. A. adapted A. assured A. expanded A. separate A. adopting A. variety A. explore A. expanded A. late B. brought B. ensured B. extended B. distinct B. adapting B. variation B. extend C. received C. secured D. adopted D. insured D. explored D. divided D. adjusting D. modification 10. Tom ______ his house against fire. 11. His modest business eventually ______ into a multinational company. C. exploited 12. There was a ______ sense of embarrassment in the air. C. distinctive C. adept 13. Although he is very young, he is ______ at playing the piano. 14. We are dreaming of a life full of change and ______. C. adjustment C. expand 15. As soon as they arrived at the town, they went out to ______. D. exploit D. revealed 16. The baby was left ______ to the wind and rain. B. extended C. latest C. exposed D. lately 17. We have been doing a lot of gardening ______. B. latter Key: BAADBDDCADABCAACD B. adopt B. ensured C. improve C. assured D. adjust D. reassured 8. You can rest ______ that we will try our best to help you whenever needed. 9. When we moved to France, the children ______ themselves to the new surroundings very

Passage1

The picnics, speeches, and parades of today’s Labor Day were all part of the first celebration, held in New York City in 1882. Its promoter was an Irish-American labor leader named peter J. McGuire. A carpenter by trade, McGuire had worked since the age of eleven, and in 1882 was president of the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners (UBCJ). Approaching the City’s Central Labor Union that summer, he proposed a holiday that would applaud 赞许)the industrial ( ” spirit-the great vital force of every nation,” On September 5 his suggestion bore fruit, as an estimated 10,000 workers, many of them ignoring their bosses’ warnings, left work to march from Union square up Fifth Avenue to 42nd Street. The event gained national attention, and by 1893 thirty states had made Labor Day an annual holiday. The quick adoption of the scheme may have indicated less about the state lawmakers’ respect for working people than about a fear of risking their anger. In the 1880s the United States was a land sharply divided between the immensely wealthy and the very poor. Henry George was accurate in describing the era as one of ―progress and poverty.‖ In a society in which factory, owners rode in private Pullmans while ten-year-olds slaved in the mines, strong anti-capitalist feeling ran high. Demands for fundamental change were common throughout the labor press. With socialists demanding an end to “wage slavery” and anarchists (无政府主义) singing the praises of the virtues of dynamite(炸药), middle-of-the-roaders like Samuel Gompers and McGuire seemed attractively mild by comparison. One can imagine practical capitalists seeing Labor Day as a bargain: A one-day party certainly cost them less than paying their workers decent wages. 1 Judging from the passage, McGuire was _____A_______. A) a moderate labor leader B) an extreme-anarchist in the labor movement C) a devoted socialist fighting against exploitation of man by man D) a firm anti-capitalist demanding the elimination of wage slavery 2. We can see from the first paragraph that the first Labor Day march ___C______. A) immediately won nationwide support B) involved workers from 30 states C) was opposed by many factory owners D) was organized by the UBCJ 3. Which of the following is the key factor in the immediate approval of Labor Day as a national holiday? D A) The lawmakers’ respect for the workers B) The worker’s determination to have a holiday of their own. C) The socialists’ demands for thorough reform D) The politicians’ fear of the workers’ anger. 4. We lean from the passage that the establishment of Labor Day ___A_________. A) was accepted by most bosses as a compromise B) marked a turning point in the workers’ struggle for more rights C) indicated the improvement of the workers’ welfare D) signaled the end of ―wage slavery‖

Passage 2

Statuses are marvelous human inventions that enable us to get along with one another and to determine where we ―fit‖ in society. As we go about our everyday lives, we mentally attempt to place people in terms of their statuses. For example, we must judge whether the person in the library is a reader or a librarian, whether the telephone caller is a friend or a salesman, whether the unfamiliar person on our property is thief or a meter reader, and so on. The statuses we assume often vary with the people we encounter, and change throughout life. Most of us can, at very high speed, assume the statuses that various situations require. Much of social interaction consists of identifying and selecting among appropriate statuses and allowing other people to assume their statuses in relation to us. This means that we fit our actions to those of other people based on a constant mental process of appraisal and interpretation. Although some of us find the task more difficult than others, most of us perform it rather effortlessly. A status has been compared to ready-made clothes. Within certain limits, the buyer can choose style and fabric. But an American is not free to choose the costume(服装)of a Chinese peasant or that of a Hindu prince. We must choose from among the clothing presented by our society. Furthermore, our choice is limited to a size that will fit, as well as by our pocketbook(钱 包). Having made a choice within these limits we can have certain alterations made, but apart from minor adjustments, we tend to be limited to what the stores have on their racks. Statuses too come ready made, and the range of choice among them is limited. 1. In the first paragraph, the writer tells us that statuses can help us ____B____. A) determine whether a person is fit for a certain job B) behave appropriately in relation to other people C) protect ourselves in unfamiliar situations D) make friends with other people 2. According to the writer, people often assume different statuses ___D_____. A) in order to identify themselves with others B) in order to better identify others C) as their mental processes change D) as the situation changes 3. The word ―appraisal‖ (Line 5, Para.2) most probably means ―____C______‖. A) involvement B) appreciation C) assessment D) presentation 4. In the last sentence of the second paragraph, the pronoun ―it‖ refers to ―___A_____‖. A) fitting our actions to those of other people appropriately B) identification of other people’s statuses C) selecting one’s own statuses D) constant mental process

Passage3
Upon reaching an appropriate age (usually between 18 and 21 years), children are encouraged, but

not forced, to ―leave the nest‖ and begin an independent life. After children leave home they often find social relationship and financial support outside the family. Parents do not arrange marriages for their children, nor do children usually ask permission of their parents to get married, Romantic love is most often the basis for marriage in the United States; young adults meet their future spouses (配偶) through other friends, at jobs, and in organizations and religious institutions, Although children choose their own spouses, they still hope their parents will approve of their choices. In many families, parents feel that children should make major life decisions by themselves. A parent may try to influence a child to follow a particular profession but the child is free to choose another career. Sometimes children do precisely the opposite of what their parents wish in order to assert their independence. A son may deliberately decide not to go into his father’s business because of a fear that he will lose his autonomy in his father’s workplace. This independence from parents is not an indication that parents and children do not love each other. Strong love between parents and children is universal and this is no exception in the American family Coexisting with such love in the American family are cultural values of self – reliance and independence. 1. The writer discusses the marriage of young adults in order to show which of the following? C A) They enjoy the freedom of choosing their spouses. B) They want to win the permission of their parents. C) They have a strong desire to become independent. D) They want to challenge the authority of their parents. 2. Most young adults in the U.S. get married for the sake of ___A_. A) love B) financial concern C) their parents D) family background 3. Based on the passage, it can be assumed that ___C___. A) American young adults are likely to follow the suit of their parents B) most American people never make major decisions for their children C) American young adults possess cultural values of independence D) once a young person steps into his twenties, he will leave his home permanently 4. A son is unwilling to work in his father’s business mainly because __B___. A) he wishes to make full use of what he has learnt in school B) he wants to prove his independence C) he wishes to do the opposite of what his parents approve of D) he wants to show his love for his parents

Passage4
Exchange a glance with someone, then look away. Do you realize that you have made a statement? Hold the glance for a second longer, and you have made a different statement. Hold it for 3 seconds, and the meaning has changed again. For every social situation, there is a permissible time that you can hold a person’s gaze without being intimate, rude, or aggressive. If

you are on an elevator, what gaze-time are you permitted? To answer this question, consider what you typically do. You very likely give other passengers a quick glance to size them up(打量)and to assure them that you mean no threat. Since being close to another person signals the possibility of interaction. You need to emit a signal telling others you want to be left alone. So you cut off eye contact, what sociologist Erving Goffman (1963) calls ―a dimming of the lights.‖ You look down at the floor, at the indicator lights, anywhere but into another passenger’s eyes. Should you break the rule against staring at a stranger on an elevator, you will make the other person exceedingly uncomfortable, and you are likely to feel a bit strange yourself. If you hold eye contact for more than 3 seconds, what are you telling another person? Much depends on the person and the situation. For instance, a man and a woman communicate interest in this manner. They typically gaze at each other for about 3 seconds at a time, then drop their eyes down for 3 seconds, before letting their eyes meet again. But if one man gives another man a 3-second-plus stare, he signals, ―I know you‖, ―I am interested in you,‖ or ―You look peculiar and I am curious about you.‖ This type of stare often produces hostile feelings. 1. It can be inferred form the first paragraph that _____A__. A) every glance has its significance B) staring at a person is an expression of interest C) a gaze longer than 3 seconds is unacceptable D) a glance conveys more meaning than words 2. If you want to be left alone on an elevator, the best thing to do is ___B_______. A) to look into another passenger’s eyes B) to avoid eye contact with other passengers C) to signal you are not a threat to anyone D) to keep a distance from other passengers 3. By ―a dimming of the lights‖ (Para.1, Line 9) Erving Goffman means ―_C______‖. A) closing one’s eyes B) turning off the lights C) creasing to glance at others D) reducing gaze-time to the minimum 4. If one is looked at by a stranger for too long, he tends to feel __B_________. A) depressed B) uneasy C) curious D) amused

Passage5
After the violent earthquake that shook Los Angeles in 1994, earthquake scientists had good news to report: The damage and death toll(死亡人数)could have been much worse. More than 60 people died in this earthquake. By comparison, as earthquake of similar intensity that shook America in 1988 claimed 25,000 victims. Injuries and deaths were relatively less in Los Angeles because the quake occurred at 4:31

a.m. on a holiday, when traffic was light on the city’s highways. In addition, changes made to the construction codes in Los Angeles during the last 20 years have strengthened the city’s buildings and highways, making them more resistant to quakes. Despite the good new, civil engineers aren’t resting on their successes. Pinned to their drawing boards are blueprints(蓝图)for improved quake-resistant buildings. The new designs should offer even greater security to cities where earthquakes often take place. In the past, making structures quake-resistant meant firm yet flexible materials, such as steel and wood, that bend without breaking. Later, people tried to lift a building off its foundation, and insert rubber and steel between the building and its foundation to reduce the impact of ground vibrations. The most recent designs give buildings brains as well as concrete and steel supports. Called smart buildings, the structures respond like living organisms to an earthquake’s vibrations. When the ground shakes and the building tips forward, the computer would force the building to shift in the opposite direction. The new smart structures could be very expensive to build. However, they would save many lives and would be less likely to be damaged during earthquakes. 1. One reason why the loss of lives in the Los Angeles earthquake was comparatively low is that _____D____. A) new computers had been installed in the buildings B) it occurred in the residential areas rather than on the highways C) large numbers of Los Angeles residents had gone for a holiday D) improvements had been made in the construction of buildings and highways 2. The function of the computer mentioned in the passage is to __A___. A) counterbalance an earthquake’s action on the building B) predict the coming of an earthquake with accuracy C) help strengthen the foundation of the building D) measure the impact of an earthquake’s vibrations 3. The smart buildings discussed in the passage ___B___ A) would cause serious financial problems B) would be worthwhile though costly C) would increase the complexity of architectural design D) can reduce the ground vibrations caused by earthquakes 4. It can be inferred from the passage that in minimizing the damage caused by earthquakes attention should be focused on ___C____. A) the increasing use of rubber and steel in capital construction B) the development of flexible building materials C) the reduction of the impact of ground vibrations D) early forecasts of earthquakes

Passage6
Until the 1980s, the American homeless population comprised mainly older males. Today, homelessness strikes much younger part of society. In fact, a 25-city survey by the U. S. Conference of Mayors in 1987 found that families with children make up the fastest growing part

of the homeless population. Many homeless children gather in inner cities; this transient(变化无 常的) and frequently frightened student population creates additional problems — both legal and educational — for already overburdened urban school administrators and teachers. Estimates of the number of homeless Americans range from 350,000 to three million. Likewise, estimates of the number of homeless school children vary radically. A U.S. Department of Education report, based on state estimates, states that there are 220,000 homeless school-age children, about a third of whom do not attend school on a regular basis, But the National Coalition (联合,联盟 , 合并, 结合) for the Homeless estimates that there are at least two times as many 。 homeless children, and that less than half of them attend school regularly. One part of the homeless population that is particularly difficult to count consists of the ―throwaway‖ youths who have been cast of their homes. The Elementary School Center in New York City estimates that there are 1.5 million of them, many of whom are not counted as children because they do not stay in family shelters and tend to live by themselves on the streets. Federal law, the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act of 1987, includes a section that addresses the educational needs of homeless children. The educational provisions of the McKinney Act are based on the belief that all homeless children have the right to a free, appropriate education. 1. It is implied in the first paragraph that __C__. A) the writer himself is homeless, even in his eighties B) many older homeless residents are going on strike in 25 cities C) there is a serious shortage of academic facilities D) homeless children are denied the opportunity of receiving free education 2. The National Coalition for the homeless believes that the number of homeless children is _C_. A) 350,000 B) 1,500,000 C) 440,000 D) 110,000 3. One part of the homeless population is difficult to estimate. The reason might well be _D___. A) the homeless children are too young to be counted as children B) the homeless population is growing rapidly C) the homeless children usually stay outside school D) some homeless children are deserted by their families 4. The McKinney Act is mentioned in this passage in order to show that ___A. A) the educational problems of homeless children are being recognized B) the estimates on homeless children are hard to determine C) the address of grade-school children should be located D) all homeless people are entitled to free education

Passage7
Where do pesticides (杀虫剂) fit into the picture of environmental disease? We have seen that they now pollute soil, water and food, that they have the power to make our streams fishless and our gardens and woodlands silent and birdless. Man, however much he may like to pretend the

contrary, is part of nature. Can he escape a pollution that is now so thoroughly distributed throughout our world: We know that even single exposures to these chemicals, if the amount is large enough, can cause extremely severe poisoning. But this is not the major problem. The sudden illness or death of farmers, farmworkers, and others exposed to sufficient quantities of pesticides is very sad and should not occur. For the population as a whole, we must be more concerned with the delayed effects of absorbing small amounts of the pesticides that invisibly pollute our world. Responsible public health officials have pointed out that the biological effects of chemicals are cumulative (累积) over long periods of time, and that the danger to individual may depend on the sum of the exposures received throughout his lifetime. For these very reasons the danger is easily ignored. It is human nature to shake off what may seem to us a threat of future disaster. "Men are naturally most impressed by diseases which have obvious signs, " says a wise physician, Dr Rene Dubos, "yet some of their worst enemies slowly approach them unnoticed." 1. Which of the following is closest in meaning to the sentence "Man... is part of nature" (Para. 1, Lines 3-4)? B A) Man appears indifferent to what happens in nature. B) Man acts as if he does not belong to nature. C) Man can avoid the effects of environmental pollution. D) Man can escape his responsibilities for environmental effects of pesticides? 2. What is the author's attitude toward the environmental effects of pesticides? D A) Pessimistic C) Defensive B) Indifferent D) Concerned 3. In the author's view, the sudden death caused by exposure to large amounts of pesticides ___A__. A) is not the worst of the negative consequences resulting from the use of pesticides B) now occurs most frequently among all accidental deaths C) has sharply increased so as to become the center of public attention D) is unavoidable because people can't do without pesticides in farming 4. People tend to ignore the delayed effects of exposure to chemical because __C___. A) limited exposure to them does little harm to people's health B) the present is more important for them than the future C) the danger does not become apparent immediately D) humans are capable of withstanding small amounts of poisoning

Passage8
The speaker, a teacher from a community college, addressed a sympathetic audience. Heads nodded in agreement when he said, ―High school English teachers are not doing their jobs.‖ He described the inadequacies of his students, all high school graduates who can use language only at a grade 9 level. I was unable to determine from his answers to my questions how this grade 9 level had been established. My topic is not standards nor its decline 降低)What the speaker was really saying is that eh ( .

is no longer young; he has been teaching for sixteen years, and is able to think and speak like a mature adult. My point is that the frequent complaint of one generation about the one immediately following it is inevitable. It is also human nature to look for the reasons for our dissatisfaction. Before English became a school subject in the late nineteenth century, it was difficult to find the target of the blame for language deficiencies(缺陷). But since then, English teachers have been under constant attack. The complainers think they have hit upon an original idea. As their own command of the language improves, they notice that young people do not have this same ability. Unaware that their own ability has developed through the years, they assume the new generation of young people must be hopeless in this respect. To the eyes and ears of sensitive adults the language of the young always seems inadequate. Since this concern about the decline and fall of the English language is not perceived as a generational phenomenon but rather as something new and peculiar to today’s young people, it naturally follows that today’s English teachers cannot be doing their jobs. Otherwise, young people would not commit offenses against the language. 1. The speaker the author mentioned in the passage believed that ___D____. A) the language of the younger generation is usually inferior to that of the older generation B) the students had a poor command of English because they didn’t work hard enough C) he was an excellent language teacher because he had been teaching English for sixteen years D) English teachers should be held responsible for the students’ poor command of English 2. In the author’s opinion, the speaker _B_____. A) gave a correct judgment of the English level of the students B) had exaggerated the language problems of the students C) was right in saying that English teachers were not doing their jobs D) could think and speak intelligently 3. The author’s attitude towards the speaker’s remarks is ___C___. A) neutral B) positive C) critical D) compromising

Passage9
Even plants can run a fever, especially when they’re under attack by insects or disease. But unlike humans, plants can have their temperature taken from 3,000 feet away-straight up. A decade ago, adapting the infrared(红外线)scanning technology developed for military purposes and other satellites, physicist Stephen Paley came up with a quick way to take the temperature of crops to determine which ones are under stress. The goal was to let farmers precisely target pesticide (杀虫 剂)spraying rather than rain poison on a whole field, which invariably includes plants that don’t have pest(害虫)problems. Even better, Paley’s Remote Scanning Services Company could detect crop problems before they became visible to the eye. Mounted on a plane flown at 3,000 feet at night, an infrared

scanner measured the heat emitted by crops. The data were transformed into a color-coded map showing where plants were running ―fevers‖. Farmers could then spot-spray, using 50 to 70 percent less pesticide than they otherwise would. The bad news is that Paley’s company closed down in 1984, after only three years. Farmers resisted the new technology and long-term backers were hard to find. But with the renewed concern about pesticides on produce, and refinements in infrared scanning, Paley hopes to get back into operation. Agriculture experts have no doubt the technology works. ―This technique can be used on 75 percent of agricultural land in the United States,‖ says George Oerther of Texas A&M. Ray Jackson, who recently retired from the Department of Agriculture, thinks remote infrared crop scanning could be adopted by the end of the decade. But only if Paley finds the financial backing which he failed to obtain 10 years ago. 1. Plants will emit an increased amount of heat when they are __C______. A) sprayed with pesticides B) facing an infrared scanner C) in poor physical condition D) exposed to excessive sun rays 2. In order to apply pesticide spraying precisely, we can use infrared scanning to _D_____. A) estimate the damage to the crops B) draw a color-coded map C) measure the size of the affected area D) locate the problem area 3. Farmers can save a considerable amount of pesticide by __A____. A) resorting to spot-spraying B) consulting infrared scanning experts C) transforming poisoned rain D) detecting crop problems at an early date

Passage10
The greatest contribution to civilization in the century may well be the air-conditioning and American leads just as amazing is the speed with which this situation came to be. Air-conditioning began to spread in industries as a production aid during World War Ⅱ. Today most Americans need to take air-conditioning for granted to homes, offices, factories, theatres, shops, studios, schools, hotels, and restaurants. But not everybody is aware that high cost and easy comfort are merely two of the effects of the vast cooling of American. In fact, air conditioning has substantially altered the country’s character and customs. Many of the byproducts are so conspicuous that they are scarcely noticed. To begin with, air-conditioning transformed the face of America by making possible those glassy, boxy, sealed-in skyscrapers. It has been indispensable, no less, to the functioning of sensitive advanced computers, whose high operating temperatures require that they be constantly cooled. . . It has, at will, forced families into retreating into families with closed doors and shut windows, reducing the interactions of neighborhood life. It is really surprising that the public’s

often noted withdrawal into self-pursuit and privacy has coincided with the historic spread of air-conditioning. Though science has little studied how habitual air-conditioning affects mind and body, some medical experts suggest that, like other technical avoidance of natural variations in climate, air-conditioning may damage the human capacity to adapt to stress. If so, air-conditioning is only like many other greatly useful technical developments that liberate man from nature by increasing his productivity and power in some way - while indirectly weakening him in others. 1. According to this selection, which of the following constitutes the unique character of U.S.? A) Its excessive use of air-conditioning. B) Its advanced computerized civilization. C) Its public’s retreating into self-pursuit. D) Its greatest contribution to human civilization. 2. According to the author, the chief consequence brought about by the wide application of air-conditioning is __B_. A)the loss of human capacity to adapt to changes in climate B)the reduction of social communications of neighborhood life C)the active life style of all its users D)the decreased human production and power 3. The tone of this selection reveals that air-conditioning __C__. A)has little effect on its users B)has more effect on body than on mind C)brings more benefits than damage to its users D)does harm as well as good to its users 4. Who benefits the least from air-conditioning according to the author? D A)Medical experts. B)Manufacturers. C)Factory laborers. D)Consumers. A

Passage11
For any given task in Britain there are more men than are needed. Strong unions keep them there in Fleet Street, home of some London's biggest dailies, it is understood that when two unions quarrel over three jobs, the argument is settled by giving each union two. That means 33 per cent overmanning, 33 per cent less productivity than could be obtained. A reporter who has visited plants throughout Europe has an impression that the pace of work is much slower here. Nobody tries too hard. Tea breaks do matter and are frequent. It is hard to measure intensity of work, but Britons give a distinct impression of going at their tasks in a more leisurely way. But is all this so terrible? It certainly does not improve the gross national product or output per worker. Those observant visitors, however, have noticed something else about Britain. It is a pleasant place. Street crowds in Stockholm. Paris and New York move quickly and silently heads down, all

in a hurry. London crowds tend to walk at an easy pace ( except in the profitable, efficient City, the financial district). Every stranger is struck by the patient and orderly way in which Britons queue for a bus: if the saleswoman is slow and out of stock she will likely say, 'oh dear, what a pity'; the rubbish collectors stop to chat (聊天) and call the housewives "Luv". Crime rises here as in every city but there still remains a gentle tone and temper that is unmatched in Berlin, Milan or Detroit. In short, what is wrong with Britain may also be what is right. Having reached a tolerable standard, Britons appear to be choosing leisure over goods. 1. What happens when disputes over job opportunities arise among British unions? B A) Thirty three per cent of the workers will be out of work. B) More people will be employed than necessary. C) More jobs will be created by the government. D) The unions will try to increase productivity. 2. What does the reporter who has visited plants throughout Europe think about Britain? ___B__ A) Tea breaks do not affect the intensity of work in Britain. B) Britons do their work in an unhurried sort of way. C) The pace of work in Continental Europe is much slower than in Britain. D) Britons give the impression of working intensively. 3. "The breaks matter" (Para. 2, Line 2) indicates that ___A__. A) they are an important aspect of the British way of life B) they are greatly enjoyed by British workers C) they can be used by the workers as an excuse to take time off from work D) they help the workers to be on good terms with each other 4. The word "this" (Para. 3, Line 1) the author means to say that A___. A) there are more men on any given job than are needed B) 33 per cent overmanning leads to 33 per cent less productivity C) it is difficult to measure the intensity of work D) Britons generally do not want to work too hard

Passage12
Faces, like fingerprints, are unique. Did you ever wonder how it is possible for us to recognize people. Even a skilled writer probably could not describe all the features that make one face different from another. Yet a very young child-or even an animal, such as a pigeon-can learn to recognize faces, we all take this ability for granted. We also tell people apart by how they behave. When we talk about someone’s personality, we mean the ways in which he or she acts, speaks thinks and feels that make that individual different from others. Like the human face, human personality is very complex. But describing someone’s personality in words is somewhat easier than describing his face. If you were asked to describe what a ―nice face‖ looked like, you probably would have a difficult time doing so. But if you were asked to describe a ―nice person‖, you might begin to think about someone who was kind

considerate, friendly, warm, and so forth. There are many words to describe how a person thinks, feels and acts. Gordon Allport, an American psychologist, found nearly 18,000 English words characterizing differences in people’s behavior. And many of us use this information as a basis for describing, or typing, his personality. Bookworms, conservatives, military types-people are described with such terms. People have always tried to “type” each other. actors in early Greek drama wore masks to show the audience whether they played the villain’(坏人) the hero’ role. In fact, the words s or s “person” and “personality” come from the Latin persona, meaning “mask”. Today, most television and movie actors do not wear masks. But we can easily tell the ―good guys‖ from the ―bad guys‖ because the two types differ in appearance as well as inactions. 1. By using the example of finger prints, the author tells us that _____D_____. A) people can learn to recognize faces B) people have different personalities C) people have difficulty in describing the features of finger prints D) people differ from each other in facial features 2. According to this passage, some animals have the gift of _____D______. A) telling people apart by how they behave B) typing each other C) telling good people from had people D) recognizing human faces 3. Who most probably knows best how to describe people’s personality? C A) The ancient Greek audience B) The movie actors C) Psychologists D) The modern TV audience 4. According to the passage, it is possible for us tell one type of person from another because ___A__. A) people differ in their behavioral and physical characteristics B) human fingerprints provide unique information C) people’s behavior can be easily described in words D) human faces have complex features

Passage13
It has been thought and said that Africans are born with musical talent. Because music is so important in the lives of many Africans and because so much music is performed in Africa, we are inclined to think that Africans are musicians. The impression is strengthened when we look at ourselves and find that we have become largely a society of musical spectators (旁观). Music is important to us, but most of us can be considered consumers rather than producers of music. We have records, television, concerts, and radio to fulfill many of our musical needs. In most situations where music is performed in our culture it is not difficult to distinguish the audience from the performers, but such is often not the case in Africa. Alban Ayipaga, a Kasena semiprofessional musician from northern Ghana, says that when his flute (长笛) and drum

ensemble (歌舞团) is performing. "Anybody can take part". This is true , but Kasena musicians recognize that not all people are equally capable of taking part in the music. Some can sing along with the drummers, but relatively few can drum and even fewer can play the flute along with the ensemble. It is fairly common in Africa for there to be an ensemble of expert musicians surrounded by others who join in by clapping, singing, or somehow adding to the totality of musical sound. Performances often take place in an open area (that is, not on a stage) and so the lines between the performing nucleus and the additional performers, active spectators, and passive spectators may be difficult to draw from our point of view. 1. The difference between us and Africans, as far as music is concerned, is that _C__. A) most of us are consumers while most of them are producers of music B) we are musical performers and they are semiprofessional musicians C) most of us are passive spectators while they are active spectators. D) we are the audience and they are the additional performers. 2. The word "such" (Line 6) refers to the fact that __B____. A) music is performed with the participation of the audience B) music is performed without the participation of the audience C) people tend to distinguish the audience from the performers D) people have records, television sets and radio to fulfill their musical needs 3. The author of the passage implies that ___B__. A) all Africans are musical and therefore much music is performed in Africa B) not all Africans are born with musical talent although music is important in their lives C) most Africans are capable of joining in the music by playing musical instruments D) most Africans perform as well as professional musicians 4. The word "nucleus" (Line 13) probably refers to ___D__. A) musicians famous in Africa B) musicians at the center of attention C) musicians acting as the core in a performance D) active participants in a musical performance

Passage14
Disney World, Florida, is the biggest amusement resort in the world. It covers 24.4 thousand acres, and is twice the size of Manhattan .It was opened on October 1, 1971, five years later Walt Disney’s death, and it is a larger, slightly more ambitious version of Disneyland near Los Angeles. Foreigners tend to associate Walt Disney with Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs , and with his other famous cartoon characters , Mickey Mouse , Donald Duck and Pluto , or with his nature films , whose superb photography is spoiled , in the opinion of some , by the vulgarity of the commentary and musical background . There is very little that could be called vulgar in Disney World. It attracts people of most taste and most income groups, and people of all ages, from toddlers to grandpas. There are two expensive hotels, a golf course, and forest trails for horseback riding and rivers for canoeing. But the central attraction of the resort is the Magic Kingdom. Between the huge parking lots and the Magic Kingdom lies a broad artificial lake. In the distance

rise the towers of Cinderella’s Castle, which like every other building in the Kingdom is built of solid materials. Even getting to the Magic Kingdom’s is quite and adventure. You have a choice of transportation. You can either cross the lake on a replica of a Mississippi paddle-wheeler, or you can glide around the shore in a streamlined monorail train. When you reach the terminal, you walk straight into a little square which faces Main Street is late 19th century. There are modern shops inside the buildings, but all the decades are of the period. There are hanging baskets full of red and white flowers, and there is no traffic except a horse-draw streetcar and an ancient double-decider bus. Yet as you walk through the magic Kingdom, you are actually walking on top of a network of underground roads. This is how the shops, restaurants and all the other material needs of the Magic Kingdom are invisibly supplied. 1. In which year did Walt Disney die? C A) 1971 B) 1976 C) 1966 D) 1900 2. The main attraction of Disney World is __D___. A) the Severn Dwarfs B) Mickey Mouse C) Donald Duck D) The Magic World 3. Reaching the Magic Kingdom is ____A___. A) Adventurous B) dangerous C) difficult D) easy

Passage15
Psychologists take opposing views of how external rewards, from warm praise to cold cash, affect motivation and creativity. Behaviorists, who study the relation between actions and their consequences, argue that rewards can improve performance at work and school. Cognitive(认知 学派的) researchers, who study various aspects of mental life, maintain that rewards often destroy creativity by encouraging dependence on approval and gifts from others. The latter view has gained many supporters, especially among educators. But the careful use of small monetary(金钱的)rewards sparks creativity in grade-school children, suggesting that properly presented inducements(刺激)indeed aid inventiveness, according to a study in the June Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. “If kids know they’re working for a reward and can focus on a relatively challenging task, they show the most creativity,‖ says Robert Eisenberger of the University of Delaware in Newark. ―But it’s easy to kill creativity by giving rewards for poor performance or creating too much anticipation for rewards.‖ A teacher who continually draws attention to rewards or who hands out high grades for ordinary achievement ends up with uninspired students, Eisenberger holds. As an example of the latter point, he notes growing efforts at major universities to tighten grading standards and restore failing grades. In earlier grades, the use of so-called token economies, in which students handle challenging problems and receive performance-based points toward valued rewards, shows promise in raising effort and creativity, the Delaware psychologist claims. 1. Psychologists are divided with regard to their attitudes toward _____D_. A) the choice between spiritual encouragement and monetary rewards B) the amount of monetary rewards for student’ creativity C) the study of relationship between actions and their consequences

D) the effects of external rewards on students’ performance 2. What is the response of many educators to external rewards for their students? B A) They have no doubts about them. B) They have doubts about them. C) They approve of them. D) They avoid talking about them. 3. Which of the following can best raise students’ creativity according to Robert Eisenberger? C A) Assigning them tasks they have not dealt with before. B) Assigning them tasks which require inventiveness. C) Giving them rewards they really deserve. D) Giving them rewards they anticipate. 4. It can be inferred from the passage that major universities are trying to tighten their grading standards because they believe ___A___. A) rewarding poor performance may kill the creativity of students B) punishment is more effective than rewarding C) failing uninspired students helps improve their overall academic standards D) discouraging the students’ anticipation for easy rewards is a matter of urgency

Passage16
Now let us look at how we read. When we read a printed text, our eyes move across a page in short, jerky movement. We recognize words usually when our eyes are still when they fixate. Each time they fixate, we see a group of words. This is known as the recognition span or the visual span. The length of time of which the eyes stop ---the duration of the fixation ----varies considerably from person to person. It also varies within any one person according to his purpose in reading and his familiarity with the text. Furthermore, it can be affected by such factors as lighting and tiredness. Unfortunately, in the past, many reading improvement courses have concentrated too much on how our eyes move across the printed page. As a result of this misleading emphasis on the purely visual aspects of reading, numerous exercises have been devised to train the eyes to see more words at one fixation. For instance, in some exercises, words are flashed on to a screen for, say, a tenth or a twentieth of a second. One of the exercises has required students to fix their eyes on some central point, taking in the words on either side. Such word patterns are often constructed in the shape of rather steep pyramids so the reader takes in more and more words at each successive fixation. All these exercises are very clever, but it’s one thing to improve a person’s ability to see words and quite another thing to improve his ability to read a text efficiently. Reading requires the ability to understand the relationship between words. Consequently, for these reasons, many experts have now begun to question the usefulness of eye training, especially since any approach which trains a person to read isolated words and phrases would seem unlikely to help him in reading a continuous text. 1. The time of the recognition span can be affected by the following facts except ___C_____ . A). one’s familiarity with the text B). one’s purpose in reading C). the length of a group of words

D). lighting and tiredness 2. The author may believe that reading ___C_. A). requires a reader to take in more words at each fixation B). requires a reader to see words more quickly C). demands an deeply-participating mind D). demands more mind than eyes 3. Which of the following is NOT true? D A). The visual span is a word or a group of words we see each time. B). Many experts began to question the efficiency of eye training. C). The emphasis on the purely visual aspects is misleading. D).The eye training will help readers in reading a continuous text.

Passage17
The fridge is considered a necessity. It has been so since the 1960s when packaged food first appeared with the label:‖ store in the refrigerator.‖ In my fridgeless Fifties childhood, I was fed well and healthy. The milkman came daily, the grocer, the butcher(肉商), the baker, and the ice-cream man delivered two or three times a week. The Sunday meat would last until Wednesday and surplus 剩余的) ( bread and milk became all kinds of cakes. Nothing was wasted, and we were never troubled by rotten food. Thirty years on, food deliveries have ceased, fresh vegetables are almost unobtainable in the country. The invention of the fridge contributed comparatively little to the art of food preservation. A vast way of well-tried techniques already existed-natural cooling, drying, smoking, salting, sugaring, bottling… What refrigeration did promote was marketing—marketing hardware and electricity, marketing soft drinks, marketing dead bodies of animals around the globe in search of a good price. Consequently, most of the world’s fridges are to be found, not in the tropics where they might prove useful, but in the wealthy countries with mild temperatures where they are climatically almost unnecessary. Every winter, millions of fridges hum away continuously, and at vast expense, busily maintaining an artificially-cooled space inside an artificially-heated house-while outside, nature provides the desired temperature free of charge. The fridge’s effect upon the environment has been evident, while its contribution to human happiness has been insignificant. If you don’t believe me, try it yourself, invest in a food cabinet and turn off your fridge next winter. You may miss the hamburgers(汉堡包), but at least you’ll get rid of that terrible hum. 1. The statement ―In my fridgeless Fifties childhood, I was fed well and healthily.‖ (Line 1, Para.2) suggests that _C_. A) the author was well-fed and healthy even without a fridge in his fifties B) the author was not accustomed to using fridges even in his fifties C) there was no fridge in the author’s home in the 1950s D) the fridge was in its early stage of development in the 1950s 2. Why does the author say that nothing was wasted before the invention of fridges? D A) People would not buy more food than was necessary.

B) Food was delivered to people two or three times a week. C) Food was sold fresh and did not get rotten easily. D) People had effective ways to preserve their food. 3. Who benefited the least from fridges according to the author? B A) Inventors. B) Consumers. C) Manufacturers. D) Traveling salesmen. 4. Which of the following phrases in the fifth paragraph indicates the fridge’s negative effect on the environment? A A) ―Hum away continuously‖. B) ―Climatically almost unnecessary‖. C) ―Artificially-cooled space‖. D) ―With mild temperatures‖.

Passage18
The human brain contains 10 thousand million cells and each of these may have a thousand connections. Such enormous numbers used to discourage us and cause us to dismiss the possibility of making a machine with human-like ability, but now that we have grown used to moving forward at such a pace we can be less sure. Quite soon, in only 10 or 20 years perhaps, we will be able to assemble a machine as complex as the human brain, and if we can we will. It may then take us a long time to render it intelligent by loading in the right software (软件) by altering the or architecture but that too will happen. I think it certain that in decades, not centuries, machines of silicon(硅)will arise first to rival and then exceed their human ancestors. Once they exceed us they will be capable of their own design. In a real sense they will be able to reproduce themselves. Silicon will have ended carbon’s long control. And we will no longer be able to claim ourselves to be the finest intelligence in the known universe. As the intelligence of robots increases to match that of humans and as their cost declines through economies of scale we may use them to expand our frontiers, first on earth through their ability to withstand environments, harmful to ourselves. Thus, deserts may bloom and the ocean beds be mined. Further ahead, by a combination of the great wealth this new age will bring and the technology it will provide, the construction of a vast, man-created world in space, home to thousands or millions of people, will be within our power. 1. In what way can we make a machine intelligent? C A) By making it work in such environments as deserts, oceans or space. B) By working hard for 10 or 20 years. C) By either properly programming it or changing its structure. D) By reproducing it. 2. What does the writer think about machines with human-like ability? A A) He believes they will be useful to human beings. B) He believes that they will control us in the future.

C) He is not quite sure in what way they may influence us. D) He doesn’t consider the construction of such machines possible. 3. A robot can be used to expand our frontiers when ____A___. A) its intelligence and cost are beyond question B) it is able to bear the rough environment C) it is made as complex as the human brain D) its architecture is different from that of the present ones

Passage19
Statuses are marvelous human inventions that enable us to get along with one another and to determine where we ―fit‖ in society. As we go about our everyday lives, we mentally attempt to place people in terms of their statuses. For example, we must judge whether the person in the library is a reader or a librarian, whether the telephone caller is a friend or a salesman, whether the unfamiliar person on our property is thief or a meter reader, and so on. The statuses we assume often vary with the people we encounter, and change throughout life. Most of us can, at very high speed, assume the statuses that various situations require. Much of social interaction consists of identifying and selecting among appropriate statuses and allowing other people to assume their statuses in relation to us. This means that we fit our actions to those of other people based on a constant mental process of appraisal and interpretation. Although some of us find the task more difficult than others, most of us perform it rather effortlessly. A status has been compared to ready-made clothes. Within certain limits, the buyer can choose style and fabric. But an American is not free to choose the costume(服装)of a Chinese peasant or that of a Hindu prince. We must choose from among the clothing presented by our society. Furthermore, our choice is limited to a size that will fit, as well as by our pocketbook(钱 包). Having made a choice within these limits we can have certain alterations made, but apart from minor adjustments, we tend to be limited to what the stores have on their racks. Statuses too come ready made, and the range of choice among them is limited. 1. In the first paragraph, the writer tells us that statuses can help us ___B_____. A) determine whether a person is fit for a certain job B) behave appropriately in relation to other people C) protect ourselves in unfamiliar situations D) make friends with other people 2. According to the writer, people often assume different statuses ___D_____. A) in order to identify themselves with others B) in order to better identify others C) as their mental processes change D) as the situation changes 3. The word ―appraisal‖ (Line 5, Para.2) most probably means ―____C______‖. A) involvement B) appreciation C) assessment D) presentation

4. In the last sentence of the second paragraph, the pronoun ―it‖ refers to ―_A_______‖. A) fitting our actions to those of other people appropriately B) identification of other people’s statuses C) selecting one’s own statuses D) constant mental process

Passage20
In a family where the roles of men and women are not sharply separated and where many household tasks are shared to a greater or lesser extent, concepts of male superiority are hard to maintain. The pattern of sharing in tasks and in decisions makes for equality, and this in turn leads to further sharing. In such a home, the growing boy and girl learn to accept that equality more easily than did their parents and to prepare more fully for participation in a world characterized by cooperation rather than by “battle of the sexes‖. If the process goes too far and man’s role is regarded as less important and that has happened in some cases, we are as badly off as before, only I reverse. It is time to re-estimate the role of the man in the American family. We are going a little tired of “Monism” but we don’t want to exchange it for a “new-Monism” What we need, rather, is the , . recognition that bringing up children involves a partnership of equals. There are signs that psychologists, social workers, and specialists in family are becoming more aware of the part men play. We have almost given up saying that a woman’s place is in the home. We are beginning, however, to analyze man’s place in the home and to insist that he does have a place in it. Nor is that place irrelevant to the healthy development of the child. The family is a c0-operative enterprise for which it is difficult to lay down rules. Because each family needs to work out its own ways for solving its own problems. Excessive authority has unhappy consequences, whether it wears skirts or trousers, the ideal of equal rights and equal responsibilities is relative not only to a healthy democracy, but also to a healthy family. 1. The best title of this article would be B . A) Equal Job for Equal Pay B) The Ideal of Equal Rights and Responsibilities in the American Family C) American Men and Women D) How to Bring up Children 2. According to the author, the father’s role in the home is C . A) irrelevant to the healthy development of the child B) relative to the healthy development of the child C) identical to the role of the child’s mother D) impossible to determine 3. According to the author, the solution of family problems C . A) is best left in hands of social workers B) is similar in all families C) needs to be reached by ways unique to each family D) is not necessary in household where sharing is done

4. With which of the following statements would the author be most likely to agree? A A) A healthy, co-operative family is a basic unit of a healthy society. B) Division of household responsibilities is workable only in theory. C) A woman’s place is in the home now as always. D) The role of the male as breadwinner is one which society considers least important.

Passage21
The concept of ―environment‖ is certainly difficult and may even be misunderstood; but we have no handy substitute. It seems simple enough to distinguish between the organism and the surrounding environment and to separate forces acting on an organism into those that are internal and biological and those that are external and environmental. But in actual practice this system breaks down in many ways, because the organism and the environment are constantly interacting so that the environment is modified by the organism and vice versa(反之亦然). In the case of man, the difficulties with the environmental concept are even more complicated because we have to deal with man as an animal and with man as a bearer(持有者)of culture. If we look at man as an animal and try to analyze the environmental forces that are acting on the organism, we find that we have to deal with things like climate, soil, plants and such-like factors common to all biological situations; but we also find, always, very important environmental influences that we can only class as ―cultural‖, which modify the physical and biological factors. But man, as we know him, is always a bearer of culture; and if we study human culture, we find that it, in turn, is modified by the environmental factors of climate and geography. We thus easily get into great difficulties from the necessity of viewing culture, at one moment, as a part of the man and, at another moment, as a part of the environment. 1. Which of the following words can best describe the popular understanding of ―environment‖ as the author sees it? D A) Elaborate. B) Prejudiced. C) Faultless. D) Oversimplified. 2. According to the author the concept of ―environment‖ is difficult to explain because ___C____ A) it doesn’t distinguish between the organism and the environment B) it involves both internal and external forces C) the organism and the environment influence each other D) the relationship between the organism and the environment is unclear 3. In analyzing the environmental forces acting on man the author suggests that ____C____. A) biological factors are less important to the organism than cultural factors to man B) man and other animals are modified equally by the environmental forces C) man is modified by the cultural environment as well as by the natural environment D) physical and biological factors exert more influence on other organisms than on man

Passage22

People tend to be more impressed by evidence that seems to confirm some relationship. Thus many are convinced their dreams are prophetic (预言的) because a few have come true; they fail to notice the many that have not. Consider also the belief that "the phone always rings when I'm in the shower." If it does ring while you are in the shower, the event will stand out and be remembered. If it doesn't ring, that nonevent probably won't even register (留下印象). People want to see order, pattern and meaning in the world. Consider, for example, the common belief that things like personal misfortunes, plane crashes, and deaths "happen in threes." Such beliefs stem from the tendency of people to allow the third event to define the time period. If three plane crashes occur in a month, then the period of time that counts as their "happening together" is one month; if three crashes occur in a year, the period of time is stretched. Flexible end points reinforce such beliefs. We also tend to believe what we want to believe. A majority of people think they are more intelligent, more fair-minded and more skilled behind the wheel of an automobile than the average person. Part of the reason we view ourselves so favorably is that we use criteria that work to our advantage. As economist Thomas Schelling explains, "Everybody ranks himself high in qualities he values: careful drivers give weight to care, skilled drivers give weight to skill, and those who are polite give weight to courtesy, " This way everyone ranks high on his own scale. Perhaps the most important mental habit we can learn is to be cautious (谨慎的) in drawing conclusions. The "evidence " of everyday life is sometimes misleading. 1 In the first paragraph the author states that ____A . A) dreams cannot be said to be prophetic even though a few have come true. B) dreams are prophetic because some of them did come true. C) dreams may come true if clearly remembered. D) dreams and reality are closely related. 2. By "things like ..." "happen in threes" (Para. 3, Line 2), the author indicates that people believe __C__ . A) personal misfortunes tend to happen every now and then. B) personal misfortunes, plane crashes, and deaths usually happen together. C) misfortunes tend to occur according to certain patterns. D) misfortunes will never occur more than three times to a person in his lifetime. 3. Ten word "courtesy" (Para. 4, line 6) probably means ___A_. A) good manners. B) Appropriate speech. C) Friendly relations. D)Satisfactory service. 4. What can be inferred from the passage? _A___ A) Happenings that go unnoticed deserve more attention. B) In a series of misfortunes the third one is usually the most serious. C) People tend to make use of evidence that supports their own beliefs. D) Believers of misfortunes happening in threes are cautious in interpreting events.

Passage23
Britain almost more than any other country in the world must seriously face the problem of building upwards, that is to say, of accommodating a considerable proportion of its population in

high blocks of flats. It is said that the English man objects to this type of existence, but if the case is such, he does in fact differ from the inhabitants of most countries of the world today. In the past our own blocks of flats have been associated with the lower-income groups and they have lacked the obvious provisions, such as central heating, constant hot water supply, electrically operated lifts from top to bottom, and so on, as well as such details, important notwithstanding (然而), as easy facilities for disposal of dust and rubbish and storage places for baby carriages in the ground floor, playgrounds for children on the top of the buildings, and drying grounds for washing. It is likely that the dispute regarding flats versus (对,对抗) individual houses will continue to rage on for a long time as far as Britain is concerned. And it is unfortunate that there should be hot feelings on both sides whenever this subject is raised. Those who oppose the building of flats base their case primarily on the assumption (设想) that everyone prefers an individual home and on the high cost per unit of accommodation. The latter ignores the higher cost of providing full services to a scattered community and the cost in both money and time of the journeys to work for the suburban resident. 1. We can infer from the passage that ___B__. A) English people, like most people in other countries, dislike living in flats B) people in most countries of the world today are not opposed to living in flats C) people in Britain are forced to move into high blocks of flats D) modern flats still fail to provide the necessary facilities for living 2. What is said about blocks of flats built in the past in Britain? A A) They were mostly inhabited by people who did not earn much. B) They were usually not large enough to accommodate big families. C) They were sold to people before necessary facilities were installed. D) They provided playgrounds for children on the top of the buildings. 3. The word "rage" (Line 9) means ____B_. A) be ignored C) encourage people greatly B) develop with great force D) be in fashion 4. Some people oppose the building of flats because _C____. ccccc A) the living expenses for each individual family are higher B) it involves higher cost compared with the building of houses C) they believe people like to live in houses with gardens D) the disposal of rubbish remains a problem for those living in flats

Passage24
The speaker, a teacher from a community college, addressed a sympathetic audience. Heads nodded in agreement when he said, ―High school English teachers are not doing their jobs.‖ He described the inadequacies of his students, all high school graduates who can use language only at a grade 9 level. I was unable to determine from his answers to my questions how this grade 9 level had been established. My topic is not standards nor its decline 降低)What the speaker was really saying is that eh ( . is no longer young; he has been teaching for sixteen years, and is able to think and speak like a

mature adult. My point is that the frequent complaint of one generation about the one immediately following it is inevitable. It is also human nature to look for the reasons for our dissatisfaction. Before English became a school subject in the late nineteenth century, it was difficult to find the target of the blame for language deficiencies(缺陷). But since then, English teachers have been under constant attack. The complainers think they have hit upon an original idea. As their own command of the language improves, they notice that young people do not have this same ability. Unaware that their own ability has developed through the years, they assume the new generation of young people must be hopeless in this respect. To the eyes and ears of sensitive adults the language of the young always seems inadequate. Since this concern about the decline and fall of the English language is not perceived as a generational phenomenon but rather as something new and peculiar to today’s young people, it naturally follows that today’s English teachers cannot be doing their jobs. Otherwise, young people would not commit offenses against the language. 1. In the author’s opinion, the speaker ____B___. A) gave a correct judgment of the English level of the students B) had exaggerated the language problems of the students C) was right in saying that English teachers were not doing their jobs D) could think and speak intelligently 2 It can be concluded from the passage that ___D___. A) it is justifiable to include English as a school subject B) the author disagrees with the speaker over the standard of English at Grade 9 level C) English language teaching is by no means an easy job D) Language improvement needs time and effort 3. In the passage the author argues that ____A__. A) it is unfair to blame the English teachers for the language deficiencies of the students B) young people would not commit offences against the language is the teachers did their jobs properly C) to eliminate language deficiencies one must have sensitive eyes and ears D) to improve the standard of English requires the effort of several generations

Passage25
Researchers have established that when people are mentally engaged, biochemical changes occur in the brain that allow it to act more effectively in cognitive (认知的) areas such as attention and memory. This is true regardless of age. People will be alert (警觉的) and receptive (接受能力强的) if they are faced with information that gets them to think about things they are interested in. And someone with a history of doing more rather than less will go into old age more cognitively sound than someone who has not had an active mind. Many experts are so convinced of the benefits of challenging the brain that they are putting,

the theory to work in their own lives. "The idea is not necessarily to learn to memorize enormous amounts of information." says James Fozard, associate director of the national Institute on Aging. "Most of us don't need that kind of skill. Such specific training is of less interest than being able to maintain mental alertness." Fozard and others say they challenge their brains with different mental skill, both because they enjoy them and because they are sure that their range of activities will help the way their brains work. Gene Cohen, acting director of the same institute, suggests that people in their old age should engage in mental and physical activities individually as well as in groups. Cohen says that we are frequently advised to keep physically active as we age, but older people need to keep mentally active as well. Those who do are more likely to maintain their intellectual abilities and to be generally happier and better adjusted. "The point is, you need to do both," Cohen says. "Intellectual activity influences brain-cell health and size." 1. People who are cognitively healthy are those _C____. A) who can remember large amounts of information C) whose minds are alert and receptive B) who are highly intelligent D) who are good at recognizing different sounds 2. According to Fozard's argument people can make their brains work more efficiently by __B___. A) constantly doing memory work C) going through specific training B) taking part in various mental activities D) making frequent adjustments 3. The findings of James and other scientists in their work ___D__. A) remain a theory to be further proved C) have been challenged by many other experts B) have been generally accepted D) are practiced by the researchers themselves 4. Older people are generally advised to __A___. A) keep fit by going in for physical activities B) keep mentally active by challenging their brains C) maintain mental alertness through specific training D) maintain a balance between individual and group activities

Passage26
In bringing up children, every parent watches eagerly the child’s acquisition(学会)of each new skill-the first spoken words, the first independent steps, or the beginning of reading and writing. It is often tempting to hurry the child beyond his natural learning rate, but this can set up dangerous feelings of failure and states of worry in the child: This might happen at any stage. A baby might be forced to use a toilet too early, a young child might be encouraged to learn to read before he knows the meaning of the words he reads. On the other hand, though, if a child is left alone too much, or without any learning opportunities, he loses his natural enthusiasm for life and his desire to find out new things for himself. Patents vary greatly in their degree of strictness towards their children. Some may be especially strict in money matters. Others are sever over times of coming home at night or punctuality for meals. In general, the controls imposed represent the needs of the parents and the values of the community as much as the child’s own happiness. As regards the development of moral standards in the growing child, consistency is very

important in parental teaching. To forbid a thing one day and excuse it the next is no foundation for morality(道德). Also, parents should realize that “example is better than precept”. If they are not sincere and do not practise what they preach(说教), their children may grow confused, and emotionally insecure when they grow old enough to think for themselves, and realize they have been to some extent fooled. A sudden awareness of a marked difference between their parents’ principles and their morals can be a dangerous disappointment. 1. Eagerly watching the child’s acquisition of new skills _____B____. A) should be avoided B) is universal among parents C) sets up dangerous states of worry in the child D) will make him lose interest in learning new things 2. In the process of children’s learning new skills parents ____C__. A) should encourage them to read before they know the meaning of the words they read B) should not expect too much of them C) should achieve a balance between pushing them too hard and leaving them on their own D) should create as many learning opportunities as possible 3. The second paragraph mainly tells us that _____D_____. A) parents should be strict with their children B) parental controls reflect only the needs of the parents and the values of the community C) parental restrictions vary, and are not always enforced for the benefit of the children alone D) parents vary in their strictness towards their children according to the situation 4. The word ―precept‖ (Line 3, Para.3) probably means ―___B______‖. A) idea B) punishment C) behavior D) instruction

Passage27
A good modern newspaper is an extraordinary piece of reading. It is remarkable first for what it contains: the range of news from local crime to international politics, from sport to business to fashion to science, and the range of comment and special features(特写)as well, from editorial page to feature articles and interviews to criticism of books, art, theatre and music. A newspaper is even more remarkable for the way one reads it: never completely, never straight through, but always by jumping from here to there, in and not glancing at one piece, reading another article all the way through, reading just a few paragraphs of the next. A good modern newspaper offers variety to attract many different readers, but far more than nay one reader is interested in. What brings this variety together in one place is its topicality 时事性) its immediate relation to what is ( , happening in your world and your locality now. but immediacy and the speed of production that goes with it mean also that much of what papers in a newspaper has no more than transient(短暂 的)value. For all these reasons, no two people really read the same paper: what each person does is to put together out of the pages of that day’s paper, his own selection and sequence, his own

newspaper. For all these reasons, reading newspapers efficiently, which means getting what you want from them without missing things you need but without wasting time, demands skill and self-awareness as you modify and apply the techniques of reading. 1. A modern newspaper is remarkable for all the following except its ___C______. A) wide coverage B) uniform style C) speed in reporting news D) popularity 2. According to the passage, the reason why no two people really read the ―same‖ newspaper is that ___D_____. A) people scan for the news they are interested in B) different people prefer different newspapers C) people are rarely interested in the same kind of news D) people have different views about what a good newspaper is 3. It can be conclude from the passage that newspaper readers _A_______. A) apply reading techniques skillfully B) jump from one newspaper to another C) appreciate the variety of a newspaper D) usually read a newspaper selectively 4. A good newspaper offers ―a variety‖ to readers because ___A______. A) it tries to serve different readers B) it has to cover things that happen in a certain locality C) readers are difficult to please D) readers like to read different newspapers

Passage28
Space is a dangerous place, not only because of meteors 流星) also because of rays from ( but the sun and other stars. The atmosphere again acts as our protective blanket on earth. Light gets through, and this is essential for plants to make the food, which we eat. Heat, too, makes our environment endurable. Various kinds of rays come through the air from outer space, but enormous quantities of radiation from the sun are screened off. As soon as men leave the atmosphere they are exposed to this radiation but their spacesuits or the walls of their spacecraft, if they are inside, do prevent a lot of radiation damage. Radiation is the greatest known danger to explorers in space. The unit of radiation is called ―rem‖. Scientists have reason to think that a man can put up with far more radiation than 0.1 rem without being damaged; the figure of 60 rems has been agreed on. The trouble is that it is extremely difficult to be sure about radiation damage-a person may feel perfectly well, but the cells of his or her sex organs may be damaged, and this will not be discovered until the birth of deformed(畸形的)children or even grandchildren. Missions of the Apollo flights have had to cross belts of high radiation and, during the outward and return journeys, the Apollo crew accumulated a large amount of rems. So far, no dangerous amounts of radiation have been reported, but the Apollo missions have been quite short. We simply do not know yet how men are

going to get on when they spend weeks and months outside the protection of the atmosphere, working in a space laboratory. Drugs might help to decrease the damage done by radiation, but no really effective ones have been found so far. 1. According to the first paragraph, the atmosphere is essential to man in that __A____. A) it protects him against the harmful rays from space B) it provides sufficient light for plant growth C) it supplies the heat necessary for human survival D) it screens off the falling meteors 2. We know from the passage that ____B____. A) exposure to even tiny amounts of radiation is fatal B) the effect of exposure to radiation is slow in coming C) radiation is avoidable in space exploration D) astronauts in spacesuits needn’t worry about radiation damage 3. The harm radiation has done to the Apollo crew members ___D____. A) is insignificant B)seems overestimated C) is enormous D) remains unknown

Passage29
Britain almost more than any other country in the world must seriously face the problem of building upwards, that is to say, of accommodating a considerable proportion of its population in high blocks of flats. It is said that the English man objects to this type of existence, but if the case is such, he does in fact differ from the inhabitants of most countries of the world today. In the past our own blocks of flats have been associated with the lower-income groups and they have lacked the obvious provisions, such as central heating, constant hot water supply, electrically operated lifts from top to bottom, and so on, as well as such details, important notwithstanding (然而), as easy facilities for disposal of dust and rubbish and storage places for baby carriages in the ground floor, playgrounds for children on the top of the buildings, and drying grounds for washing. It is likely that the dispute regarding flats versus (对,对抗) individual houses will continue to rage on for a long time as far as Britain is concerned. And it is unfortunate that there should be hot feelings on both sides whenever this subject is raised. Those who oppose the building of flats base their case primarily on the assumption (设想) that everyone prefers an individual home and on the high cost per unit of accommodation. The latter ignores the higher cost of providing full services to a scattered community and the cost in both money and time of the journeys to work for the suburban resident. 1. We can infer from the passage that ___B__. A) English people, like most people in other countries, dislike living in flats B) people in most countries of the world today are not opposed to living in flats C) people in Britain are forced to move into high blocks of flats D) modern flats still fail to provide the necessary facilities for living

2. What is said about blocks of flats built in the past in Britain? A A) They were mostly inhabited by people who did not earn much. B) They were usually not large enough to accommodate big families. C) They were sold to people before necessary facilities were installed. D) They provided playgrounds for children on the top of the buildings. 3. The word "rage" (Line 9) means ___B__. A) be ignored C) encourage people greatly B) develop with great force D) be in fashion 4. Some people oppose the building of flats because ___C__. A) the living expenses for each individual family are higher B) it involves higher cost compared with the building of houses C) they believe people like to live in houses with gardens D) the disposal of rubbish remains a problem for those living in flats

Passage30
Many a young person tells me he wants to be a writer. I always encourage such people, but I also explain that there’s big difference between ―being a writer‖ and writing. In most cases these individuals are dreaming of wealth and fame, not the long hours alone at a typewriter. ―You’ve got to want to write,‖ I say to them, ―not want to be a writer.‖ The reality is that writing is a lonely, private and poor-paying affair. For every writer kissed by fortune there are thousands more whose longing is never rewarded. When I left a 20-year career in the U.S. Coast Guard to become a freelance writer(自由撰稿者), I had no prospects at all. What I did have was a friend who found me my room in a New York apartment building. It didn’t even matter that it was cold and had no bathroom. I immediately bought a used manual type writer and felt like a genuine writer. After a year or so, however, I still hadn’t gotten a break and began to doubt myself. It was so hard to sell a story that barely made enough to eat. But I knew I wanted to write. I had dreamed about it for years. I wasn’t going to be one of those people who die wondering, What if? I would keep putting my dream to the test-even though it meant living with uncertainty and fear of failure. This is the Shadowland of hope, and anyone with a dream must learn to live there. 1. The passage is meant to ____A_____. A) warn young people of the hardships that a successful writer has to experience B) advise young people to give up their idea of becoming a professional writer C) show young people it’s unrealistic for a writer to pursue wealth and fame D) encourage young people to pursue a writing career 2. What can be concluded from the passage? D A) Genuine writers often find their work interesting and rewarding. B) A writer’s success depends on luck rather than on effort. C) Famous writers usually live in poverty and isolation. D) The chances for a writer to become successful are small. 3. Why did the author begin to doubt himself after the first year of his writing career? B A) He wasn’t able to produce a single book.

B) He hadn’t seen a change for the better. C) He wasn’t able to have a rest for a whole years. D) He found his dream would never come true. 4. ―…People who die wondering, What if?‖ (Line 3, Para.3) refers to ―those ___B_______‖. A) who think too much of the dark side of life B) who regret giving up their career halfway C) who think a lot without making a decision D) who are full of imagination even upon death

Passage31
It has been thought and said that Africans are born with musical talent. Because music is so important in the lives of many Africans and because so much music is performed in Africa, we are inclined to think that Africans are musicians. The impression is strengthened when we look at ourselves and find that we have become largely a society of musical spectators (旁观). Music is important to us, but most of us can be considered consumers rather than producers of music. We have records, television, concerts, and radio to fulfill many of our musical needs. In most situations where music is performed in our culture it is not difficult to distinguish the audience from the performers, but such is often not the case in Africa. Alban Ayipaga, a Kasena semiprofessional musician from northern Ghana, says that when his flute (长笛) and drum ensemble (歌舞团) is performing. "Anybody can take part". This is true , but Kasena musicians recognize that not all people are equally capable of taking part in the music. Some can sing along with the drummers, but relatively few can drum and even fewer can play the flute along with the ensemble. It is fairly common in Africa for there to be an ensemble of expert musicians surrounded by others who join in by clapping, singing, or somehow adding to the totality of musical sound. Performances often take place in an open area (that is, not on a stage) and so the lines between the performing nucleus and the additional performers, active spectators, and passive spectators may be difficult to draw from our point of view. 1. The difference between us and Africans, as far as music is concerned, is that ___C__. (A) most of us are consumers while most of them are producers of music (B) we are musical performers and they are semiprofessional musicians (C) most of us are passive spectators while they are active spectators. (D) we are the audience and they are the additional performers. 2. The word "such" (Line 6) refers to the fact that ____B__. (A) music is performed with the participation of the audience (B) music is performed without the participation of the audience (C) people tend to distinguish the audience from the performers (D) people have records, television sets and radio to fulfill their musical needs 3. The author of the passage implies that __B___. (A) all Africans are musical and therefore much music is performed in Africa (B) not all Africans are born with musical talent although music is important in their lives (C) most Africans are capable of joining in the music by playing musical instruments (D) most Africans perform as well as professional musicians

4 The word "nucleus" (Line 13) probably refers to (A) musicians famous in Africa (B) musicians at the center of attention (C) musicians acting as the core in a performance (D) active participants in a musical performance

D_____.

Passage32
Tress should only be pruned when there is a good and clear reason for doing so and, the number of such reasons is small. Pruning involves the cutting away of overgrown and unwanted branches, and the inexperienced gardener can be encouraged by the thought that more damage results from doing it unnecessarily than from the tree to grow in its own way. First, pruning may be done to make sure that trees have a desired shape or size. The object may be to get a tree of the right height, and at the same time to help the growth of small side branches, which will thicken its appearance or give it a special shape. Secondly, pruning may be done to make the tree heavier. You may cut out diseased or dead wood, or branches that are rubbing against each other and thus cause wounds. The health of a tree may be encouraged by removing branches that are blocking up the center and so preventing the free movement of air. One result of pruning is that an open wound is left on the tree and this provides an easy entry for disease, but it is a wound that will heal. Often there is a race between the healing and the disease as to whether the tree will live or die, so that there is a period when the tree is at risk. It should be the aim of every gardener to reduce that risk of death as far as possible. It is essential to make the area, which has been pruned smooth, and clean, for healing will be slowed down by roughness. You should allow the cut surface to dry for a few hours and then paint it with one of the substances available from garden shops especially for this purpose. Pruning is usually done in winter, for then you can see the shape of the tree clearly without interference from the leaves and also it is very unlikely that the cuts you make will bleed. If this does happen, it is, of course, impossible to paint them properly. 1. Pruning should be done to ___B__. A) make the tree grow taller. B) does not protect them form the wind. B) get rid of the small branches. D) make the small branches thicker. 2. Trees become unhealthy if the gardener___A____ A) allows too many branches to grow in the middle B) does not protect them from the wind C) forces them grow too quickly D) damages some of the small side branches. 3. Why is a special substance painted on the tree? B A) to make a wound smooth. B) to prevent disease entering a wound. B) to cover a rough surface. D) to help a wound to dry. 4. A good gardener prunes tree ___C_ A) at intervals throughout the year. B) as quickly as possible. C) occasionally when necessary. D) regularly every winter.

Passage33
Most people would agree that, although our age exceeds all previous ages in knowledge, there has been no corresponding increase in wisdom. But Agreement ceases as soon as we attempt to define "wisdom" and consider means of promoting it. There are several factors that contribute to wisdom. Of these I should put first a sense of proportion: the capacity to take account of all the important factors in a problem and to attach to each its due weight. This has become more difficult than it used to be owing to the extent and complexity of the special knowledge required of various kinds of technicians. Suppose, for example, that you are engaged in research in scientific medicine. The work is difficult and is likely to absorb the whole of your mind. You have no time to consider the effect which your discoveries or inventions may have outside the field of medicine. You succeed (let us say) as modern medicine has succeeded, in enormously lowering the infant death-rate, not only in Europe and America, but also in Asia and Africa. This has the entirely unintended result of making the food supply inadequate and lowing the standard of life in the parts of the world that have the greatest populations. To take an even more dramatic example, which is in everybody's mind at the present time; you study the makeup of the atom from a disinterested (无利害关系的) desire for knowledge, and by chance place in the hands of a powerful mad man the means of destroying the human race. Therefore, with every increase of knowledge and skill, wisdom becomes more necessary, for every such increase augments (增强)our capacity for realizing our purposes, and therefore augments our capacity for evil, if our purpose are unwise. 1. Disagreement arises when people try to decide ___B__. A) how much more wisdom we have now than before B) what wisdom is and how to develop it C) if there is a great increase of wisdom in our age D) whether wisdom can be developed or not 2. According to the author, "wisdom" is the ability to _D____. A) carefully consider the bad effects of any kind of research work B) give each important problem some careful consideration C) acquire a great deal of complex and special knowledge D) give suitable consideration to all the possible elements in a problem 3. Lowering the infant death-rate may ____C_. A) prove to be helpful everywhere in the world B) give rise to an increase in population in Europe C) cause food shortages in Asia and Africa D) raise the living standard of the people in Africa 4. The author uses the examples in the passage to illustrate his point that A_____. A) it's extremely difficult to consider all the important elements in problem B) success in medical research has its negative effects C) scientists may unknowingly cause destruction to the human race D) it's unwise to be totally absorbed in research in scientific medicine

Passage34

American society is not nap(午睡)friendly. In fact, says David Dinges, a sleep specialist at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine. “There’s even a prohibition against admitting we need sleep.” Nobody wants to be caught napping or found asleep at work. To quote proverb: ―Some sleep five hours, nature requires seven, laziness nine and wickedness eleven.‖ Wrong. The way not to fall asleep at work is to take naps when you need them. ―We have to totally change our attitude toward napping‖, says Dr. William Dement of Stanford University, the godfather of sleep research. Last year a national commission led by Dement identified an ―American sleep debt‖ which one member said was as important as the national debt, the commission was concerned about the dangers of sleepiness: people causing industrial accidents or falling asleep while driving. This may be why we have a new sleep policy in the White House. According to recent reports, president Clinton is trying to take a half-hour snooze(打瞌睡)every afternoon. About 60 percent of American adults nap when given the opportunity. We seem to have ―a mid-afternoon quiet phase‖ also called ―a secondary sleep gate.‖ Sleeping 15 minutes to two hours in the early afternoon can reduce stress and make us refreshed. Clearly, we were born to nap. We Superstars of Snooze don’t nap to replace lost shut-eye or to prepare for a night shift. Rather, we ―snack‖ on sleep, whenever, wherever and at whatever time we feel like it. I myself have napped in buses, cars, planes and on boats; on floors and beds; and in libraries, offices and museums. 1 It is commonly accepted in American society that too much sleep is _C______. A) unreasonable B) criminal C) harmful D) costly 2. The research done by the Dement commission shows that Americans _D_______. A) don’t like to take naps B) are terribly worried about their national debt C) sleep less than is good for them D) have caused many industrial and traffic accidents 3. The purpose of this article is to ____A_______. A) warn us of the wickedness of napping B) explain the danger of sleepiness C) discuss the side effects of napping D) convince the reader of the necessity of napping 4. The ―American sleep debt‖ (Line 1, Para.3) is the result of __A_______. A) the traditional misconception the Americans have about sleep B) the new sleep policy of the Clinton Administration C) the rapid development of American industry D) the Americans’ worry about the danger of sleepiness

Passage35
Attention to detail is something everyone can and should do--especially in a tight job market.

Bob Crossley, a human-resources expert notices this in the job applications that come across his desk every day. "It's amazing how many candidates eliminate themselves." he says. Resume (简历) arrive with stains. Some candidates don't bother to spell the company's name correctly. Once I see a mistake, I eliminate the candidate," Crossley concludes. "If they cannot take of these details, why should we trust them with a job?" Can we pay too much attention to detail? Absolutely. Perfectionists struggle over little things at the cost of something larger they work toward, "To keep from losing the forest for the trees", says Charles Garfield, associate professor at the University of California, San Francisco, "We must constantly ask ourselves how the details we're working on fit into the larger picture. If they don't, we should drop them and move to something else". Garfield compares this process to his work as a computer scientist at NASA. "The Apollo II moon launch was slightly off-course 90 percent of the time." Says Garfield, "But a successful landing was still likely because we knew the exact coordinates of our goal. This allowed us to make adjustments as necessary." Knowing where we want to go helps us judge the importance of every task we undertake. Too often we believe what accounts for others' success is some special secret or a lucky break (机遇). But rarely is success so mysterious. Again and again, we see that by doing little things within our grasp well, large rewards follow. 1. According to the passage, some job applicants were rejected __A___. (A) because of their carelessness as shown in their failure to present a clean copy of a resume (B) because of their inadequate education as shown in their poor spelling in writing a resume (C) because they failed to give detailed description of their background in their applications (D) because they eliminated their names from the applicants' list themselves 2. The word "perfectionists" (para. 3, Line) refers to those who _C____. (A) demand others to get everything absolutely right (B) know how to adjust their goals according to the circumstances (C) pay too much attention to details only to lose their major objectives (D) are capable of achieving perfect results in whatever they do 3. Which of the following is the author's device to the reader? A (A) Although too much attention to details may be costly, they should not be overlooked (B) Don't forget details when drawing pictures (C) Be aware of the importance of a task before undertaking it (D) Careless applicants are not to be trusted 4. The example of the Apollo II moon launch is given to illustrate that _D____. (A) minor mistakes can be ignored in achieving major objectives (B) failure is the mother of success (C) adjustments are the key to the successful completion of any work (D) keeping one's goal in mind helps in deciding which details can be overlooked

Passage36
Violin prodigies 神童) I learned, have come in distinct waves from distinct regions. Most of ( ,

the great performers if the late 19th and early 20th centuries were born and brought up in Russia and Eastern Europe. I asked Isaac Stern, one of the world’s greatest violinists the reason for this phenomenon. “It is very clear,” he told me. “They were all Jews 犹太人) Jews at the time ( and were severely oppressed and ill-treated in that part of the world. They were not allowed into the professional fields, but they were allowed to achieve excellence on a concert stage.‖ As a result, every Jewish parent’s dream was to have a child in the music school because it was a passport to the West. Another element in the emergence of prodigies, I found, is a society that values excellence in a certain field to nurture(培育)talent. Nowadays, the most nurturing societies seem to be in the Far East. “In Japan, a most competitive society, with stronger discipline than ours,‖ says Isaac Stem, children are ready to test their limits every day in many fields, including music. When Western music came to Japan after World War II, that music not only became part of their daily lives, but it became a discipline as well. The Koreans and Chinese as we know, are just as highly motivated as the Japanese. That’s a good thing, because even prodigies must work hard. Next to hard work, biological inheritance plays an important role in the making of a prodigy .J. S. Bach, for example, was the top of several generations of musicians, and four of his sons had significant careers in music. 1. Jewish parents in Eastern Europe longed for their children to attend music school because _______B__. A) it would allow them access to a better life in the West B) Jewish children are born with excellent musical talent C) they wanted their children to enter into the professional field D) it would enable the family to get better treatment in their own country 2. Nurturing societies as mentioned in the passage refer to societies that, ____C_____. A) enforce strong discipline on students who want to achieve excellence B) treasure talent and provide opportunities for its full development C) encourage people to compete with each other D) promise talented children high positions 3. Japan is described in the passage as a country that attaches importance to ___B______. A) all-round development B) the learning of Western music C) strict training of children D) variety in academic studies

Passage37
In the old day, children were familiar with birth and death as part of life. This is perhaps the first generation of American youngsters 年轻人) ( who have never been close by during the birth of a baby and have never experienced the death of a family member. Nowadays when people grow old, we often send them to nursing homes. When they get sick, we transfer them to a hospital, where children are forbidden to visit terminally ill patients-even when those patients are their parents. This deprives(剥夺)the dying patient of significant family members during the last few days of his life and it deprives the children of an experience of death,

which is an important learning experience. Some of my colleagues and I once interviewed and followed approximately 500 terminally ill patients in order to find out what they could teach us and how we could be of more benefit, not just to them but to the members of their families as well. We are most impressed by the fact that even those patients who were not told of their serious illness were quite aware of its potential outcome. It is important for family members, and doctors and nurses to understand these patients’ communications in order to truly understand their needs, fears, and fantasies(幻想). Most of our patients welcomed another human being with whom they could talk openly, honestly, and frankly about their trouble. Many of them shared with us their tremendous need to be informed, to be kept up-to-date on their medical condition and to be told when the end was near. We found out that patients who had been dealt with openly and frankly were better able to cope with the approach of death and finally to reach a true stage of acceptance prior to death. 1. The elders of contemporary Americans _____C______. A) were often absent when a family member was born or dying B) were quite unfamiliar with birth and death C) usually witnessed the birth or death of a family member D) had often experienced the fear of death as part of life 2. Children in America today are denied the chance _____B_____. A) to learn how to face death B) to visit dying patients C) to attend to patients D) to have access to a hospital 3. Five hundred critically ill patients were investigated with the main purpose of _D________. A) observing how they reacted to the crisis of death B) helping them and their families overcome the fear of death C) finding out their attitude towards the approach of death D) learning how to best help them and their families 4. The need of a dying patient for company shows ________A____. A) his desire for communication with other people B) his fear of approaching death C) his pessimistic attitude towards his condition D) his reluctance to part with his family

Passage38
Taste is such a subjective matter that we don’t usually conduct preference tests for food. The most you can say about anyone’s preference, is that it’s one person’s opinion. But because the two big cola(可口可乐)companies—Coca-Cola and Pepsi Cola are marketed so aggressively, we’ve wondered how big a role taste preference actually plays in brand loyalty. We set up a taste test that challenged people who identified themselves as either Coca-Cola or Pepsi fans: Find your brand in a blind tasting. We invited staff volunteers who had a strong liking for either Coca-Cola Classic(传统型)

or Pepsi, Diet(低糖的)Coke, or Diet Pepsi. These were people who thought they’d have no trouble telling their brand from the other brand. We eventually located 19 regular cola drinkers and 27 diet cola drinkers. Then we fed them four unidentified samples of cola one at a time, regular colas for the one group, diet versions for the other. We asked them to tell us whether each sample was Coke or Pepsi; then we analyzed the records statistically to compare the participants’ choices with what mere guess-work could have accomplished. Getting all four samples right was a tough test, but not too tough, we thought, for people who believed they could recognize their brand. In the end, only 7 out of 19 regular cola drinkers correctly identified their brand of choice in all four trials. The diet-cola drinkers did a little worse-only 7 of 27 identified all four samples correctly. While both groups did better than chance would predict, nearly half the participants in each group made the wrong choice two or more times. Two people go all four samples wrong. Overall, half the participants did about as well on the last round of tasting as on the first, so fatigue, or taste burnout, was not a factor. Our preference test results suggest that only a few Pepsi participants and Coke fans may really be able to tell their favorite brand by taste and price. 1. According to the passage the preference test was conducted in order to _A______. A) find out the role taste preference plays in a person’s drinking B) reveal which cola is more to the liking of the drinkers C) show that a person’s opinion about taste is mere guess-work D) compare the ability of the participants in choosing their drinks 2. The statistics recorded in the preference tests show _____B_. A) Coca-Cola and Pepsi are people’s two most favorite drinks B) there is not much difference in taste between Coca-Cola and Pepsi C) few people had trouble telling Coca-Cola from Pepsi D) people’s tastes differ from one another 3. It is implied in the first paragraph that ____C___. A) the purpose of taste tests is to promote the sale of colas B) the improvement of quality is the chief concern of the two cola companies C) the competition between the two colas is very strong D) blind tasting is necessary for identifying fans

Passage39
It is everyone agrees, a huge task that the child performs when he learns to speak, and the fact that he does so in so short a period of time challenges explanation. Language learning begins with listening. Individual children vary greatly in the amount of listening they do before they start speaking, and late starters are often long listeners. Most children will ―obey‖ spoken instructions some time before they can speak, though the word obey is hardly accurate as a description of the eager and delighted cooperation usually shown by the child. Before they can speak, many children will also ask questions by gesture and by making questioning noises. Any attempt to trace the development from the noises babies make to their first spoken words

leads to considerable difficulties. It is agreed that they enjoy making noises, and that during the first few months one or two noises sort themselves out as particularly indicative of delight, distress, sociability, and so on. But since these cannot be said to show the baby’s intention to communicate, they can hardly be regarded as early forms of language. It is agreed, too, that from about three months they play with sounds for enjoyments, and that by six months they are able to add new sounds to their repertoire(能发出的全部声音). This self-imitation leads on to deliberate(有意 识的) imitation of sounds made or words spoken to them by other people. The problem then arises as to the point at which one can say that these imitations can be considered as speech. 1. By ―…challenges explanation‖ (Line 2, Para.1) the author means that ______C__. A) no explanation is necessary for such an obvious phenomenon B) no explanation has been made up to now C) it’s no easy job to provide an adequate explanation D) it’s high time that an explanation was provided 2. The third paragraph is mainly about ___A___. A) the development of babies’ early forms of language B) the difficulties of babies in learning to speak C) babies’ strong desire to communicate D) babies’ intention to communicate 3. The author’s purpose in writing the second paragraph is to show that children __D____. A) usually obey without asking questions B) are passive in the process of learning to speak C) are born cooperative D) learn to speak by listening 4. From the passage we learn that ____C___. A) early starters can learn to speak within only six months B) children show a strong desire to communicate by making noises C) imitation plays an important role in learning to speak D) children have various difficulties in learning to speak

Passage40
On Thursday afternoon, Mrs. Clarke , dressed for going out , took her handbag with her money and her key in it , pulled the door behind her to lock it and went to the over 60s Club . She always went there on Thursdays. It was a nice outing for an old woman who lived alone. At six o’clock she came home, let herself in and at once smelt cigarette smoke in her house? How? Had someone got in? She checked the back door and the windows. All were locked or fastened, as usual. There was no sign of forced entry Over a cup of tea she wondered whether someone might have a key that fitted her front door-―a master key‖ perhaps. So she stayed at home the following Thursday .Nothing happened. Was anyone watching her movements? On the Thursday after that she went out at her usual time, dressed as usual, but she didn’t go to the club. Instead she took a short cut home again, letting herself in through her garden and the back door. She settled down to wait.

It was just after four o’clock when the front door bell rang. Mrs. Clarke was making a cup of tea at the time. The bell rang again, and then she heard her letter-box being pushed open. With the kettle of boiling water in her hand, she moved quietly towards the front door. A long piece of wire appeared through the letter-box, and then a hand. The wire turned and caught around the knob on the door-lock Mrs. Clark raised the kettle and poured the water over the hand. This was a shout outside, and the skin seemed to drop off the fingers like a glove. The wire fell to the floor, the band was pulled back, and Mrs. Clarke heard the sound of running feet. 1. Mrs. Clarke looked forward to Thursday because _____C______. A) She worked at a club on Thursday B) She had visitors on Thursday C) She visited a club on Thursday D) a special visitor came on Thursday 2. If someone had made a forced entry ___A___. A) Mrs. Clarke would have found a broken door or window B) He or she was still in the house C) Things would have been thrown about D) He or she would have needed a master key 3.On the third Thursday Mrs. Clarke went out ____D_. A) because she didn’t want to miss the club again B) to see if the thief was hanging about outside C) to the club but then changed her mind D) in an attempt to trick the thief 4. The wire fell to the floor ______D_. A) because Mrs. Clarke refused to open the door B) when the man’s glove dropped off C) because it was too hot to hold D) because the man just wanted to get away

Part II. Vocabulary and Structure
1、I walked too much yesterday and ____C_ are still aching now. A) my leg's muscles C) my leg muscles B) my muscles of leg D) my muscles of the leg 2、The ability to store knowledge makes computers different form every other machine _A______ invented. A) ever B) thus C) yet D) as 3、I have kept that portrait ____B________ I can see it every day, as it always reminds me of my university days in London. A) which B) where C) whether D) when 4、I’m not sure whether I can gain any profit from the investment, so I can’t make a(n) __C____ promise to help you. A) exact B) defined C) definite D) sure 5、Young adults ______B__ older people are more likely to prefer pop songs. A) other than B) more than C) less than D) rather than 6、The number of __C___ species increases every year as natural habitats disappear. A. dangerous B. serious C. endangered D. hazardous 7、A love marriage, however, does not necessarily ___B_____ much sharing of interests and responsibilities. A) take over B) result in C) hold on D) keep to

8、The sports meet, originally due to be held last Friday, was finally __D_____ because of the bad weather. A) set off B) broken off C) worn off D) called off 9、Writing is a slow process, requiring _C_______ thought, time, and effort. A) significant B) considerable C) enormous D) numerous 10、Aluminum as well as most metals _A____. A. is a good conductor B. is a good insulator C. are good conductors D. are good insulators 11、The medicine is on sale everywhere. You can get it at _____D_______ chemist’s. A) each B) some C) certain D) any 12、Radio, television and press ____C_ of conveying news and information. A) are the most three common means C) are the three most common means B) are the most common three means D) are three the most common means 13、By success I don’t mean __B______ usually thought of when that word is used. A) what is B) that we C) as you D) all is 14、Scientists say it may be five or ten years ___B__ it is possible to test this medicine on human patients. A) since B) before C) after D) when 15、I caught a _____A_____ of the taxi before it disappeared around the corner of the street. A) vision B) glimpse C) look D) scene 16、______C_____ right now, she would get there on Sunday. A) Would she leave B) If she leaves C) Were she to leave D) If she had left 17、They are teachers and don't realize _A____ to start and run a company. A) what it takes B) what takes it C) what they take D) what takes them 18、 19、It’s already 5 o’clock now. Don’t you think it’s about time _A_________? A) we are going home B) we go home C) we went home D) we can go home 20、 some countries, __B___ is called "equality" does not really mean equal rights for all people. In A) which B) what C) that D) one 21、 After the robbery, the shop installed a sophisticates alarm system as an insurance ___C______ further losses. A) for B) from C) against D) towards 22、 Lightning is a __B______ of electrical current from a cloud to the ground or from one cloud to another. A) rush B) rainbow C) rack D) ribbon 23、An outline is used most often to __A____the contents of long complex papers before the actual writing begins. A. sketch B. illustrate C. draw D. describe 24、I felt somewhat disappointed and was about to leave, ______C__ something occurred which attracted my attention. A) unless B) until C) when D) while 25、_______B____ the earth to be flat, many feared that Columbus would fall off the edge of the

earth. A) Having believed B) Believing C) Believed D) Being believed 26、The survival of civilization as we know it is __B___ threat. A) within B) under C) towards D) upon 27、Liquids are like solids __A___ they have a definite volume. A) in that C) with that B) for that D) at that 28、She was so ______B__ in her job that she didn’t hear anybody knocking at the door. A) attracted B) absorbed C) drawn D) concentrated 29、Jean doesn’t want to work right away because she thinks that if she ___B_______ a job she probably wouldn’t be able to see her friends very often. A) has to get B) were to get C) had got D) could have got 30、You cannot be ____C______ careful when you drive a car. A) very B) so C) too D) enough 31、I shall never allow you to marry the poor girl and you are not my son if you ____D_. A. have B. married C. do not D. do 32、______B____ as it was at such a time, his work attracted much attention. A) Being published B) Published C) Publishing D) To be published 33、When a fire ___B_ at the National Exhibition in London, at least ten priceless paintings were completely destroyed. A) broke off C) broke down B) broke out D) broke up 34、 first, the speaker was referring to the problem of pollution in the country, but halfway in her At speech, she suddenly _____B____ to another subject. A) committed B) switched C) favoured D) transmitted 35、 healthy life is frequently thought to be _D______ with the open countryside and homegrown A food. A) tied B) bound C) involved D) associated 36、____D_ they reached the centre of the city, they stopped the car at a bar. A) Before a mile or so when C) Further than a mile or so B) For a mile or so after D) A mile or so before 37、Today, _____A____ major new products without conducting elaborate market research. A) corporations hardly introduce ever B) corporations hardly ever introduce C) hardly corporations introduce ever D) hardly corporations ever introduce 38、I would appreciate __A___ it a secret. A) your keeping C) that you keep B) you to keep D) that you will keep 39、 Denis, who is 78, has made it known that much of his collection __D_______ to the nation. Sir A) has left B) is to leave C) leaves D) is to be left

40、The destruction of these treasures was a loss for mankind that no amount of money could ____B_. A) stand up to C) come up with B) make up for D) put up with 41、I’ve already told you that I’m going to buy it, ____A_____. A) however much it costs B) however does it costs much C) how much does it cost D) no matter how it costs 42、Then ____B_ of that time when he was cowboy. A. Comes the memory B. came the memory C. the memory comes D. the memory came 43、It is politely requested by the hotel management that radios __C____ after 11 o’clock at night. A) were not played B) not to play C) not be played D) did not play 44、He decided to make further improvements on the computer's design __C___ the light of the requirements of customers. A) on B) for C) in D) with 45、 Before the first non-stop flight made in 1949, it __C______ necessary for all planes to land for refueling. A) would be B) has been C) had been D) would have been 46、I would appreciate __A___ it a secret. A) your keeping C) that you keep B) you to keep D) that you will keep 47、Although I like the appearance of the house, what really made me decide to buy it was the beautiful ___________D___ through the window. A) vision B) look C) picture D) view 48、Busy ___B_ he is, he can fulfill the task ahead of schedule. A. because B. as C. no matter how D. although 49、In general, the amount that a student spends for housing should be held to one-fifth the total _______B__ for living expenses. A) acceptable B) available C) advisable D) applicable 50、 preparing scientific reports of laboratory experiments, a student should __D___ his findings In in logical order and clear language. A) furnish B) propose C) raise D) present 51、In Britain today women ____C__ 44% of the workhorse, and nearly half the mothers with children are in paid work. A) build up B) stand for C) make up D) conform to 52、Then the speaker _C____ the various factors leading to the present economic crisis. A) went after C) went into B) went for D) went on 53、Cancer is second only ____B______ heart disease as a cause of death. A) of B) to C) with D) from 54、Children, we have to _D____ what we have now and it is for you to get better things in the future.

A. make up for B. run away with C. do away with D. put up with 55、________A__ might be expected, the response to the question was very mixed. A) As B) That C) It D) What 56、You ______D____ her in her office last Friday; she’s been out of town for two weeks. A) needn’t have seen B) must have seen C) might have seen D) can’t have seen 57、 Every man in this country has the right to live where he wants to __D___ the color of his skin. A) with the exception of B) in the light of C) by virtue of D) regardless of 58、The doctor told Penny that too much ___A__ to the sun is bad for the skin. A) exposure B) extension C) exhibition D) expansion 59、Housewives who do not go out to work feel they are not working to their full __A_____. A) capacity B) strength C) length D) possibility 60、Mark often attempts to escape _D____ whenever he breaks traffic regulations. A) having been fined C) to have been fined B) to be fined D) being fined 61、That was so serious a matter that I had no choice but ___D_____ the police. A) called in B) calling in C) call in D) to call in 62、Michael used to look hurt and surprised when __D___. A) scolding B) to scold C) having scolded D) scolded 63、The students was just about to __D___ the questions, when suddenly he found the answer. A) arrive at C) work out B) submit to D) give up 64、Despite the wonderful acting and well-developed plot the ____B_____ movie could not hold our attention. A) three-hours B) three-hour C) three-hours’ D) three-hour’s 65、If I correct someone, I will do it with as much good humor and self-restraint as if I were the one __________D__. A) to correct B) correcting C) having corrected D) being corrected 66、Do you object _B____with you tonight? A. that B. for my staying C. to that I shall stay D. to my staying 67、I hate people who _______A___ the end of a film that you haven’t seen before. A) reveal B) rewrite C) revise D) reverse 68、As I was just getting familiar with this job, I had __D___ to ask my boss. A) many B) most C) more D) much 69、If you don't like to swim, you _B____ stay at home. A) should as well B) may as well C) can as well D) would as well 70、When there are small children around, it is necessary to put bottles of pills out of _A____. A) reach C) hold B) hand D) place 71、I used to smoke __B__ but I gave it up three years ago. A) seriously B) heavily C) badly D) severely

72、Doing your homework is a sure way to improve your test scores, and this is especially true ________A____ it comes to classroom tests. A) when B) since C) before D) after 73、You will want two trees about ten feet apart, from ___C__ to suspend your tent. A) there B) them C) which D) where 74、 New York __D__ second in the production of apples, producing 850,000,000 pounds this year. A) ranked B) occupied C) arranged D) classified 75、_B___ quite recently, most mothers in Britain did not take paid work outside the home. A) Before B) Until C) From D) Since 76、Features such as height, weight, and skin color __B_____ from individual to individual and from face to face. A) change B) vary C) alter D) convert 77、If only I ____C_ the books on the reading list before I attended the lecture. A. read B. have read C. had read D. could have read 78、 Melted iron is poured into the mixer much ___A______ tea is poured into a cup from a teapot. A) in the same way like B) in the same way which C) in the same way D) in the same way as 79、No matter how frequently ___B__, the works of Beethoven always attract large audiences. A) performing C) to be performed B) performed D) being performed 80、The _____A of blood always makes him feel sick. A) sight C) look B) view D) form 81、In Britain, the best season of the year is probably __D___ spring. A) later C) latter B) last D) late 82、The little man was __A___ more than one meter fifty tall. A) nearly B) quite C) hardly D) almost 83、Careful surveys have indicated that as many as 50 percent of patients do not take drugs ____D____ directed. A) like B) so C) which D) as 84、The manager needs an assistant that he can ___A_____ to take care of problems in his absence. A) count on B) count in C) count up D) count out 85、To be frank, I'd rather you ___D__ in the case. A) will not be involved B) not involved C) not to be involved D) were not involved 86、In developing countries people are ____C____ into overcrowded cities in great numbers. A) breaking B) filling C) pouring D) hurrying 87、I make notes in the back of my diary ___D______ thing to be mended or replaced. A) by B) in C) with D) of 88、 While crossing the mountain areas, all the men had guns for protection lest they __A___by the local bandits. A. be attacked B. were attacked C. must be attacked D. would be attacked

89、The organization had broken no rules, but ______A____ had it acted responsibly. A) neither B) so C) either D) both 90、In Britain, the best season of the year is probably __D___ spring. A) later C) latter B) last D) late 91、It’s reported that by the end of this month the output of cement in the factory _A_______ by about 10%. A) will have risen B) has risen C) will be rising D) has been rising 92、Up went the prices, ___D___. A. down the living standard come B. the living standard came down C. came down the living standard D. down came the living standard 93、We gave out a cheer when the red roof of the cottage came ___D_______ view. A) from B) in C) before D) into 94、The room is in a terrible mess; it ____A_____ cleaned. A) can’t have been B) mustn’t have been C) shouldn’t have been D) wouldn’t have been 95、I have had great deal of trouble ____C_ the rest of the class. A) coming up against B) making up for C) keeping up with D) living up to 96、All the students in this class passed the English exam ____D____ the exception of Li Ming. A) on B) in C) for D) with 97、If you suspect that the illness might be serious you should not __A___ going to the doctor. A) put off B) hold back C) put aside D) hold up 98、_____ Bfor my illness I would have lent him a helping hand. A) Not being B) Had it not been C) Without being D) Not having been 99、 well-written composition ____B______ good choice of words and clear organization among A other things. A) calls on B) calls for C) calls up D) calls off 100、He burned all the important documents ___B_ that they should fall into the enemy’s hands. A. unless B. for fear C. until D. so 101、It is recommended that the project __C___ until all the preparations have been made. A) is not started C) not be started B) will not be started D) is not to be started 102、 103、The science of medicine, ___A__ progress has been very rapid lately, is perhaps the most important of all science. A. to which B. with which C. in which D. among which 104、They took _____D___ measures to prevent poisonous gases from escaping. A) fruitful B) beneficial C) valid D) effective 105、If you want to know the train schedule, please ___B__ at the booking office. A) acquire B) inquire C) request D) require 106、Certain programs work better for some __B___ for others. A) and B) than C) as D) but 107、If I had remembered _____A____ the window, the thief would not have got in. A) to close B) closing C) to have closed D) having closed

108、____A_ a teacher in a university, it is necessary to have at least a master's degree. A) To become B) Become C) One become D) On becoming 109、This hotel _____D $ 60 for a single room with bath. A) claims C) prices B) demands D) charges 110、People can ___B__ new ideas which nobody ever considered before. A. came into B. come up with C. come out D. come along with 111、The traditional approach ____A_____ with complex problems is to break them down into smaller, more easily managed problems. A) to dealing B) in dealing C) dealing D) to deal 112、He thought that ____C_. A) the effort doing the job was not worth C) it was not worth the effort doing the job B) the effort was not worth in doing the job D) it was not worth the effort by doing the job 113、 114、I could not persuade him to accept it, __D___ make him see the important of it. A) if only I could not B) no more than I could C) or I could not D) nor could I 115、 116、The grey building is where the workers live, an

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