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Start to see Political divide when the states decide to

Politics and the Causes of the Civil War

Begin to see political division before the United States is formed as a nation From the Declaration of Independence through the firing on Fort Sumter, North and South struggled to make compromises that would strengthen the bond between the regions. North looked at slavery as a “peculiar institution” that did not jive with founding documents. South viewed slavery as a significant part of their heritage and culture

Early Sectional Examples Regarding Slavery
Declaration of Independence Northwest Ordinance of 1787 The United States Constitution Missouri Compromise
? Tallmadge Amendment

Political Parties of the 19th Century
Jackson creates the Democrats Opponents create the Whigs
? Free Soil Party ? American Party (Know Nothings) ? Republican Party

Democratic Party
Embraced labor theory of value: the proceeds of wealth should go to the person that creates the product Did not like wage labor thus had problems with industrialization
? Turned workers into slaves

Embraced immigrants: they were votes
? Championed individual rights ? Supported separation of church and state (Catholic immigrants applauded) ? Opposed temperance

Slavery issue split State government Opposed tariffs, transportation improvements, national bank

The Whigs
Internal improvements Tariffs to protect American industry and labor from low-wage foreign competition Centralized banking system Many embraced temperance – sober up America Believed public schools provided opportunity for all Americans to achieve success – provided an education for all – rich or poor Had a southern contingent of wealthy land owners who opposed Jackson’s catering to the yeoman farmers

End of the Whigs
Taylor was an apolitical war hero elected because of name recognition Anti-Jackson party without a clear vision on slavery Party members split into newly formed parties: 1. Free Soilers 2. Know Nothings – American Party 3. Republicans

Free Soilers
Created from Conscience Whigs and anti-slavery Democrats Advocates of free soil, (availability of land to all in the west), free speech, and free men (abolition of slavery) Nominated Martin Van Buren as president in 1848 and John P. Hale in 1852 Kept issue of abolition alive, but little impact otherwise

Know Nothings
Formed in the 1850’s of frustrated Whigs and Democrats The were what they were against: antiCatholic, anti-immigrant WASPS and Nativists Opposed to large influx of Germans and Irish on the east coast in the 1840’s Only presidential candidate: Millard Fillmore in 1856 Split on slavery issue – not their priority Favored temperance Opposed taxes for parochial schools Increase naturalization laws

Expansion of the borders further than the Louisiana Purchase caused sectional issues because the question of slavery in the territories
? Texas ? Oregon Territory ? Southwest

Independent nation in 1836
? Wanted to be annexed by US

They were a slaveholding nation (mostly Americans)
? North didn’t want them ? Andrew Jackson did not want to upset the Mexican government

The 1844 election of James Polk
? John Tyler annexed Texas in 1845

Texas was the 28th state and 15th slave state – upset balance of power

Promised 4 things
? Acceptable substitute for national bank – established an independent treasury for government funds ? Lower tariff rate – (Walker Tariff – 1846) ? Get Oregon Territory from British ? Get SW from Mexico

Mexican American War – 1845-1848
Polk wanted to acquire the California and Oregon territories He negotiated with the British to get the Pacific Northwest He went to war with Mexico to get California and the Southwest Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ceded California territory (modern day SW United States)

Unintended Consequences of War
Will the new territory acquired from the treaty be slave or free?
? Why doesn’t Missouri Compromise apply?

Wilmot Proviso
? Slavery would not be permitted in any territory acquired from the Mexican-American War. ? Southerners were not happy about this

Compromise of 1850 - Intro
1849 - Gold Rush
? California reached its population quota to apply for statehood

California applied as a free state
? Southerners did not support

Henry Clay and Daniel Webster came up with a solution

Compromise of 1850 - Terms
1. 2.

Admit California as a free state Texas/New Mexico border dispute
1. 2.
Federal government forgave $10 million of Texas debt New Mexico gets territory in question

3. 4. 5.

New Mexico and Utah formed into federal territories - popular sovereignty Slave Trade would be abolished in the District of Columbia Strengthen the Fugitive Slave Act
? ? ?

Placed burden of proof on the African-American to prove his/her freedom Provided federal funds for the effort Created harsh punishments for whites who aided escaped slaves
$1000 fine, 6 months in jail

Compromise of 1850 – Resolution
It is debated in Congress
? Support
? Daniel Webster

? Opposition
? Salmon Chase and William Seward ? Jeff Davis ? Zach Taylor

? Congress voted it down

Stephan Douglas tried to push it through as five separate pieces of legislation and all five pass
? Taylor had died, Fillmore supported the bill

Civil War is averted for now

Problems with the Compromise of 1850
Fugitive Slave law breaks down
? South’s big win from Compromise

? Interfered with slave catchers ? Tried to nullify the Fugitive Slave Act ? Sympathy for African Americans in courtrooms

North was out to get them in their eyes

The Kansas-Nebraska Act and Popular Sovereignty, 1854
Stephan Douglas (Illinois) proposed ? wanted to be President – win southern votes ? owned great deal of Chicago real estate His idea: divide Nebraska territory into two territories and let Popular Sovereignty determine free/slave issue Douglas has influence in the Senate and is able to win support for this. It functionally shuts down the Missouri Compromise. Problems ? Leads to Bleeding Kansas

Bleeding Kansas (1854-1859)
Pro-slave and free-soilers immigrate to Kansas
? New England Aid Society ? Missouri border ruffians Fierce struggle between the Lecompton Government (proslavery) and the Topeka Free Government Tremendous amount of vigilantism and bloodshed
? Sack of Lawrence ? Pottawatomie Creek

Bleeding Kansas proved that popular sovereignty is not working in Kansas

Whigs are Dead
Southern Whigs form Constitutional Union party or become Know Nothings Northern Whigs become free soilers or Republicans
? Free soilers don’t last – too divided on all other issues

Know-Nothings don’t become a big party
? Immigration decreases in 1850s ? Slavery is clearly a bigger deal

Republican Party
Founded in Ripon, WI - 1854 Kansas-Nebraska caused Abe Lincoln to go into politics and join the Republicans Anti-slavery Whiggish in economics – favored federal banks, internal improvements, promoting industry Encouraged western settlement with land grants

Rise in political tension: Sumner & Brooks
Spring 1856: Senator Charles Sumner (Mass)
? Incendiary remarks against Southerners; targeted Andrew Butler (SC)

Preston Brooks – Southern Rep in the House
? Comes to Senate and beats Sumner unconscious with a cane on the Senate floor.

Traumatic event and engages the national press Northerners argued that this is the type of violence that is produced from slavery This attitude makes it difficult to come to an agreement on sectional issues.

Ostend Manifesto
Expand South
? Polk tried in 1848 to buy Spain ? Filibusters Spanish consider offering emancipation to slaves on Cuba

Southerners feared emancipation so close to US American diplomats meet in Ostend, Belgium
? Suggest that Spain sell, otherwise possible invasion

Northern papers are tipped off and go crazy Pierce administration renounced idea from pressure
? K-N Act hurt Pierce’s popularity

The Dred Scott Story
Slave of a military physician (John Emerson) Missouri. In 1834 - moved to Illinois and territory of Wisconsin. In 1838, Scott returns to Missouri, resides with is owner until the owner dies Since slavery was illegal in territories north of the 36/30 parallel, sues in Missouri courts

The Dred Scott Decision, 1857
Missouri lower court (St. Louis County) ruled in his favor - 1850 Missouri State Supreme Court overturned the decision 1852 Elevated to the Federal Supreme Court in 1856 Ruling:
? Southern Justices dominated the Supreme Court (5-4). Ruled 6-3 against Scott. ? Roger Taney (pronounced Tawney) Chief Justice said,
? Slaves don’t have a right to sue in a federal court ? Applied the full faith and credit clause ? Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional because only states had the right to determine whether they want to be free or slave.

The Justices & Dred Scott
Supreme Court making policy??? Five pro-southern justices President James Buchanan influenced one Northern justice
? Buchanan’s influenced was highly improper

Implications of Dred Scott
Slave holders could in theory go anywhere they want in territories with their property (slaves) The decision makes the slavery issue worse
? Northerners outraged ? This is a blow to northern democratic supporters of popular sovereignty ? Southerners supported this decision but are upset with Northern reaction

Lecompton Constitution
Proslavery government writes a proslavery constitution for the state
? Anti-slavery citizens boycott vote

Governor of Kansas implored Buchanan to reject the Constitution
? Buchanan encouraged Congress to approve it ? Stephan Douglas opposed it
? Caused issues between the two

Congress rejected the Constitution - 1857

John Brown
Religious fundamentalist and Abolitionist Believed that he had to do the work of God His mission was to eliminate slavery. ? He separated God’s law and the United States law Spoke in New England He raised money from Abolitionists Developed plan to raid the South
? Would cause a general uprising of slaves. ? Eventually that would lead to a war that would eliminate slavery

John Brown’s Raid, 1859
Oct 16th-18th at Harpers Ferry ,Va (now West Va) He recruited a 21 armed men and captured the federal arsenal hoping to incite a slave rebellion Virginia militia with some United States Marines (under Col. R.E. Lee) retake the armory wounding & killing several of Brown’s men. Brown is captured The slave uprising he had hoped for never happened

The Aftermath
Most northerners saw this as the act of a madman The south feared that this was the first of many attacks What happened to Brown?
? Tried for treason and murder under Virginia State laws, not federal laws ? He was treated as a sane, deadly serious threat to the south and a murderer. ? Convicted and scheduled to be hung on Dec. 2nd 1859.
? It was widely covered by the press

He rejected all attempts to free him, commute his sentence, or pardon him.

Public reaction
? Brown was martyred by abolitionists in the north ? Ralph Waldo Emerson said “John Brown will make the gallows as glorious as Jesus made the Cross.” ? On the day of his execution, church bells tolled, cannons fired, sermons were preached

? Sees his actions as treasonist ? One Southern Journal said “The North has sanctioned and applauded theft, murder and treason in the body of John Brown ? Lynchings increase ? South felt they were under siege from the North

It further separated the two sections of the country This split the democratic party along sectional lines

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