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论新闻英语的文体特点






在未来世界中,      信息就是力量, 获得信息和传播信息都将成为衡量一个国家和
民族在世界 匕 的地位和影响的重要标志。大众媒体成为我们获得信息和传播信息 的最佳载体,它包括报纸、杂志、广播、电视等新闻媒介。在如今的 I T时代,随

着信息量的日 益增加,不同国籍、不同文化之间的交流日益增多,新闻英语在人 们的交流中扮演着越来越重要的角色。 语 [的学习主要是一个实践的过程。      7 对于英语学习者来说,阅读英文报刊能学
习最新的英语、了解变化的世界。通过阅读英文报刊,人们不仅能扩大词汇量, 增强语感,领会词汇的内涵,而且它是学习和掌握现代英语的最重要、最简洁、

最有效的途径之一。同时,人们还能通过阅读英语报刊了解英美社会和世界的现
状,了解当今世界在政治、经济、军事、科学、文化 以及社会生活的各个方面的 新事物和新动态。

报刊英语具有 自己鲜明的特点,它在用词造句、文章类型、文章结构、写作特      点、词汇和语法等方面都有别于普通英语。在英语新闻报刊中,新闻记者们经常 使用一些习语、理语、典故和新造词,这些最新用语使得学习者们迷惑不解,不

得要领。如果学习者们没有基本的新闻常识,也没有掌握一定的新闻英语的基本 文体特征,就很难完全理解报刊英语。因此,本文希望通过对新闻英语文体特点 的研究让英语学习者们对报刊英语有一个系统的了解,这样有助于他们有针对性 的进行更加有效的学习和训练,从而进一步提高语言水平。 本文共分为六章。      第一章主要介绍了有关新闻英语的背景、国内 外专家、 学者 的研究现状及本文的研究方法。第二章是理论背景。介绍了文体学的定义、文体 学的研究对象、文体学的分析方法和文体学研究的发展过程及现状。 本章的重点 放在了介绍文体学的三种分析方法:语音、笔体学方法、词汇和语法方法和语义 学方法。第三章和第四章讨论了一些新闻的基本常识。在第三章中介绍了新闻的 定义、新闻的价值、新闻的分类、什么是新闻英语和英文报刊的发展过程。第四 章讨论了新闻的结构,从新闻的标题、导语和主体三大部分做了 详细的介绍。 第 五章是本文研究的重点部分。用文体学的三种分析方法分别对新闻的标题、导语 及主体部分进行讨论,即标点的 使用、词汇特征、语法特征以 及句子结构特征,
如:大量使用短小词、缩略语、新造词、借代词和外来语,在句子使用上,采用

长短交替的方法和大量使用前置修饰语。第六章为结论。
关键词:新闻 新闻英语 文体学 语言特点

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本人声明所呈交的论又是我个人在导师指导下进行的研究工作及取得的研究      成果。尽我所知,除了文中特别加以标注和致谢中所罗列的内容以外,论文中不
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申请学位论文与资料若有不实之处,本人承担一切相关责任 。      本人签名

:鱼 遗 丛一

日期: d} .  . l , .  r

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w e tee  e t e  vn. t iias  t  vi   e  s a f t b r eat 二Sy sc n w n t ao hr h r l o  e e  l , lti a o  d

vge  i r s n t ugm n bu t a t f a    ad pe i iijde et aot  w y t m l au n m so sc  s  h e  h o a r f te a   rs  mai le. a  l s lts w o te dl e u r n ua d A r u , ii da s  h m e a e  p t s  s t t sc r e y n  o s ad  n o poi d  ht e a c f  u ts  e   e i l y v e b w a vr eto lgii a ft n tm o g r d y  e s s  i sc r l r p n e 
t b rlv n.     e a t o  e e 

( l , 9A coa o S lts                           Wa s18: ii r f  ii ) e 9 D t n y  t sc y

F m  e it sw a s h s lts  ba o i u ts c    t s dfi n, cn  t t ii ia nh lgii w i r h eni o e o e  e a t sc s r c f  sc h h e  y n ape t t o ad  t dl y  m dm  gii t t s d o S Y E pls  h r n m h o g o oe l u ts  h t y  T L . i h e y  e o o f  e  i sc o  u f  n e 



fe lt Fa r o N w E gs h Sy sc  t e f  s  lh t ii e u s  e n i

Svrl  u ti vr u w y hv dfe t t m t ii " w i oint ee l gis  aos  s  e i d  e " y sc , c r ia d a i s n  i n a a en h r s lts h h g e e  r t od  l f m  w r"te o h e  s " y S p d i d S LS IS  d i i t s i t as  h h      f e, Y ITC i a  c le  t d s  w y i w i i l en m y  T s  i pn h t e h s a u e  n  c

l gae s ;  a  ii t t  i t s l ol gae  s.  Y uh a ug iu dis spn h s d s  te f  ug iue(u  zi n s  t  d c le  t e h y s a e i i a u e  n n  X o ,
19 : dr  g s S lt s 92Moe E lh  ii ) n n i t sc y

S lts  e h so l ug iseic t t n ae p o on f     t i t ue agae pcicn x ad m ttacut  tii s d s  ysc u e  f  n n  f o e s  t s c t o r
t ca c rts t  k  l gae  o i id a ad  i gop.  o g h hr t ii t m r t a ug ue n v ul n sc l u sA t uh e  a e sc h a h n a e  s f  i s  o a r d l h

s lts  em s  ue i e i tn soe l gaeiiuul cne e tii sm t e i l s  sg i o pkn  ug,  say  cr d ysc o i n d n tao f  c v a n t  l o n s  wtt ea i tn  rt l gaeprclll r t t i h xmn i owi n  ug, i ay  a   s h  e  ao f  e a t n a ur i r e . t ty x e T e i c l i f xi o et e r tn  wir/ ae' e l     iaa s o a t  l s ds po oa t 'sekr vra h s lt n y s  t n v h c i f resp ts y e v e  i s  b co e w i cn asat a s l A lti w u uul poed  i us hi s  c a b btc d  t e s iia ol say  ce tds s c h h  e  r e s  .  ysc n  d  l r y t o c t reac o t aa s tie r ao, psb m ai o eet kd  h e vne h nl i o  r e tnt os l e n r  ceoe b e  l f  y s n p ti h e  t e  ie  n g  f v y
t aot n  cri s l h dp o o a tn  e e  i f  a t . e y

22  Sye .    tl
A c d g  h eni o tii ,  a nw  s lts  ocr d   ri t t dfi n s ltsw c ko t t ii icne e co n o  it f  sc e  e  o y n  h t sc s  n a y wt t i a "te.  w r "T L "  e rle t "tlts i m ai , i h d o s l T e  d  Y E ,hn a d  s ii "  en g h  e f  " h o S e  y w e t o y sc n  n
hs  y  s ote  . a m n sne  h t m a e f  e r

S l m y  r  pr n ii te  ug hbso t e f  v ul      r e t a s 'd tcv l gae  i, h s o i ida te  e o  e o s  n i a y a f s n a t r  t  n i e  d ca c rts l gae  ,  S ae er's l , t i s l " e l o hr tii o a ug ue a "hks a s  e Mio c  e t s e  a esc f  n s s  p e t " ln t ,  t f y y h y J e Jye. e, ocn a s  apr n prcll s gl o o g a a s  c" O n icnett o   s ' ai ay  u r  r i l m o t f t  re n  e o s  u r i a r  n t n i f t e o w tgH ne  h etm ed lm y e t a t 'dv tn e u s  ri .  c a t x e e  s e  r r  w e s  ii s a r f  n e t  r i e  n t a e o  r r e ao y f i
r ae i l om l o l ug. f m    te nr aue agae o rl v y  a s f  n

S lm y  r  s f e i hr t sc o l ug u i.  ug     r et a o clcv ca c rts agae , l gae te  e o e o te  a e i f  y a f t  l i n s .a e e n h i sa d a  p  ep aa  n ea" e e h A gsn  t, a t hr b g u opol t v t , t slot uua pe" bs  e y  o f  e  g e i s  t f  r i m h y e  t o s " y s  ul se i "e . e  cnettn  oo t i idato t s l opbc a n ,  H rt ocn ao int h n v ul f  te f  i p k g t e h c e  ri s  n  d i i h e  y  e
sekr  re bt his iri ia e sutn paeow ir uo te i l ie n i n  ao. r t,  n  r  ats  g m v i i t S lm y  r h fcvns f oe  xr s n  c s  ld h     rett eet ee o a d o ep so w i iip e it te  e o  y a f e  i s  m f  e i h h m i n  e

dfio o s l a " y g  r h tn i t m s ee i w y o "od eni f  e  s i t i t  g  h ot  cv a"  go itn  t s  n h g h n  y a e  i e  f te  r 
manr ,  "l ro " f e" lavct im sbos  o p s o. nes a a  a r  nd s e  oa d  ot k o cm oi n " s  e "  r c e i t d y e n  o f  i t

S lm y  r  lt a r t sc  go"  batu l a w i s     r esly  ca c rt o "od o "eu f" r y tg. te  e o o h a e i f  y a f e i r  i l i r ri t e n Tit wd- r d  os la og r y i , g n s l ,  a s l , h h i s e ue te  n l a ctsa"r d  e "r t te s  e p a s f  m e  y i r r c s  t e i a t " o e  " y n y "ln l ,  i n ir y rs pa s e e g e tl a w k. i t " t v o  r o y c  t e O t aoe  s e t it  s n ( eil h e n)  na s     v f r s , fsad od pc l t s od cme r t f  b o e s h r n e h e  u n e  c e ay  c s e  o ee

C at 2  eay ve hpe Lt r R i r  ir e w



tw aim at  teIs l ea S Y E t l gae i oa s o o  t  enb s l t l  r T L a h a ug hbs  pr n  h s  y  .  a r d  y h g s  n e  a t f  o r e
g u o pr n i a e sutnT e od  ivrt w i ie p yd  r p  e os  g n  ao.  scn oe  ae , c s  l e i o f  s n i i i h e v t n s iy h h  m o n ts s . e r t lgii f te o nnle t e t o p ccl .  h t i Ir e o  u t eu s  o-t a r t s  r ta ue S i h s t  s  i sc  r f  iru e f  i s o e f n a x a S Y E a b se a t vr u ca c rt ue o l gae t  e o o T L m y  en  h aos  r tii ss  a ug t a  sn  e  s  e  i h a e sc  f  n h pr r a
gop pr n m k ivr u sc l t t r o e os  e  ao s i cn x . u f s a n  i o a o e s

2    h N es  Syii Su y . T e  d fr lt s  d 3  e o t sc t
S lts  y  p u i t   e  prpie s h i ot c o      s d hl cl a as s o aport es T e pr ne  tii t ysc u e s  t e  e v n f  a n .  m a f apor t es  peh  n cn bsiutt b oe w y de i .  prpie s i sec eet a b e lsa d  n' a o r s gT e a n n  v s  e t  r e y  s  f sn h l

s e r o t l gae  i o a n h iepc d so t aport a it e  h a ug hbs  m :  s  et t hw  pr ie m s  f  n u e  a t f  a e  x e o  h e  p a

lgii" a e"  d en sui . ro w hv t d e p eso i ut m n r f i r t ao Te fe  ae  e l a  e  n sc  n s o f e i tn h e r e  o  o s r  t v n f
aport es  b a a t t  a k d o epe i s  m r sib o pr ie s ad  w r h c i i s  xr s n a o ual r p a n n e  e  e n  a r t n f  so r e  e t e 
ef in ta oh r i s me u t n f ce t  n  es  o stai s i h t n  i o

S lt s d sa es  e t i ad  r ao f  a w k We  n     uy r n udrad g  apeii o l r y r . o e tii t h p n sn n n p c tn  i r o s ysc  t e t f

i t pol r e  r  i u t n r e tn  pe a o  t r  fd t p a u oe t lgii ie rao o a  m  t w e e a n h e e  a g v h n sc  p ti f o s  h h e  t o n a e x sd h i i s l o prcl e et m ai hs n  r s .  d cso uul m vsf m ai a f c o en g  be epe e T e  us n say  e r tu r  r
i 。h r t c s t gnr st et t prcls e h pt t m t t bc ee l  e n o  i a a a d u n ae p o ak叩 hsar e a t m s a u r s  i a t s  a
o iin p o. n
l p c e d ao n  ao t sc e s a y l Sy sc  d e s  i e  p tn  r s tn S ii tl u h t       t yhl ah v aati i tnli . lts  s  ta al t ii s lt u agae hv d e n vrts  d e n fntnl  sad  h  i v n t nugs  e  r t ii f i r t coarl ,  ec m n a ey a i e aee o f e u i f r  o n a a e

dp ya  y  l s of te S itn ao, f fm  uh ip il s i r ur  f  r .  r stnis  o eog ts l sa fr e a e eu s o  a li t r  n al g t  a n  i ar o  e m
cne t oinl  eRt r tnle t t  t  dp d h o g ai ovy  ri s s.  et r st e m sb aat tt r i l  h ga e e  n a h a a d  u e  e o  in n h e  x e 

tm o l ga t e  gnr ee .  tnlo tn a p cc wi g e s  a ug y ad  e l c Te  st s  st r ta ri s r f  e  n e a f t h r a r r le  il  n n p a a a t sc a i itn d, csanucm n , s  r u tn,  isT e uh  n ti crsnte, one et rl ad  li sr e t hy s  ao a v o i n s u n e ao e p .  e g c solko t cnetnl  s  ri t stns  e  el gae hu nw  ovnoaw y owi g  e  g it tgt  ug. d  h e  i a f  n h h t e i n  a a h r n

2   tlt F aue . Sy sc  trs 4  ii e
S l i a ap v i m t o g o aa s w i wl lw  pr n   ts s r in a hdl y  nl i h h l  ay s s ti c i t  d g e o o f  y s c iao n eo ys m o l tcp wta t t  wntsd.  e tea es  s e e n一h o e  n e t y  t u Te a h e  c ia  c v t t o i t  h a o  y h r r s t n  e h  h  x e t r e  p p e e s sna t fm l n t su i a Te snaa e irad h l e u t tlh o a ad  iao l h s t tl  c s t tt e l b a i,  r ,  h t tn .  u a i s t  le o  v e  e  b p e e  o poo g/ahl yt f m l  le t t l eo l ia g m a ad f nl y po g,  o airad  h e l e s  r m r n h o g o h r s t o  v f  n a ,  e  e e  x d 
t sutnl e t t t l eo s ni . i aoavr to l gae  h i aoairle o  e l e tsA ut nl  e f  ug cn e  i s  d  h v f  c s i t a e  ma t a y  a i n a

b s n  cm l o f t e ds i b b r e ne a  br cn x a e  a a  pe #  u s cb l y  r c t nm e o ot t l e s o x  e r e r a e  e e o  u e a f f  e u



T e  lt Fa r o N w E gi h Sy sc  t e f  s  lh t ii e u s  e n s

ct oi .  ct oi a dfe wt r e ne  s s  lgii f t e a grs T e e rs  end  h  r c t e o i u t e u s e e h ag e r i e  i e e o  f  sc  r f t n a
d t c v o a  ao , c o e tasm o a o t l e o a g aeT ee ii t e  sut n w i pr e  o e  l f  e l f n ug .  s sn i f t i h h  a t  r  h v s  l i l  e  a h

sutnl bud a rs e yscl s n i n f t e w a w cl i aoay  n f t e a s ltay gic t  u s ht e  l t i l o eu r t ii l i fa e r a a

S Y ITC  A U E .  o t m i f cos s lts  t ep i hw T LS I F T R S O e  h a u tn o tii w s  xln  E n f  n  i f  sc a o  a o e  n y t `e i '  t t  c a d og t wir lgiico e A a z g h m a n o a  w s  t t uh  re' i u t hi s nl i e  n g f  x a r e h e e r h t s  sc  c .  y n e  n

l gae t l eo poo g/ ahl yl iad m a ad  ats  a ug o h e l  hnl y r o g, s  g m r n s nc ia n n  v f  o g p o e n r e  x a ,  e i s  m
d et  sa h ow r w y  ne t d rue t .  it s , ue s icad  i t r a a tudra le t btrIt s  i w s te r n t gf r d  o  sn i a r ee n  h s e  h e t h e t e l e t aa z E gs nw r o ig I te l i pr t e l e a h e  l o  l e  lh  s  rn. h f o n a,  e  l r r e s  n y n i e e t v p n  o w g  t h e s  l r v e
i rdcd  e i n o ue idt l t n a .
241  e rt  v l .. Th F s Le e i

T e  l eiPoo g af t e ad  hl i l u s hnl y h    it l hnl i l u s  g po g af t e Poo g it h fs e s  o c e r n r r v a a o c e r .  o s  a e s d o t rl f t o ai tn  h sud t s  l gaePoo g a t y  h u s  h r n ao ot on ssm o a  ug. nl i l u f  e o e  z i f  e  r  g e  y e f n a h oc l eit epe i o r lao o l gae tsoe fm. h t s,  e l  e  r s n  e i tn  a ug i i pkn  I t s  i or v s  x so r  z i f  h a n n  s  o n  h s u r i e m j d cso wl e g po g af t e. a r  us n l h r hl i l u s o i i ib t a o c e r s e  a Gahl it t y  h ri ssm o l ug. po g al e     y h s d o t wi g t s a gaeGahl i l  l r o g s  u f  t y e f n p o e  e  n a r oc e v cne s  ue  t a hbtt nm e ssm pnt tn cp aztn oc t s o h l ae h u br  t ,  c ao, ilao, n e  f  p r h e  ,  e  y e u u i a ti i

hali , c i ,  ktg d g m i ,  g pi , c g e .I ts e in ilin b cen,  a mn pr ah g san, .  h dn g tiz g r i i a a a r g a r n p i t n  a c i a a s lts cbs  e s wi g t i i d tgi i vrts  r , ii ds i ptr o ri t ast  ii u h g  ii o e t sc e r e a n f t h ss n  n s n aee f y n a s l gaeI ts s , a cne e wt t e k d o pii t e. r i a ug. h t i w r ocr d h  e  s  r tg  sT e s n n  h s e  i e e  n i h i f  n y r n n p h e  r a, cbl ec hv g c il m l ail  l ecsl e We  e o nil,  ,  ai i a t,  l  t ad  r a e r m k m ti o ah  n t pa s a cpa n o - e  .  a a d s  w t u o g po g af tetd cst se  rt  c ilao inwppr s f  hl il u s ius  i opnad  titn  e sae e  a o c e r o  r a s h z f  n a azi n  e  i p
l ot a us y .

242  h S c n Le e .. T e  o d  v l e

T e o Lvl to  sl if te  g m r u ,  i u n     d  ehs  pr: s u ad m af tee h l i h Sc e a w a e e r n r en t x a a e r a n dg a c c dfet  s  ae sWe l  us  psb s n c c o g m ac ie n k d o ptr .  wldcs t os l i i a e r m ta fr i f  n n t i i s h e  ie  f n f  gi a il
s utr a d  ds iuin  l ia i ms a  t t cue  te  tb t o e c l  i tx. r n h i r o f  x t e n e

1Ga m taFa r ) m acl t e r i eu s i g m acl u ,  it udra w t  mai r a a t      taf t ew fsy  e t d a g m r Ga m r  s  n  m i e r e  l n sn h r r a a r a s m .  i o m poi a  p hni ds ii o t su u s  ct oi o a gae r d cm r es e  cpo f  t c r ad e rs  l ug. v e o e v e rtn  h r t e n a g e f a e  n (adl Q i ea s 8)  opees e  m a o t Egi L nug) Rno h  r t  (45 A m r ni Ga m r h nlh  gae p uk  l 1 .  C h v r f  e  s a Ga m r rs  to  e :  po g ad  t . r o g i t pr  r a w k o w l l m rhl y  s a Mo hl y  h a o m o n  e s o o n y x v n p o s  t f e 

C at 2  r y  i hp r ta R v w e Le r e e i



ga m r  poi s e f cm in t lgii ui t t  w r .  r a t t v e rl o o b i h i u t n s  f m  d T e m h r d u s  a r  n g  n sc t h o e  a r os h scn l e o g m a ite  t t l e Sn x  v e rl f cm in eod  l  r m r  h sn cc  l yt poi s e o o bn g e f  v a s  y a i e .  a r d u s  v r  i w rs m k sn ne I tit s ,  a ma l d csn t sn cc e od t ae  t c.  h h i w r iy  us g  yt t l l o  ee n s  s e  e e  n i i h s e  a i e . v U dr m a t m i a o sn x t aa z t ie a sute o t ne g m r h a i f t i o  l e  n r l  c r f  r a ,  e  n  m  y a s  n y h t e  n t u s  h r e sn ne  t w y y co is une. sa ma ld css t c t e et c ad  a t f tn  e ecsWe  l iy  us  e e  , e n h e  h u i n  e n q h l n i s e n y n p
c ue egop  e  w r t e l s t ,  tp ad  d  . a y ru y n o y p p
i Snec tp .  t e  e e n y

A c d g  h u tn  s e e  o m n ao,  e e cn    r n t t f co o a  t c i cm ui tn s t cs  b co i o  n i f  e n n  e  n ci e n n a e
c si i o u t e:  dc r i sn ne te e oav s t c,  l ie n f r  s t elav et c,  i r gt e  e e t s a fd  o y t p h e  a te  e h nr i e n h t n e
ipr i snec ad  ec m t  n ne m e t e  t e  te  l a r s t c. av e n n h x a o e e y
Fg2 Snec T ps i . et e  e .  1  n y
Grmmaia a t l c
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te caaie h d lrt e v
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t i eoav h n r gt e e  r i t
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t ipr i h m e te e  av
s ne c      e e tn

t ec ma r h xl t e  a o y
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W h t  s we  i! a a  s  ae  me r n

A c d g  h t c r o s e e t e  aos  s  e e e   ri t t sut e  a  t c, r a vru k d o s t cs c n o  r u f  e n h o e  n e r i i f  n e  n n d cs d  tdi a tm : p ,  pud cm l o cm on- m l ; ius i r i nl  s s l cm on,  p x  o pudc p x s e n  t a o e r i e o m o e r  o e
cm le  lpcl o p to ei i . e r  t a l

1 S p s tc )  l e e e i e  n m n A  p s e e n w i osto a  l as i     et c ioe  c cnis  s g cuele s l n n s  h h  s f  e  ,  i e  m i n k
T e i wa  t          . h t n  l e r a s a

Jh etoa gs          o n  s n e. a r

2 C m on s t c )  pu d  e e o e n n A m o d  t c i n w c osto w o oe  ssE c o h      n sn ne oe i cnis to m r c ue. h t c pu e e s  h h  s f  r  l o a a f  e

c ue needn,  a j nd a jntn e  o bt l sii pnet hy  o e b cnuco l ad  u a s  d t r i y  e e  o i i n r  k Jh etap s  e  ' a r e. l s         h w nt oags( c ue) on s  l bt  o et  a pe u n 2  s a



T e lt Fa rs  e s  lh h S ii et e o N w E gi t sc  u f  y n s

Jn etoags  h w nt  h  l n bnns  u ote  so       e b t  o 'oc ape ad  aa a ot h qe i ae s n u e  t a r u p s  a r e  f  u t n
( c ue 3  s) l a

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t t .  ea pe h e . o xm l a t Fr  c :

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I i e  t  i a  iee         s  hn s. b l v ta se  C ee h h

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s t c ia  pe sn net n  w o sn ne l a  pud  l e e e  cm l et c,  t hl et c wlb cm on cmp x n n s o x  e h h e e  e  e i e o o e
s t c.  ea p : e e eF r m l nn o x e T e n lte  e ad  i t  i os ut e  l a l gt          w l ,  h h ii h hue ih cu sfy  h m s e  j r n e  n  a t h e y o d  s  n l  o d e e
o t twn uo o . f 

I k t r i n  ad s si j m n ,  I  d  e          i dm ns  i e g et ad olhp t t tn t yu ps o e h h o ot i a et u n v d s n wu o h a
yu l ue h ya g b. o wl a rat er o  im t s  e  s  y 5Sbt tn  ei i ) sti ad p s u i o n ls u l T ee  ei s  s n  r  vi e t o. sti n l s       dv e a ue i o e t ao r etn Sbtuo i o e t hs to  c r d  r o  d  i w e  d p i u itn  v h v e r l e et n ep so b ao e w i sns i Sbt tn o  b e a m no oe  r s n  nt r h h  d f t usti a cn  pc f  x e i y  h , c t a o .  i o l a e r  u s df d  h e a m n o oe  o t s  s tuo r f tPof m   e at r l e et  n o m rim b a sti p - r . - r s en s  p c i e  f  r  e  y u itn  o e b o ro
a ue tr a .   sd el e r e  o  c p A A  n ae          m nl  st i ) . nu prs 州o i Sbtu o o h a u itn

B A b a ( r l sti         e aSbtuo) .  e pr e  b u itn vr h s V C c ue  ( a aSbtu o          l sl st i ) .  l s     u u itn  A  a C
F r m l        o ea p : x e A I w r  o r 鱼_ uI ' n t onet .       to eci e bt nt w  yu gsoe .  o h w l h n  d ko h k n e d ] o e  n

(n ia  nl  tu )          stt oe  nmi sb i e s  o au

B Jh se s nh  uny  e s  ek) m n        Fec af et ah de(s asG r a. . n a r o pk s  l s  o =p l e
(os  vrasbtu )         st e deia bl  it s  e u       i i i u t cs  e a i e. C A I a a h c cms ne a vr hd  ed .  ' f d  r :  r m  s  a r y  n e  d B A , a o. :  I r s h h d  e ( ia  s sbtue s s a e  stt o  c u u i ) l

C at 2  r y  i hp r ta Rv w e Le r e e i



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ip c chs nuul ao i uncs r r etn I ei i a  c rl  i m li oei , ay  in nees y  ti . lp s sut as t  it  o s l v d g  a e io n  s ,  u l s p l t r o nt  d a - r bt  i e p . ofl b pof m, r n m t ie y r o l u e s  y ma T m  P e i ead  o i b,  n o h co l      t wlb,  H rlmgt pai f t sho o i e r l  n a d  h e l g  e  . s ,  y r  =Tm  (l i fr  s ol Pt wlb (l i f te  ol ad rd o i pa n o t c o , e i e a n o h s o ,  H o s  y g  h h ) e r l  p y g  e  r  c ) n a l h mi t pai fr  s ol g b,  n o te  o h e l g  h c . y h
A  a w r , t      ol i ' t s l m l  d s i n ?

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2 C as tp .  ue  e l y

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u ay i d t cv ao t  f t e o c ue  c r. s  tn ii t e  u t e u s  l s sut e n h g  n i b h a r f  s e  a t u r 3 Gop  e .  u t r y p

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nmnl  p. bl us st  l i l  oe tg ha,  o o i g usVr g p c i o a  c vr pri a e wt r a r o ea r o o s f  x a e n e b  an s d i h 
wt uoe  oe  iae peei i iot  o m r axlr s cd g  h n r  u ii r n t . O r l s  e l u wli i t w t r  s  rn s  fd       io vra gop l  c e e e nw r o i it ie b u aa s f b r ny i n a h h e e t g  y i y d p p

cm l pe oictn b cm l psm d i tnw i k d t t si o p x - d i i o y  p x  t oic i , c i o h e e  e r m fao r  o e o - fao h h  f  n s n e 

p falad  t r  i oai vi a fqet reb n w e ep s e cv o e r un e r e  h h a v r  e  r e . s t c e 
We l u o h h  c h e s  rn iue ad  i i us       cs w i vi t nw r ot g  sd  w wld cs i n wlf i o n  c o e  e  e i s  n e l  p s t  i
dtlit fl w n cat . e i n  o o ig  pe as h l e  h r

A W b uht m  n ta e nw y h k g( e v o e      gt  a ud  dfet  otni .  a i vi ) :  r e  o h r e o o fr a f  n t c e  i i h t c B Te w e  gt  n ta e nw y h k g(e  i vi )      rb uha ud  dfet  otni . p se  e : y  r h e o r o o fr a f  n t a v o i i h s c
A B

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4 Wod e .  rt y p Wod  c r isa h ow r y  us l n  o t d i l    sut e t i t r a ld cs b it ms r ioa r t u s  g f r r d i a e e s r f  tn a

t 0

T e lt Fa rs  e s  lh h S ii et e o N w E gi t sc  u f  y n s

m r o g:  , i ad  x W m y e  i te e o w r f m tn o hl y r t r x  sf .  a ntd tcv t s  od  ao, p o o pf n u o e i e  o i n i y f  o i s p r

s h r uncm onscm l a xtnad  ay i t  s  mgt u afqet pud, p x  ao, ao  dv nf m t t h c s  e o o e f i n l n ea o h i i s r a
ocr uh pr at u rsnne rscp i ad  vr o . cu sc a o m ne w d, c w d, p g  cn e i ,  s  t a o o o l n n o sn i 2 L x aF a r )  i l t e e c eu s

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r oi .  x af t e w sa ntt gnr w r n i lao (ht r  e rn Il i l u s e l o h ee l d g  i tn  e et pt g n  c e r ,  h l  e  a o i n n i w h h e a e  c e
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ste  ya io w e et a ete ad  e s  fqet t cno te ti o dnmc  ht r  d cvs  avr a r un ,  onti av r  r  h h j i n d b r e ) h e  e  e  av m ai ( fr g  l i s  s c tn w r m y  k, i llicri e n r ei ta k d o a oii s  d a eoeprc ay  ea n g  rn o  n f  ao o s  v e l  s a u r n tn t e ooa sutnl t t oe ad  v te i o c t l  rn amen g m t nl i ao acne s vr  aoe  bs r  r rf etl  i i ,  i t o x ,  n b h a c  e a e n e i an o w r )  t clctn f rg t hbul  xe e c- cr ne  f  d ad  ooao ( e n t h aia o epc d o u ec o o s n h l i r r o  e  e i e  t r  t o c r f w r) os d.
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lts  sm w rs j gn ci y d  c ne  t ho g. sa py ee ad  e  d a a os  f ue isec ad  nl yWe l a tr n o o r r e  h l s n  e i n e o c h l 
m r aetn  t cl ctn C l ctn f s  t hb ul  epc d oe  n o t h o oao.  l ao r e t h aia o xet t i o e  l i t oo i e r o e  t r  e
c -c urn e  wod . oo c re c o f  rs

243  h Thr L v l .. T e  id  e   e

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s od  e e t t g m acl  i s T e  m acl  ei cn  e n t r r o  r m ta dv e.  g m ta chs n  b c y e s  h a i e c h r p f e  a i o o a e

s d i d  te pr:  s, t tn  c-fe eC-fe e  s u id io  e  seii s sti a oe r c oe r c m a bve n h a l s u i o n t r t l p b u d  en .  en e r r n
t raos  en  nmnl  t t  ty  s e  gT e d e  h e tn bt e to  i g 即s  i nft a tn.  tr t i e  i e l w w o ar o h d i h m h a e e  i h h y s i p t l i l  ri .  a as  oeo a i e tog t r etn ky h e c rtao Ii m n o chs n  e d  uh  e ti o e e  a ee tn t  e f  i c v h x i s  h r h p i f  e  o
w rsC hs n  e ipr t e s s lt f co. t cvns cu od.  e o ivr m ot i t m o tii u tn Dsntees  l o i s y  a n  n r f  sc  i ii i y n od

b t fqet o d fet  s ie nl r . s l oc tto t s e r unue  ie nt eid r t a W h l  e re h e h e e  s f  r y n  e i r e  cn n a n  f p f ty e a e

tet eu d es  r g h e  s  inw r oi . r y s n  e t p e p n
U dr  n i e l u a no ao  u e  d  h a g p      at l e or etn s sol b pi t t pr r h ne s e c  ,  t i l h d  a o e  a a m v
dvl met prgah  cn a s oe  et h t ate .  d io o ee p n. a r cnet t o n a co te  l  T e  s n  o A  a p o r e n  s p f  o hme h i i f t v

a  io ar h hl b n ot er ue h o ai tn t t m t t t  pr a s p r g  a  p t ot r n ao o h h ac e n a g p e s  u c a i r f  g z i f  e i x t i l c e  e  dvl m n C na c   f n i t u o se f ptr p pr r h g ee p et ots a b o d  h s f c c t s  a g pi o .  r t  e  n  e  p i ae f a a n n u e  i n

C at 2 e r R v w hpe Lt ay  i r ir e e

I i

N te df ec bte t es f - fec s t c-k pr r h e p y oc t ie ne  e h a - re r e  e ei a g ps  l e i h fr e  e n  y o r e n e n le a a m o d w e  n
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Dsor e r n ol t r n y  vr i a i o t t  a t      r es t  y  o i r cnestn d  cn x bt o  i us f o n o d a o c e  ao n t s  e u l o s

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t e d ti . h n  al e s

T e,  hl l f o w t r h o c dvc n  s  rn s      sa a o d t e e a  t i l  i i nw r o i i hn w e  l  i u h h s n re r a e e  e e t g  p
e p yd nt m l e o o. o r 

2  D vlp et  tlt A a s . ee m n o Sy sc  l i 5  o f  i i n y s
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sec. peh

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rp rn . eo ig t

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bten gae  sut n e e l ug ad  ao. w a n n i i t

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cas ia o o v r t s d c r o cne t rc d oe  e t n a bfr. l ict n  ai i a f t s  o t a at m r a ni t n  oe s f i f  e e n a o f  x t e t t o h t e

Te  y ir   lh ao ie m c wtn  sg.  m t d a h sd o l a s e  l a e d  h h ts  eTe h s  t f  r t a s c v u ii h t h e o r u t y y s  h e i a e
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wi n NE Eki ad e i tg  lh lwi n D v C sl  r e b . nv t  Iv tan Egs S e t b ai r t a t y  .  s n n sg i n i t r e y  d  a n y y d D r D v a o eom u s icneT e  e ssm t m t d l et e k  y  f r os  fac.  f m r  e ac  h i u s  e a r e  n i i n g h o r yt i e o n d h c e vr u l e o lgiids ii ad  o ai tn h t t  t i une aos  l f u t e r tn  t r n ao ot e ad  n ec i e s i sc cp o n h g z i f  x n h f v n e  e  e  l
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cne e t ud h r f  u cm as h c xln  i s  e f    r d bi a o o t t l  pro t t  ep i vr u s l o ocn o  l t y  e a o i n  a e x a n  a ao t s  y

1 2

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l gaead  s lt s o rp v e draa t m t d.  , cn  a ug,  t tii c ls  i r e nli e osN w w a ue n n h ysc  a r d e s  yc  h e  h o a o e  s
ts t d i te r n ad  nf ao o f t e w a w ie s d  a h m h s  h p s g  i ti tn  e u s  t  n r t i i e o n  a i n d ic i f  r h e  e e n  e a t
p sa e asg .

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shl s  e  s l D v, o ,  D ne& od  co rhv C t & ayBokad  nl T d e a a r a y r n o l t c

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3 1  f i o o Ne . De i t n  n i f  ws

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wds e ce a e h od o  . ne c ls e  u y  n    p a ac t c it w r 即 tnw C utss o rhv s os g e i r d  p n n  l e e  o o ls  a a e l i h i r v m n eni t "e s o I  o c saad  l acl  t s     dfios  nw "N w i s e scl  e b m tadfi n i ay itn o  .  lt  l i n m e i e i n s m a n i o

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. A w s e  e l s e  ht m ot t ht  il ht         s ir l a s o w a iiprn w a iva w ahs n s  s  y e f  s  a ,  s  ,  a e e n a n t

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. Ne i tuh a matr ws  r t t t  t s s  h e

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1 4

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t te      o  m. h

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一 L uec R m blad  a E  s e              R l d  l l , ar e  a p e n o n Wo e y n C l 

qo d  Rprn Fr  Pi Mei ut fm  oi oT e  t  a e o e t g  h r r n d,
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t e t t r ta  br  e o, t bsnw it t c h   g a s i l h ie s nm eopr nad  e e s  aw i at r tt m y  n e s  a t u f  s n h t  s  h h  h e e e  h s e  ie so t g a r  br ad es  e oi o ay i t e t t  n r t h r t nm e n " w it r r g  ntn i l h h te f  e e u "  N e  s  e t f  h g  y  a h p n m as

iprne ue o ie s t acn d al nm e o pr n i apbc i m oac s r  r t    s e b u br  e os    lao t , ,  n e o  o i r e  t f s n  u itn

a ic ( u e e 英语报刊佳作精选, dn " 张健,1 7 9) 9
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sn f t f r cosN r ,  , t  Su .   o n ay ai t d  h o detn:  hE t e ad  t I a s w c r w t  a o e  i i r  u r o a W s n o h t  h t s h s ll h s e
nw ,  i t ns i i e st t  h g sr g g叩 ee w e a ud  w r . dr m s d h s i pn n a ,  vr hr r n t ol Moe a m i y e  o h e  d n  s ea

eirw u ar wtt dfi n  e s  r b C aeA D n,  r t do ol g e h  en i o nw o e d  hrs  aaw o  h ts  d e i h i t f  f e y  l .  e  o f h a e n  N w rSn m  6 t 19 .  a "e s ntn tai e s a  e  o e Y k  f 1 9  87H si nw iay i ht r t lg pr  o u o 8 o  r e  d  s  h g  n e s r a f t a t t cm ui ad   vr n uhti aetn o ” h o m ny  h n ebe bogt s no bf e  tn a e e r s o  t i e r t e T e ia  lnw s n y  o D n' do ,  .  a ,  n      w lko n  i b oe  aa eir Jh B B gr " e a hr s  e- e  a g  n f  s  s on  o t Wh y t dg  s a,  int  sbcue apn s o e.  ia n  s  g o bea  t t onw ,  si pes  fnB t m be a  , i m n h s  e ea t  t a h o  t u f a i d t o

i s s Te  -t - g  ni s m tb as dfli sa s  ot t  w . h m n is o dfi n  s e  r,  l tt oe h in "  a b e d e t e o  bu uy  re n f  e i o e l l u e
wdlacp d  s ush uuul i r nt e  r et hpee eet i y et nw vl - e  sa bz r a ro a  ny  pnd  n. e c e e a e t n ,  e u f c l a a e v

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s f  ittcvr .  se r s  i t t  e sae' e rr re   m y ie  eaeT e  cre s r s  t nw ppr r o e w i 一 t a n a o g h i ai t e h h a i t o a e  s  t s t p bt sa e ie o  t  i' te ut t hr ep  l e  n    ot  r rt t sit se s l Jsw i sotK e a c s t oe um r w tn  u h ts  .  re  .  s  o  e  e  y o

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落 S

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id f et  r d g  e sae Whn  g t t We f if mao yu  s  e n f m ai a  ppr e yu  o  i r r e n nw f o .  o o  h b  no t n  g e  o r  r i o o

fr  k e,  k s o qi b sqi h . uc i u i " t c t

A oe  e s n r tn  ipbse inw ppr n boda n      nw ii o ao t t ulhd  e sae ad  acso bv a,  s  m i h s  i n  l l f a s  r t 
r i ad eio ad l e  u r et  n i t cut o w r o i a a o  t vs n  o i ao t  n eet n  onr r  l r  d n e i n nn b l e c v s  h e  y  o d  n  prcl a a  at i .  o e n ic a nw idf r t  g t df r t a i a r o cv y B t  t g  l r e s  ie n ti s  ie n t u r e f it u n h s  :  s  e h i e n o  e po l ep e N w hs n q li , hu e  u u uul e ,  r t g cn i,      may ats isol b aot  sa nw ie sn, fc e s  a u ie t  d  b n n e i ol t t

t e , ryi om t e  sr in.  a nw wl ae  o tee  li , i l na ,  r av ad p s gN t  e s l v al hs qats m y eb n f i n u ri o l l  i h l f  u i e
b t  n ws lh v s me  te u al  wi a e  l e l  o o h m. f 

32 Ne v l e .  ws  u s a

N w flw to  e l  ens n t it ma mei e s o s  gnr gi le aay  n  s o l w e a u i t  i d me h e  s d : a
. N w i ifr t n  ot bek  m  e  r l  w f et a e s  noma o a u a  a f t n ma f o e ns n s  i b r r o h o l o v , 

ie ut it xet , v tn  t o     n h epc da ii f m  nr . n r po n  tr i e  e d ao r h m e o e 
. N w ii om t n  pe d  ae n dc i s ute le. e s  fr ao polne tm k sud  io aot r  s s  n i e e o  o e s n b hi i v

Ju as ae  bs s gi s ae e s  e hs u ehl      hv e alhd  e  e c l nw vl sT e gi s  a or lt n is  s ie o u ,  d  a .  e  t m d l u d e p  r oe o eir e i w aeeta s uuul  w a io ao is e rr  do dtmn ht n r o  saad  t  r tn  o pt r  t e r e  v s  e  n n h n m i s  f ncs r t t  pb c  u b io e o t m N w vl s  c d e h ee a h t ul sol e  r d  h .  s u cnl e  t s y  h a e  i h d  n m f  f e e ae o u i g
fco s a tr :

1 Tmees        . i ls

Tme s en eet h a m da ,  n.  t u e     m as  n t t  imei er et vn so lb i l s  e v s  r a e  t e c E e h d 

r oe a  i l a psb bc s pol a as n t ko t le e rd  q c y  osl e ue  p l y w t  nw e  s p t s u k s  ie  a e e  w a o  h at t hpei a ud m T u,  da nw iw i n h p s t  ead s apn g  n t . sb ac t  s  r e it r e t s n m t n r o h e h r s e s t n  e n e ,  o o e  n nwppr i cn it w r " dy. m tr  s ic t eet o es es rs tn  o t a"N aehw  fa t vn hw a t e o a h d  o e  o o  t o i i n h n g e  ,  iprn t pol i o e nw vl d ise wt t e ad  r i n m o at  ep n l d  s u i n hs  h  ,  t e  o t h e  e  v e a e  i v m i i m n h s  e ec tn  ts i. de i ,  r c nvlt dfe j r lm  xe i a h p n A r Gd a  nh  es end  n i a po t  o t n i e F e o i, i o as s u "vr h g t  b ls r tg  or t n a.Polw o  f i r ee tn t wl e  ie sn t r w  t y epe  a a l yi h i a l e n ei o o h o "  s t m a d h r mi e  a
w t nw sol b k o n s  t c i e s  u e  w t s e e一 N w o t a i gl;  o o ii h  h d  n h e n i n e s  o y  o T m r w  s n  d s  d o r t 

svr  t dy et or ,  ae iead  a a r  r w gr g. l n h e  f o o a t m b

l 6

T e lt Fa r o N w E gs h S ii et e f e s  lh t sc  u s  y ni

2 I pc     t .  a m

We  a cli osqec o s n i c o w cn  t i      o l  neune  i icne  e  sy t  cn  a t  a l s c r  fa r  a a h s g a

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a  n p pr t wlr e e  s e be y ht n  nw e e ebt  t ' r e y  i e i cni r lpa itat ad  hr l , a o s  t a l  v o d a l n  o n o e  u w o x  c w s

cag it f e l  m t wl ee e oaaetnS iw aihpei hne h e r i o e  ir i ntnl no. f  t apn g n  d a n e  c a l  v a x  c i t i o  h s  n t o t hpe i t nw cn et  r dr'  d et ad meie ,  r  apn  h e s  a c te  e le  cy  i d ty t y o  n  e  a f h e si i l n m f a f r al h e
wo l fe moe n en d  d trse . ud  l  r c c re a i eetd e o n n

3 Po n c       n e .  mie r

E eti l w l nw pol r i i sPol h a     o e lko n  p o i t tn. p w o  vn n v e- s  v e e n t o e e  r su e

wdlko n bl g h h hr u o or iy  cni r p mnn i y  w o e n t t i est f  s e a ose d  i t e n r  o o  g t s  u o t r e  a c e  d e r e . o Whn  p s et s  m a i f m  ap n,  fn- g nw ;  n  e t r i n t d e brn r a il eiir t ae  sw e a h ed r i e  i s p k g  n  a t  o p o r s  e h cy ni e br sp,  nt ta  opn.  emae  sb ad i cuc m m emsesi s  w r le  rt a s  nw ,  n t o l  it t o oh n f  N m i i i k e i g  b gr  see w e t eet  f e  s uneIi c ay  w f r i e nw , n  n  vn io ll cne ec. s  r so n  g e v h h e  s  i o q t t  l l h e o u
i prn f t s h flwn : m o at o ite o i t a r n  o c l g

Od a pr n+ saocrne ? es               ; nw rnr e os uul  r c -  i y s c e s  u
Od a pr n + nsaocr cs e               ne =  s ri r e os uuul  r n y s cu e nw E t od a pr n +uul u e e=                r cs e xr ri r e os saocr n a n y s c nws

E to i rpr n +  saoc r cs o /  e s                r ne=  db nw x ar ny  s s n ul  e r d a e o uu c u go i g 
4 Po i t        .  xmi r y

Eett t  eg pi l o e ooay  e ep n r t      a gor h ay  m tnl c stpolie s vn h r s  e  a c l r  i l l o  e  e a o t te Pol a i e s d  eet ad  ida t t m oe  te .  hm.  p r n r t i vns  i v ul h s c s t hm Fr e e  t e e n  e  n n i s  e l o  d a e o ea p ,  la ie sd  o e i td wtt iee dy , r r t xm l po e  n r t ism tn o  i h r r a let iie s e ep r te e n  h g  o h  vy e  e i h n e f e t oee t i lh g  e i .  c w l xln  pola m rcne e r  h r  i ad n Ti a e ep iw y p r o oc d vn  c tn n a g h n l a h e e  e  r e o t s  e  n i s e i cmn t or t n m lp ntw i igi t h or  e n  tn o i o r w  a a l e h h  o g  i u hm 一 o h g  g  o h s l  , c s n o  m m a a t  o
m l n o ya le ii s  er a r l o f  s  . t
5 C n it . o fc l

S i,  oi , f e e     gn m w rrhv tf at s aa a re n a

d d e ss  s r s  c e t b i o t i sn e h a f  e i o

s  h o o h  e e lpol d w  t e o t ic v wal o ter nrnain wi te  at ay  p s  p u s  h r a e  l f  i c fo tt s  t h b ss r e e r i r n  e c e t t one t m T ju as t a, fchs  o nac m ai . e h s r dd  .  or lt o ycn i a a r une  n g"h au u r h e o n is  d ol t  m e  e n T

ee i s rs  l d i rpolcnr tg  caegs  ay . fcv ti i o e od a ep of nn t hlneo di le te  e n v rn y  e  o i h o v e  l f  i " l f

C at 3  dmet oN w hpe Fn a na f  s r u l  e
6 T e  u u l        s a . h Un

1 7

E ett dva sap r t xet ,  dpr  s e l      t ie rl f m  epc dt t a cni rb vn h e t h y  h s  a o e  e h e t o d a y a
f m e  e ecs ee dy  mae  s H r w a tk g  u t t l r t epr ne o vr a le k nw .  e e  a i aot  r y o h x i f  y i f e e ,  r l n b h u e  e  df r t t bzr ,  ne d  nru. m m e t df io o nw ie n,  i r sag a w do s R e br  e nt n  e s一 fe h e  a e t r n o e h e  i i f 

m n i- g Whn o be a niint  sB t  n oc dga d a- td ?  e a  is  a,  o nw .  w e a i o, i bs o dg  m t  e t s  u h ple  te r
ad e m e o t K9  rss k h t t io  a o hs  i hnl , n t me br  h - C p,  s  e h  t r f  p le  d r r u f  e  o i n i e n h m  i o c a e s  t e 
ta'u uu la d  s  s h t n sa,  iin w . s  n t  e

7 C r ny        .  r c ue

O cs n l a  ao l s en wlsdele r ate      l,  utn g  m r g l dny e e h cai ay s i o i i i u o i t n m m g s  sb co d cs o ad  n o . e l,  as hv nt n t vnur uj t  i us n  aetn G nr l ju lt ae  be i h aga e f  i n t i e ay or is  o e n  s n e  d

o t s d cvr s  hv be p pld o k g  s t m  o e . f  e  oee bt  e  n  ee i m i nw o h b t r h e i s i u a e r l n a n e f  o t e y  s h
Sm t sjunlt wldc e t i ao nes  ni ad lmae  o eme, ras i ei t a  t n  d aet n  w l k i i o is l  d h su i e t o n i a t t l nw w r y e s ot . h
S N cs t        .  esy e i

T e e r o im onw w r i s  l pol ee s      pei s  s  e sotnsi o e p ,  tad h s n v u t f  e v e h e n v e e vn n v su i s  cl uf cvr e m ensse hsa i n , h, e a iao t t  ot  oe g 一 e i ,  ce cd t da sgm s  t tn h a a l  o r  a tg pe ,  e s e c t a n d t le Te t  i o t j r lt m k g T a i hm n e s t h i .  l im  f  on i' ai .  t  u a i r t h e  h a t s  h u ass  n h s k s e e  ,  n e ,  t e

j r lt d cvr s e i h ose s  ncsr d c s A y y on i h   oe d  tn e h f l t  e a t il e n sr u as a i s s e o h g  r  e i s  s o  o .  t m e ie y s o
t t  m k te dr l g o c ,  ee o et a e, vd  sa d  h cn  e  rae a h  r ipld  ne i d m e o cr i a a a h e s  u r  m l r  r n y t o r  e s

sry od  s u a s rs n  el  e  tn or dr pl g  u la  nw .  n  i o e apatt e oos e e , i t m e go e H m t e f p o t o  m i f  s u n h h a l e
i o  l e o e o i o jc o bod  cr. n t i s  r r  sbet f a cne t h v t s n u s  r o n e  h t
33 Ki d  Ne .   n o f  ws

T e a may  d o nw w i a c si acri t s na ad  hr r n k s  e s  c r l ie cod g  t dr n i e  e  i f  n h h  a fd  e  s n o  a d  n
n df et . o i tt d t t  s p, e w r nw ,  e e a d ie nw yA cr n o  ir ad  et ra o d  shm n ws  fr a c d g h si n c h r l e o e  c o e e 

l anw . od g h cn n nw cn d i d  plcl  seconom ic o l  sA cri tt ot t e s  b id io i anw , c e c n o  e  e ,  a e  e n ot e v t i nw ,  nlg a nw ,  u l  s so s  s v l c nw , rone new s e s t ho i l  sclr nw , r nw ,  e e  s c e o c e u a e pt e c t in e o c H r c d g  h u f  e e  e d a e nw ad o  w e . e , o i t t nt e ocr nenw i s r  s  s r n s t . e acr n o  a r o cur c,  s s t e n pt e
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ad  .  s f t s  t qe i s t  as m sas e ite  .  a n hw T e  a o a h uso t ju lt ut  r h l dB t  o h i c r r e  t n h or is  nw n  e u x  e  a n a l d  s l tt e  s e m r sae s nt o t s m s b peet i e m t  s  ad  s  e  c,  o a f  e  t  rs e n a u i mi i n a m v o p o  l h l  e u e  n d 
ee l d vr e . y  a

T e t  lcna s  h i a o ad  eod  olhs  c r     a pe  tn a t s f t s  t scn oe y  4 t s h fssm i r o i l e  c r n h l  x  e  n n a f o. a

Jp ns l t ns  t y  S d h  cm m kr c o k e o     e coi g nSn ad ei teo s  e Eisn kd a aae e r c i o n w s e e  a l a rs i f c f  m be  n ji vn rys r y Bi g  sit cy l n  o e  oi p oe  t t e td i ei ad d  i wlso bcm i l h o e u ee a n j n a h t i o e n n e  t s mjr  u c r g  e a m n at i bs. o a f un a Wh :  ad c o     y  E isn oSn n r s o Wht i o   oi p oe  t u     kfa be nji vn r a:  k c m l h o et e n
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T e  lt Fa rs  w E g s h Syii et e o Ne s  lh t sc  u f  ni

T e e l d  b a e sm a e .  s n  t  i .  d c     t  cn  cld  m r l d Iiue i m ss r sT e et h d c e a e l u i r a y  t  d  o t e h i a s  o r

l d  c tt a t es tlo e m n o t r o it fspr r hT e e cne r e l h s na r  et f  e r n  it  g p.  a o n a s  e e is  l l  e s h p t  e  a a h e  h r a f os  cl  c scl  o d et  it oe tn a A r o eo a u t i ad  s al d  icl d h n wie b n  e rr  m y a n l i e f  e s  p a a r a e  rt y  P  t n p

A r 1,  ,  eie aePednA r a L clw s  snt . pl 16 im d ty r  i t a m  o aa a i e i 4 85 m a l f r e b h i n  s s ad t s n s W S IG N F IA,  L  16 一 h Pednws t  t ae      O , D Y P I 1,8, Te s et  soia  t AHN T R AR 4 ri a h n  e r h
t i t  p ras r l w udd o g ad  hp m t l one. nh n e o ay  L t e n t ea pe      aohr m l eu se  e x s  :

Fv T U  l y  et n t fcl m br e n r udy  t      go g s dn ad o  uy m e w r iue Sna n h i C e o t s  w a t e s  e  d  e  u j i g

we t ivn  ot ot l c ras h T a Pnad . hn  r  sd  ocn oo i o d it e s  hnl h a l u f  r n  e i y  n  x a e  e
T i l d  u d  l ns      i l e s e met WH 一 f e  U  ooy  dn ad o hs  n d i e e a c x  :  O i T g l s et n t v C e g t u s  w

fuy m e ,  A a l m br WH T一 t ivn  ot c tlW Y一 o i r d, ct e s h r  sd  o o r,  e a l u f  o H i n n  o s c a y 
WH R E E一 i t Txs  hn l WH N一 Sn a n h ad  W 一 i ue. n  ea Pn ad ,  E h e  a e udy  t  H i n O g nr j d

O t We se o nwppr n ole  s  i s or lt say      b  s  e sae ad i nw s v e ju as uul ue n  h e  i f  t s  nn e e c ,  is  l s r n t det  .  te  nt o s rsBcue ie id  s i sae  h icl dI s  m i a f i . asot l t ad  n pc i e  e t  r a i h a sy  t e e o f  i e n a g  n m m v di nwpprju as o e o is e m oat  os i o t o e ay  sae or lt fn  t  uiprn f t w l n  t r l e , n is  m o n t a r he  h h t m c e 

h d b s e saea as tn t s f ts e e o le  r d a W seonwppr  ycn ia h i a o . dr n  j t  n e i f  t l w o a l e  c r Ra s i u e l  x  n s a nw r o hale  l dS t l d sasew e t tn hpee, t es  r  dn ad  . h e m t  r  n  h g  pndw a e t e i n e o  a u nw h h i a p a e  e  h hpee, rt tn hpee ad  hm d y so a psb . h apndw e h h g pnd  tw o a w a  n  os l S t h e  i a e  n o  n h s o s  ie o  e
l d i a as tn  Ws  oe  e ole  y cn if e  ad  H a nn l w oa i v n n . Wi t q c ee p et  e  tn e nl yt tdi anwp e      i dvl m not e coit ho g, r i nl s pr t h u k  o h  e  f  l r c  o h a t h e c e  o e a bg s  hw  w a pisTe aie  icaegd T ik d l d  ei t so i e o t h i l l l s lne. s  o e i n o  t k  n .  n l a s  f b w  h l h i f  s n a
l id  m c t te matad k ar tnS l d  is ae  f e, i t t uh  h f ly  l s a i . e bg tt nw  s meo o  o  o i n a t co o  e n o  e a r c t a k c

t y  n  csm t reat ky  ettwi h o e se o e  e vnad  e m n o t e f e t  h l t l e  n e l s  re e M DI     一 Tn  l i s pd  uh  m t t i dr g  h  r A RD e e o o r e t g cm u r  n ui rs hu x sn i p p h o r o e r s  n u o a

Tu dy t e Mar ri a s tn klg l s 10 pe  iun hr a a h e  d d l y  i s in a e t  pol ad  rg s t  r i aw t o ,  a l t  9 e i a n n i j
nal1 0 ioe  uoe w r trrt cs er , 0  n oE r s  s e i aak y  n  f  p ' o t  s t . 2 r o t A dt r r o o r  s  e : ti l m b t ot  m n      a s e et e o l d qo tn d ye  m scm o n, e  m t y f  u ao e a h h e e  h p a a e  o
t e  e s d y o nw l . p f  e a

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t i a goos g h c a t. a n l ur da o i i r t k g  n a u r n  g ee s 

Te  e,  氏20                       h T sJ 如2 03 i m u

C at 4  utr o Ne hpe Srcue  ws r t f 

2 5

Q et n  ia  d  tar r dr a t i     l d  go w y  tat  e 'tenton uso e s  i a o a o  c e s t a H v y u  n  t cek  r  i ea l D o k w  t  bns      t e t e  hcy u c dt ll e ?  y u o w a te  k ae  a i o  o k m o r 卢 ty o  n e h h a
t n ao t  ? h k  uy u i b o

Pc r o ecpo l sm le e e ie si t t yn, krud      D sr tn d  u t r dr  r t h s rlebcgon iue  t r  i i e t a s  a i a n e n  o i a t e 

l d  t see  t atn  e  , tsl d  v e i i t  s s  e ss  cn f h co tb tdcn a e p i s g ad  t a e h t e  o e  o  o o r t  r d n h n e h r  i l a o s t e t e t s r pnh  cn clh s r dr  sm tn o ie sad o f h t y uc ld  qi y  t e ewt o e i f r t  n o e  ,  e a u k i h a r  o a t e  i h  h g n e n t
s on. o 

2T e l e L a .  D a d  d h ey e

We  e cs d  i c l d  h bv pr e e l  h e yd      i us t d et  i t aoe tH r w wls t dl e hv ds e h r e n  a e  a e  a . e  i e e a e 

ld  m k a  pro bte t sto d ol d.  dl e l d fn e ad  e o as e e h e  k s e sT e  yd  io e a n a cm i n w n  w i f  h e e n a a e s  a t ue o f t e ad  s ue t k d o s rs  a nt udvl i o s n  u s  nw f t s h i s ti t t  o aot e p g  d  e r n e e r ,  n f  e h r a a e  o a e  b e o n r
f t r kn eet a - e ig  ns sb a v .

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o l d  O WH ad  A a t mot  o at m n ,  o e a n t f  WH ,  Y  WH T  h e a n r e  si pr n e et t t r r o e  m t l e s h h s  e  e 

ncs rtpt  t l dWe  fd  t m if t otd  e i i , e s y  uio  e .  ii t t  a a i t  at bg n g e a o  n h a t e  wl n h h n  s  o t  e n n l  a e  c n l h bt  it s odtree f r pr r h. t  e  o w y ras t uls h e n,  vn  t a g ps h it ra n  j nlt o i n  c e e  hd  o h a a T a s  es h o is  i u h u d t t eas iyu  t r drcnne r  i ,  m ss pn t i o  .  ue o w nt e e otu t ir d gyu  t  e h r h Bc a f  a h a s  i h e n o u u d  e  e a s e
cr sy u oi. it
Drc l o e yd  ?  r r o  o t rl b u w n  i c r      d dl e l d T e a n asl e e aot e t d e o i t  r a e e e a a h e  e  b u u s  h h r t  e 

t dl e l d u b u dTe s  e t sto d old  tb r h e yd  s l e  .  lebt e h e  k s e t d  l. e  a e h d  s h i e n  w i f  e o  a o e n w e n a n u Gnr lsek gt d e l d d hrnw ad  dl e l d d sf ee l pai ,  ic e ue o a e s  t e yd  ue o o ay  n h r t  s n d  n h a e s n  e  a e  a t
ne s w .

La i t fspr a o h t , e nr a cnio t e na      e  t ar h  t s r udr m l di s  s odr ed  h i a g p #  o n s  r e y o o tn h c y e 
pr r h  ln ad p fs  l dB t  em s r iao el d  c r a g p epa s  a li t e .  sm t e te s t r  sut e a a x i n m ie h a u o i h e n h e t u e  a r 一 u- a. ras se bei ad tte  a so a p sb ,  t n y sbl dJu lt ek v y  w i h l d  hr  os l ad  t e on is  r t n re  e s t s  ie n h h a e e

u t s odr pr r h  rf r t  et e  t s odrpr r h s h e na a g p tbet e e m n W clh e na a g p e  c y a a o  h s l .  a e  e  i e  e l  c y a a
a sbl dA et t  e  y h s r.  ea pe s - a.  r  it bd o t t Fr m l u e t a h f h s  o f  o o x e  y :

2 6

T e  lt Fa rs  e s  lh h S ii et e o N w E gs t sc  u f y ni

W S IG O      T N一I q  l hv a c a w ao A HN r cu ae  ul r  p n妙 21 ad aw i i a o d  n e e 00  m n h e  n e ls

blen i s c i oce i l  b l i l pn U . l ec aet o t i t t k l f mc ad  o c waos . iei ne n: s rg  o p e  h a n i g a e ,  n l s  o S tg g 二
1 )r - at i 移

Te o iud d b I o c l si h ot s g  aapa o     , e Fi y CA ia ,  t m spe i t et ert hr r s e ts p r a y  f is a e  r n h f d  s r p s 

b f m  q e ad g  l i l pn por , c ri o hr tf d e  I s  ni b o c waos ga w i ee n  doi r r 'x n i ga e o a p o r m h h  s  a -- l n
m be dco fci sI q asnl ue at a,  i oi pout n i i .  ' ea i l s h xi a . l r i a le r s r t a n d n r t  c sd I fspr a w ae i ed     ar h  cld  a: n t  g p e  t  i a r l l

WhtI cu ae u e w ao b 00  maw i ible n t     q  l hv a  l r  p n 21 ad  n he  o t i i a r o d  :  a nc a e y  n e l s s r g  s
s c i oce i l  b l i l p n. t k l f  mc ad

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