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eye-on-the-consumer


College English Test
Part I: Listening Comprehension.

2000.1

Section A: 1. A) To cancel his trip. B) To go to bed early. C) To catch a later flight. D) To ask for a wake-up call. 2. A) They have different opinions as to what to do next. B) They have to pay for the house by installments. C) They will fix a telephone in the bathroom. D) The man’s attitude is more sensible than the woman’s. 3. A) She will save the stamps for the man’s sister. B) She will no longer get letters from Canada. C) She can’t give the stamps to the man’s sister. D) She has given the stamps to the man’s roommates. 4. A) Visiting the Brownings. B) Writing a postcard. C) Looking for a postcard. D) Filling in a form. 5. A) The man should work with somebody else. B) The man should meet his partner’s needs. C) They should come to a compromise. D) They should find a better lab for the project. 6. A) She can’t finish her assignment, either. B) She can’t afford a computer right now. C) The man can use her computer. D) The man should buy a computer right away. 7. A) The visiting economist has given several lectures. B) The guest lecturer’s opinion is different from Dr. Johnson’s. C) Dr. Johnson and the guest speaker were schoolmates. D) Dr. Johnson invited the economist to visit their college. 8. A) She’s never watched a better game. B) Football is her favorite pastime. C) The game has been canceled. D) Their team played very badly. 9. A) The man should stick to what he’s doing. B) The man should take up a new hobby. C) The man should stop playing tennis. D) The man should find the cause for his failure. 10. A) An invented story. B) A real life experience. C) An imaginary situation. D) A terrible nightmare. Section B: Passage One: 11. A) The name of a German town.

B) A resident of Frankfurt.

C) A kind of German sausage. D) A kind of German bread. 12. A) He sold fast food. B) He raised dogs. C) He was a cook. D) He was a cartoonist. 13. A) Because the Americans found they were from Germany. B) Because people thought they contained dog meat. C) Because people had to get used to their taste. D) Because it was too hot to eat right away. Passage Two: 14. A) They give out faint cries. C) They extend their water pipes. B) They make noises to drive away insects. D) They become elastic like rubber bands.

15. A) Quiet plants. B) Well-watered plants. C) Healthy plants. D) Thirsty plants. 16. A) They could drive the insects away. B) They could keep the plants well-watered. C) They could make the plants grow faster. D) They could build devices to trap insects. Passage Three: 17. A) To look for a different lifestyle. B) To enjoy themselves.

C) For adventure. D) For education. 18. A) There are 200 vehicles for every kilometer of roadway. B) It has a dense population. C) There are many museums and palaces. D) It has many towering buildings. 19. A) It is a city of contrasts. B) It possesses many historical sites. --1--

C) It is an important industrial center. 20. A) It helps develop our personalities. C) It makes our life more interesting.

D) It has many big and beautiful parks. B) It enables us to acquire first-hand knowledge. D) It brings about changes in our lifestyle.

Part II: Reading Comprehension. Passage One: In the world of entertainment, TV talk shows have undoubtedly flooded every inch of space on daytime television. And anyone who watches them regularly knows that each one varies in style and format. But no two shows are more profoundly opposite in content, while at the same time standing out above the rest, than the Jerry Springer and the Oprah Winfrey shows. Jerry Springer could easily be considered the king of “trash talk (废话)”. The topics on his show are as shocking as shocking can be. For example, the show takes the ever-common talk show themes of love, sex, cheating, guilt, hate, conflict and morality to a different level. Clearly, the Jerry Springer show is a display and exploitation of society’s moral catastrophes (灾难), yet people are willing to eat up the intriguing predicaments (困境) of other people’s lives. Like Jerry Springer, Oprah Winfrey takes TV talk show to its extreme, but Oprah goes in the opposite direction. The show focuses on the improvement of society and an individual’s quality of life. Topics range from teaching your children responsibility, managing your work week, to getting to know your neighbors. Compared to Oprah, the Jerry Springer show looks like poisonous waste being dumped on society. Jerry ends every show with a “final word”. He makes a small speech that sums up the entire moral of the show. Hopefully, this is the part where most people will learn something every valuable. Clean as it is, the Oprah show is not for everyone. The show’s main target audience are middle-class Americans. Most of these people have the time, money, and stability to deal with life’s tougher problems. Jerry Springer, on the other hand, has more of an association with the young adults of society. These are 18- to 21-year-olds whose main troubles in life involve love, relationship, sex, money and peers. They are the ones who see some value and lessons to be learned underneath the show’s exploitation. While the two shows are as different as night and day, both have rules the talk show circuit for many years now. Each one caters to a different audience while both have a strong following from large groups of fans. Ironically, both could also be considered pioneers in the talk show world. 1. Compared with other TV talk shows, both the Jerry Springer and the Oprah Winfrey are ___________. A) more family-oriented B) unusually popular C) more profound D) relatively formal 2. Though the social problems Jerry Springer talks about appear distasteful, the audience ____________. A) remain fascinated by them B) are ready to face up to them C) remain indifferent to them D) are willing to get involved in them 3. Which of the following is likely to be a topic of the Oprah Winfrey show? A) A new type of robot. B) Racist hatred. C) Family budget planning. D) Street violence. 4. Despite their different approaches, the two talk shows are both ____________. A) ironical B) sensitive C) instructive D) cynical 5. We can learn from the passage that the two talk shows _____________. A) have monopolized the talk show circuit B) Exploit the weaknesses in human nature C) appear at different times of the day D) are targeted at different audiences Passage Two: To understand the marketing concept, it is only necessary to understand the difference between marketing and selling. Not too many years ago, most industries concentrated primarily on the efficient production of goods, and then relied on “persuasive salesmanship” to move as much of these goods as possible. Such production and selling focuses on the needs of the seller to produce goods and then convert them into money. --2--

Marketing, on the other hand, focuses on the wants of consumers. It begins with first analyzing the preferences and demands of consumers and then producing goods that will satisfy them. This eye-on-the-consumer approach is known as the marketing concept, which simply means that instead of trying to sell whatever is easiest to produce or buy for resale, the makers and dealers first endeavor to find out what the consumer wants to buy and then go about making it available for purchase. This concept does not imply that business is benevolent (慈善的) or that consumer satisfaction is given priority over profit in a company. There are always two sides to every business transaction – the firm and the customer – and each must be satisfied before trade occurs. Successful merchants and producers, however, recognize that the surest route to profit is through understanding and catering to customers. A striking example of the importance of catering to the consumer presented itself in mid-1985, when Coca Cola changed the flavor of its drink. The non-acceptance of the new flavor by a significant portion of the public brought about a prompt restoration of the Classic Coke, which was then marketed alongside the new. King Customer ruled! 6. The marketing concept discussed in the passage is, in essence, _______________. A) the practice of turning goods into money B) making goods available for purchase C) the customer-centred approach D) a form of persuasive salesmanship 7. What was the main concern of industrialists before the marketing concept was widely accepted? A) The needs of the market. B) The efficiency of production. C) The satisfaction of the user. D) The preferences of the dealer. 8. According to the passage, “to move as much of these goods as possible” (Para.1) means “__________”. A) to sell the largest possible amount of goods B) to transport goods as efficiently as possible C) to dispose to these goods in large quantities D) to redesign these goods for large-scale production 9. What does the restoration of the Classic Coke best illustrate? A) Traditional goods have a stronger appeal to the majority of people. B) It takes time for a new product to be accepted by the public. C) Consumers with conservative tastes are often difficult to please. D) Products must be designed to suit the taste of the consumer. 10. In discussing the marketing concept, the author focuses on _______________. A) its main characteristic B) its social impact C) its possible consequence D) its theoretical basis Passage Three: Conventional wisdom about conflict seems pretty much cut and dried. Too little conflict breeds apathy (冷漠) and stagnation (呆滞). Too much conflict leads to divisiveness (分裂) and hostility. Moderate levels of conflict, however, can spark creativity and motivate people in a healthy and competitive way. Recent research by Professor Charles R. Schwenk, however, suggests that the optimal level of conflict may be more complex to determine than these simple generalizations. He studied perceptions of conflict among a sample of executives. Some of the executives worked for profit-seeking organizations and others for not-for-profit organizations. Somewhat surprisingly, Schwenk found that opinions about conflict varied systematically as a function of the type of organization. Specifically, managers in not-for-profit organizations strongly believed that conflict was beneficial to their organizations and that it promoted higher quality decision making than might be achieved in the absence of conflict. Managers of for-profit organizations saw a different picture. They believed that conflict generally was damaging and usually led to poor-quality decision making in their organizations. Schwenk interpreted these results in terms of the criteria for effective decision making suggested by the executives. In the profit-seeking organizations, decision-making effectiveness was most often assessed in financial terms. The executives believed that consensus rather than conflict enhanced financial indicators. --3--

In the not-for-profit organizations, decision-making effectiveness was defined from the perspective of satisfying constituents. Given the complexities and ambiguities associated with satisfying many diverse constituents executives perceived that conflict led to more considered and acceptable decisions. 11. In the eyes of the author, conventional opinion on conflict is ________________. A) wrong B) oversimplified C) misleading D) unclear 12. Professor Charles R. Schwenk’s research shows ______________. A) the advantages and disadvantages of conflict B) the real value of conflict C) the difficulty in determining the optimal level of conflict D) the complexity of defining the roles of conflict 13. We can learn from Schwenk’s research that _____________. A) a person’s view of conflict is influenced by the purpose of his organization B) conflict is necessary for managers of for-profit organizations C) different people resolve conflicts in different ways D) it is impossible for people to avoid conflict 14. The passage suggests that in for-profit organizations _______________. A) there is no end of conflict B) expression of different opinions is encouraged C) decisions must be justifiable D) success lies in general agreement 15. People working in a not-for-profit organization ________________. A) seem to be difficult to satisfy C) are less effective in making decisions B) are free to express diverse opinions D) find it easier to reach agreement

Passage Four: Imagine eating everything delicious you want – with none of the fat. That would be great, wouldn’t it? New “fake fat” products appeared on store shelves in the United States recently, but not everyone is happy about it. Makers of the products, which contain a compound called olestra, say food manufactures can now eliminate fat from certain foods. Critics, however, say the new compound can rob the body of essential vitamins and nutrients (营养物) and can also cause unpleasant side effects in some people. So it’s up to consumers to decide whether the new fat-free products taste good enough to keep eating. Chemists discovered olestra in the late 1960s, when they were searching for a fat that could be digested by infants more easily. Instead of finding the desired fat, the researchers created a fat that can’t be digested at all. Normally, special chemicals in the intestines (肠) “grab” molecules of regular fat and break them down so they can be used by the body. A molecule of regular fat is made up of three molecules of substances called fatty acids. The fatty acids are absorbed by the intestines and bring with them the essential vitamins A, D, E, and K. When fat molecules are present in the intestines with any of those vitamins, the vitamins attach to the molecules and are carried into the bloodstream. Olestra, which is made from six to eight molecules of fatty acids, is too large for the intestines to absorb. It just slides through the intestines without being broken down. Manufacturers say it’s that ability to slide unchanged through the intestines that makes olestra so valuable as a fat substitute. It provides consumers with the taste of regular fat without any bad effects on the body. But critics say olestra can prevent vitamins A, D, E, and K from being absorbed. It can also prevent the absorption of carotenoids (类胡萝卜素), compounds that may reduce the risk of cancer, heart disease, etc. Manufacturers are adding vitamins A, D, E, and K as well as carotenoids to their products now. Even so, some nutritionists are still concerned that people might eat unlimited amounts of food made with the fat substitute without worrying about how many calories they are consuming. 16. We learn from the passage that olestra is a substance that _____________. A) contains plenty of nutrients B) renders foods calorie-free while retaining their vitamins C) makes foods easily digestible D) makes foods fat-free while keeping them delicious --4--

17. The result of the search for an easily digestible fat turned out to be _______________. A) commercially useless B) just as anticipated C) somewhat controversial D) quit unexpected 18. Olestra is different from ordinary fats in that _______________. A) it passes through the intestines without being absorbed B) it facilitates the absorption of vitamins by the body C) it helps reduce the incidence of heart disease D) it prevents excessive intake of vitamins 19. What is a possible negative effect of olestra according to some critics? A) It may impair the digestive system. B) It may affect the overall fat intake. C) It may increase the risk of cancer. D) It may spoil the consumers’ appetite. 20. Why are nutritionists concerned about adding vitamins to olestra? A) It may lead to the over-consumption of vitamins. B) People may be induced to eat more than is necessary. C) The function of the intestines may be weakened. D) It may trigger a new wave of fake food production. Part III: Vocabulary and Structure. 1. The doctors don’t ______________ that he will live much longer. A) articulate B) anticipate C) manifest D) monitor 2. I suggest we put the scheme into effect, for it is quite _____________. A) eligible B) sustainable C) probable D) feasible 3. The old gentleman was a very ____________ looking person, with grey hair and gold spectacles. A) respectful B) respected C) respective 4. This book is expected to ____________ the best-seller lists. A) promote B) prevail C) dominate D) respectable D) exemplify

5. That part of the city has long been ___________ for its street violence. A) notorious B) responsible C) historical D) illegal 6. Under the guidance of their teacher, the pupils are building a model boat _____________ by steam. A) towed B) pressed C) tossed D) propelled 7. Having finished their morning work, the clerks stoop up behind their desks, _______________ themselves. A) expanding B) stretching C) prolonging D) extending 8. England’s team, who are now superbly fit, will be doing their best next week to ___________ themselves for last year’s defeat. A) revive B) retort C) revenge D) remedy 9. If you want to get into that tunnel, you first have to ______________ away all the rocks. A) haul B) transfer C) repel D) dispose 10. It took us only a few hours to ______________ the paper off all four walls. A) shear B) scrape C) stroke D) chip 11. The famous scientist ______________ his success to hard work. A) imparted B) granted C) ascribed 12. It is difficult to ____________ of a plan to end poverty. D) acknowledged

A) speculate B) conceive C) ponder D) reckon 13. Now the cheers and applause _____________ in a single sustained roar. A) mingled B) concentrated C) assembled D) permeated 14. Improved consumer confidence is ___________ to an economic recovery. A) crucial B) subordinate C) cumulative D) satisfactory --5--

15. Although the body is made up of many different tissues, these tissues are arranged in an ____ and orderly fashion. A) incredible B) intricate C) internal D) initial 16. If you work under a car when repairing it, you often get very ___________. A) waxy B) slippery C) sticky D) greasy 17. The damage to his car was ___________; therefore, he could repair it himself. A) considerable B) appreciable C) negligible D) invisible 18. My sister is quite _____________and plans to get an M. A. degree within one year. A) aggressive B) enthusiastic C) considerate D) ambitious 19. The manager tried to wave aside these issues as ____________ details that would be settled later. A) versatile B) trivial C) preliminary D) alternate 20. His ____________ was telling him that something was wrong. A) intuition B) hypothesis C) inspiration D) sentiment 21. This book is about how these basic beliefs and values affect important ___________ of American life. A) fashions B) frontiers C) facets D) formats 22. Parents often faced the ____________ between doing what they felt was good for the development of the child and what they could stand by way of undisciplined noise and destructiveness. A) paradox B) junction C) dilemma D) premise 23. Clark felt that his ___________ in one of the most dramatic medical experiments of all time was worth the suffering he underwent. A) apprehension B) appreciation C) presentation D) participation 24. As one of the youngest professors in the university, Miss King is certainly on the ___________ of a brilliant career. A) threshold B) edge C) porch D) course 25. The ___________ lawyer made a great impression on the jury. A) protecting B) guarding C) defending

D) shielding

26. Very few people understood his lecture, the subject of which was very ____________. A) dim B) obscure C) conspicuous D) intelligible 27. This movie is not _____________ for children to see: it contains too much violence and too many love scenes. A) profound B) valid C) decent D) upright 28. The wood was so rotten that, when we pulled, it _____________ into fragments. A) broke off B) broke away C) broke through D) broke up 29. The detective and his assistant have begun to ______________ the mysterious murder. A) come through B) look into C) make over D) see to 30. Sadly, the Giant Panda is one of the many species now in danger of ____________. A) extinction B) migration C) destruction D) extraction Part IV: Error Correction. Until the very latest moment of his existence, man has been bound to the planet on which he originated and developed. Now he had the capability to leave that planet and move out into the universe to those worlds which he has known previously only directly. Men have explored parts of the moon, put spaceships in orbit around another planet and possibly within the decade will land into another planet and explore it. Can we be too bold as to suggest that we may be able to colonize other planet within the not-too-distant future? Some have advocated such a procedure as a solution to the population problem: ship the excess people off to the moon. But we must keep in head the --6--

1.________________ 2.________________ 3.________________ 4.________________ 5.________________ 6.________________

billions of dollars we might spend in carrying out the project. To maintain the earth’s population at its present level, we would have to blast off into space 7,500 people every hour of every day of the year. Why are we spending so little money on space exploration? Consider the great need for improving many aspects of the global environment, one is surely justified in his concern for the money and resources that they are poured into the space exploration efforts. But perhaps we should look at both sides of the coin before arriving hasty conclusions. Part V: Writing. Directions: For this part, you are allowed thirty minutes to write a composition on the topic How I Finance My College Education. You should write at least 120 words, and base your composition on the outline (given in Chinese) below: 1. 上大学的费用(Tuition and fees)可以通过多种途径解决 2. 哪种途径适合于我(说明理由) How I Finance My College Education

7.________________ 8.________________ 9.________________ 10._______________

--7--


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