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3. 高中定语从句全面详细讲解附练习题加答案


高中定语从句详细讲解
定义及相关术语
1.定语从句:修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫定语从句。定语从句一般紧跟在它所修饰的先行词之后。 2.先行词:被定语从句修饰的词叫先行词。 3.关系词:引导定语从句的词叫关系词。 关系词有关系代词和关系副词。关系代词有 that, which, who, whom, whose, as 等; 关系副词有 when, where, why 等。 4. 关系词通常有下列三个作用:A、引导定语从句;B、代替先行词;C、在定语从句中担当一个成分。 例如: The man who is shaking hands with my father is a policeman. 该句中,who is shaking hands with my father 是定语从句,修饰先行词 the man, “who”是引导定语从句的 关系词,代替先行词 the man,在定语从句中作主语。

一.关系代词引导的定语从句
(一)关系代词 (1).who 指__________,在定语从句中作_______________,做 ________时,可省略。 ①The boys who are playing football are from Class One. ②The girl (who) I called just now is from America. (2).whom 指_________,在定语从句中做_________________,做 ________时,可省略。 ①The professor ( whom ) you are waiting for has come. ②The girl ( whom ) the teacher often praises is our monitor. 注意:关系代词 whom 在口语或非正式文体中常可用 who 来代替,也可省略。 The man ( whom / who )you met just now is my old friend. (3).Which 指______________,在定语从句中做______________,做 ________时,可省略。 ①Football is a game which is liked by most boys. ②The film ( which ) they went to see last night was not interesting at all. (4).That 指_________时,相当于 who 或 whom;指_________时,相当于 which.。在定语从句中作 __________________,做 ________时,可省略。 ①The person (that /whom) you introduced to me is very kind. ②The season that / which comes after spring is summer. (5).Whose 指_____,也可指_______,在定语从句中做________。 ①I visited a scientist whose name is known all over the country. ②I once lived in the house whose roof has fallen in. 我曾经住在那幢屋顶已经倒塌了的房子里。 注意:指物时,常用下列结构来代替: ①The classroom whose door is broken will soon be repaired. The classroom the door of which is broken will soon be repaired. ②Do you like the book whose cover is yellow? Do you like the book the cover of which is yellow?

(二).引导词的特殊情况。 1. 限制性定语从句中只能用 that 引导定语从句的情况
(1).当先行词是 everything, anything, nothing (something 除外), all, none, few, little, some 等 _________________时,或当先行词受 every, any, all, some, no, little, few, much 等代词修饰时。如:
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①Have you taken down everything that Mr. Li said? ②There seems to be nothing that is impossible to him in the world. ③All that can be done has been done. ④There is little that I can do for you. ⑤He stayed in the library and looked up any information that they needed. (2).当先行词被____________修饰时。如: The first place that they visited in London was the Big Ben. (3).当先行词被______________修饰时。如: This is the best film that I have ever seen. (4).当先行词被___________________________________修饰时。如: This is the very dictionary that I want to buy. 这正是我要买的词典。 After the fire in his house, the old car is the only thing that he owns. (5).当先行词前面有_________________________等疑问代词时。如: Who is the man that is standing by the gate? Which is the T-shirt that fits me most? (6).当先行词为_________________________时。如: ①They talked about the persons and things that they remembered at school. ②Look at the man and his donkey that are walking up the street. 瞧瞧那个沿街走来的人和他的 毛驴。

2. 限制性定语从句中只用 which 不用 that 的情况 (1).关系代词在限制性定语从句中紧跟介词作______________(介词提前)。
① There are many trees under which they can have a rest. ② This is the ring on which she spent 1000 dollars.

( 2 ) 在_________________从句中。
Football, which is a very popular game, is played all over the world.

3. 限制性定语从句中只用 who 的情况,当先行词是__________________________时用 who.
①One ____ has nothing to fear dares to tell the truth. ②The ones ____ laugh at the disabled are not good students. ③Anyone ____ fails to finish the task should be punished. ④Those ____ want to go to The Great Wall sign up here. Exercises: 1. All ______ is useful to us is good. A. which B. what C. that D. whether 2. She will never forget the days ______ she spent in Beijing. A. when B. what C. which D. why 3. The man ______ you are talking about is in the next room. A. to whom B. whom C. who D. which 4. The text is one of the most interesting stories ______ learned in the past three years. A. that have B. that have been C. which has D. which has been 5. The college won’t take on anyone ______ eyesight is weak. A. who B. whose C. of whom D. which 6. Here is the bicycle ______ in the shop. A. that you saw it B. that saw it C. you saw D. you saw it 7. Those______ to take part in the game write down your names, please. A. who B. who want C. that wants D want
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二.关系副词引导的限制性定语从句
1.关系副词 (1). when 指____________,在定语从句中作_______________。 ① I still remember the day when I first came to this school. ②October 1, 1949 was the day when the People’s Republic of China was founded. (2).where 指____________,在定语从句中作________________, 在一些类似地点的抽象名词 case, situation, point, stage 后面,也可用关系副词 where 来引导定语从句。 ①Shanghai is the city where I was born. ②The house where I lived ten years ago has been pulled down. ③He’s got himself into a dangerous situation where he is likely to lose control over the place. ④Her illness has developed to the point where nobody can cure her. (3). why 指_______________,在定语从句中作__________________。 ①Please tell me the reason why you missed the plane. ②The reason why he was punished is unknown to us. 注意: 不要以为在时间名词后就一定用关系副词 when, 在地点名词后就一定用关系副词 where, 在表示 原因的 the reason 后就一定用关系副词 why。 到底选用关系副词还是关系代词,关键是看它们在定语从句中是用作状语(用关系副词)还是用作主 语或宾语(用关系代词) . ①. We visited the factory______ my father works. ②. We visited the factory____________ they visited last week. ③. That’s the reason ____________ he explained to us. ④. That’s the reason ______ she left home.

以 the way 为先行词的限制性定语从句通常由 in which 或 that 引导,而且通常可以省 略。如:
①The way (that / in which ) he answered the questions was surprising. 他回答这些问题的方式令人惊 奇。 ②I don’t like the way (that / in which) you laugh at her. 我不喜欢你冲她的样子。 2:关系副词引导的定语从句经常可以用“介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句来表示。 如: ① Great changes are taking place in the city where / in which they live. ② 1980 was the year when / in which he was born. ③ The reason why / for which he refused the invitation is quite clear. (1)“介词+关系代词”的用法 : “介词+whom” ——指人 “介词+which” ——指物 (2). “介词+关系代词”结构中的介词的选定 ①.根据从句中______________与先行词的逻辑关系,请体会: e.g. Is that the newspaper for which you often write articles? ②.根据_______________与先行词的习惯搭配, 请体会: e.g. I still remember the day on which I first came to this school. Exercises: 1.This is the book _____which I spent 8 yuan. _____which I paid 8 yuan. _____ which I learned a lot. _____which they are talking.
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_____ which there are few new words. 2.This is the river _____ which there is a boat. ______ which a bridge was built. _____ which we often have a walk. 3. 注意及特例 : 介词的短语动词一般不拆开, 介词仍放在短语动词的后面。 如: listen to, look at ,look for, look after, take care of, catch up with, get along with, look forward to 等。 ①This is the watch (which / that) I am looking for. ( ) This is the watch for which I am looking . ( ) ②The babies (whom / who / that) the nurse is looking after are very healthy. ( ) The babies after whom the nurse is looking are very healthy. ( ) 4.“介词+关系代词”前还可有 some, any, none, all, both, neither, many, most, each, few 等代词或者数词。 如: ①He loves his parents deeply, both of whom are very kind to him. ②In the basket there are quite many apples, some of which have gone bad. ③Up to now, he has written ten stories, three of which are about country life.

三.限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句 1.形式上的区别 (1)限制性定语从句
形式上:不用逗号“,”与主句隔开。 意义上:是先行词不可缺少的定语,如删除,主句则失去意义或意思表达不完整。 译法上:译成先行词的定语:“...的” 关系词的使用上:A.作宾语时可省略 B.可用 that C.可用 who 代替 whom (2)非限制性定语从句 形式上:用逗号“,”与主句隔开。 意义上:只是对先行词的补充说明,如删除,主句仍能表达完整的意思。 译法上:通常译成主句的并列句。 关系词的使用上:A.不可省略 B.不用 that C.不可用 who 代替 whom

2. 限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句意义上的对比:
①She has two brothers who are working in the city. ②She has two brothers, who are working in the city. ③He will wear no clothes which will make him different from others. ④He will wear no clothes, which will make him different from others.

四.关系代词 as 和 which 引导的定语从句
as 和 which 引导非限制性定语从句时, 其用法有相同之处,也有不同之处。具体情况是: 1. as 和 which 都可以在定语从句中做主语或宾语,代表前面整个句子。如: ①He married her, as / which was natural. 他跟她结婚了,这是很自然的事。 ②He is honest, as / which we can see. 他很诚实, 这一点我们看得出来。 2. as 引导的非限制性定语从句可以放在主句之前、主句之后,甚至还可以分割主句。 which 引导的非限 制性定语从句只可放在主句之后。另外,as 常常有“正如、正像”的含义。如:
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①As is known to all, China is a developing country. 众所周知,中国是发展中国家。 ②He is from the south, as we can know from his accent. 他是南方人,这一点我们从他的口音可以知道。 ③John, as you know, is a famous writer. 正如你所知, 约翰是个著名作家。 3. 当先行词受 such, the same 修饰时,关系词常用 as。 如: ①I’ve never heard such stories as he tells. ②This is the same dictionary as I lost last week. 注意:当先行词受 the same 修饰时,偶尔也用 that 引导定语从句,但与 as 引导的定语从句意思有区别。 如: She wore the same dress that she wore at Mary’s wedding. 她穿着她在玛丽婚礼上穿过的同一条连衣裙。 She wore the same dress as her younger sister wore. 她穿着跟她妹妹所穿的一样的连衣裙。 Exercises:

1.This is the best factory ____we visited last year . A. where B. which C. in which D. that 2. Is this the factory ____computers are built? A. that B. which C. in which D. in that 3. Please pass me the dictionary ____cover is red. A. whose B. its C. which D. which of 4. The man ____has arrived . A. whom I told you B. that I told you C. whom I told you about him 5. Do you know the comrade ____we are talking? A. to whom B. to who C. whom D. to that 6. They visited the house ___the great writer was born. A. from where B. in which C. which D. in where 7. The man ___is speaking at the meeting is my teacher. A. whom B. which C. who D. whose 8. He asked us to watch carefully everything ___he did in class. A. who B. that C. what D. where 9. I’ll visit the professor tomorrow, ___he will be back from Shanghai. A. who B. that C. when D. which 10. The school ___I study is a new one . A. on which B. at where C. on that D. at which 11. China has many islands, ____the largest is Taiwan. A. in which B. at which C. which D. of which 12. The city ____my mother grew up is not far from here. A. what B. where C. that D. which 13. Our teacher lives in the house ____door faces to the north. A. which B. his C. that D. whose 14. Do you know the man ___your father nodded? A. whom B. to whom C. to who D. about whom 15. Wrestling is a sport in ___people easily get hurt . A. that B. when C. which D. what 16. I told you ____I know. A. all that B. all which C. all what D. all whom 17. China has a lot of famous writers ,one ___is Lu Xun . A. of which B. of whom C. of who D. of them 18. Is this factory ____we visited last year?
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D. I told you about

A. in which B. around that C. whom D. the one 19. Who is the man ____was there ? A. who B. which C. that D. whom 20. Is there anything ____I can do for you, sir? A. that B. which C. whose D. who 21. I still remember the day ____she first wore that green dress . A. which B. in which C. on that D. on which 22. The knife ____we used to cut the bread is very sharp . A. with which B. with it C. with that D. which 23. The games ____the young men competed in were difficult . A. in which B. which C. it D. who 24.It rained hard yesterday, ____ prevented me from going to the park.. A. that B. which C. as D. it 25. George Mallory was an English school teacher _____ loved climbing. A. who B. whom C. he D. which 26.His parents wouldn’t let him marry anyone ______ family was poor. A.of whom B.whom C.of whose D.whose 27.She heard a terrible noise, _______ brought her heart into her mouth. A.it B.which C.this D.that 28.In the dark street , there wasn’t a single person _____ she could turn for help. A.that B.who C.from whom D.to whom 29.The weather turned out to be very good , ____ was more than we could expect. A.what B.which C.that D.it 30.After living in Pairs for fifty years he returned to the small town ____ he grew up as a child. A.which B.where C.that D.when 31.Carol said the work would be done by October,______personally I doubt very much. A. it B.that C.when D.which 32.Dorothy was always speaking highly of her role in the play, ________,of course , made the others unhappy. A.who B.which C.this D.what 33.Recently I bought an ancient Chinese vase , _____ was very reasonable. A.which price C.the price of which C.its price D.the price of whose 34._____ has already been pointed out , grammar is not a set of dead rules. A.As B.It C.That D.Which 35.He lived in London for 3 months , during ____ time he learned some English. A.this B.which C.that D.same 36.On the wall hung a picture, _____ color is blue. A.whose B.of which C.which D.its 37.Whenever I met him , ____ was fairly often, I like his sweet and hopeful smile. A.what B.which C.that D.when 38.The visitor asked the guide to take his picture _____ stands the famous tower. A.that B.where C.which D.there 39.I don’t like _____ you speak to her. A.the way B.the way in that C.the way which D.the way of which 定语从句答案:1-5DCADA 6-10 BCBCD 11-15 DBDBC 16-20 ABDCA 21- 25 DABBA KEYS: 26-30 DBDBB 31-35 DBCAB 36-40 ABBA
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