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牛津英语9A 9B课文


Texts from Oxford English Book 9
Protecting 1.Protecting the innocent............................................................................... 2 innocent............................................................................... 2.An extract from Further Adventures of Sherlock Holmes’...................... 3 An Holmes’ COMPUTERS .............................................................................................4 3.COMPUTERS............................................................................................. 4 COMPUTERS............................................................................................. The 4.The History of the Internet......................................................................... 5 Internet......................................................................... .........................................................................5 The 5.The night of the horse................................................................................. 6 horse................................................................................. Qian 6.Qian Xuesen: Father of China's Aerospace............................................... 7 Aerospace............................................... FISHING 7.FISHING WITH BIRDS............................................................................. 8 BIRDS............................................................................. .............................................................................8 Some 8.Some Facts About Tea................................................................................. 9 Tea................................................................................. .................................................................................9 Memory ......................................................................................................10 9.Memory...................................................................................................... 10 Memory...................................................................................................... 10 How to Improve Your Memory............................................................... 11 10.How Memory............................................................... ...............................................................11 11 Comic Strips............................................................................................ 12 11.Comic Strips............................................................................................ 12 The Fox and the Crow............................................................................. 13 12.The Crow............................................................................. .............................................................................13 13 THE GREEN CONSUMER................................................................... 14 13.THE CONSUMER................................................................... 14 Pollution................................................................................................... 15 14.Pollution...................................................................................................15 Pollution................................................................................................... 15 Educational visits.................................................................................... 16 15.Educational visits.................................................................................... 16 Education in Great Britain..................................................................... 17 16.Education Britain..................................................................... 17 A SUCCESS STORY............................................................................... 18 17.A STORY............................................................................... ...............................................................................18 18 Beniamin Franklin.................................................................................. 19 18.Beniamin Franklin.................................................................................. 19 Tom Sawyer Paints The Fence................................................................ 20 19.Tom Fence................................................................ ................................................................20 20 An extract from The Adventures of Tom Sawyer.................................. 22 20.An Sawyer.................................. 21 Family Lives............................................................................................ 23 21.Family Lives............................................................................................ 22 The importance of family........................................................................ 24 22.The family........................................................................ ........................................................................24
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9A
Protecting the innocent
Pansy wanted to write an article on detectives for the schoolBewspapen To get infor?nation, she interviewed Detective Ken. This is part of the interview. PANSY You say that you like working as a detective. Why? KEN Let me tell you about a recent case that I dealt with, Pansy. Mr Li is a very rich man who lives alone and enjoys collecting things. He purchased a vase for two million yuan. He showed it to only two people his friends Jill and Jenny. Then he locked it in the safe at his house. That night, someone stole it. Li reported the theft, and I went to his house to look for clues. PANSY Did you find any? KEN Yes, a black pearl earring near the open safe and, outside the open window of the room, I saw a lot of mud on the wet ground. Inside the room, the carpet was spotlessly clean. PANSY So what did you do next? KEN I interviewed Jill and Jenny. They both denied stealing the vase. But I noticed that Jill was wearing a black pearl necklace -- but no earrings. PANSY So Jill was the thief?. KEN I didn't know. I needed proof. A good detective never jumps to conclusions. I showed Jill the earring, and she admitted it was hers. She said someone had stolen it from her house a month before. I checked her story. It was true. PANSY So Jill was no longer a suspect. But what about your other clue -- the mud outside and the spotless carpet inside? KEN That told me that probably no thief broke into Li's house. So I questioned Li and, in the end, he admitted stealing his own vase. He had bought insurance for it. The insurance company would pay him two million yuan if the vase was stolen. PANSY And who stole Jill's earring? KEN Li did that as well. He tried to make sure that Jill would go to jail instead of him. PANSY So now Li is behind bars. KEN Yes, and Jill is free. My job is to protect the innocent as well as find the guilty. That's why I like working as a detective.

2

An extract from Further Adventures of Sherlock Holmes’ Holmes’
The death of Ronald Adair in the spring of 1894 was one of the most interesting cases l ever worked on. I thought about it quite a lot, but could find no possible explanation. Adair was the son of a famous general who was abroad at the time. The young man's friends were from good families, and he seemed to have no enemies. On the day of his death he had played a game of cards at the Bagatelle Club with some friends. On the evening of 30 March, Adair returned from the Bagatelle at exactly ten o'clock. His mother was out, visiting relatives. The servant said Adair went upstairs to his room, where she had lit a fire. She had opened the window because some smoke from the fire had blown into the room. Just before midnight, Adair's mother returned and went to say goodnight to her son. The door was locked and there was no answer, so it was forced open. Adair was found lying near the table. A bullet from a small gun had entered his head, but the police could find no weapon. Some coins were on the table, and a note with names of friends at the Bagatelle. This appeared to be a list of all the money he had lost and won playing cards. There were no marks on the outside wall. Since it was impossible to aim a small gun from a distance, the murderer must have been in the room. Nobody had heard any noise. In addition to all this, nothing had been stolen from the room.

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COMPUTERS
Tony plans to write an article about computers. This is some of the information he has collected. Hidden helpers Not so many years ago, you hardly ever saw computers. Now they are everywhere. There may also be tiny, hidden computers in your home that you are unaware of. There may be one inside your TV set, telephone or washing machine. So maybe you depend on computers more than you realize. What kind of jobs can a computer do? It is common knowledge that computers are super calculators. They can calculate very fast and rarely give wrong answers. They can also type, print and draw things like diagrams and graphs. They can teach you and play games with you. More importantly, they can operate railways (like the underground) and fly aeroplanes and spaceships. For these reasons, we often call them electronic brains. Is a computer cleverer than I am? The answer to this question is, for the time being, 'No'. Your brain can understand the meaning of things better and create new ideas. However, one day computers may be able to do most things that a human brain can do and do them better. They may be better than doctors, judges and teachers at doing their jobs. If this is true, it raises interesting questions. What will happen to us if computers can do our jobs? How will we spend our lives? Will we have nothing to do? Computers may change our lives. But will they make them better? How do we give a computer instructions? We give a computer instructions by putting a program into it. The program is written by a human being, and it is essential that the human does not make a mistake. If we want a computer to do diCferent jobs, we have to give it different programs. CD-ROMs Many of today's computers have CD-ROM drives. A CD-ROM can hold over 300,000 pages of writing, and can also contain pictures and sound. Thus, for example, you can use your computer to read about a famous person in history such as John F Kennedy, and you can see a photograph or video of him, and even listen to him speaking. Some people think that CD-ROMs will soon be more popular than books.

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The History of the Internet
A research team at the United States Pentagon first developed the concept of linking computers together in the l960s. They wanted to have a system that would enable universities, research departments and the military to share resources with each other. Computers at this time were as large as refrigerators and could not be transported easily. Another problem was that they were often complicated and not compatible with each other. The research team had to overcome these difficulties to create a network that could share computing power. Gradually, more and more scholars came online. Years later, businessmen began using the lntemet, too. The number of people using it is increasing all the time and it is becoming more widely available across the world. In fact, somewhere in every continent in the world, it is possible to use the lnternet. There is a wide range of services available on the lnternet. This means that there are many different ways to communicate. The most popular way is undoubtedly electronic mail -- more commonly called 'e-mail'. The second most popular is browsing on the World Wide Web (WWW). Briefly, the WWW is a very big series of connected pages containing various forms of multimedia. The third most popular way is real time text based communication between users such as IRC -lnternet Relay Chat.

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The night of the horse
A newspaper ran a short story competition on famous talesfromhistory. This isastory one of the students sent in. The soldier came down the stairs -- two at a time. 'Captain, they've gone,' he cried. 'They've disappeared -- all of them. The plain is ' But the captain of the guards was no longer listening. He was going up the stairs -- three at a time. Seconds later, the captain stood on the high wall of the city of Troy. He looked down at the empty plain and, beyond it, at the empty sea. 'They've gone and we've won,' he said. 'The Greeks have tried for ten years to capture our city. Now they've sailed away. And they've taken everything with them.' 'Not everything, sir,' the soldier said. 'They've left their horse.' Outside the main gates of the city stood a huge horse made of wood. 'Ah, yes,' the captain said, 'that wooden horse. It's so big that they couldn't take it with them. Well, it's ours now. Get some help and pull it into the city. That won't be difficult. It's on wheels.' 'But why is it on wheels, the soldier asked. 'I think that maybe the Greeks want us to.' The captain interrupted him. 'You're a soldier,' he said. 'You don't have to think. You have to obey orders, and I'm giving you one now. Move that horse.' And so the Trojans dragged it into the city with ropes. That night, in the main square of the city, all the citizens of Troy celebrated. They sang and danced around the horse, and made jokes about their enemies, the stupid Greeks. Then the Trojans made sure all the gates of the city were securely locked, and they all went to sleep, including the gate guards. By midnight, the square was empty, except for the giant horse. The six Greek soldiers waited for another hour, to be sure. Then, very quietly, they opened the secret door in the side of the horse and climbed out. No guards stopped them as they opened the main gates. Outside stood the Greek army. It had returned in the darkness when the citizens celebrated inside. Now the army entered the city. The Greeks seized the captain and dragged him away. For ten years, they could not capture the city by fighting. In one night, they succeeded in capturing it by a trick.

6

Qian Xuesen: Father of China's Aerospace
Oian Xuesen is a pioneer in the development of China's aerospace science and technology. He is called 'Father of China's aerospace' and 'King of Rockets'. Qian was born in Shanghai on 11 December,1911. In 1934, he graduated from the Mechanical Engineering Department of Shanghai Jiaotong University. He then went to study in the USA, with the help of public funds. In 1939, he was awarded a doctorate in Aerospace and Mathematics from an American university. After this, he spent many years teaching and doing research work at universities in the USA. Qian returned to China in 1955. After Qian left the USA, an American writer wrote an article describina the importance of Qian's theories, and the rising strength of China's national defence. Four months after Qian's return to China, he submitted a report to the State Council about using China's aerospace industry for national defence. Based on his proposal, the State Council and the Central Military Commission set up the Committee of the Aerospace Industry. This was an important body for missile and aerospace science study, and Qian was elected a member of the committee. Oian was very committed to his work on the use of rockets for national defence, and was later appointed the first President of the Missile Research Institute. He participated in the development and production of different types of missiles and the first earth-orbited satellite in China. As well as science, he is also interested in medicine, philosophy and music, and is good at these things, too. On his 90th birthday, many leading scientists had a huge conference to honour his contribution to aerospace development.

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FISHING WITH BIRDS
Wang Damin sits on the side of the fiver cooking a meal, with a large bird on his head. The bird is a cormorant, and Damin is a fisherman. He is over 65 now but still works every day. He is thin and of average height, but he is very fit. Although he is an elderly man, he is strong enough to control his raft in the river where he lives and works with his ormorants. Cormorants are large, black birds, about a metre long. They are good at catching fish because they can swim well under water. Their large feet are used to push them quickly through the water. They can dive down 25 metres and stay under water for up to two minutes. Damin does not require nets or a fishing rod to catch fish. That is done for him by his twelve cormorants. A fishing trip often begins in the late afternoon. Damin sets off on his bamboo raft with his birds. When he reaches the fight place, he stops. A piece of grass is tied around the neck of each bird, so that it cannot swallow the fish. Then Damin pushes the birds into the water, and jumps up and down and bangs the water with his pole. The fish are frightened by this. At night, a light is hung from the front of the raft. This enables the fisherman to see better and also attracts the fish. The cormorants swim down and catch the fish, and bring them back to the raft. The fish are then removed from the birds' mouths by the fisherman and thrown into a big basket. Later, some of the fish are sold, and the rest are divided between Damin's family and the cormorants. Cormorant fishing is a traditional Chinese skill, probably more than a thousand years old. Damin enjoys his work and he is teaching his grandson everything he knows. However, few young people are interested in doing this type of work in the modem world. In fifty years, perhaps there will be no more cormorant fishermen in the world.

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Some Facts About Tea Tea
Tea is the most popular drink in the world besides plain water. There are thousands of different types of tea available. All tea comes from the Camellia Sinensis bush -- also known as the Tea Plant. The leaves and buds of this plant are picked several times a year, usually by hand. After picking, the tea is processed into black tea, oolong tea, green tea or white tea. Black tea was invented in China in the Ming Dynasty as a way to keep tea fresh when it was being transported long distances. As tea has to travel a long distance to reach places such as Britain, Canada and Australia, it is not surprising that Westerners drink mostly black tea. However, the majority of the world drinks green tea. Herbal tea is prepared in the same way as regular tea but is not really tea. This is because it contains herbs, fruits, spices, etc but no leaves from the Tea Plant. To truly be tea, the leaves must come from this plant. All tea naturally contains caffeine, which comes from the tea leaves. Antioxidants are the properties found in some foods that reduce your risk of getting cancer and heart disease. All regular tea has a lot of antioxidants. Decaffeinated tea is regular tea (usually green or black) that has been processed to remove the caffeine. In recent years, organic tea has become popular, too. This is tea that comes from plants that have been grown without the use of any chemicals. People believe that it tastes better and is healthier, but sometimes it costs more than non-organic tea. This is because the size of the crops is often smaller.

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Memory
Joyce wanted to have a feature about memory. She and her editors all agreed to write short articles on this topic. ARTHUR I read in a book that we have a short-term memory and a long-term memory. When people get older, their short-term memory becomes worse, but we can still remember things that happened a long time ago. My Grandad told me a joke about memory. He said, 'When you get old, three things start to go wrong. First, you start to lose your memory. And I can't remember what the other things are!' JOICE Memory is essential for life. I saw a programme on television about a man who had had an accident and injured his brain. Afterwards, he could not remember anything for longer than a few minutes. His wife visited him in hospital every day, but he forgot her visits a few minutes after she left. He was often angry with her because he thought that she never visited him. It was very sad. PANNCY One basic way of improving your memory is to use the link method. If you want to memorize something, you must make a picture in your mind. If the picture is silly, strange and colourful, you will remember it better. For example, I am trying to remember the word 'smiles'. An easy way to do this is to imagine there is a 'mile' between the first letter and the last letter. This makes it the longest word in the world! TONNY In the Guinness Book of Records, we Can find some amazing stories about memory. For example, Gou Yanling from Harbin in China has memorized more than 15,000 telephone numbers. And Dominic O'Brien from Britain remembered the correct order of 2,808 playing cards, after seeing them just once. MILLIE Memory is connected with our feelings. For example, if someone says 'This is a spider,' and then puts a large spider on your hand, you will probably remember the word 'spider' ! When something dramatic happens, we usually remember it well, and we also remember where we were and what we were doing. For example, 98% of older people in the USA can remember where they were when they heard about the death of President John F Kennedy in 1963.

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How to Improve Your Memory
There are many things you can do to improve your memory. Among them are various memorizing methods as well as taking special care of your health. It is important that you regularly stimulate your brain to make your memory more efficient. You can do this by doing activities that you do not normally do and by changing your daily habits. Learning a new skill helps your brain to develop. When trying to memorize something, you should focus your attention and concentrate on the most important things about it. Do not allow other thoughts to enter your mind because this will lower your chances of making accurate memories. An excellent way to help memory is to link information with pictures. These are referred to as mnemonic techniques. Try to see the images in your mind. Taking notes, being organized and keeping a diary will also be useful tools. Healthy food and plenty of vitamins are essential for your memory to work properly. Drinking a lot of water also helps maintain your memory. You must allow your brain to have enough sleep and rest. When you are asleep, your brain stores memory. Not enough sleep can, therefore, cause problems with storing information. In addition, being tired will stop you from being able to concentrate well. Caffeine in tea and coffee are very good at preventing sleepiness and helping concentration, but they can also cause problems with memory. In order to concentrate well, you must be relaxed. Generally keeping fit and regular health checks are both important as well -- not just for improving your memory.

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Comic Strips
Creating a comic strip Rule l Think of a ________ that is ________ or ________. Make the story move Something ________ must happen in ________ each picture. Rule 2 Give the characters strong ________ which will be easy to understand just by ________ looking at the ________ Drawing the strip Rule l For variety, leave some flames without ________ Rule 2 For interest, vary the ________ of some frames. Rule 3 Explain changes of scene or time by using a line of ________ Rule 4 Use sound ________ to add excitement.

Creating a comic strip
The first thing to do when creating a comic strip is to think of a plot. It needs to be funny or dramatic with an exciting finish. It should be full of action to keep the reader interested. The story needs to move fast, and something new must happen in each picture. The characters need strong personalities which will come across in the pictures. You can tell what the Characters above are like just from looking at them.

Drawing the strip
Here you can see how the script (you can ,only see the first part) was made intoa finished comic strip. It was drawn using a dip pen with a special nib. Some frames can be left without borders to add variety. The story is mainly told in the pictures, but there are bubbles for speech and thoughts. Scenery can make the strip come to life. Frame sizes are varied to make the strip more interesting. Sound effects add excitement to the pictures. A line of text at the top can explain changes of scene or time.

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The Fox and the Crow
Early one morning, a crow was sitting in a tall tree. She was holding a big piece of meat in her mouth. She thought it would be a nice breakfast for her baby. An old fox was looking for some food. He saw the crow with the meat. He really wanted to eat the meat himself. He thought very hard about how he could take it from the crow. The fox made a plan. He could not climb the tree so he would have to make the crow drop the meat. He spoke to the crow very politely, and asked how she was and how her baby was. The fox then told the crow that she had a beautiful voice and that he would like to hear her sing. The crow was happy and thought that the fox was very kind. So she decided to sing a song for him. She opened her mouth and the fox's plan worked. The meat fell down into his mouth.

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9B
THE GREEN CONSUMER
This book says that our world is in danger. It is vital that we do something to save the earth. First of all, what are the threats to our environment? The Greenhouse Effect The writers ask us to imagine the earth inside a kind of greenhouse with the atmosphere around it acting like the glass, letting sunlight in while keeping much of the warmth from getting out. The atmosphere is essential to all living things. Without it, the earth would be as cold and lifeless as the surface of the moon. 'The trouble is that our atmosphere is changing because we are polluting it with chemicals -- in the form of gases -- and it is keeping in too much heat!' These gases, mainly carbon dioxide (CO2 ), are produced by burning fuels such as petrol. The Greenhouse Effect may cause the level of the sea to rise and drown cities and even whole countries. Damage to the ozone layer The writers tell us that 'ozone is a gas which occurs 20-50 km above the ground. It forms an essential protective layer around the earth. Without it, the sun would burn us up.' We are making holes in the ozone layer mainly by using chemicals called CFCs. We use these in fridges and spray cans, and to make plastic items such as fast food boxes. Destruction of the rain forests The burning and cutting down of trees is making the Greenhouse Effect worse because trees take in C02. It also causes erosion of the soil and flooding, as well as destroying the people and animals who make the forests their home. Bad habits Many of our habits cause pollution, especially our habit of using things once and then throwing them away. This creates massive mountains of rubbish. We do not know what to do with the rubbish and it pollutes our land and sea. For example, seven billion drink cans are thrown away in Britain each year. That is enough to reach from the earth to the moon. How can we save the earth? The book's idea is that we should become green consumers. That is, we should only buy and use things that do not damage the environment. And we should buy only from companies that do not damage the environment either.

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Pollution
Pollution means contaminating the Earth's environment with materials that harm people's health and lower their quality of life. Pollution can also harm animals and plants. There are many different forms of pollution. The three major groups are air pollution, land pollution and water pollution. Air pollution comes from many different sources -- not all of them are man-made. For example, dust storms in deserts and the smoke from forest fires are natural sources of air pollution. In urban areas, dirty air is more noticeable because of the fumes from traffic and the waste from factories. Air pollution can affect humans by causing sore eyes and respiratory problems, especially in children and the elderly. Land pollution is caused by the deposit of solid waste (e.g., cans, bottles, plastic, etc.) that cannot be broken down quickly or at all. Land pollution can affect the lives of animals and plants, and it makes the environment look very bad. Recycling and reusing materials can help reduce the amount of land pollution. Other methods include landfill -- using the rubbish to make new land -and burning the rubbish, but these two methods can pollute the water and air. Water pollution results when substances that are released into lakes, rivers, oceans, etc. stay in the water or build up at the bottom. This form of pollution may also begin in the air if the air is polluted and causes acid rain. When it rains, the rain will then pollute the water in lakes, rivers, oceans, etc. Soil erosion is one example of natural water pollution and can cause problems if the soil blocks the flow of water and leads to flooding. Pollution from human sources includes chemicals, pesticides, waste from factories and human sewage.

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Educational visits
Joyce wanted to have some articles in the school newspaper about educational visits to other countries. She asked some older students to write these articles. A wonderful year in New Zealand Tammy Luo If I went to New Zealand, would I be able to understand people? This was the question which first worried me when the American Field Service programme accepted me. I stayed with a New Zealand family in Auckland for one year. At first, I found that communicating was quite difficult. But my hosts were very patient, and they helped me to learn fast As part of the programme, AFS students try to tell people about their own culture, I took many photos and postcards of China with me, as well as some simple Chinese books. I gave a talk about China to some classes in school, and I even did some simple Chinese cooking. It was a wonderful year. I learned about a new culture, and I became more confident. Visiting the poor in Thailand EdwinSu Last year I went to Thailand for ten days, The trip was funded by World Vision, which helps poor people throughout the world. I went with another student and two reporters. The aim of the trip was to see the problems for ourselves. We were deeply affected by what we saw. There is a big gap between the lives of the rich and the poor. In some areas we saw families living in rubbish dumps. However, the Thai Government is working hard to improve the situation. The trip was actually quite hard work, but it was a very valuable experience for me. It has shown me how fortunate most of us are here in China. Scholarship to Japan Sylvia Wang This summer, I was fortunate to win a Japan Airlines scholarship. This enabled me to visit Japan for six weeks. For five weeks, all the foreign students lived in a hotel and attended Japanese language classes. We also had classes on Japanese culture, including flower-arranging and the art of tea-making. We went on sightseeing tours and visited a television station. After the first five weeks, we visited Kyoto, the old capital of Japan, and Yokohama. We stayed with friendly families in these cities. I thought that, if I went abroad, I would make many new friends. This turned out to be true. I met and talked to students from Korea, Brazil and Australia, as well as many Japanese. I left Japan three months ago and since then, I have kept in touch with my new friends by writing letters.

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Education in Great Britain
Every child in Great Britain must receive a full-time education until the age of sixteen. If a child fails to attend school, a government official will visit his or her home to find out why. If there is not a good reason, their parents may be prosecuted. Parents have a certain amount of choice about what schools their children go to. The majority of parents send their children to state schools, where tuition and textbooks are free. The alternative to state schools is public schools, where a fee is required. The school year begins in September and is divided into three terms. There are three main holidays. These holidays take place at Christmas, Easter and in the summer. In addition, there are two half-term holidays. The summer holiday is the longest and usually lasts from the middle of July to the beginning of September. Education is split into two main stages -- primary school and secondary school. Primary schools are for students from the age of five to eleven. Core subjects that are taught are Mathematics, English, History, Geography, Science, Art, Music and Physical Education. Secondary schools are for students from the age of eleven to sixteen or eighteen. Some secondary schools continue until the age of eighteen, while others finish at sixteen. The same core subjects are taught as well as additional subjects such as Economics, Religious Studies, foreign languages (usually French or German), Drama, Technology and Computer Studies. Three important public exams are taken at the ages of eleven, sixteen and eighteen. After the.age of sixteen, students can either find a job or continue onto Higher Education. This is a term used to describe all education received after the compulsory age limit of sixteen, in sixth form colleges and universities. There are almost one hundred universities in Great Britain. The most prominent ones are Oxford University and Cambridge University.

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A SUCCESS STORY
Arthur was responsible for writing stories about successful people for the school newspaper. Here is a story he wrote. The Girl from the Street THE SOCIAL workers who brought the nine-year-old to the orphanage knew little about her. The streets where they found her had been her home for many years. Her parents were unknown. They had abandoned her long ago. At the orphanage, the girl, like all the children there, was taught to read and write. While she was studying at the orphanage, she learned something else -- to be independent. At twenty-one, she left the orphanage and began work as a secretary -- just one of the thousands employed in Hong Kong's countless offices. And then, in 1975, while she was still working as an ordinary secretary, something extraordinary happened. She entered the Miss Hong Kong contest and won it. This was the turning point in her life. Now her name, Mary Cheung, was on everyone's lips. Mary entered the contest because she was ambitious and because she wanted to show that orphanage girls could be something. Winning the competition brought her more than fame. It gave her the chance to start on a new career path. This led her first into television and then into the cosmetics business as a manager. When she was working as a manager, she had trouble with her reports. 'My English just wasn't good enough,' she says. Fortunately, she had a boy-friend (who later became her husband) to help her. Mary studied management at Hong Kong Polytechnic and graduated in 1980. She started her own marketing and fundraising company in 1995. But she did not lose her burning desire to develop herself. She then studied for a Fine Arts degree at the University of Hong Kong. Her ambition was to teach arts and to see a proper arts syllabus in every school in Hong Kong. Since 1987, she has devoted a lot of her time to photography. She has held several exhibitions of her work in many places, including China, New Zealand and Paris. She still found time, however, to work on TV and for charity, write for newspapers and bring upher family. The girl who wandered the streets has come a long way, but her journey is not finished yet.

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Beniamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin was born in Boston, Massachusetts in the USA on 17 January 1706. He had a very big family -- his parents had seventeen children. He was a man of many talents and interests. Among other things, he was a scientist and an inventor. He was naturally curious about the way things worked and was always searching for ways to make them work better. In 1747, Benjamin began his experiments on electricity with some very simple equipment. Although these experiments led to the discovery of some very important findings on electricity, Benjamin did not actually invent it. However, he did invent the lightning conductor, which protects buildings and ships from damage caused by lightning. Benjamin had poor vision and needed glasses. He was tired of always taking them on and off, so he decided to invent a pair of glasses that would let him see both near and far things at the same time. He took the two different types of glasses, cut each lens in half, and then put half of each lens into another frame. Nowadays, this type of glasses is known as bifocals. During his lifetime, he travelled across the Atlantic Ocean eight times. These long journeys gave him a lot of time to learn about how ships worked. He developed a way to make them safer and more efficient by inventing watertight bulkheads. Other developments in safety that he made included establishing the first fire company in Philadelphia, USA, and improving the city's street paving and lighting.

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Joyce wanted to encourage students to read more famous books. So, in her newspaper, she printed this funny story from a book called The Adventures of Tom Sawyer by Mark Twain.

Tom Sawyer Paints The Fence
Saturday morning came, and everything was bright and fresh. Every boy in town was happy, except Tom Sawyer. Tom stood on the sidewalk with a bucket of white paint and a brush with a long handle in his hands. He looked at the fence that his aunt had told him to paint and felt very depressed. It was thirty yards long and three yards high! He dipped his brush in the paint and painted a corner of the fence. Then he stood back and looked at it. The section that was painted was so small, and the unpainted section was so big! He sat down under a tree to have a rest. He began to think of all the games which he had planned for the day. Soon the boys who were free would come along and make fun of him. But just then, he had a wonderful idea. He picked up his brush and went back to work. Ben Rogers came along the road, singing happily and carrying an apple. He stopped and looked at Tom. Tom went on painting and ignored Ben. 'I'm going swimming,' said Ben. 'Do you want to go swimming, Tom? But I guess you can't. You have to stay and work, don't you?' Tom went on painting. 'Work?' he said. 'This isn't work. I'm enjoying myself. Does a boy get a chance to paint a fence like this every day?' Ben thought about this. Tom went on painting,carefully. Sometimes he stopped, stood back to look at the fence, and then added a bit more paint in just the right place. Ben was watching Tom's every move. He was getting more and more interested. After a while, he said, 'Tom, will you let me do some painting?' Tom thought about it, and said, 'No, Ben, I can't. You see, Aunt Polly wants it to be done properly. I'm the only one who can do it fight.' 'Oh, please, Tom,' begged Ben. 'I can do it. I'll be really careful. Just let me try. I'll give you half of my apple. I'll give you all of it!' 'Well, all fight, Ben,' said Tom. 'But you must be careful.' He gave Ben his brush with worry on his face but joy in his heart. He sat down again under the tree, and started to eat the apple that Ben had given him. All day, boys came to make fun, but they ended up staying to paint. When Ben got tired, Billy Fisher was waiting. He gave Tom a kite for a chance to paint. Then Johnny Miller offered him twelve marbles, and so on. By late afternoon Tom had gained all sorts of toys, and the fence had gained three coats of paint. Later Aunt Polly came to look at Tom's work. She was so pleased when she saw the painted fence that she gave Tom a large cake!

You are now going to hear a lecture about the writer Mark Twain, His real name was Samuel Clemens. Listen to the lecture and complete the notes below. ~ Samuel Clemens: born in (1)____________, in Missouri ~ Moved to the town of Hannibal, Missouri when he was (2)____________ ~ Hannibal was a (3)____________ on the Mississippi (4)____________
20

~ Clemens loved to watch the big (5)____________ ~ Father died when he was (6)____________ , and so Clemens (7)____________ as a printer Travelled to many (8)____________ ~ When he was (9)____________ , worked on a steamboat Stayed in this job until start of American Civil (10)____________ ~ Then tried several (11)____________ , including (12)____________ and silver miner Started working as a writer on a (13)____________ . Decided to use the penname (14)____________ ~ The name comes from the steamboats. A man threw a (15)____________ into the water. It had a weight and marks on it. He used it to find out how (16)____________ the river was. Then he shouted 'Mark One' or 'Mark Twain'. Mark Twain meant that the river was (17)____________metres deep. ~ In (18) __ he wrote a story which became famous. In 1867 he toured (19)____________ . Then he (20)____________ , and lived in Hartford, Connecticut. He wrote many books, including The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, which he wrote in (21) ______________ Gave many (22) _____________. Boeame famous and (23)____________ ~ Once, two friends addressed a letter to him: 'Mark Twain, God Knows Where'. He replied, (24)____________ ~ He died in (25)____________ . One of America's most important writers.

21

An extract from The Adventures of Tom Sawyer
Tom and Becky walked down a winding passage, holding their candles high. They saw names and dates written on the wall with candle smoke by visitors to the cave before. Becky and Tom read some of them as they walked along. They were talking so much that it was a little while before they noticed they were now in a part of the cave that had no writing on the wall. They used candle smoke to write their own names on the rock and walked on. Soon they came to a place where a little stream of water was running. Over the years the cave wall was shaped by the running stream, and it looked like a frozen waterfall. Tom went behind it and lit it up with his candle so that Becky could see it better. Behind the stone waterfall he found an opening in the rock, leading downwards. At once he wanted to explore it. Becky agreed and together they started to walk down into the earth. They wound this way and that, far into the cave, making smoke marks here and there to show the way back. This was exciting. They would have a lot to tell their friends above when they returned. In one place, they found a huge, open space full of shining stalactites, as long and thick as a man's leg. They walked around it and left by one of the many passages that opened into it. The next place they found was full of bats. There were thousands of them. The candlelight woke them up, and they flew at the candle flames at once. Tom knew this was dangerous and took Becky's hand to hurry her away. He pulled her into the first opening he found. And not too soon, one of the bats struck Becky's candle out with its wings. The bats chased them for quite a long way, but they ran into every new passage that they came to, and at last got away from the bats.

22

Family Lives
Pansy spoke to two teenagers in connection with the first article in a series on family life. Here is what the teenagers said. Tina (not her real name) -- aged 14 Pocket money? Well, my parents give me a generous allowance every month. If I spend it before the end of the month, they grumble a bit, but they always give me more. Also they never tell me to do anything, they always ask me. Sometimes there's an argument, but I always win it. We're a democratic family. As for housework, I hardly ever do it. Sometimes my mother does ask me to clean my room if she's very busy, but she always gives me money or a present for helping her. After all, housework is the job of the parents, isn't it? Yes, I get lots of presents, actually. I've got a Walkman, my own TV, a stereo, a computer and lots of games and clothes. They buy all the latest fashions for me, and I just throw away the old ones. In fact, my parents give me most of the things that I ask for. They never say 'No'. They want me to have a happy childhood. Having my own TV is definitely a big advantage. I can watch it for hours on end, and no one disturbs me. It's great. I watch about fifteen hours a week. Norman (not his real name) -- also aged 14 Yes, I get an allowance every month. It's fair, but a bit less than I would like. And my parents won't give me anything extra. They say I have to learn to look after my money and live within a budget. I'll have to do that when I become independent. If they want me to do something, mey tell me. I hey don,t ask me. Sometimes I argue with them, but usually I lose. They say, 'We are your parents. Until you're old enough, we'll make the decisions that we think are best for you.' With regard to housework, I've got to help for about an hour every day. I've got to wash dishes and clothes, clean the floors and toilet and sometimes cook. My parents say I'll have to run my own home some day, so it's better to learn how to do it now. They'd never dream of paying me for doing housework, It s the responsibility of the whole family, Isn't it? My parents give me presents now and again, usually things that I can use. For example, when they saw that I was serious about learning tennis, they bought me a good racket, And they only buy me simple clothes that can last a long time. They often say 'No' when I ask for things. But if I can pay for something with money that I've earned myself, that's different. They say it's bad to expect things for nothing: It won't be like that when I grow up. We have one TV for the whole family, and I watch it for about seven hours a week. My father believes that when you re watching TV, you re not thinking, so your mind doesn't develop. When I say that he watches more than I do, he says his mind has already developed.

23

The importance of family
Mrs Chen was a teacher in Nanjing. One summer she was offered a job as the headmistress of an international school. Unfortunately, the school was not in Nanjing. It was in Shanghai. After thinking about it for a long time and discussing the offer with her husband, Mrs Chen decided that it would be best to accept the job and move to Shanghai. One evening, after dinner, Mr and Mrs Chert asked their son, Huaming, to come and talk to them. Mrs Chen told Huaming about the decision to move to Shanghai. Huaming was shocked and upset. He did not want to leave his friends and said that he would prefer to live with his classmate, Guo Sheng. His parents hoped that Huaming would later change his mind and be excited about moving to a new city when August came. Soon, it was August. Mr and Mrs Chen were busy packing. However, Huaming insisted to stay in Nanjing and refused to pack his belongings. When the day came for them to move to Shanghai, Mr and Mrs Chen could not find Huaming anywhere. They phoned Guo Sheng but he did not know where Huaming was either. Then they tried calling other friends of Huaming, but no one knew where he went. What they did not know was that as Huaming was walking to his friend's house, something happened. He walked past the park where he and his father often played football. He walked past the supermarket that he usually went to with his mother. He realized that these things would not be special without his family, and that being with his parents was more important than staying in Nanjing. Huaming quickly ran home to apologize to his parents. He told them he was looking forward to living in Shanghai and making many new friends there.

24


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