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2016 高考英语语法超级归纳

冠词分为不定冠词(a, an) ,定冠词(the) ,和零冠词。 I. 不定冠词的用法 1 2 3 4 指一类人或事,相当于 a kind of 第一次提及某人某物,非特指 表示“每一”相当于 every,one 表示“相同”相当于 the same A plane is a machine that can fly. A boy is waiting for you.有个男孩在等你。 We study eight hours a day. We are nearly of an age. — Hello, could I speak to Mr. Smith? 5 用于人名前,表示不认识此人或与某名人有类似性质的人或 事 —Sorry, wrong number. There isn't______ Mr. Smith here. A. 不填 B. a C. the D. one

That boy is rather a Lei Feng.(活雷锋) 6 7 8 用于固定词组中 用于 quite, rather, many, half, what, such 之后 用于 so(as, too, how)+形容词之后 a couple of, a bit, once upon a time, in a hurry, have a walk, many a time This room is rather a big one. She is as clever a girl as you can wish to meet. success(抽象名词)→a success(具体化) 成功的人或事 a failure 失败的人或事 a shame 带来耻辱的人或事 a pity 可惜或遗憾的事 a must 必需必备的事 a good knowledge of 精通掌握某一方面的知识



II. 定冠词的用法 In many places in China, ___ bicycle is still ___ popular means of 1 表示某一类人或物 transportation. A. a; the 2 3 4 5 用于世上独一无二的事物名词前 表示说话双方都了解的或上文提到过的人或事 用于演奏乐器 用于形容词和分词前表示一类人 B. /; a C. the; a D. the; the

the universe, the moon, the Pacific Ocean Would you mind opening the door? play the violin, play the guitar the reach, the living, the wounded —Could you tell me the way to ____ Johnsons, please?


表示“一家人”或“夫妇” (对比上文的不定冠词用法 5)

—Sorry, we don’t have ____ Johnson here in the village. A. the; the B. the; a C. /; the D. the; /

7 8 9 10 11 12

用于序数词和形容词副词比较级最高级前 用于国家党派等以及江河湖海,山川群岛的名词前 用于表示发明物的单数名词前 在逢十的复数数词之前,指世纪的某个年代 用于表示度量单位的名词前 用于方位名词,身体部位名词

He is the taller of the two children. the United States, the Communist Party of China, the French The compass was invented in China. in the 1990’s(二十世纪九十年代) I hired the car by the hour. He patted me on the shoulder.

III. 不用冠词(又名零冠词)的用法 1 2 3 4 5 专有名词,物质名词,抽象名词,人名地名等名词前 名词前有 this, my, whose, some, no, each, every 等限制 季节,月份,星期,节假日,一日三餐前 表示职位,身份,头衔的名词前 表示球类,棋类等运动的名词前 Beijing University, Jack, China, love, air I want this book, not that one. / Whose purse is this? March, Sunday, National Day, spring Lincoln was made President of America. He likes playing football/chess. We went right round to the west coast by ______ sea instead of driving 6 与 by 连用表示交通方式的名词前 across ______ continent. A. the; the 7 8 以 and 连接的两个相对的名词并用时 表示泛指的复数名词前 B.不填;the C. the; 不填 D. 不填;不填

husband and wife, knife and fork, day and night Horses are useful animals. 二、名词和主谓一致 普通名词 可数名词 不可数名词 集体名词

I. 名词的种类 专有名词 国名地名人名,团体机构名称 个体名词



特别注意名词类别的相互转换 个体名词与抽象名词的相互转换 例 句 意 义 名词性质 个体名词 抽象名词 抽象名词 个体名词 抽象名词 个体名词 ①She held some flowers in her hand. ②The trees are now in flower ①Youth is beautiful. ②He is a youth of twenty ①They have achieved remarkable success in their work. ②—How about the Christmas evening party? —I should say it was a success. 例 ①Iron is a kind of metal. ②Please lend me your iron. ①He broke a piece of glass. ②He broke a glass. ①I bought a chicken this morning ②Please help yourself to some chicken 句 花儿 开花 青春 年轻人 成功 成功的事 物质名词与个体名词的相互转换 意 铁 熨斗 玻璃 玻璃杯 小鸡 鸡肉 抽象名词与个体名词的转换 ①—I’d like______information about the management of your hotel,please. —Well, you could have____word with the manager. He might be helpful A.some,a B.an,some C.some,some D.an,a ②They sent us word of the latest happenings. 消息 (抽象名词) A.a B.an C./ D.the ③Could we have word before you go to the meeting? 话(个体名词) A.a B.an C./ D.the 类例:have a dream/a rest/a smoke/a swim/a trip/a wash/a discussion/a look take a walk/a bath make an advance(进步)/make an early start(早点出发) /make a decision/make a change/give a cry of pain(发出痛苦的叫声) /give a try ①Many people agree that___knowledge of English is a must in____international trade today. A.a, / B.the, an C.the, the D. /, the a knowledge of truth(知道实际情况) give a fuller knowledge of China(提供关于中国更为翔实的知识) have a knowledge of shorthand(有速记的知识) ②If there were no examination, we should have______at school. A.the happiest time B.a more happier time C.much happiest time D.a much happier time ③ is money. A.The time B.A time C.Time D.Times ①Oh, John. _____you gave me! A.How a pleasant surprise B.How pleasant surprise C.What a pleasant surprise D. What pleasant surprise ②She looked up when I shouted. A.in a surprise B.in the surprise C.in surprise D.in some surprise 其它例子:The gift came as a complete surprise to me. We have had some unpleasant surprise ③It is_____work of art that everyone wants to have a look at it. A.so unusual B. such unusual C.such an unusual D.so an unusual 义 名词性质 物质名词 个体名词 物质名词 个体名词 个体名词 物质名词

具有动作意义的抽象 名词加用与某些动词 (如:have 等)连 用,表示某一次短暂 的动作

表示知识和时间的抽 象名词转换为普通名 词时可以用来表示 其中的一部分

抽象名词转换为普通 名词可用来表示“一 次、一阵、一种”具 体的行为、事件、现 象或结 果。这时名词前往往 有形容词修饰

II. 名词的数 规则名词的复数形式:名词的复数形式,一般在单数形式后面加-s 或-es(参看有关语法书) 。英语里有些名词的复数形式是不规则的,请看下表 规 1 2 3 4 5 单复数相同 只有复数形式 一些集体名词总是用作复数 部分集体名词既可以作单数 (整体) 也可以作复数 (成 员) 复数形式表示特别含义 加-s 7 表示 “某国人” 单复数同形 以 -man 或 -woman 结 尾 的 改 为 -men,-women 将主体名词变为复数 无主体名词时将最后一部分变为复数 则 例 词 改变名词中的元音字母或其他形式 man-men, woman-women, foot-feet, goose-geese, mouse-mice sheep, deer, series, means, works, fish, species ashes, trousers, clothes, thanks, goods, glasses, compasses, contents people, police, cattle, staff audience, class, family, crowd, couple, group, committee, government, population, crew, team, public, enemy, party customs( 海关 ), forces( 军队 ), times( 时代 ), spirits( 情绪 ), drinks( 饮料 ), sands(沙滩), papers(文件报纸), manners(礼貌), looks(外表), brains(头脑 智力), greens(青菜), ruins(废墟) Americans, Australians, Germans, Greeks, Swedes, Europeans Swiss, Portuguese, Chinese, Japanese Englishmen, Frenchwomen sons-in-law, lookers-on, passers-by, story-tellers, boy friends grown-ups, housewives, stopwatches





将两部分变为复数 III. 主谓一致 规则 情 况

women singers, men servants 举 例

以单数名词或代词动词不定式短语, 动名词短语或从句作主 语时,谓语动词一般用单数形式;主语为复数时,谓语动词 用复数形式。

His father is working on the farm. To study English well is not easy. Reading in the sun is bad for your eyes. What he said is very important for us all. 由 what 引导的主语从句, 后面的谓语动词多数情况用单数形式, 但若表语是复数或 what 从句是一个带有复数意义的并列结构 时,主句的谓语动词用复数形式。 what I bought were three English books. What I say and do is (are) helpful for you. Lucy and Lily are twins The writer and artist has come.

语 由连接词 and 或 both?and 连接起来的主语后面,要用复数 形式的谓语动词。但若所连接的两个词是指同一个人或物 时,它后面的谓语就用单数形式。由 and 连接的并列单数 主 语 前 如 果 分 别 有 no, each, every 或 more than a (an)/one,many a (an) 修饰时,其谓语动词要用单数形式。 either, neither, each, every 或 no+单数名词和由 some, any no, every 构成的复合不定代词,都作单数看待。.

Every student and every teach is in the classroom. Many a boy and many a girl likes it. No boy and no girl likes it. Each of us has a new book. Is everyone here today? Somebody is speaking in class. Everything around us is matter 若 none of 后面的名词是不可数名词,它的谓语动词就要用单 数。若它后面的名词是复数,它的谓语动词用单数或复数都可 以。 None of the sugar was left. None of us has (have) been to America. Those who want to go please write their names on the blackboard. He is one of my friends who are working hard. He is the (only) one of my friends who is working hard. It is I who am going to the cinema tonight. It is we who are going to the cinema tonight.

在定语从句里,关系代词 that, who, which 等作主语时,其 谓语动词的数应与句中先行词的数一致。 在强调句型中应与被强调部分一致

The police are looking for the lost child. The cattle are eating grass in the field. 如果集体名词指的是整个集体,它的谓语动词用单数形式; His family has moved to the south .(他的一家) 如果它指的集体的成员,其谓语动词用复数形式 His family are watching TV.(他的家人) Class four is on the third floor.(四班) Class Four are unable to agree upon a monitor.(四班的学生) There are a lot of people in the classroom. Three-fourths of the surface of the earth is sea. 50 percent of the students in our class are girls. 此外,还有 a number of +复数名词有类似的用法(用复数) ,但 the number of +复数名词的数就得依 number 而定(用单数) 。 A number of students have gone to the farm to help the farmer pick apples. The number of pages in this book is three hundred. There comes the bus. On the wall are many pictures. Such is the result. Such are the facts. Between the two hills stands a monument. Which is your bag? Are any of you good at English? All can be done has been done. All have been taken out. Which are your bags? Has any of you got a pen? All is going well. All have gone to Beijing.

由 a lot of /lots of/ plenty of/ a heap of/ heaps of/ the rest of/the majority of+ 名词构成的短语以及由分数或百分数 +名词构 成的短语作主语时, 其谓语动词的数要根据短语中后面名词 的数而定。


逻 辑 意 义 一 致 原 则

What, who, which, any, more, all 等代词可以是单数, 也可是 复数, 主要靠意思来决定。

表示时间重量长度价值等的名词的复数作主语时, 谓语动词 通常用单数形式, 这是由于作主语的名词在概念上是一个整 体。 若英语是书名名格言剧名报名国名等的复数形式, 其谓语动 词通常用单数形式。 表数量的短语“one and a half”后面接复数名词作主语时, 其谓语动词要用单数形式。

Thirty minutes is enough for the work.. Twenty pounds is too dear. 如强调这类词的复数意义,则谓语动词要用复数形式 Forty kilos of water are used every day. The United States is smaller than China. “The Arabian Nights” is an interesting story-book. One and a half apples is left on the table.

一 些 学 科 名 词 是 以 -ics 结 尾 , 如 : mathematics, politics, physics 以及 news, works 等。 都属于形式上是复数的名词, The paper works was built in 1990.这家造纸厂建于 1990 年。 I don’t think physics is easy to study. 实际意义为单数名词, 它们作主语时,其谓语动词要用单数形式。 trousers, glasses, clothes, shoes, scissors (剪刀)等词作主语 时, 谓语用复数, 但如果这些名词前有 a(the) pair of 等量词 修饰时(clothes 被 a suit of 修饰)谓语动词用单数。 My glasses are broken. The pair of shoes under the bed is his.


“定冠词 the+形容词或分词” , 表示某一类人动词用复数; 若 表示某一类东西时,动词用单数。

The old are taken good care of there. The beautiful gives pleasure to all.

就 近 /远 一 致 原 则

Either the teacher or the students are our friends. 当两个主语由 either or, neither nor, not only but also ,whether Neither he nor they are wholly right. or 连接时,谓语动词和邻近的主语保持一致,即就近一致。 Neither they nor he is wholly right. Is neither he nor they wholly right? there be 句型中 be 动词的单复数取决于其后的主语。如果 其后是由 and 连接的两个主语,则应与靠近的那个主语保 持一致,即就近一致。 主语后面跟有 with, together with, except, but, like, as well as, no less than, rather than, more than, besides, along with, including, in addition to 等引起的短语, 谓语动词要跟主语 一致,即就远一致。 There are two chairs and a desk in the room. There is a desk and two chairs in the room. Mr. Green, together with his wife and children, has come to China. A woman with a baby was on the bus. Nobody but Jim and Mike was on the playground. She, like you and Tom, is very tall. The girls as well as the boy have learned to speak Japanese. No one except my teachers knows anything about it.

三、代词 I. 代词可以分为以下八大类 主格 宾格 1 人称代 词 形容词性物 主代词 名词性物主 代词 2 3 4 5 6 7 类 别 反身代词 指示代词 疑问代词 关系代词/连接代词 不定代词 相互代词 区 别 I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they me, you, him, her, it, us, you, them my, your, his, her, its, our, their mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, theirs myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves this, that, these, those, such, some who, whom, whose, which, what, whoever, whichever, whatever that, which, who, whom, whose, as one/ some/ any, each/ every, none/ no, many/ much, few/ little/ a few/ a little other/ another, all/ both, neither/ either each other,one another 例 句

II. 不定代词用法注意点 ①We’ve been looking at the houses but haven’t found ___ we like yet. A.one B.ones C.it D.them ②Cars do cause us some health problems — in fact far more serious _______ than mobile phones do. A.one B.ones C.it D.those —Your coffee smells great! A.it B.some —It’s from Mexico.Would you like ________? C.this D.1ittle

one 可以泛指人或者事 (东西) ,其复数为 ones

some 可用于疑问句中, 表示盼望得到肯定的答 复,或者表示建议,请 求等 some 和 any 修饰可数名 词单数时,some 表示某 one, some, 个,any 表示任何一个 any 和 it one 指同类中的一个,it 指代同一种类的东西。 此外 it 还可以作形式主 语、形式宾语和用于强 调句型中。

①I have read this article in some magazine. Please correct the mistakes, if any. ②—Which of the three ways shall I take to the village? —________way as you please. A.Each B.Every C.Any D.Either —There is still a copy of the book in the library. Will you go and borrow —No, I’d rather buy in the bookstore. A.it;one B.one;one C.one;it D.it;it ?

some 多用于肯定句, any 多用于疑问句和否定句

①There’s ________cooking oil in the house. Would you go to the corner store and get ________. A.1ittle,some B.1ittle,any C.a little,some D.a little,any ②We had three sets of garden tools and we seemed to have no use for ________. A.none B.either C.any D.each ③He doesn’t have _________ furniture in his room --just an old desk. A. any B. many C. some D. much


each 和 every

each 强调个别,代表的 数可以是两个或两个以 ①Each student has a pocket dictionary. Each (of us) has a dictionary. = We each have a dictionary. 上,而 every 强调整体, 所指的数必须是三个或 ②Every student has strong and weak points. / Every one of us has strong and weak points. 三个以上 no 等于 not any, 作定语。 none 作主语或宾语,代 ①There is no water in the bottle. 替不可数名词,谓语用 ②How much water is there in the bottle? None. 单数,代替可数名词, ③None of the students are (is) afraid of difficulties. 谓语单复数皆可以 other 泛指“另外的,别 的”常与其他 词连用, 如: the other day, every other week, someother reason, no other way, the other 特指两者中的 另外一个,复数为 the others another 指“又一个,另 一个”无所指, 复数形式是 others, 泛指 “别的人或 事”

none 和 no

①Both sides have accused of breaking the contract. A. another B. the other C. neither D. each ②Two students in our class failed, but all the others passed the exam.

other 和 another

①We had a picnic last term and it was a lot of fun,so let’s have ______ one this month. A.the other B.some C.another D.other ②The trousers are too long, please give me another pair / some others. ③Some like football, while others like basketball.

either 和 neither

①—Do you want tea or coffee? — ______, I really don't mind. 前者意思为: 两者都 (两 A. none B. neither C. either D. all 者中任何一方都) ; ②It was hard for him to learn English in a family, in which _____ of the parents spoke the 后者意思为:两者 language. 都 A. none B. neither C. both D. each

I. 形容词 1.形容词的位置:形容词作定语通常前置,但在下列情况下后置 1 2 3 4 5 6 修饰 some, any, every, no 和 body, thing, one 等构成的复合不定代词时 以-able, -ible 结尾的形容词可置于有最高级 或 only 修饰的名词之后 alive, alike, awake, aware, asleep 等作定语时 后置 和空间、时间、单位连用时 成对的形容词可以后置 形容词短语一般后置 enough 修饰名词时可以前置也可以后置, 但 修饰形容词或副词时要后置 nobody absent, everything possible the best book available, the only solution possible the only person awake a bridge 50 meters long a huge room simple and beautiful a man difficult to get on with ______to take his adventure course will certainly learn a lot of useful skills.(NMET2000) A.Brave enough students B.Enough breave students C.Students brave enough D.Students enough brave


注意:多个形容词修饰同一个名词的顺序 熟记口诀就可以顺利解题:限定描绘大长高,形状年龄和新老,颜色国籍跟材料,作用类别往后靠。 规则:限定语(The、A)+ 描绘性形容词 + size(小)+ shape(形状)+ age(年龄、时间)+ color(颜色)+ origin(国籍、来源)+ material (材料)+ purpose(目的)+ 名词。 ▲This ________ girl is Linda’s cousin. (05 北京卷) A. pretty little Spanish B. Spanish little pretty C. Spanish pretty little D. little pretty Spanish 2.复合形容词的构成 1 2 3 4 5 形容词+名 词+ed 形容词+形 容词 形容词+现 在分词 副词+现在 分词 副词+过去 分词 kind-hearted dark-blue ordinary-looking hard-working newly-built 6 7 8 9 10 名词+形容 词 名词+现在 分词 名词+过去 分词 数词+名词 +ed 数词+名词 world-famous peace-loving snow-covered three-egged twenty-year

3.形容词(短语)作伴随状语 As he looked at the goat, it rolled over, dead. 当他看着山羊的时候,山羊翻了个身,死了。 Afraid of difficulties, they prefer to take the easy road.由于害怕困难,他们宁愿走好走的路。 II.副词的分类:

1 2 3 4

时 间 副词 地 点 副词 方 式 副词 程 度 副词

soon, now, early, finally, once, recently here, nearby, upwards, above outside,

5 6 7 8

频度副词 疑问副词 连接副词 关系副词

always, often, frequently, seldom, never how, where, when, why how, when, where, why, whether, however, meanwhile when, where, why

hard, well, fast, slowly, excitedly, really almost, nearly, fairly, quite, rather very,

III. 形容词和副词的比较等级 形容词和副词的比较等级分为原级,比较级和最高级。比较级和最高级的构成一般是在形容词和副词后加-er 和-est,多音节和一些双音节词前加 more 和 most。 项 目 例 句 同级比较时常常用 as…as…以及 not so(as)…as… 双方比较,表示一方超过另一方时,用 “比较级 (+ than)” 的结构表示。要注意题干中将比较的另 一方阴藏起来的情况。 表示一方不及另一方时,用“less + 原 级 + than”的结构表示 表 示 一 方 随 另 一 方 变 化 时 用 “ the more…the more…”句型 She is as tall as her mother. I am not as/ so good a player as you are. This picture is more beautiful than that one. I have never seen such a more interesting film (than this one). This room is less beautiful than that one. The harder you work, the more progress you will make

I have never spent a more worrying day. 用比较级来表达最高级的意思 我从来没有度过这样令人烦恼的一天。 (意为:我度过了最为令人烦恼的一天。 ) 表达法一:A is three(four, etc.)times the size(height, length etc.)of B. The new building is four times the size(the height)of the old one. 这座新楼是那座旧楼的四倍大(高)/这座新楼比 那座旧楼大(高)三倍。 表达法二:A is three(four, etc.)times as big(high, long, etc.)as B. 倍数的表达 Asia is four times as large as Europe. 亚洲是欧洲的四倍大/亚洲比欧洲大三倍。 表达法三:A is three (four, etc.)times bigger(higher, longer, etc.)than B. Your school is three times bigger than ours. 你们的学校比我们的学校大三倍。 用 times 表倍数通常用于三倍以上,两倍可以用 twice 或 double. 注意:1. 可以修饰比较级的词有:much, many, a lot, even, far, a bit, a little, still, yet, by far, any, a great deal; 2. 表示“最高程度“的形容词没有最高级和比较级。如:favourite, excellent, extreme, perfect,superior,junior 等。 五、动词和短语动词 知识网络 行为动词(实义动词) ①及物动词(带宾语) :study, develop; ②不及物动词(不带宾语)work, swim, go, come ③状态动词(相对静止)contain, exist, own, prefer, belong ④动作动词:延续性(work, stay) ;非延续性(marry, go, come) 连系动词(汉语中没有这种词类) 助动词(与动词原形或分词构成复合谓语) be(am,is,are),do(does,did);have(has);will,would,shall 情态动词 can(could),may(might),must,shall(should)




动词+副词所构成的短语动词分及物的和不及物的两类 Please turn every light in the house off. 请把房子里的每一盏灯都关掉。 (及物) Harry turned up after the party when everyone had left. 晚会后,人们都已离去,哈里出现了。 (不及物) 注意: ①如果宾语较长,就应避免把副词同动词分开 She turned off all the lights which had been left on. 她关掉了所有还在亮着的灯。 ②如果宾语是人称代词,只能放在动词和副词之间 She gave them away.她送掉了它们。 ③同一动词和不同副词搭配时,意义上有很大的差异 ring back 回电话 ring off 挂断电话 ring up 打电话 put away 放好 put on 穿,上演 put up 挂起,举起。 ④不同动词和同一副词搭配时,在意义上有很大的差异 break out 发生,爆炸 carry out 进行,开展 go out 熄灭 hand out 分发 let out 放出 look out 当心 sell out 卖完 set out 出发, take out 取出 work out 算出 动词+介词(及物) I'm looking for my glasses. 我在找我的眼镜。 注意:①当它跟宾语时,不能把介词放在宾语后面。 ②同一动词和不同介词搭配时,意义上有很大的差异。 look after 照料,look at 看,look for 寻找 动词+副词+介词 I look forward to seeing you soon. 我盼望不久就见到你。 注:“动词+介词”、“动词+名词+副词”、“动词+副词+介词”,这三种搭配都是及物的,如 变成被动语态,不可漏掉介词。In this way both grain and vegetable can be well looked after. (不能漏掉 after) 这样一来,粮食和蔬菜都能兼顾了。 考点聚焦及解题点拨 从三个方面考虑:词的恰切含义、搭配(与介词、名词或非谓语动词的搭配)和用法(是 及物动词还是不及物动词) 状态系动词 be 持续系动词 keep,remain,stay,continue,lie,stand,rest 表象系动词 seem,appear 感官/感觉系动词 look,smell,taste,sound,feel 变化系动词 become,grow,get,turn,fall,go,come 终止系动词 prove,turn out 解答这类试题的关键首先是弄清题意,然后是分析句子结构,由此可判断出该动词是否 用作系动词,最后确定所要填入的答案。特别关注:go hungry,come true,turn writer



接双宾语的动词 短语动词的辨析 容易被我们忽视的知识点

give sb. sth=give sth.to sb 但是我们只能说:suggest sth. to sb. 熟记常考的短语动词的意义

buy sb. sth.=buy sth. for sb explain sth.to sb. read sth. to sb.

sell, write, wash, wear 等词的主动形式后跟副词表示被动意义 happen, occur,take place, break out, come out, belong to 等无被动形式

六、动词的时态和语态 1. 常用常考的动词时态和用法: (以 do 为例) 名称 构成 用法 1.一般现在时表示经常发生、习惯性动作、客观真理、 科学事实、格言,目前的特征、状态、能力等。 2.主句是一般将来时,时间、条件状语从句中用一般现 在时表示将来。 I’ll go there after I finish my work. If it rains tomorrow,I won’t go there. 3.在以 here,there 开头的句子里,go,come 等少数动词 的一般在时表示正在发生的动作。 There goes the bell.铃响了。 There comes the bus.汽车来了。 Here she comes.她来了。 表达特定的过去时间内发生的动作或存在的状况,或 过去某一时间内经常发生或反复发生的动作或行为。 1.表示正在进行的动作。 2.表示按计划安排即将发生的动作。


do/does,( 连系动词 is/am/are )

一般过去时 现在进行时

did,( 连系动词 was/were) is/am/are doing

She is leaving for Beijing.她要去北京。 He is working as a teacher tomorrow. 从明天起他要做老师。 My father is coming to see me this Saturday. 这个星期六我爸爸要来看我。 3.代替一般现在时,描绘更加生动。 The Changjiang River is flowing into the east. 长江江水滚滚向东流。 The sun is rising in the east.太阳从东方冉冉升起。 1.表示过去某一时刻或某一段时间内正在进行的动作 (这一过去时间须用时间状语表示) He was preparing his lecture all day yesterday. 2.表示动作在另一过去动作发生时进行 They were still working when I left. 3.用在两个过去进行时动作同时发生 I was writing while he was watching TV. 4.表示过去将来动作 He said she was arriving the next day. 1.表示过去发生的动作对现在产生的影响或结果,说 话时已 完成的动作。 I have finished the report./ She has cleand the room. 2.表示从过去开始,待续到现在的动作或状态,往往 和“for...”, “since...”表述的一段时间状语连用。 He has learned English for six years. They have worked here since they left college. 3.表示“曾经到过某地(人已回来)”用“have/has been to”,表示“到某地去了(还未回来)”用“have/has gone to”。 —Where is Li Hua? -He has gone to the reading-room. —She knows a lot about Shanghai. -She has been there. 4.短暂动词(即瞬间动词) , join,lose,buy,borrow,leave,go,come,arrive,die,marry, finish,complete,begin,start,break out 等,在完成时态 中, 其肯定式不能和表示一段时间的状语连用。 不能 说:He has joined the army for three years. 要翻译“他已参军已经三年了。”可采用 ①“ago 法” He joined the army three years ago. ②“延续法” He has been in the army for three years. ③“since 法” It is/has been three years since he joined the army. 1.表示在过去某一时间以前已经完成的动作。 He had shut the door before the dog came up. Everything had been all right up till this morning. 2.表示动作或状态从过去某个时刻开始一直延续到 另一个过去时刻才完成,甚至还要继续下去。 At the age of ten,he had learned 500 English words. He had been ill for a week when we learned about it. 3.常用 hope,expect,think,intend,want,suppose 等动词的 过去完成时来表示未实现的希望、打算或意图。 We had expected that you would be able to win the match. 用来表示在将来某个时刻(前)将完成的动作。常和 by 短 语,when,before 引起的时间状语连用。 We will have finished senior Book 2 by the end of this term. 用来表示从过去某一时刻开始一直持续到现在(还要 继续下 去) 的动作。 He has been doing the maths problems since 8:00. 表示动作或状态从过去某个时刻开始一直延续到另一


was/were doing


has/have done


had done


will/shall have done

现在完成进行 时 过去完成进行

has/have been doing

had been doing

时 will/shall do is/am/are going to do is/am/are(about)to do

个过去时刻才完成,还将继续下去。 一般将来时表示将来要发生的动作和存在的状况 (详见下面 2.一般将来时的特殊表达方式的比较) 1.相对于过去某一时刻而言即将发生的动作或存在的 状态 He told me he would go to Beijing.他告诉我他将去北 京。 I was told that he was going to return home. 有人告诉我他准备回家。 2. would do(表示过去的习惯)总是,总会,常常 He would sit silent for hours. 他常常接连好几个小时默默地坐着。 用 法 例 句



would/should do was/were going to do was/were(about)to do

2.一般将来时的特殊表达方式的比较 将来时 1 2 3 4 be + doing 进行时表将来 be about to + 动词原形 be to + 动词原形 一般现在时表将来 go, come, start, move, leave, arrive 等词可用进行时表示按计 He is moving to the south. Are they leaving for Europe? 划即将发生的动作 表示安排或计划中的马上就要发生的动作, 后面一般不跟时 I was about to leave when the bell rang. The meeting is about to close. 间状语 表示按计划进行或征求对方意见 We’re to meet at the school gate at noon.

时刻表上或日程安排上早就定好的事情, 可用一般现在时表 The meeting starts at five o’clock. The plane leaves at ten this evening. 示将来 区 别 例 句

3.容易混淆的时态比较 项 目 We haven’t heard from Jane for a long time. What do you suppose _______ to her? A. was happening B. happens C. has happened D. happened 说明:说话者强调 Jane 目前的状况. Mr. Lee, who ________ as a carpenter for over 10 years, is now a very famous statesman in this country. A. has worked B. had worked C. worked D. works (只说明他过去当过木匠不涉及到现在) Hello, I ____ you were in London. How long _________ here? A. don’t know; were you B. hadn’t known; are you C. haven’t known; are D. didn’t know; have you been 说明:didn’t know 强调见面前不知道 I read the novel last month. (只说明上个月看了,不涉及现在是否记住) I have read that book.我读过那本书了。 (知道那本书的内容)

现在完成时强调过去动 作对现在产生的影响或 造成的结果 一般过去时与现在完成时的比较

一般过去时只表达过去 的动作或状态

着重表示动作的结果 时,用现在完成时 现在完成时与现在完成进行时的 比较



—Hi, Tracy, you look tired. 着重表示动作一直在进 —I am tired. I _______ the living room all day. B. had painted 行, 即动作的延续性时, A. painted C. have been painting D. have painted 则用现在完成进行时 说明:强调动作从过去到现在的延续 I don’t really work here. I ____ until the new secretary _______. 现在进行时表示现在某 A. just help out; comes B. have just helped out; will come 个时候或某段时间正在 C. am just helping out; comes D. will just help out; has come 进行的动作 说明:指目前一段时间正在发生的动作, until 引导的是时间状语从句, 动词需用一般现在时。 — Hey, look where you are going! 过去进行时表示某个时 — Oh, I’m terribly sorry. _______. 候或某段时间正在进行 A. I’m not noticing. B. I wasn’t noticing. 的动作 C. I haven’t noticed. D. I don’t notice. 说明:对话的后者显然是在解释刚才不小心冒犯对方时正在做的事情. Tom________ into the house when no one ___________. A. slipped; was noticing B. had slipped; noticed 一般过去时只表达过去 C. slipped; had noticed D. was slipping; noticed 的动作或状态 说明: slip 和 notice 为同时发生的动作, 因此 B、 C 为错误选项, slipped 指过去有结果的动作(他溜进去了) ,when no one was noticing 指他溜 进去的一刹那发生的情况(没有人注意) 。 .He ______ a book about China last year, but I don’t know if he ______ it. 过去进行时表示某个时 A.wrote; has finished B. was writing; has finished 候或某段时间正在进行 C. was writing; had finished D. wrote; will finish 的动作 说明:正确选项为 B. 从 I don’t know if he has finished it.推断,他去年 一直在写。

II. 动词的被动语态

1 2 3 4 5

注 意 事 项

常用被 常用被动语 构 成 构 成 动语态 态 一般现 am/is/are done 6 过去进行时 was/were being done 在时 一般过 was/were done 7 现在完成时 have/has been done 去时 一般将 shall/will be done 8 过去完成时 had been done 来时 过去将 should/would be done 9 将来完成时 will/would have been done 来时 现在进 含有情态动 am/is/are being done 10 can/must/may be done 行时 词的 被动语态的否定式是在第一个助动词或情态动词后加 not,短语动词的被动态不可漏掉 其中介副词。固定结构 be going to, used to,have to, had better 变为被动态时,只需将其后的动词变为被动态。 Trees should not be planted in summer. The boy was made fun of by his classmates. Newspapers used to be sent here by the little girl. 汉语有一类句子不出现主语,在英语中一般可用被动结构表示: It is believed that… It is generally considered that… It is said that… It is well known that… It must be pointed out that… It is supposed that… It is reported that… It must be admitted that… It is hoped that… 被动语态的句型 1.常见句式是:主语(受动者)+be+过去分词+(by+施动者) :He was scolded by the English teacher. 2.主语+get+过去分词+其它成分:The boy got drowned last summer./ She got fired because of her faults. 使用这种结构不能带有“by+施动者” 3.带有双宾语(直接宾语和间接宾语)的主动句变为动句,其主语可以是直接宾语,也 可以是间接宾语。 She lent me a bike.?被动:①I was lent a bike(by her). ②A bike was lent to me(by her). 4.情态动词+be+过去分词:This problem must be worked out in half an hour. 5.双重被动式:主语+被动式谓语+不定式的被动式+其它成分 These magazines are not allowed to be taken out of the reading-room. The murderer was ordered to be shot. 下面主动形式常表示被动意义 1. 不 及 物 动 词 与 状 语 连 用 , 用 以 表 示 主 语 的 品 质 和 状 态 。 常 见 动 词 是 : cut,sell,read,write,fill,cook,lock,wash 等。 This knife cuts well.这把刀好切。 These books sell well.这些书好卖。 The pen writes smoothly.这支笔写起来流畅。 Meat won’t keep long in such hot weather.肉在这样热的天气里放不长久。 The cloth washes well.这种布好洗。 2.一些连系动词的主动式+形容词。常见动 look,smell,taste,sound,feel,prove,turn out 等。 The apples taste good. The flower smells wonderful. The news proved/turned out true. Cotton feels soft. 不可变为被动语态的几种情况 1.I teach myself French.不可变为 Myself is taught French.因为反身代词不可作主语。 2.We help each other/one another.不可变为 Each other/One another is helped by us.因为相 互代词不可作主语。 3.He lost heart.不可变为 Heart was lost by him. 因为象 lose heart,make a face,keep silence,lose in thought 这类动宾结构的固定短语只能 用于主动式,不能用被动式。 4.She took part in the sports meet.不能变为 The sports meet was taken part in by her. 因为象 take part in,belong to ,own,have,hate,fail,contain 等表状态动词没有被动语态。 含有短语动词在被动语态中介词不能丢 Much attention must be paid to your handwriting. 特别注意以下句子的结构:Every minute must be made full use of to study Englsih. 下面词或短语没有被动态: leave, enter, reach, become, benefit, cost, equal, contain, last, lack, fit, fail, have, appear, happen, occur, belong to, take place, break out, come about, agree with, keep up with, consist of, have on, lose heart 等等 七、非谓语动词

非谓语动词的语法功能 所能充当的成分 现在分词 V-ing 形式 动名词 不定式(to do)


表语 △


宾语补足语 △

定语 △ △

状语 △

△ △

△ △

△ △ △



注:现在分词、不定式、过去分词都可以作独立成分 generally speaking 一般说来;frankly speaking 坦白地说;judging from/by...根据……来判断;considering.../taking...into consideration 考虑到……; to tell you the truth 说实话;seeing...考虑到……;supposing 假设,如果;providing 如果;given 考虑到,鉴于;provided that 如果 非谓语动词的形式变化 构成 非谓语 语态 形式 时态 复合结构 否定式 主动 被动 一般式 进行式 不定式 完成式 完成 进行式 一般式 动名词 to do to have done to be doing to have been doing doing to be done to have been done / / being done having been done sb.或 sb’s doing 作主语要用 sb’s doing 在前加 not 特别注意复合结构的否定 式: sb’s not doing sb’s not having done

for sb. to do sth. 或 of sb. to do sth.

在“to”前加 not 或 never


having done

现在分 与动名词变化形式相同 在前加 not 词 在解非谓语习题时同学们遇到最大的困难有两个:一是如何判别是谓语动词还是非谓语动词;二是如何选用哪一种非谓语动词及其恰当的形式。 一、谓语与非谓语的比较 非谓语动词是汉语中没有的语言现象。汉语中几个谓语动词连用而动词不用作任何形式的变化。如:他明天来拜访你。翻译成英语不是 He will come visit you,而是 He will come to visit you.这里就用了不定式 to visit。因此同学们要特别注意弄清句子的结构。 例:Tom sat under a tree and seeing his friend, up in no time. A. to stand B. standing C. stood D. would stand 分析:stood 是与 sat 并列的谓语。 非谓语语法功能的比较

情况 只接不定式 做宾语的动词 只接动名词 做宾语的动词 或短语 常用动词 hope, want, offer, long, fail, expect, wish, ask, decide, pretend, manage, agree, afford, determine, promise, happen mind, miss, enjoy, imagine, practise, suggest, finish, escape, excuse, appreciate, admit, prevent, keep, dislike, avoid, risk, resist feel like, succeed in, be fond of, object to, get down to, be engaged in, insist on, think of, be proud of, take pride in, set about, be afraid of, be tired of, look forward to, devote oneself to, be worth, be busy, pay attention to, stick to begin, start, like, love, hate, prefer, continue(接不定式多指具体的动作,接动名词多指一 般或习惯行为) need, want, require(主语与动名词之间存在逻辑上的动宾关系,接动名词主动形式表示 被动意义,若接不定式则应用被动形式) stop to do 停止手中所做的事,去做另一件事 stop doing 停止正在做的事 remember/forget/regret to do(指动作尚未 发生) remember/forget/regret doing (指动作已经 发生) try to do(设法,努力去做,尽力) try doing(试试去做,看有何结果) can’t help (to) do(不能帮忙做) can’t help doing(忍不住要做) go on to do(接着做另外一件事) go on doing(接着做同一件事)

意义基本 相同 意义相反

两 者 都 可 以


mean to do(打算做,企图做) mean doing (意思是,意味着) be considered to have done 被认为已经做了 consider…to be 认为是 consider doing 考虑做某事 例 句

分 类 常见动词 ask, beg, expect, get, order, tell, want, wish, encourage have, notice, see, watch, hear, feel, let, make notice, see, watch, hear, find, keep, have, feel 与宾语的逻辑关系及时间概念


主谓关系,强调动作将发生或已 经完成

I asked to be sent to the countryside. I heard him call me several times. I found her listening to the radio. We found the village greatly changed. 例 句

现在分 词 过去分 词

主谓关系,强调动作正在进行, 尚未完成 动宾关系,动作已经完成,多强 调状态 别

IV. 非谓语动词做定语的区别 分 类


与被修饰词往往有动宾关系,一般式表示将 来,进行式表示与谓语动作同时发生,完成式 表示在谓语动词之前发生 通常指被修饰词的用途, 无逻辑上的主谓关系 与被修饰词之间是主谓关系, 表示动作与谓语 动作同时发生 与被修饰词之间是被动关系, 表示动作发生在 谓语动作之前,现已经完成或只表示状态

动名词 现在分词 过去分词

I have a lot of papers to type. I have a lot of papers to be typed. I haven’t decided which hotel to stay at.(介词 at 不能丢) Shall we go to the swimming pool? the boiling water / the boiled water the developing country/the developed country the falling leaves/the fallen leaves

注意:the bridge to be built 将建造的桥, the bridge being built 正在建造的桥,the bridge built 已经建好的桥 八、情态动词和虚拟语气 情态动词

I.情态动词基本用法 情态动 用 法 词 能力(体力, can 智力,技能) 允许或许可 (口语中常 用) 可能性(表猜 could 测,用于否定 句或疑问句 中) 可以(问句中 may 表示请求) 可能, 或许 (表 推测) might 祝愿(用于倒 装句中) 必须, 应该 (表 主观要求) must 肯定, 想必 (肯 定句中表推 测) 只好,不得不 (客观的必 have to 须,有时态和 人称的变化) 应当(表示义 ought 务责任,口语 to 中多用 should) 用于一三人称 征求对方意见 用于二三人称 shall 表示许诺、命 令、警告、威 胁等 应当, 应该 (表 义务责任) should 本该(含有责 备意味) 意愿,决心 will 请求,建议, 用在问句中 would would 比 较 委 婉 敢(常用于否 dare 定句和疑问句 中) 需要,必须(常 need 用于否定句和 疑问句中) used to 过去常常(现 在已不再)

否定式 can not / cannot /can’t do



Can…do…? couldn’t do

Yes,…can. No,…can’t.

may not do


Yes,…may. No,…mustn’t/can’t. Yes,…might No,…might not.

might not do


must do




Yes,…must. No,…needn’t/don’t have

don’t have to do

Do…have to do…?

Yes,…do. No,…don’t. Yes,…ought. No,…oughtn’t.

ought not to/oughtn’t to do

Ought…to do…?

shall not/shan’t do


Yes,…shall. No,…shan’t.

should not/shouldn’t do will not/won’t do would not/wouldn’t do dare not/daren’t do



Yes,…will. No,…won’t.


Yes,…dare. No,…daren’t. Yes,…must. No,…needn’t. Yes,…used. No,…use(d)n’t. Yes,…did. No,…didn’t.

need not/needn’t do used not/usedn’t/usen’t to do didn’t use to do


Used…to do…? Did…use to do…?

II.情态动词的重点知识 A computer_____think for itself; it must be told what to do. A.can’t B.mustn’t C.may not D.might not ①—Could I call you by your first name? —Yes, you______ 表示许可时用 may/might ,can/could 都可以,但在问句中用 A.will B.could C.may D.might could…?或 might…? 以使口气委婉客气, 其回答一定要用 can ②Johnny, you_____play with the knife, you_____hurt yourself. 或 may,以使回答口气明确(must 表示一定,必须,mustn’t A.won’t/can’t B.mustn’t/may 表示禁止,不许可) 。 C.shouldn’t/must D.can’t/shouldn’t The fire spread through the hotel very quickly but 在肯定句中 could 不可以用来表示过去某一特定场合的能力, everyone_____get out. 而要用 was/were able to。 A.had to B.would C.could D.was able to Peter______come with us tonight, but he isn’t very sure yet. 在肯定句中都可以用来表示可能。在含义上 must 语气最肯 A.must B.may C.can D.will 定,may 表示的是事实上的可能性。 而 can 表示的是逻辑上的可能性: Mary is in poor health. She can be ill at any times. 在否定句中只能用 can 和 may。 所以 can’t 时用以代替 mustn’t, Michael______be a policeman, for he’s much too short. 语气比 may 更肯定。中文可以翻译为不可能。 A.needn’t B.can’t C.should D.may He may be very busy now. Can he be very busy now? 在疑问句只能用 can,不能用 may 和 must。 He must be very busy now. Can he be very busy now? need 作为情态动词只有一种形式,只用于否定句和疑问句。 If he dare come,I will kick him out. I don’t know whether he dare 作为情态动词用时有两种形式:dare 和 dared 两个词形, dare say. 除了可以用于否定句和疑问句外,还可以用于条件从句或表示 注意:He doesn’t dare(to)answer the question.(否定句) 怀疑的句子中。 Does she dare(to)enter the dark room? (疑问句) 用于第一人称:征求对方的意见。 What shall we do this evening? 表示能力的情态动词用 can/could 表 示 “ 能 力、许可” 的 can 和 may

表 示 “ 推 断、判断” 的 can may,must

need dare shall




劝告、建议、命令、应该做、道义上的责任。 请求、建议,would 比 will 委婉客气。 表示意志、愿望和决心。


would 可表示过去反复发生的动作或某种倾向。 would 表示估计或猜想。 could+have done:本可以做而实际上未能做。 cannot+ have done:表示对现在或过去行为的否定推测。 can+主语+ have done:表示对过去行为的怀疑或不肯定(用在 疑问句中) 。 might(may)+ have done:对过去发生的行为不太肯定的推测。

You shall fail if you don’t work harder. 警告 He shall have the book when I finish reading. 允诺 He shall be punished.威胁 You should(ought to) go to class right away. I should(ought to) help him because he is in trouble. Would you pass me the book? I will never do that again. They asked us if we would do that again During the vacation he would visit me every week The wound would not heal.(伤口老是不能愈合) It would be about ten when he left home. What would she be doing there? You could have done better, but you didn’t try your best. He cannot have been to that town. Can he have got the book?

情态动词 +have done 的用法

If 引导的 条件从句

省略 if 的虚 拟条件句

混合虚拟条 件句

含蓄虚拟 条件句

其它 状语从句


He may not have finished the work. If we had taken the other road, we might have arrived earlier. must+ have done:对过去发生的行为肯定的推测。 You must have seen the film. 其否定式为:cannot have done。 You cannot have seen the film. You needn’t have watered the flowers,for it is going to rain. 注意:didn’t need to(have to)do: needn’t+ have done:本来不必要做的而实际上又做了。 没有必要做而实际上也没有做 I didn’t need to clean the windows.My sister did it 2 hours ago. You should have started earlier, but you didn’t. should(ought to)+ have done:本来应该做而实际上又没有做。 She shouldn’t have taken away my measuring tape, 其否定形式表示某中行为不该发生却发生了。 for I worked to use it. 注意:He should have finished the work by now.(表推测) 虚拟语气 用 法 例 句 从句动词:过去式(be 用 were) 与现在事实相反 If he were here, he would help us. 主句动词:should/would/could/might+do 从句动词:had+done 与过去事实相反 If I had been free,I would have visited you. 主句动词:should/would/could/might+have+done 从句动词:过去式/should+动词原形/were+to do 与将来事实相反 If it should rain tomorrow, we would not go camping. 主句动词:should/would/could/might+动词原形 ①Should he come ,tell him to ring me up. 将虚拟条件从句中的 were,had,should 放到主语之前,构成主谓倒装 ②Were I you,I would not do it. ③Had I been free,I would have visited you. ①If he had listened to me, he would not be in trouble now. 不同时间的虚拟:各遵守各的规则 ②If he had told me yesterday,I should know what to do now. ③If I were you, I would have gone to her birthday party. ① He could have passed the exam,but he wasn’t careful 虚拟与陈述的混合:各遵守各的规则 enough. ②You should have come earlier.The bus left a moment ago. ---But for your timely warning,we ______ into great trouble. ---You know we’re friends. but for+名词表示虚拟条件 A. would get B. must have got C. would have got D. can’t have got Without the air to hold some of the sun's heat, the earth at without+名词表示虚拟条件 night would be freezing cold. It would be only partly right to follow in this way. 动词不定式表示虚拟条件 句子或主句中的谓语动词的 如果用这种方式,仅仅对了一半。 形式视具体情况而定。这是 Having known in time ,we might have prevented the accident. 现在分词表示虚拟条件 考查考生应变能力的最佳试 要是及时得知的话,我们也许能阻止这场事故。 题。 Given more attention, the tree could have grown better. 过去分词表示虚拟条件 如果多留心的话,这树本来可以长的更好。 I was too busy at that time.Otherwise,I would have called 副词 otherwise 表示虚拟条件 you.我当时太忙,否则我就给你打电话了。 He _____fatter but he eats too little . 连词 but 连接的句子表示虚拟条件 A. would become B. would have become C. must become D. must have become as if/as though 引导的状语从句中动词用 did 或 had+done 或 would/ ①与现在事实相反 could/might+do。 He talks as if he knew where she was. 注意:as if/as though 引导的状语从句中也可以用陈述语气: ②与过去事实相反 当说话者认为所述的是真实的或极有可能发生或存在的事实时: He talks about Rome as if he had been there before. It sounds as if it is raining.听起来像是在下雨。 ③与将来事实相反 He talks as if he is drunk.从他谈话的样子来看他是醉了。 He opened his mouth as if he would say something. in order that/so that 引导的状语从句中动词用 can/could/may/ might/ Turn on the light so that we can see it clearly. would 等+do demand, suggest, order, insist 后接的从句中动词为 should+do He suggested that we not change our mind. wish 后的从句中分别用过去式,过去完成式和 should/would+do 表示 I wish I could be a pop singer. 与现在,过去和将来情况相反 I wish I would have gone to Shanghai last month.



在 It is necessary / important / strange that… It is suggested / demanded/ ordered / requested that… 等从句中, 谓语动词用 should+do It is time that…句型中动词用过去式或 should+do would rather 所接的从句中动词用过去式或者过去完成式 If only 句型中动词常用过去式或者过去完成式,表示强烈的愿望

It is strange that such a person should be our friends. It’s high time that we left/should leave. I would rather you stayed at home now. If only our dream had come true!

其它 句型中

九、句子的种类 按用途分 种 类 陈述 句 类 型 例 句

肯定句 否定句

We love our motherland. 我们热爱祖国。 They don’t go to work on Sundays. 他们星期日不上 班。 Are you a worker? 你是个工人吗? Haven’t you seen the film? 吗? Who is the man? 这人是谁? 你没看过这部电影


特殊疑问句 疑问 句 选择疑问句

When do you watch TV? 你什么时间看电视? What are they doing now? 他们现在正在干什么? Do you want tea or coffee? Either will do. 你要茶水 还是要咖啡?哪种都行。 Does he learn Japanese or French? He learns French. 他学日语还是学法语?他学法语。 They are going to the airport, aren’t they? 他们要去 机场,是吗? You haven’t finished your homework, have you? 你 没做完作业,是吗? Be sure to get there at eight. 务必八点钟到那儿。 Don’t worry. I’ll help you out. 别担心,我会帮助你 的。 What great changes we have had these years! 这几年 我们有了多么大的变化啊! What a fine day it is! 多好的天气呀! How brave he is! 他多么勇敢呀! How hard they are working! 他们工作多努力呀! How time flies! 时间过得多么快呀! How nice a boy (he is) !=What a nice boy (he is)! 多 好的孩子啊!


祈使 句

肯定句 否定句

what + 名词 感叹 句

how + 形容词或副词 how +句子 How + adj. + a (an) + n.=What a(an)+adj.+n

按结构分 种 类 类型 主+谓 主+谓+宾 简 单 句 主+谓+间宾+直接宾 主+谓+宾+宾补 主+系+表 并列关系 and, not only…but also, 并 列 句 neither …nor, both…and, not…but, 转 折 关 系 but,while (而,尽管) nevertheless( 然 而 ; 不过)

例句 They disappeared. 他们消失了。 He likes swimming.他喜欢游泳。 We help each other. 我们互相帮助。 I told my friend the good news. 我把好消息告诉了我的朋友。 They sent us a telegram. 他们给我们拍了电报。 They named the boy Jack. 他们给孩子起名叫杰克。 I want everything ready by eight o’clock. 我要求一切都要在八点前准备好。 She is a university student. 她是一名大学生。 He has become a pilot. 他已成为一名飞行员。 Either you do it, or I ask for somebody else to do it. 要么你来做,要么我请其他人来做。 Neither Tom nor Jack has finished the homework. 汤姆和杰克都没有完成作业。 Not couldn’t they complete the task, but the task was too tough. 不是他们完不成任务,而是任务太重了。

John likes playing basketball, but he didn’t play it yesterday. 约翰喜欢打篮球,但他昨天没打。

选择关系 or, otherwise or else, either?or 因果关系 for, so, thus, therefore, and so 由 一个 主句 和一 个 或 一个 以上 的从 句 复 合 句 构 成的 句子 叫复 合 句。 在复合句中主句 是全句的主体, 从句 是全句的一个成分, 不能独立。

We must hurry, or we’ll miss the train. 我们必须快点,否则会赶不上火车。 Either you come to my place or I go to yours. 或者你到我这儿来,或者我到你那去。 We had better stay at home, for it was raining. 我们最好呆在家里,因为天正在下雨。 He didn’t work hard, therefore he failed in the examination. 他学习不努力,因此这次考试不及格。

从句有:名词性从句(主语从句,表语从句,宾语从句和同位语从句) 状语从句 定语从句 (详细请看以下各节罗列的内容)

十、名词性从句 种类 连 词 关联词 that whether who what which whatever when where why how that 例 句 说 明 That he will come and help you is certain. that 在引导主语从句时不可省去 他来帮助你是确实无疑的。 Whether there is life on the moon is an interesting question. 主语从句中只能用 whether 不可用 if。 月球上有没有生命是个有趣的问题。 What he wants to tell us is not clear. 他要跟我们说什么,还不清楚。 主语从句放在句首,句子常显得笨重,因此一般 Who will win the match is still unknown. 谁能赢得这场比赛还不得而知。 It is known to us how he became a writer. 把它移到句子后面,前面用引导词“it”来作形式 我们都知道他是如何成为一名作家的。 主语。 Where the English evening will be held has not yet been announced. 英语晚会将在哪里举行,还没有宣布。 I believe(that) he is honest. 我相信他是忠诚的。 that 在句中不担任任何成分,在口语或非正式的 We must never think(that) we are good in everything while 文体中常被省去,但如从句是并列句时,第二个分 others are good in nothing. 句前的 that 不可省。 我们决不能认为自己什么都好,别人什么都不好。 I wonder whether he will come or not. whether 常与 or not 连用,不能用 if 代替。 我想知道他来还是不来。 作介词宾语要用 whether 不能用 if。 Everything depends on whether we have enough money. 从句是否定句时一般用 if 引导。 一切要看我们是否有足够的钱。 I don’t know if(whether) it is interesting. 我不知道它是否有意思。 He doesn’t care if it isn’t a fine day.他不在乎天气是否好。 Please tell me what you want.请告诉我你需要什么? She always thinks of how she can work well. 她总是在想怎样能把工作做好。 She will give whoever needs help a warm support. 宾语从句作及物动词宾语也可做介词的宾语。 凡需要帮助的人,她都会给予热情的支持。

主 语 从 句

连接 代词

连接 副词

陈述 意义

疑问 意义 宾 语 从 句

if whether

who, whom, which,whose, 特殊 what, when, 疑问 where, why, 意义 how,whoever, whatever, whichever

We must make it clear that anyone who breaks the 注1 如果宾语从句后面有宾语补足语, 则用 it 作形式宾语, 将 law will be punished. 从句后置。 我们必须认清无论谁违反了法律都要受到惩罚。 think,believe,imagine,suppose 等动词引出的宾语从句,要 We don’t think you are right. 我们认为你不对。 注2 将从句中的否定形式,移到主句中。 I don’t believe he will do so. 我相信他不会这样做 的。 that The problem is(that) they can’t get here early enough. 连词 whether 问题是他们不能很早到达这里。 在非正式的文体中 that 可以省去 as if It looks as if it’s going to rain.看起来天要下雨。 表 who That’s just what I want. 这正是我想要的。 连接 语 what The question is who(which of you) will be the next speaker. 代词 从 which 问题是谁(你们哪一位)接着发言。 句 when This is where our problem lies. 连接 where 这就是我们的问题所在。 表语从句位于主句系动词之后 副词 why That is why he didn’t come to the meeting. how 那就是他为什么不到会的原因。 The news that he had landed on the moon spread all over the 同位语从句说明其前面的名词的具体内容,常用 world.他曾在月球上登陆这个消息传遍世界。 的名词如:fact, news, idea, hope, thought,question, 同 由连词 that 引导, I have no idea when he will come back home. order, fear, doubt, word, proof, belief, story 等。 位 不担任成分,也可 我不知道他什么时候回来。 语 有 when, how, The thought came to him that Mary had probably fallen ill. 从 where 等引导。 他想到可能玛丽生病了。 句 He must answer the question whether he agrees to it or not. 他必须回答他是否同意此事这样一个问题。 特别注意 what 的双重功能: ①What was once regarded as impossible has now become a reality. (what 为“所……的事”,相当于“the thing that…;all that…;everything that…”)

②After ________ seemed a very long time,I opened my eye and found myself in bed.(M ET'93) A.what B.when C.that D.which (what 相当于“the time that”,表示“……时间”) ③He is not what he was a few years ago. Who is it that has made Fred what he is now? (what 表示“……的人”,相当于“the person that…”) ④What is now the North Sahara Desert was once a civilized world. (what 表示“……的地方”,相当于“the place that…”) ⑤Our income is now double what it was ten years ago (what 表示“……的数目”,相当于“the amount /number that…”)

十一、状语从句 种 类 从属连词 例 句 说 明

When whenever

When I came into the room, he was when 指的是“某一具体的时间” writing a letter.当我进屋时,他正在写 whenever 指的是“在任何时间” 信。 We shall go there whenever we are free. 我们什么时间有空,我们就去那里。 I was walking along the street when when 意为“这时”或“在那个时候”,可以看作是并列句,这种用法的 when suddenly someone patted me on the 分句一般位于句末。 shoulder from behind.我正在街上走着, 这时忽然有人从后面拍我的肩膀。 While it was raining, they went out.天下 while 指“在某一段时间里” , “在?期间” ,while 引导的动作必须是持续性 雨的时候,他们出去了。 的 I stayed while he was away.他不在的时 候我在。 He hurried home, looking behind as he as 引导持续性动作,强调主句和从句的动作同时发生 went. 他赶快回家,不时地一边走一边向后 看。 Be a pupil before you become a teacher. 先做学生,再做先生。 He arrived after the game started.比赛开 始后,他到了。 We waited till (until)he came back .我们 如主句动词是持续性动作,常用肯定式,表示“直到?为止” 一直等到他回来。 She didn’t stop working until eleven 如主句动词是瞬间动词,常用否定式,表示“直?才” “在?以前不”,从句 o’clock .她到 11 点钟才停止工作。 放在句首表示强调,一般用 until Until he had passed out of sight, she stood there. 她站在那里看着,直到看不见他的身 影。 Great changes have taken place in China 状语从句在主句之前时一般用逗号与主句分开,如从句在主句之后则不必 since 1978. 用标点符号。 自从 1978 年以来中国发生了巨大的变 化。 As soon as I arrive in Shanghai, I’ll write to you.我一到上海就给你写信。 I had hardly got home when it began to hardly?when 和 no sooner?than 的意义相当于 as soon as,但只表示过去发生 rain. 的事情,主句为过去完成时,从句为过去时,如 hardly 或 no sooner 位于句 我刚一到家,就下雨了。=Hardly had I 首时语气强,而且主句的谓语要用部分倒装 got home when it began to rain. No sooner had we got to the station than the train left. 我们刚到车站,火车就走了。 Hardly had we begun when we were told to stop.我们刚开始就被叫停。




before after till 时 间 状 从


since as soon as

hardly?when no sooner?than

Every time I travelled by boat, I got seasick.我 在时间状语从句中,不能用将来时或过去将来时,而要用现 每次乘船都晕船。 在时或过去时代替将来时 every time, by the The moment I heard the song, I felt cheerful. time, the moment 等 我一听到这首歌,就感到很愉快。 Next time you come ,you’ll see him.下次你来 的时候,就会见到他。


地 点 状 从

where wherever

Where there is a will, there is a way.有志者, where 与 wherever 意义基本相同,但后者语气较强,多用于 事竟成。 书面语 Where there is water there is life.哪里有水, 哪 里就有生命。 You are free to go wherever you like.你可以 随意到你喜欢的任何地方去。 Wherever you go, you must obey the law.无论 你去哪都要遵守法律。 I came back late yesterday because I was on because 用来回答 why 的问题,语气最强 duty.昨天我回来晚了,因为我值班。 Since everyone is here, let’s begin our since 表示既然或全已知的理由,稍加分析即可表明的原因,多 meeting.既然大家都到了,我们开始开会。 放句首 As he didn’t know much English, he looked 从句常放在句首,说明原因,主句说明结果,常用于口语中。 up the word in the dictionary . 由于他英语懂得不多, 他在字典中查阅这个 单词。

because since

原 因 状 从


Now (that) the weather has cleared up, we can seeing (that), now that 和 since, as 意义相似,他们都有“鉴 start our journey. 于某个事实”的意思,that 可以省去 鉴于天气已经晴朗,我们可以启程了。 now that, seeing that Seeing (that) he was badly ill, we sent for the doctor. 鉴于他病情严重,我们派人去请医生去了。 I shall write down your telephone number that 目 的 状 语 从 句 中 常 用 情 态 动 词 may (might) can I may not forget. 我要把你的电话号码记下来,以免忘记。 that We’ll tell you the truth so that you can judge for yourself. 我把真实情况告诉你,使你能自己作出判 断。 They worked harder than usual in order that they could finish the work ahead of time .他们 比往常更加努力工作,为了能提前完成工 作。 Put on more clothes lest (= for fear that ) you should catch cold. 多穿点衣服,以免感冒。 We turned up the radio, so that everyone heard so that 前有逗号为结果状语从句 the news. so?that 的 so 后面跟形容词或副词 我们把收音机的音量放大,大家都听到了新 闻。 He was so excited that he couldn’t say a word. 他十分激动,以致一句话都说不出来。 He gave such important reasons that he was such?that 的 such 后面跟名词, 如果名词是单数就要用 such a excused. /an?that 还可以转换用 so?that,语气较强 他说出了这么重要的理由,得到大家的谅 解。 It is such an interesting novel that all of us want to read it. It is so interesting a novel that all of us want to read it. 这是一本十分有趣的书,大家都想看。 Difficulties are nothing if we are not afraid of unless 从句的谓语只能用肯定式。 unless 和 if?not 同义, unless them. 是书面语,if?not 是口语,通常二者可以换用 如果我们不怕困难,困难就算不了什么了。 条件状语从句中的谓语动词的时态一般要用现在时或过去时 We shall go there tomorrow unless it rains.除 代替一般将来时或过去将来时 非下雨,我们明天就去那里。 = We shall go there tomorrow if it doesn’t rain. So/As long as you work hard, you will succeed. 只要你努力工作,你就一定能成功。 In case I forget, please remind me about it .万 一我忘了,请提醒我一下。 So far as I know, the book will be published next month. 据我所知,那本书下月出版。 (could) ,should 等放在动词之前,从句往往放在主句之后, 主从句之间不用任何标点符号

目 的 状 从 in order that lest = for fear that so that

so that so?that 结 果 状 从 such?that

if 条 件 状 从 as/so long as in case so far as unless


as as if? as though

方 式 状 从

Draw a cat as I taught you .按照我教你的画 此处 as 译为:按照或正如 一只猫。 as if 或 as though 的意义和用法基本一样。 从句中可以用现在 Do as you are told.按照人家告诉你做的去 时表示可能符合事实,也可以用虚拟语气 做。 She looks as if she is ill.看上去她好象是生病 了。 He acted as if (though) nothing had happened. 他的行动就好象什么也没有发生。 They treat the black boy as if (though) he were an animal. 他们对待这黑孩子仿佛他是一头牲口。

让 步 状 从

比 较 状 从

Although (Though) he was over sixty, (yet) he 在句子中一般用了“虽然”就不能再用“但是” (but)但可 began to learn French. 以与 yet 或 still 连用。though / although 意义相同,用法基本 although 虽然他六十多岁了,但仍开始学习法语 。 一样,前者通俗,口语化,后者正式多放主句的前面 though We were not tired though (although) we had worked all day. 虽然我们干了一天活,但并不累。 I’ll go even if (though) it rains tomorrow.即使 even if 和 even though 的意思为“即使” “纵使”有退一步设 even if,even though 明天下雨,我也要去。 想的意味,多用于书面语中 Child as he is , he knows a lot .虽然他是一个 as 引出的状语从句多用于书面语,它比用 孩子,但他懂得很多。 though 或 although 引导的从句,语气强,更有表现力,从句 as Cold as it is, (= Though it is cold,)the children 常放在句首,语序部分倒装。 play outdoors. 虽然天气冷,但孩子们仍在户外玩。 Do it no matter what others say.不管别人怎么 no matter??与 who-ever 引导的让步状语从句意义基本一 说,尽管干。 样,no matter??引导的从句可是以位于主句前或主句后 No matter how busy he was, he studied no matter (who, English every day. what when, where 不管他多忙,他都每天坚持学习英语。 which, how?) No matter who takes up the matter for me ,I shall be very grateful. 不管谁为我处理这件事,我都将非常感激。 Whatever happens / may happen , we shall not wh+ever (whatever lose heart. whoever ,whenever 无论发生什么,我们都不要失去信心。 whichever ,however) Whoever comes, he will be welcome.无论谁 来,都会受到欢迎。 Mary is as old as my sister.玛利和我姐姐一样 连词表示同程度级的比较,肯定句用 as?as 否定句可用 not 大。 as?as 或 not so?as as?as , He doesn’t run so (as) fast as Jack (does).他不 not so/as?as 如杰克跑得那样快。 the same?as His book is the same as mine.他的书和我的 such?as 一样。 Henry is not such a good worker as Peter .享 利这个工人不如彼得那样好。 She has made greater progress this year than she did last year. …than… 她今年比去年进步更大。 He bought fewer books than I (did).他买的书 比我买的少。 The more you read, the better you understand. the more?the more 意思为越?越?,通常的语序为从句在 你看的书越多,你懂得的就越多。 前主句在后,这两个 the 都是表示程度的副词,用在比较级 The more tickets you sell, the more money you 的形容词或副词前面 will get. the more 你卖的票越多,你的收入也越多。 …the more… The harder you work, the greater progress you will make. 你工作越努力,你取得的进步就越大。 The sooner, the better.越快越好。The warmer, the better.越暖和越好。

十二、定语从句 I. 定语从句起了形容词的作用,在句中修饰一个名词或代词。被修饰的词叫做先行词,引导定语从句的词叫关系词,他的作用一是放在先行词与 定语从句中间起了连接作用,二是在从句中担当一个成分,并与先行词保持数的一致。 关系词 先行 词 从句成 分 例 句 备 注




Do you know the man who is talking with your mother? Mr. Smith is the person with whom



I am working The boy (whom) she loved died in the war.. I like those books whose topics are whom, which 和 that 在从句中做宾语时, 常可以省略,但介词 提前时后面关系代词 不能省略,也不可以 用 that

whose 关 系 代 词 that

人或 物


about history. The boy whose father works abroad is my deskmate.

人或 物

主语, 宾 语

A plane is a machine that can fly. She is the pop star (that) I want to see very much. The book (which) I gave you was


主语, 宾 语

worth $10. The picture which was about the accident was terrible. He is such a person as is respected


人或 物

主语, 宾 语

by all of us. This is the same pen as I lost yesterday.

as 做宾语一般不省略

关 系 副 词



时间状 语 地点状 语 原因状 语

I will never forget the day when we met there. This is the house where I was born. I can’t imagine the reason why he turned down my offer.

可用 on which



可用 in which



可用 for which

II. that 与 which, who, whom 的用法区别 情 况 用法说明 1. 先 行 词 为 all, everything, anything, nothing, little, much, 等不定代词时 2.先行词被 all, any, every, each, much, little, no, some, few 等修 只用 that 的 情况 饰时 3. 先行词有形容词最高级和序数 词修饰时 4.先行词既指人又指物时 5.先行词被 the only, the very 修饰 时 6.句中已经有 who 或 which 时, 为了避免重复时 1. 在非限制性定语从句中,只能 用 which 指代物,用 who/whom 指人 2.在由“介词+关系代词”引导的 定语从句中, 只能用 which 指物, whom 指人。 3.先行词本身是 that 时,关系词 用 which, 先行词为 those, one, he 时多用 who。 区 别 1.He has a son, who has gone abroad for further study. 2.I like the person to whom the teacher is talking. 3.Those who respect others are usually respected by others. 例 句 3.This is the best film that I have ever read. 4.We talked about the persons and things that we remembered. 5.He is the only man that I want to see. 6.Who is the man that is making a speech? 2.All the books that you offered has been given out. 例 句

1.He told me everything that he knows.

只用 which, who, whom 的情况

III. as、which 和 that 的区别 从句


限制性 定语从句中

He is not such a fool as he looks. 名词前有 such 和 the same 修饰时, Don’t read such books as you can’t 关系代词用 as,不能用 which understand. as 和 which 都可以指代前面整个主 句。如果有“正如,象”的含义, 并可以放在主句前,也可以放在后 面,那么用 as;而 which 引导的从 句只能放主句后,并无“正如”的 意思。 the same... as 指同类事物 the same ...that 指原物 They won the game, as we had expected. They won the game, which we hadn’t expected. As is well known, he is a famous film star in the 1980s. That’s the same tool as I used last week. (同类工具,不是同一把) That’s the same tool that I used last week.那就是我上周用过的工具。

非限制性 定语从句中

the same... as 和 the same ...that

注意:the way 做先行词时,定语从句可由 that, in which 引导或不用引导词。 IV.定语从句与其它从句(句型)的区别 类 别 区 别 例 句 ①Mr Li has three daughters,none of _____ is an engineer. ②Mr Li has three daughters, but none of _____ is a dancer. 从结构上看,①小题是定语从句,故填 whom; ②小题有并列连词 but ,是并列句,故填代词 them。 This is the place where we used to live a few years ago. 这是几年前我们居住的地方。 (定语从句,先行 词为 the place) Let’s go where we can find a better job. 我们到能找到更好的工作的地方去吧。 (地点状 语从句)

定语从 句 与 并列句

定语从句与并列句的主要区 别在于: 并列句有像 and, but, so 等并列连词或两个句子用 分号连接, 这时就不能再用引 导定语从句的关系词了。

定语从句的前面有名词作先 行词,而状语从句没有先行 词。

定语从 句 与 状语从 句

Do you know the time when the class is over? 你 定语从句修饰、限制、说明名 知道下课的时间吗?(定语从句) 词,只能放在先行词的后面, It was already five o’clock when the class was over. 而状语从句说明动作发生的 =When the class was over, it was already five 情况, 并且可以放在主句的前 o’clock. 面。 当下课时己经是 5 点了。 (时间状语从句) When, where 和 why 在引导定 语从句时可以用“介词+ which”的结构来替换,在引 导状语从句时却不行。 This is the factory in which (where) his father once worked. 这就是他的父亲曾经工作过的那个工厂。 (定语 从句) Put back the book where it was. 把书放回原处。 (状语从句) It is such an interesting book as we all like. 它是我 们大家都喜欢的如此有趣的书。 (as 用作动词 like 的宾语, 它引导的是定语从句) It is such an interesting book that we all like it. 它是一本如此有趣的书,我们大家都喜欢它。 (that 不充当句子成分,故它引导的是结果状语 从句) The news that she had passed the exam made her parents very happy. 她考试及格的消息使她父母亲很高兴。 (同位语 从句) 此 句 中 的同 位语 从 句 The news that she had passed the exam 可以改写成表语从句:The news is that he passed the exam. The news that he told us interested all of us. 他告诉我们的消息使大家都感兴趣。 (定语从句) The news that he told us 是定语从句, 此句不能改 写为:The news is that he told us. ①It is on the morning of May 1st _____ I met Liang Wei at the airport. ②It is the factory _____ Mr Wang works. 从结构上看: ①小题是强调句,故填 that。

定语从句中的关系词在从句 中充当某种句子成分, 因此去 掉它则从句成分不完整; 而结 果状语从句中的连接词在从 句中不作任何成分, 去掉后从 句的成分仍然完整。

定语从 句 与 同位语 从句

定语从句在复合句中相当于 形容词,对先行词起修饰、描 述或限制的作用, 与先行词之 间有从属关系。 同位语的作用 相当于名词, 对前面的名词给 予补充说明或进一步解释, 是 前面名词的具体内容 , 与先行 词之间是同位关系。

定语从 句 与 强调句

强调句的结构为“ It is /was +被强调部分+that+从句” 。 被强调部分可以是除谓语以 外的任何成分, 当被强调部分 是人时, 还可用 who 代替 that。

这一句型中, 一定不能因为被 强调部分是表时间或地点的 词就用 when 或 where 代替 that。

②小题则是定语从句,用上述方法转换便知 the factory 前差个介词 in,故填 where。

十三、强调句 强调的类别 说 明 例 句

原始句:Last night I saw a film in the Youth Palace. 为了强调句子的某一 强调主语:It was I that (or: who) saw a film in 成分(通常是主语、 the Youth Palace last night. 宾语或状语) ,常用强 强调宾语:It was a fiml that I saw in the Youth 调结构: Palace last night.

It is (was) +被强调部 强调地点状语:It was in the Youth Palace that I 分+that(who)… 表示强调的 it 在这种 It is (was) +被强调 部分+that(who)… 结构的 句子中作主句的主 语。 saw a film last night. 强调时间状语: It was last night that I saw a film in the Youth Palace. 一般讲, 原句的谓语动词如果是现在或将来各 种时态,用 It is…that (who)…;如果原句谓语 动词是过去各种时态,则用 It was… that(who)…。 ①在强调主语时,that 后的谓语动词要与被强 调者保持人称和数的 注意点 It is I who am a teacher. ②即使被强调的主语是复数, 主句中的谓语动 词也用单数 It is they who often help me with my lessons.


③在强调时间、地点、原因、或方式状语时, 不要用 when,where,why 或 how ,而用 that It was because her mother was ill that she didn't go with us. ④在强调 not … until 结构中由 until 短语 (或 从句)表示的时间状语时, 要用固定的强调句型 It is(was) not until ...that...。that 从句中的谓语 动词用肯定式。 My father didn't come home until 12 o'clock last night. It was not until 12 o'clock last night that my father came home. ⑤在强调一般疑问句中的某一成分时, 主句要 用一般疑问句的语序: 把 is/ was 提到 it 前面。 Did this happen in Beijing? Was it in Beijing that this happened? ⑥特殊疑问句中只有疑问词可以强调, 其强调 结构是“被强调部分(通 常是疑问代词或疑问副词)+ is/was + it + that/ who + 其它部分?" Where were you born? Where was it that you were born? ⑦not …until…句型的强调句
[来源:学|科|网 Z|X|X|K]

句型为:It is/ was not until + 被强调部分 + that + 其它部分 原始句:He didn’t go to bed until/ till his wife came back. 强调句:It was not until his wife came back that he went to bed. 此句型只用 until,不用 till。但如果不是强调 句型,till, until 可通 用;因为句型中 It is/ was not … 已经是否定 句了,that 后面的从句 要用肯定句,切勿再用否定句了。 Do sit down. 务必请坐。 It is/ was … that …结 构不能强调谓语,如 谓语动词的强调 果需要强调谓语时, 用助动词 do/ does 或 did。 He did write to you last week.上周他确实给你 写了信。 Do be careful when you cross the street. 过马路时,务必(千万)要小心啊! 此种强调只用 do/does 和 did , 没有别的形式; 过去时用 did,后面的谓语动词用原形。



十四、省略句 例句

名词所有格后修饰的名词在以下 情况可以省略 ①如果名词所有格修饰的名词在 前文已出现,则可以省略。 ②名词所有格后修饰的名词如果 是指商店、住宅等地点时,这些名 词也常常省略。 冠词的省略 ①为了避免重复 ②在副词的最高级前面的定冠词 常可以省略。 ③在某些独立主格结构中。 ④在 as 引导的让步状语从句中, 当 作表语的单数名词提前时,不定冠 词要省略。

介词的省略 ①both 后常跟 of 短语,其后可以 接名词复数形式,也可以接代词宾 格复数形式。接复数名词时,介词 of 可以省略,但接代词宾格时,of 不能省略。 ②在现在完成时表持续和重复的 句型中,一段时间前的介词 for 可 以省略。 ③和一些动词搭配构成的短语中 的介词,consider... (as)..., prevent / stop... (from)doing..., have trouble / difficulty... (in) doing...,spend... (in / on) doing... 等 中的介词可以省略。

These are John's books and those are Mary's (books). 这些是约翰的书,那些是玛丽的书。 at the doctor's 在诊所 at Mr. Green's 在格林先生家 to my uncle's 到我叔叔家 at the barber's 在理发店 ①The lightning flashed and thunder crashed. 电闪雷鸣。 (thunder 前省略了定冠词 the) ②She sings best in the class.她在班上唱歌 唱得最好。 ③Our teacher came in, book in hand. (=Our teacher came in, with a book in his hand.) 我们的老师手里拿着一本书进来了。 ④Child as he is, he knows a lot. 虽然他还是一个孩子,却懂得很多 ①Both (of) the films were interesting. 这两 部电影都很有趣。 She invited both of us to her birthday party. 她邀请我们俩去参加她的生日派对。 ②These shoes are worn out. They have lasted (for) a long time. 这双鞋穿破了,已经穿了很长一段时间 了。 ③Trees can prevent the earth (from) being washed away. 树能阻止泥土被冲走。 Can you stop him (from) going swimming in the river? 你能阻止他下河洗澡吗? I have some difficulty (in) answering the question. 回答这个问题我有点困难。


①有些动词, believe, find, think, feel, consider, imagine, prove 等后 作宾补的结构。 to be + n. / adj.中的 to be 可以省略。 ②感官动词 see, hear, feel, watch, notice 等以及使役动词 let, make, have 后作宾补的动词不定式, 其中的不定式符号 to 要省略, 但变 为被动结构时,to 必须保留。 ③在 can not but, can not choose but, can not help but 之后的动词不定式 一般不带 to;but 之前有实 义动词 do 的某个形式 do, does, did, done 时,也不带 to, 否则要带 to。

①I consider him (to be) lazy.我认为他懒。 His mother found him (to be) a clever boy. 他母亲发觉他是一个很聪明的孩子。 ②They made the boy go to bed early.他们强 迫这个男孩早睡。 The boy was made to go to bed early. 这个 男孩被迫早睡。 注:help 后作宾补的动词不定式中的 to 可以省略也可保留。

③We have nothing to do now but wait. 我们现在除了等没有别的事可做。 I can not but admire his courage. 我不能 不钦佩他的勇敢。 He has no choice but to accept the fact. 除了接受这个事实他别无选择。 ④I'm really puzzled what to think or say. 我真不知道该怎么想,怎么说才好。 但两个不定式有对照或对比的意义时, 则后一个 to 不能省。 I came not to scold but to praise you. ④在并列结构中为了避免重复。 我来不是责备你,而是赞美你。 ⑤Why talk so much about it?为什么大谈这 个事呢? Why not try it again? 为什么不再试一试 呢? ⑤在 why, why not 引导的特殊问 ⑥They may go if they wish to(go). 句中后跟省略 to 的动词不定式。 如果他们想去,他们就可以去。 ⑥动词不定式中动词原形部分是 Don't go till I tell you to.直到我告诉你去, 否省略,主要看句子前面是否已出 你才可以去。 现过同样的动词。如果句子前面出 在一些动词 afford, agree, expect, forget, 现过同样的动词,为了避免重复, mean, pretend, remember, want, refuse, 句子后面的不定式常省略动词原 hope, wish, would like (love), try 等后跟动 形,而保留不定式符号 to。 词不定式作宾语,不定式中的 to 可以承 前(后)省略。 —Will you go to the cinema with me? 你愿和我一起去看电影吗? —Well, I'd like to (go with you). 我愿意。 I would do it for you, but I don't know how to (do it for you). 我想为你做这事,但我又不知如何做。 在 某 些 形 容 词 , afraid, glad, willing, happy, eager 等后承前省 略动词原形,只保留不定式符号 to。 —Will you join us in the game? 你愿和我们一起做这个游戏吗? —Sure, I'll be glad to(join you in the game). 当然,我愿意。 有些动词, tell, ask, allow, expect, force, invite, permit, persuade, order, warn, wish, would like,forbid 等后跟动词不定式作宾语 补足语、主语补足语时,不定式承前省略 动词原形, 保留动词不定式符号 to。 He didn't come, though we had invited him to (come). 尽管我们邀请他来,他却没来。 注:承前省略的动词不定式如果有助动词 have 或 be,则要保留 be 或 have。 —Are you a teacher? 你是老师吗? —No, but I used to be (a teacher).不,我以前 是。 ①What a hot day (it is)!多热的天啊! 简单句中的省略 How wonderful!多妙啊! ①感叹句中常省略主语和谓语。 ②—(Will you)Have a smoke?你抽烟吗? ②在一些口语中可以省略某些句 —No.Thanks.不,谢谢了。 子成分。 (Is there)Anything else to say?还有别的 要说吗?


并列句中的省略 ①如果主语不同,而谓语动词中的 一部分相同,则省略谓语动词中相 同的那部分。 ②主语相同,谓语动词也相同,则 二者都可以省略。 ③主语相同,而谓语不同,则可以 省略主语。 ④在并列复合句中,如果 that 从句从属于第二个并列句且它 的谓语动词和宾语等其它一些成 分与第一个并列句相同时,这个 that 从句通常可以省略这些相同的 部分。

①John must have been playing football and Mary (must have been) doing her homework. 约翰一定在踢球,而玛丽一定在做作业。 ②His suggestions made John happy, but (his suggestions made) Mary angry. 他的建议使约翰高兴,却使玛丽很生气。 ③ Old McDonald gave up smoking for a while, but (he) soon returned to his old ways. 老麦克唐纳戒了一阵子烟,可很快又抽上 了。 ④Jack will sing at the party, but I know John won't (sing at the party). 杰克将在晚会上唱歌,但我知道约翰不会 在晚会上唱歌。


复合句中的省略 ▲名词性从句中的省略 ①作宾语的 what 从句中的谓语动 词与主句的相同,则 what 从句可 以省略谓语,甚至主语

复合句中的省略 ▲名词性从句中的省略 ① Someone has used my bike, but I don't know who (has used it). 有人用了我的自行车,但我不知道是谁。 He has gone, but no one knows where (he has gone). ②有时候也可以根据说话的情景 他走了,但没人知道他去哪儿了。 来省略主句中的一些成分。 ②(I'm)Sorry I've kept you waiting so long. ③在某些表虚拟语气的主语从句、 对不起,让你久等了。 宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句 ③It's important that we (should) speak to the 中 , 从 句 谓 语 动 词 中 的 助 动 词 old politely. should 可以省略。 我们对老人说话要有礼貌,这很重要。 ▲定语从句中的省略 ①在限制性定语从句中,作宾语的 ▲定语从句中的省略 关系代词 that, which, who (whom) ①The man(who/whom)I saw is called Smith. 常可以省略。 我见到的那个人名叫史密斯。 Where is the book (which) I bought this morning? ②关系副词 when, where, why 以及 今天上午我买的那本书在哪儿? that 在 the time(day, morning, ②I shall never forget the day (when) we first afternoon, evening, night, week, met. month, year 等 ) when, the 我永远也不会忘记我们第一次见面的那一 place(desk, table, room, spot, house, 天。 town, country, school 等)where, the The reason (why) he came so early is his own reason why, the way that 结构中引 affair. 导限制性定语从句时,在非正式场 他来这么早是他自己的事。 合下,可以省略关系副词 when, The way (that) you answered the questions was admirable. where, why, that。 ▲状语从句中的省略 你回答这些问题的方式令人钦佩。 当状语从句中的主语和主句的主 语一致, 或状语从句中的主语是 it, ▲状语从句中的省略 并且又含有 be 动词时,常可以省 略从句中的主语和 be 动词。 ①在 as, before, till, once, when, while 等引导的时间状语从句中。 ①While(I was)waiting, I was reading some ②在 though, although,等引导的让 magazines. 步状语从句中。 我一边看杂志,一边等。 ③在 if, unless(=if... not)等引导的条 ② Though (they were) tired, they went on working. 件状语从句中。 虽然他们累了,但他们仍继续工作。 ④在 as, as if, as though 引导的让步 ③ You shouldn't come to his party unless (you were) invited. 状语从句中。 除非你被邀请,否则你不应该来参加他的 宴会。 ⑤在 as(so)... as..., than 引导的比较 ④He did as (he had been) told. 他按照被告 状语从句中。 知的那样去做了。 He paused as if (he was) expecting her to speak. 他停下来,好像是在期待她说话。 ⑤He did as (he had been) told. 他按照被告 知的那样去做了。 He paused as if (he was) expecting her to speak. 他停下来,好像是在期待她说话。 I know you can do better than he (can do). 我知道你能比他做得更好。 This car doesn't run as fast as that one (does). 这辆小车不及那辆跑得快。 十五、倒装句

类 型


句首状语为否定词或半否定词的句 子。 这类词或短语主 要有 never, neither, nor, little,seldom,rarely,hardly,scarcely,no sooner, not only,in no way,at no time,few, not,no 等

Not a word did I say to him. Never have I found him so happy. Little does he care about what I said. I can’t swim. Neither can he. No sooner had he gone to bed than he fell asleep. Hardly/Scarcely had he gone to bed when he fell asleep. Only by this means is it possible to explain it. (介词短语) Only then did I realize the importance of math. (副词) Only when the war was over in 1918 was he able to get happily back to work. (从 句) 注意:如果 only 后面不是状语,则不用 倒装。 OnlyWang Ling knows this. I saw the film, so did she. So loudly did he speak that even people in the next room could hear him. Not only does John love Chinese, he is also good at speaking it. 但 not only...but also...连接主语时,不 Not only the mother but also the children are sick. Not until last week did they find the lost bike. (简单句) Not until my son had entered the university did he realize the importance of time. (复合句) Proud as these nobles are, he’s afraid to see me. Tired as he was, he kept on running.


部分倒装 (部分倒 装是把 be 动词、情 态动词、 助动词放 到主语之 前。如果 句子中没 有这些词 , 要在主语 之前加助 动 do/does /did 等,而 把原来的 谓语动词 变成原形 放在主语 之后。 ) as/though 引导的让步状语从句 词 Not until 放在句首,从句不倒装,主句倒 装 “Not only+分句,but also+分句”句型中 的前一分句要部分倒装“Not only + 分 要部分倒装 so 或 so 引导的短语放在句首,要部分 倒装

句,but also + 分句”句型中的前一分句 倒装。

Tired though he was, he kept on running. =Though he was tired,he kept on running Child as he is,he knows a lot.(注意: child 前没有冠词 a)

在以 often, well, many a time, now and again 等方式或频度副词 ( 短语 ) 开头的句子 中,要用部分倒装结构 在虚拟结构中,条件从句的谓语含有 were, had 和 should 这三个词是,可省去 if, 将 这些词移至主语之前。 用于某些表示祝愿的句子里 用来代替 be 动词的动词有:exist, seem, happen, appear,live, rise, stand 等

Many a time has John given me good advice. Often have we made that test. Had I time (= If I had time), I would go and help you. Were I you (= If I were you), I would go abroad. Should he come (=If he should come), tell him to ring me up. May you succeed! There exist different opinions on this question. Here comes the old lady! Then came the hour we had been looking forward to.

There be 结构。另外,在此结构中可以 There stood a dog before him.


“Here,There, Now, Then + come (或 be 等) + 主语” 结构 说明:本句型中 there 是副词,应重读,强 词,本身没意义

There comes the bus. Now comes your turn. 除了 then 引导的句子用过去式以外,其 描述。其次,如果主语是人称代词,就不 用倒装。 Here you are. There she comes.

调地点。而前一句型中的 there 是引导 余的均用一般现在时,表示一种生动的


表示方向的副词 out, in, up, down 等置 于句首,要用全部倒装。 表示地点的介词短语 (如 on the wall, under the tree, in front of the house,in the middle of the room 等)放在句首时, 要全部倒装

In came Mr White. Up went the arrow into the air. Away went the boy. On the top of the hill stands a pine tree. In front of the classroom is a playground. They arrived at a house, in front of which sat an old man. Present at the meeting was Mr. Green, a headmaster.(形容词短语) Such was the story he told me.(代词) East of the city lies a new railway. (副词 短语) First 短语) Gone are the days when my heart was young and gay. (过去分词) Lying on the floor was a boy aged 15. (现在分词短语) Long live the People’s Republic of China! to be completed was the


seven-storey teaching building. (不定式





一、接不定式(而不接动名词)作宾语的 24 个常用动词 afford to do sth. 负担得起做某事 agree to do sth. 同意做某事 arrange to do sth.安排做某事 ask to do sth. 要求做某事 beg to do sth. 请求做某事 care to do sth. 想要做某事 choose to do sth. 决定做某事 decide to do sth. 决定做某事 demand to do sth. 要求做某事 determine to do sth. 决心做某事 expect to do sth. 期待做某事 fear to do sth. 害怕做某事 help to do sth. 帮助做某事 hope to do sth. 希望做某事 learn to do sth. 学习做某事 manage to do sth. 设法做某事 offer to do sth. 主动提出做某事 plan to do sth. 计划做某事 prepare to do sth. 准备做某事 pretend to do sth. 假装做某事 promise to do sth. 答应做某事 refuse to do sth. 拒绝做某事 want to do sth. 想要做某事 wish to do sth. 希望做某事 注:有些不及物动词后习惯上也接不定式,不接动名词: aim to do sth. 打算做某事 fail to do sth. 未能做某事 long to do sth. 渴望做某事 happen to do sth. 碰巧做某事 hesitate to do sth. 犹豫做某事 struggle to do sth. 努力做某事

二、接不定式作宾补的 36 个常用动词 advise sb. to do sth. 建议某人做某事 allow sb. to do sth. 允许某人做某事 ask sb. to do sth.请(叫)某人做某事 bear sb. to do sth.忍受某人做某事


beg sb. to do sth. 请求某人做某事 cause sb. to do sth. 导致某人做某事 command sb. to do sth. 命令某人做某事 drive sb. to do sth .驱使某人做某事 elect sb. to do sth. 选举某人做某事 encourage sb. to do sth. 鼓励某人做某事 expect sb. to do sth. 期望某人做某事 forbid sb. to do sth. 禁止某人做某事 force sb. to do sth. 强迫某人做某事 get sb. to do sth. 使(要)某人做某事 hate sb. to do sth. 讨厌某人做某事 help sb. to do sth. 帮助某人做某事 intend sb. to do sth. 打算要某人做某事 invite sb. to do sth. 邀请某人做某事 leave sb. to do sth. 留下某人做某事 like sb. to do sth. 喜欢某人做某事 mean sb. to do sth. 打算要某人做某事 need sb. to do sth. 需要某人做某事 oblige sb. to do sth. 迫使某人做某事 order sb. to do sth. 命令某人做某事 permit sb. to do sth. 允许某人做某事 persuade sb. to do sth. 说服某人做某事 prefer sb. to do sth. 宁愿某人做某事 request sb. to do sth. 要求某人做某事 remind sb. to do sth. 提醒某人做某事 teach sb. to do sth .教某人做某事 tell sb. to do sth. 告诉某人做某事 train sb. to do sth. 训练某人做某事 trouble sb. to do sth. 麻烦某人做某事 want sb. to do sth. 想要某人做某事 warn sb. to do sth. 警告某人做某事 wish sb. to do sth. 希望某人做某事 注:不要受汉语意思的影响而误用以下动词句型: 汉语说:“害怕某人做某事”,但英语不说 fear sb. to do sth.。 汉语说:“原谅某人做某事”,但英语不说 excuse [forgive] sb. to do sth.。 汉语说:“拒绝某人做某事”,但英语不说 refuse sb. to do sth.。 汉语说:“惩罚某人做某事”,但英语不说 punish sb. to do sth.。 汉语说:“建议某人做某事”,但英语不说 suggest [propose] sb. to do sth.。


汉语说:“赞成某人做某事”,但英语不说 approve sb. to do sth.。 汉语说:“通知某人做某事”,但英语不说 inform sb. to do sth.。 汉语说:“欢迎某人做某事”,但英语不说 welcome sb. to do sth.。 汉语说:“坚持某人做某事”,但英语不说 insist [persist] sb. to do sth.。 汉语说:“希望某人做某事”,但英语不说 hope sb. to do sth.。 汉语说:“安排某人做某事”,但英语不说 arrange sb. to do sth.。 汉语说:“要求某人做某事”,但英语不说 demand sb. to do sth.。 汉语说:“感谢某人做某事”,但英语不说 thank sb. to do sth.。 汉语说:“祝贺某人做某事”,但英语不说 congratulate sb. to do sth.。 汉语说:“阻止某人做某事”,但英语不说 prevent sb. to do sth.。 要表示以上意思,可换用其他表达: 汉语的“原谅某人做某事”,英语可说成 excuse [forgive] sb. for doing sth.。 汉语的“希望某人做某事”,英语可说成 wish sb. to do sth.。 汉语的“建议某人做某事”,英语可说成 advise sb. to do sth.。 汉语的“安排某人做某事”,英语可说成 arrange for sb. to do sth.。 汉语的“要求某人做某事”,英语可说成 demand of sb. to do sth.。 汉语的“感谢某人做某事”,英语可说成 thank sb. for doing sth.。 汉语的“祝贺某人做某事”,英语可说成 congratulate sb. on doing sth.。 汉语的“阻止某人做某事”,英语可说成 prevent sb. from doing sth.。 三、接动名词(不接不定式)作宾语的 34 个常用动词 admit doing sth. 承认做某事 allow doing sth. 允许做某事 avoid doing sth. 避免做某事 delay doing sth. 推迟做某事 discuss doing sth. 讨论做某事 enjoy doing sth. 喜爱做某事 excuse doing sth. 原谅做某事 finish doing sth. 完成做某事 forgive doing sth. 原谅做某事 imagine doing sth. 想象做某事 mention doing sth. 提及做某事 miss doing sth. 错过做某事 permit doing sth. 允许做某事 prevent doing sth. 阻止做某事 put off doing sth. 推迟做某事 risk doing sth. 冒险做某事 suggest doing sth. 建议做某事 advise doing sth. 建议做某事 appreciate doing sth. 感激做某事 consider doing sth. 考虑做某事 deny doing sth. 否认做某事 dislike doing sth. 不喜欢做某事 escape doing sth. 逃脱做某事 fancy doing sth. 设想做某事 forbid doing sth. 禁止做某事 give up doing sth. 放弃做某事 keep doing sth. 保持做某事 mind doing sth. 介意做某事 pardon doing sth. 原谅做某事 practice doing sth. 练习做某事 prohibit doing sth. 禁止做某事 report doing sth. 报告做某事 stop doing sth. 停止做某事 understand doing sth. 理解做某事


四、接现在分词作宾补的 20 个常用动词 bring sb. doing sth.引起某人做某事 catch sb. doing sth. 碰上(撞上)某人做某事 feel sb. doing sth. 感觉某人做某事

discover sb. doing sth. 发现某人做某事

find sb. doing sth. 碰上(撞上)某人做某事 get sb. doing sth. 使某人做某事 have sb. doing sth. 使某人做某事 keep sb. doing sth. 使某人不停地做某事 look at sb. doing sth. 看着某人做某事 observe sb. doing sth. 观察某人做某事 see sb. doing sth. 看见某人做某事 set sb. doing sth. 使(引起)某人做某事 stop sb. doing sth. 阻止某人做某事 feel sb. do sth. 感觉某人做某事 hear sb. do sth. 听见某人做某事 listen to sb. do sth. 听着某人做某事 make sb. do sth. 使某人做某事 observe sb. do sth. 观察某人做某事 watch sb. do sth. 观察某人做某事 察某人做某事 六、接不定式或动名词作宾语意思相同的 12 个动词 like to do sth / like doing sth. 喜欢做某事 love to do sth / love doing sth. 喜欢做某事 hate to do sth / hate doing sth. 憎恨做某事 prefer to do sth / prefer doing sth. 宁可做某事 begin to do sth / begin doing sth. 开始做某事 start to do sth / start doing sth. 开始做某事 continue to do sth / continue doing sth. 继续做某事 can’t bear to do sth / can’t bear doing sth. 不能忍受做某事 bother to do sth / bother doing sth. 麻烦做某事 intend to do sth / intend doing sth.想要做某事 attempt to do sth / attempt doing sth. 试图做某事 cease to do sth / cease doing sth. 停止做某事 hear sb. doing sth. 听见某人做某事 listen to sb. doing sth. 听某人做某事 notice sb. doing sth. 注意到某人做某事 prevent sb. doing sth. 阻止某人做某事 send sb. doing sth.使某人(突然)做某事 start sb. doing sth. 使某人开始做某事 watch sb. doing sth. 观五、接动词原形作宾补的 11 个常用动词 have sb. do sth. 使某人做某事 let sb. do sth.让某人做某事 look at sb. do sth. 看着某人做某事 notice sb. do sth. 注意某人做某事 see sb. do sth. 看见某人做某事

七、接不定式或动名词作宾语意思不同的 7 个动词 (1) remember to do sth. 记住要做某事 (2) forget to do sth. 忘记要做某事 (3) regret to do sth. 后悔(遗憾)要做某事 (4) try to do sth. 设法要做某事 (5) mean to do sth. 打算做某事 remember doing sth. 记住曾做过某事 forget doing sth. 忘记曾做过某事 regret doing sth. 后悔(遗憾)曾做过某事 try doing sth. 做某事试试看有何效果 mean doing sth. 意味着做某事


(6) can’t help to do sth. 不能帮助做某事 (7) go on to do sth. 做完某事后接着做另一事

can’t help doing sth. 禁不住做某事 go on doing sth. 继续做一直在做的事

注:stop to do sth. 与 stop doing sth.也不同,前者指停下来去做某事,后者指停止正在做的事,但 stop to do sth. 中的不定式 不是宾语,是目的状语。 八、可接双宾语的 38 个常用动词 (1) 双宾语易位时需借助介词 to 的常用动词 award sb. sth. = award sth. to sb. 颁奖给某人 bring sb. sth. = bring sth. to sb. 把某物带给某人 hand sb. sth. =hand sth. to sb. 把某物递给某人 lend sb. sth. = lend sth. to sb. 把某物借给某人 mail sb. sth. = mail sth. to sb. 把某物寄给某人 offer sb. sth. = offer sth. to sb. 将某物给某人 owe sb. sth. = owe sth. to sb. 欠某人某物 pass sb. sth. = pass sth. to sb. 把某物递给某人 pay sb. sth. = pay sth. to sb. 付给某人某物(钱) post sb. sth. = post sth. to sb. 把某物寄给某人 read sb. sth. = read sth. to sb. 把某物读给某人听 return sb. sth. = return sth. to sb. 把某物还给某人 send sb. sth. = send sth. to sb. 把某物送给某人 sell sb. sth. = sell sth. to sb. 把某物卖给某人 serve sb. sth. = serve sth. to sb. 拿某物招待某人 show sb. sth. = show sth. to sb. 拿某物给某人看 take sb. sth. = take sth. to sb. 把某物拿给某人 teach sb. sth. = teach sth. to sb. 教某人某物 tell sb. sth. = tell sth. to sb. 告诉某人某情况 throw sb. sth. = throw sth. to sb. 把某物扔给某人 write sb. sth. = write sth. to sb. 给某人写信 (2) 双宾语易位时需借助介词 for 的常用动词 book sb. sth. = book sth. for sb. 为某人预定某物 buy sb. sth. = buy sth. for sb. 为某人买某物 choose sb. sth. = choose sth. for sb. 为某人选某物 cook sb. sth. = cook sth. for sb. 为某人煮某物 draw sb. sth. = draw sth. for sb. 为某人画某物 fetch sb. sth. = fetch sth. for sb. 为某人去取某物 find sb. sth. = find sth. for sb. 为某人找到某物 fix sb. sth. = fix sth. for sb. 为某人准备某物 get sb. sth. = get sth. for sb. 为某人拿来某物 make sb. sth. = make sth. for sb. 为某人做某物


order sb. sth. = order sth. for sb. 为某人订购某物 pick sb. sth. = pick sth. for sb. 为某人采摘某物 prepare sb. sth. = prepare sth. for sb. 为某人准备某物 save sb. sth. = save sth. for sb. 为某人留某物 sing sb. sth. = sing sth. for sb. 为某人唱某物(歌) spare sb. sth. = spare sth. for sb. 为某人让出某物 steal sb. sth. = steal sth. for sb. 为某人偷某物 注:有的动词后接的双宾语易位时,既可用介词 to 引出间接宾语,也可用介词 for 引出间接宾语,含义相同,如 bring,play 等: Bring me today’s paper. = Bring today’s paper to [for] me. 把今天的报纸拿给我。 He played us the record he had just bought. = He played the record he had just bought for [to] us. 他放了他刚买的唱片给我们 听。 有的动词后接的双宾语易位时,即可用介词 to 引出间接宾语,也可用介词 for 引出间接宾语,含义不同,如 leave 等: They left me no food. = They left no food for me. 他们没给我留一点食物。 My uncle left me a large fortune. = My uncle left a large fortune to me. 我叔叔死后留下一大笔财产给我。 而有的动词后接双宾语时,既不能用介词 to 引出间接宾语,也不能用介词 for 引出间接宾语,如 allow, ask, cause, charge, cost, forgive, refuse 等: He allows his son too much money. 他给他儿子的钱太多。 He asked me some questions. 他问了我一些问题。 This caused me much trouble. 着给我带来了许多麻烦。 He charged me five dollars for a cup of tea. 他一杯茶向我要了 5 美元。 His mistake cost him his job. 他的错误让他丢了工作。 I envy you your good luck. 我羡慕你的好运。 They forgave him his rudeness. 他们原谅了他的鲁莽。 He refused her nothing. 她要什么就给什么。 九、可用于“动词+sb+of sth”的 8 个常见动词 accuse sb. of sth. 控告某人犯某事(罪),指责某人做某事 cheat sb. fo sth. 骗取某人某物 cure sb. of sth. 治好某人的病,改掉某人的坏习惯 inform sb. of sth. 通知某人某情况(事) remind sb. of sth. 使某人想起某情况(事) rid sb. of sth. 使某人摆脱某物 rob sb. of sth. 抢劫某人的某东西 warn sb. of sth. 警告某人有某情况

十、可用于“动词+sb+for doing sth”的 8 个常见动词 blame sb. for doing sth. 指责某人做某事


criticize sb. for doing sth. 批评某人做某事 forgive sb. for doing sth. 原谅某人做某事 excuse sb. for doing sth. 原谅某人做某事 pardon sb. for doing sth. 原谅某人做某事 punish sb. for doing sth. 惩罚某人做某事 scold sb. for doing sth. 指责(责备)某人做某事 thank sb. for doing sth. 感谢某人做某事

十一、可用于“动词+sb+into doing sth”的 9 个常见动词 cheat sb. into doing sth. 欺骗某人做某事 food sb. into doing sth. 欺骗某人做某事 argue sb. into doing sth. 说服某人做某事 terrify sb. into doing sth. 威胁某人做某事 persuade sb. into doing sth. 说服某人做某事 十二、容易误用作及物动词的 9 个不及物动词 误:deal a problem 误:depend sb. 误:insist doing sth. 误:knock the door 误:operate sb. 误:participate sth. 误:refer sth. 误:rely sb. / sth. 误:reply a letter 正:deal with a problem 处理问题 正:depend on sb. 依靠(依赖)某人 正:insist on doing sth. 坚持要做某事 正:knock on [at] the door 敲门 正:operate on sb. 为某人做手术 正:participate in sth. 参加某事 正:refer to sth. 查阅(参考)某物 正:rely on sb. / sth. 依靠(依赖)某人(某物 正:reply to a letter 回信 trick sb. into doing sth. 欺骗某人做某事 force sb. into doing sth. 迫使某人做某事 talk sb. into doing sth. 说服某人做某事 frighten sb. into doing sth. 吓唬某人做某事

注:在某些其他用法中,以上有的动词也可能及物,如 insist, reply 等动词后可接宾语从句,operate 表示“操作”、“管理”等时 则及物。

十三、容易误用作不及物动词的 8 个及物动词 误:serve for sb. 误:marry with sb. 误:discuss about sth. 误:mention about sth. 误:enter into a room 误:contact with sb. 误:equal to sth. 误:ring to sb. 正:serve sb. 为某人服务 正:marry sb. 与某人结婚 正:discuss sth. 讨论某事 正:mention sth. 提到某事 正:enter a room 进入房间 正:contact sb. 与某人联系 正: equal sth. 等于某物 正:ring sb. 给某人打电话

注:有个别词在用于其他意义时,可以是不及物的,如 enter into 可以表示开始进入或从事某一状态或活动,或用于较抽象的 概念。如:


The country entered into a state of war. 这个国家进入战争状态。 I can enter into your feelings at the loss of your father. 我理解你失去父亲后的心情。 The two old men entered into a long conversation. 两位老人开始长谈起来。 十四、17 个常用“be+形容词+about”结构 be angry about 为……生气 be careful about 当心…… be curious about 对……好奇 be excited about 对……感到兴奋 be happy about 为……感到高兴 be mad about 对……入迷 be particular about 对……讲究 be serious about 对……认真 be worried about 为……担忧 be anxious about 为……担忧 be certain about 确信…… be disappointed about 对……失望 be glad about 对……感到高兴 be hopeful about 对……抱有希望 be nervous about 为……感到不安 be sad about 为……而难过 be sure about 对……有把握

十五、10 个常用“be+形容词+at”结构 be angry at 为……生气 be clever at 擅长于…… be expert at 在……方面是内行 be mad at 对……发怒 be skilful at 在……方面熟练 be bad at 不善于…… be disappointed at 对……失望 be good at 善于…… be quick at 在……方面敏捷 be slow at 在……方面迟钝

十六、18 个常用“be+形容词+for”结构 be anxious for 渴望 be bound for 前往 be bad for 对……有害,对……不利 be celebrated for 以……出名 be eager for 渴望

be convenient for 对……方便,在……附近 be famous for 因……闻名 be good for 对……有益(方便) be hungry for 渴望得到 be necessary for 对……有必要 be sorry for 因……抱歉 be thankful for 因……而感激

be fit for 合适,适合 be grateful for 感谢 be late for 迟到 be ready for 为……准备好 be suitable for 对……合适(适宜) be well-known for 以……出名

十七、6 个常用“be+形容词+from”结构 be absent from 缺席,不在 be far from 离……远,远远不 be safe from 没有……的危险 be different from 与……不同 be free from 没有,免受 be tired from 因……而疲劳

十八、13 个常用“be+形容词+in”结构


be concerned in 与……有关 be engaged in 从事于,忙于 be expert in 在……方面是行家 be honest in 在……方面诚实 be lack in 缺乏 be skilful in 擅长于 be weak in 在……方面不行

be disappointed in 对(某人)感到失望 be experienced in 在……方面有经验 be fortunate in 在……方面幸运 be interested in 对……感兴趣 be rich in 富于,在……方面富有 be successful in 在……方面成功

十九、18 个常用“be+形容词+of”结构 be afraid of 害怕 be aware of 意识到,知道 be careful of 小心,留心 be fond of 喜欢 be full of 充满 be nervous of 害怕 be short of 缺乏 be sick of 对……厌倦 be tired of 对……厌烦 be ashamed of 为……感到羞愧 be capable of 能够,可以 be certain of 确信,对……有把握 be free of 没有,摆脱 be glad of 为……而高兴 be proud of 为……自豪 be shy of 不好意思 be sure of 肯定,有把握 be worthy of 只得,配得上

二十、20 个常用“be+形容词+to”结构 be accustomed to 习惯于 be close to 靠近,接近 be devoted to 献身,专心于 be familiar to 为(某人)所熟悉 be important to 对……重要 p; be opposed to 反对,不赞成 be polite to 对……有礼貌 be respectful to 尊敬 be similar to 与……相似 be used to 习惯于 be blind to 对……视而不见 be cruel to 对……残酷,对……无情 be equal to 等于,能胜任 be harmful to 对……有危害 be open to 对……开放,易受到 be opposite to 在……对面,和……相反 be related to 与……有关(是亲戚) be rude to 对……无礼 be true to 忠实于,信守 be useful to 对……有用

二十一、16 个常用“be+形容词+with”结构 be angry with 对(某人)生气 be busy with 忙于 be concerned with 关于,与……有关 be delighted with 对……感到高兴 be familiar with 熟悉,精通 be ill with 患……病 be bored with 对……厌烦 be careful with 小心 be content with 以……为满足 be disappointed with 对(某人)失望 be honest with 对(某人)真诚 be patient with 对(某人)有耐心


be pleased with 对……满意(高兴) be satisfied with 对……满意 二十二、24 个常用“in+其他词+of”结构 in advance of 在……前面 in behalf of 为了,为了……的利益 in celebration of 庆祝 in commemoration of 纪念,庆祝 in explanation of 解释 in favour of 赞成,主张 in honor of 纪念,祝贺,欢迎 in need of 需要 in possession of 拥有 in respect of 关于,就……而言 in sight of 看得见,在看见……的地方 in support of 为了支持(拥护)…… 注:同时注意一下相似结构: in exchange for 作为对……的交换 in return for 作为……的报答 in addition to 加之,除……之外 in contrast to [with] 与……形成对比 in reply to 作为对……的回答(答复) in [with] reference to 关于

be popular with 受……欢迎 be strict with 对(某人)严格

in aid of 帮助 in case of 如果,万一,以防 in charge of 负责,管理 in defence of 保卫 in face of 面对 in front of 在……前面 in memory of 纪念 in place of 代替 in praise of 称赞 in search of 寻找,搜找 in spite of 虽然,尽管 in view of 鉴于,考虑到

in preparation for 为……作准备 in reward for 作为……的报酬 in answer to 回答,响应 in opposition to 与……相反,反对 in response to 回答,响应 in [with] regard to 关于

二十三、27 个带 to doing sth.的常用结构 1.动词+介词 to+动名词 (1) admit to doing sth. 承认做了某事 (2) apply to doing sth. 适用于做某事 (3) object to doing sth. 反对做某事 (4) see to doing sth. 负责做某事 (5) stick to doing sth. 坚持做某事 (6) take to doing sth. 喜欢上做某事,逐渐习惯做某事

2.动词+宾语+介词 to+动名词 (1) apply oneself to doing sth. 专心致力于做某事 (2) devote sth. to doing sth. 把……献给做某事 (3) devote oneself to doing sth. 献身于做某事 (4) limit sth. to doing sth. 把……限制在做某事的范围内 (5) reduce sb. to doing sth. 使某人沦为做某事


3.动词+名词+介词 to+动名词 (1) give one’s life to doing sth. 献身于做某事 (2) give one’s mind to doing sth. 专心做某事 (3) have a dislike to doing sth. 厌恶做某事 (4) have an eye to doing sth. 注意做某事 (5) have an objection to doing sth. 反对(反感)做某事 (6) pay attention to doing sth. 注意做某事 (7) set one’s mind to doing sth. 决心做某事

4.be+形容词+介词 to+动名词 (1) be equal to doing sth. 等于做某事,能胜任做某事 (2) be used to doing sth. 习惯于做某事 (3) be opposed to doing sth. 反对做某事 (4) be reduced to doing sth. 使某人沦为做某事 (5) be devoted to doing sth. 把时间(钱,精力等)献给做某事 (6) be limited to doing sth. 把……限制在做某事的范围内

5.其他结构+介词 to+动名词 (1) get down to doing sth. 开始做某事,认真处理某事 (2) look forward to doing sth. 盼望做某事 (3) What do you say to doing sth? 你认为做某事如何? 附: 关于听力小结:


英语听力这门学科说来很有意思,因为学生分两种:一 .听力好的 这种人就觉得听力不难,就这么莫名地提高了,题目做 对了,貌似没有什么太大的难点;二.听力差的 这样的学生觉得听力老错,然后就是不知道怎么提高,背单词也没用,听听么 好像懂的,题目做了就会错,不知道怎么提高。 其实首先要明白,听力主要还是靠 practice 的,没有什么神奇的方法能够帮你一夜之间成为听力能人!那么在训练的时 候,注重相应的方法,可能会使得提高的效率更高而已。 听力提高的三要素: 1.词汇。不要傻乎乎的找本词汇手册就在那里背,完全脱离听力场景背单词并不可取。因为事实证明,很多人单词看到 认识,但是听的时候就不知道了。这不是因为词汇量小,而是对词汇的把握没有达到一定的熟练程度!单词肯定是要背的,但 是对于听力来说,可能背的单词还需用耳朵听一下。 2.坚持每天都听一定时间。听力这个东西提高很慢,但退步却很快。听一个星期可能没什么进步,但是一个星期不听却 会有很大退步。这就为什么很多人如果听力不好,就一直很难提高的原因!所以每天花个 1 小时左右听,不仅提高听力,还会 间接地提高口语的语音! 3.熟悉题型。毕竟是考试,所以熟悉题型,熟悉出题规律,当然能最大限度地发挥自身的听力能力。这方面一般报个培 训班就好了。当然基础不错的同学,自学也是可以的。 总而言之,提高听力如果是为了通过考试做题的话。那么每篇至少听 3 遍。第一遍就是单纯地做题。第二遍是分析,不 要看原文,不懂的地方多听几遍,然后再参考原文,不熟悉的词或词汇划出来背一下。第三遍是从头到尾再听一遍,捕捉更多 的细节(not limited to the questions in the test)。


1.With the help of 在~~帮助下 under the leadership / care of 在~~领导/关心下

2.be strict with sb. 对~人要求严格 be strict in sth. 对~事要求严格 3. at present=at the present time 目前 for the present 暂时 4. in the sun/sunshine 在阳光下 under the sun 在世界上 5. lie in 位于~~之内 lie on 同~~接壤 lie to 位于~~之外 6. at least 至少 in the least 丝毫,一点 7. by name 名叫 in the name of 以~~名义 8. in the air 空中,在流传 on the air 播出

9. in the way 挡路, 障碍, 用~~方法 in a way 在某点上, 在某种程度上 get one’s own way to do 随心所欲 give way 让步,屈服 lose one’s way 迷路 by the way 顺便说一下 on one’s way to 在去~~的路上 Come this way 这边走

10. at the corner 在拐角处(外角)in the corner 在角落里(内角)

on the corner 在角落上(外角上) 11. judge by / from 根据~~来判断 judge for oneself 由某人自己来判断 12. at the end (of) 在~~结束时 at the beginning of 在~~开始时 at the back of 在~~背后,支持 at the age of ~~岁时 at the foot of 在~~脚下 at the bottom of 在~~底部 at the top of 在~~顶上 at/on the edge of 在~~边上

13. in the course of 在~~过程中 in the eyes of 从~~观点看来,在~~眼里 in the face of 面对~,尽管,纵使 in the middle of 在~中间 in the end =at last=finally 最后 14. on the eve of 在~~前夕 on the side of 在~~一边 15. after a time = after some time 过一段时间后 for a time = for some time 一时,有一段时间 16. behind time 迟到,过期 behind the times 落在时代后面 17. at no time 决不 in no time 立即,马上 18. at one time = once time 曾经 at a time = each time 每次 at times = sometimes 有时 at all times 经常,一 直,始终 at the same time 同时 at the time 在~~的时候 by the time 到~~的时候 19. for a moment 一会儿 for the moment 暂时 at the moment 当时 the moment /minute /instance 正当~~一刹那 20. once or twice 一两次 more than once 不止一次 once more 重新,又 once upon a time 从前 once in a while 偶尔

1. 以 break 为中心的词组 break away from 脱离,逃离 break down 破坏,粉碎;瓦解;出故障,抛锚 break in 闯进,打断;使顺服 break into 闯入;强行进入;突然开始 break out 爆发,发生;准备使用;起锚 break the law 违反法律 break the record 破记录 break one’s promise 失言 break up 开垦,破碎;解散,分开,分解


2. 以 catch 为中心的词组 be caught doing 被发现做某事 be caught in the rain 淋雨 catch a bus/train 赶汽车/火车 catch a cold 伤风,感冒 catch one’s word 听懂某人的话 catch sight of 发现,瞥见 catch up with 赶上,追及,追上 3. 以 come 为中心的词组 come across 偶尔发现, 想起; 越过; 偿付 come along 一道来, 陪伴; 进步, 进展; 出现 come at 达到,求得,得到;扑向,袭击 come back 回来;恢复,复原 come down 倒下;降落;跌落;病倒 come from 来 自,起源于,从~~产生,生于 come in 进来,进入;流行起来;获名次 come into being 发生,产生,出现,形成 come into power 开始执政,当权,当选 come into use 开始使用,获得应用 come on 上演;开始;赶快;发展;登台; (问 题)被提出 come to know 开始了解到 come out 出来,传出;出版;结果是;褪色; (秘密)泄露 come to 苏醒,复原; 共计;达到;归结于 come to an end 终止,结束 come true 实现,成为现实;证实 come up 走近;上楼;长出,发芽

4. 以 do 为中心的词组 be done in 精疲力竭 be done with 完全结束 do a good deed 做一件好事 do away with 去掉,废除;弄死;浪费 do good to (=do sb. good) 有益于 do harm to (=do sb. good) 有害于 do its work 有效,有作用 do much 极有用 do wrong to 做错 do one’s best 尽某人最大努力 do one’s homework 做作业 do one’s utmost 尽力而为 do proud 足以使~~骄傲 do sb. justice 公平对待某人 do some cleaning (V+ing,etc.) 搞卫生 do sb. a favor 帮助某人

do well in 学得不错, 干得漂亮 do with 和~~相处, 忍受, 处理 do without 不需要, 不用 do wonders 创造奇迹 have much to do with 和~~很有关系 have nothing to do with 与~~无关 have something to do with 和~~有关 in doing so=in so doing 这时,在这种情况下 That will do. 行了;够了 5. 以 get 为中心的词组 get about 徘徊, 走动, 旅行; 流传 get above oneself 自视高傲 get accustomed to 习惯于, 对~~习以为常 get across 度过,通过,横过;说服,使理解 get ahead of 胜过,超过 get along 前进,进步;同意;离去 get along with 与~~相处 get at 发现, 了解; 掌握; 攻击 have got to do 不得不, 必须 get away 离开, 逃脱 get back 取回,回来;报复 get behind 落后;识破 get down 咽下;写下;使沮丧,使抑郁 get down to 认真对待,静下心来 get familiar with 熟悉 get hold of 获得,取得 get home 到家 get in 进入,陷入;牵涉 get off 送走;脱下(衣服) ;下 车;动身 get on 上车;穿上;进步,使前进;成功;相处 get upon with 进步;在~~方面获得成功 get one’s hand in 熟悉;习惯 get out of 由~~出来,从~~得出;避免;退休 get over 越过;恢复,痊愈;克服;完成 get ready for 为 ~~作准备 get rid of 除去,去掉;免除,摆脱 get through 到达,完成,通过;及格 get together 积聚,积累;商谈, 取得一致意见 get up 起床,起立;研究,钻研;致力于;安排,组织 get used to 习惯于

6. 以 give 为中心的词组 be given to 沉溺于,癖好 give about 分配;传播 give and take 相互迁就


give away 赠送;牺牲;泄露;颁发 give back 归还 give cause 给予~~的理由 give ear to 侧耳倾听 give forth 发 出,放出;发表 give in 屈服,让步,投降 give in to 同意,接受;向~~让步 give off 发出(烟,气味) give oneself out to be/as 自称为 give oneself up to 专心于;向~~自首 give out 分发,公布 give place to 让位于,被~~所替 代 give rise to 引起,导致;使~~发生 give sb. to understand 通知某人 give up 放弃;停止 give way to 让步,退 却;屈服于

7. 以 look 为中心的词组 look about 四下环顾;查看 look after 照顾,看管 look around 东张西望 look at 注视,着眼于 look back 回顾 look for 寻找;期待,期望 look down on 俯视;轻视 look forward to 盼望,期待 look into 窥视;调查;浏览 look like 看 起来象 look on 旁观;面向 look out 向外看;注意;当心,堤防 look over 从上面看过去;检查 look through 透过~~ 看去;看穿;浏览 look up to 仰望,尊敬

8. 以 make 为中心的词组 be made from 由~~原料制成 be made of 由~~材料制成 be made up of 由~~组成 make a fool of 愚弄,欺骗 make a mistake 弄错 make a point of doing 强调;认为~~重要;决心,坚持 make advantages/use of 使用,利 用 make after 追求,追赶 make believe 假装 make certain 确信,把~~弄清楚 make contact with 接通,与~~ 接触,与~~联系 make for 去向,向~~前进;有利于 make friends with 和~~交友 make into 把~~制成,使~~转 变为 make much of 重视;理解;赏识 make one’s mind on sth. 决定某事 make one’s own 当作自己的看待 make oneself at home 随便,别拘束 make out 填写;开支票;理解;辨认 make the best of 尽量利用;极为重视 make up 弥补,修理;赔偿,补偿;起草;编造;化装 make up to 接近,巴结;向~~求爱 make way for 为~~让路,让路于 on the make 急求成功;增加

9. 以 put 为中心的词组 put aside 把~~放在一边;搁置;排除 put away 把~~放好,把~~收拾;储藏;吃喝,吃掉 put back 把~~放回原处; 驳回 put down 放下;镇压;制止;记下;削减;降落 put forward 提出;拨快;建议,推荐;提倡,倡议 put ~~ into 把~~放入;插入;翻译成 put off 推迟,延期;消除;推脱,推辞 put on 上演;穿上,带上 put up with 忍受,容忍 put one’s heart into 全神贯注,专心致志 put up 举起,挂起;提名,推荐;陈列

10. 以 take 为中心的词组 be taken aback 吃惊 take a seat 就坐 take a shower 淋浴,洗澡 take aim 瞄准,设立目标 take away 拿走,减去;


夺去 take ~~ by surprise 出奇制胜 take one’s place 就坐,入坐 take care of 当心,注意;照顾;提防;谨慎;处理, 对付;负责 take office 就职,上任 take ~~ for 把~当作 take off 脱去,除去;离开;起飞;模仿;起程;致死;复制, 作副本;减弱 take one’s temperature 量体温 take part in 参与,参加 take it easy 别着急,慢慢来 take place = happen 发生,举行 take the place of 代替 take pride in 以~~为荣,对~~骄傲 take sb. by the arm 拉某人的胳膊

11. 以 turn 为中心的词组 give a new turn to 对~~予以新的看法 in one’s turn 轮到某人做某事 out of turn 不按次序的, 不合适宜的 take one’s turn to do 轮到做 turn a blind eye to 对~~视而不见 turn against 背叛, 采取敌对态度 turn back 折回, 往回走 turn down 折叠,翻下,驳回,拒绝考虑 turn into 走进;变成,变为 turn to ~~for help 求助于 turn off 关上(自来水, 电器开关) ;解雇,辞退;避开(问题) ;制造;生产 turn on 打开(自来水,电器开关) ;反对;依靠,依赖,取决于 turn one’s attention to 把注意力转向 turn out 培养; 证明是; 制成; 实际情况是 turn out to be 原来是, 证明是, 结果是 turn over a new leaf 翻开新的一页,重新开始,改过自新 turn (a)round 旋转,转过身来;改变意见;采取新政策 turn to 变 成;着手于 turn upside down 颠倒过来,翻过来;使陷入混乱

unit one a great achievement 一大成就 abandon one's ideas 放弃想法 above all 最重要, 首先 above normal 高于正常水平 a bove/below the sea level 高于/ 低于海平面 according to 根据 accept …as…承认 …为 accompany sb. 陪伴某人 accomplish wonders 创超奇迹 account for 说明,解释, 占有比例 achieve one's ambition 实现抱负 acid rain 酸雨 accuse sb of sth 控告/指责某人做过某事

blame sb for …, charge sb with sth 因…而控告某人

acknowledge…as… 承认…是… an able man 一个能干的人 an absolute lie 十足的谎言 at home and abroad 在国内外

be able/unable to do sth. 能/不能做某事 be aborbed in, be buried in, be lost in, be wrapped up with, be engaged in, be bent on, put one’s heart into, fix/focus/conce ntrate one’s attention on, apply one’s mind to, bend oneself to, devote oneself to, keep one’s mind on 全神贯注 be absent from 缺席 be accessible to …对…来说是容易接近(到达)的 by accident 意外地 (on purpose 故意地) enable sb. to do sth.使某人做某事 go aboard 上船 go abroad 出国 have absolute proof 有确凿证据 have the ability to do 有做…的能力 have/gain access to sth. 有接近(享受)....的机会 in the absence of 缺乏...时、 当...不在时 it is universally acknowledged that... 众所周知 make an abstract of 做摘要 on board 在船上/甲板上 on account of = because of = owing to = due to 由于、因为 overnight accommodations 过夜的住处 take sth into account = take sth into consideration = consider sth. 把…加以考虑 unit two a piece of advice 一条建议 act as = serve as 充当


act on = perform 表演 adapt sb to sth 使…适应 add to = increase 增加 add up to = come to 累计达到,加起来总和 additional funds 额外资金 address sb. as ... 称呼某人为... adjust oneself to sth 使自己适应于 admire sb. for sth. 因...佩服某人 admission fee 入场费 admit doing = confess doing 承认 admit sb into/to 使…进入 adopt an orphan 收养孤儿 adopt one’s suggestion 采纳建议 adventure stories 冒险故事 advertise for sth 为得到…而登广告 advertise sth 登…广告 劝告,建议某人干… (admit sb. into the party 发展某人入党)

advise sb to do sth

affect sb.= influence sb. 影响某人 an advanced worker 先进工作者 an adequate solution to the problem 解决问题的适当办法 (充足的) be admitted to the university 被大学录取 come across = meet with = run into 遇到 ( ~ difficulties 遇到困难) foreign /private affairs 外交事务/私事 给某人…方面的建议 follow (take) one's advice 听从...劝告

give sb one's advice on/about have an advantage over sb


have/show an affection for 喜爱…


take action 采取行动 in addition = besides = furthermore 此外,而且 in addition to = as well as = besides 除了…还有 in advance = ahead of time = ahead of schedual in advance of = in front of 在…前面 it must be admitted that… 必须承认… keep up with the advance of the society 跟上社会的进步 提前

take advantage of sth. = make use of sth. 利用 take advantage of sb. = cheat sb. 欺骗某人 take an active part in = be active in 积极参加 to one's advantage/disadvantage 对…有利(不利)的是 unit three a hearing aid = an aid to hearing 助听器 about/of my own age after all 毕竟 after-sales service 售后服务 again and again 再三地,反复地 against one’s will 违背意愿 agree on 对……取得一致意见 agree to (suggestion, proposal, plan) 同意(计划、建议) agree with sb./what sb. said 同意某人的看法,符合 ahead of sb 胜过, 超过 ahead of time 提前 aim at 瞄准 (aim at doing = aim to do 以…目标 ) 和我一样大

all at once = suddenly 突然 all over 到处


all the same 还是,仍然 all the time 始终 一直 allow sb sth = give sb sth 允给某人… allow sb to do sth = allow doing sth. 允许(某人)做某事

an agreessive young man 一个有进取心的年轻人 at the age of …在多大年龄的时候 at the airport 在机场 be afraid of doing 害怕去做某事 be afraid to do sth. 不敢做某事 be against = object to 反对 be in favour of = be for = be on one's side 支持 be named after 以…命名 be of age 成年 be/run after 追求、追赶某人 catch sb alive 活捉某人 买得起

can/could/be able to afford sth develop agriculture 发展农业 fight/struggle against 对抗 first of all 首先

for ages = for a long time 很长时间了 give/sound/raise the alarm 发警报 in all 总共 in the age of computer 在计算机时代 in the air 在空气中 in the open air 在露天 lean against 靠着


on the air 在广播中 on the alert 警戒着 set the alarm at 10 把闹钟调在 10 点 sound the alert 发出警报 the alcoholic drinks 含酒精的饮料 the old = the aged = the elderly 老年人 the people alive = the living people the soft drinks 不含酒精的饮料 the stone age 时代 under age 未到年龄 unit four a large amount of = amounts of 大量的 (后跟不可数名词) achieve one's ambitions 达到…志向 along with = together with 连同 alter one’s mind 改变主意 amaze sb = surprise sb. = astonish sb. 是某人惊讶 amount to 共计为 (= add up to = come to) an annual report 年度报告 and so on = and so forth 等等 be amazed to do/at/that 吃惊 be angry at + 言行 be angry with sb. about sth. 因某事而生某人的气 be annoyed with sb. for sth. 因某事而生某人的气 be filled with anger 满腔愤怒 come along 一起来 活着的人

critical analysis 评论分析


get along with 与…相处 have an ambition to do sth. 有志向做某事 realize one’s ambition 实现志向 have no alternative but to do = have no choice but to do 别无选择,只能… he alone = only he 只有他 in the last analysis 追根究底 it has been announced that...已宣布... let alone 更不用说,何况 let sb alone 让…单独留下 lose one's temper 发脾气 reach a goal 达到…目标 speak aloud、loud please,speak loudly,in a loud voice 以较高的声音 the ancient times 古代 to our amusement 令我们感到有趣的是 wedding anniversary 结婚纪念日 unit five a parking area 停车场 answer back 顶嘴

answer for 对…负责,因…而受罚 (= be responsible for), answer one’s question = reply to one’s question 回答某人问题 anything but 一点也不 (= not at all) apart from 此外,除外 (=besides,except,in addition to) apologize to sb for ( doing ) sth 因某事向某人道歉 appeal to sb. to do sth. 呼吁某人做… apply for 请求, 申请 apply one's mind to sth 专心于


apply oneself to doing 专心从事,埋头于… appoint sb (to be) sth 任命某人… appreciate doing 感激 感激某人做某事的好意

appreciate one's kindness in doing

approve of

赞成,批准 (disapprove of 不赞同)

argue with sb. about/over sth. 与…争吵 arm in arm 手挽手 at an appropriate time 在合适的时间

be anxious about = be worried about 为… 而焦虑、发愁 be anxious for = be eager for = long for 渴望… be anxious to do = be eager to do = long to do be appropriate to/for 对…适合 渴望做某事

by appointment 通过预约 carry a baby in her arms 怀抱婴儿 covers an area of 50 mu 占地 50 亩 have a good/poor appetite 有好/坏的食欲

have an appointment with sb 与…有个约会(=make an appointment) have applications in 在…(方面)应用

i would appreciate it if you would… 如果你…我将万分感激 in area 在面积上 it appears/seems that …似乎、好像 lay down one's arms 放下武器 make an apology to sb for sth. 因某事向某人道歉 none but 只有 (=only) nothing but 只不过 (= only)

pudong new area 浦东新区


take appropriate measures 采取适当的措施 tear sth apart 撕开 tell sth apart 区别开 the answer to the question 问题的答案 the appointed time 约定的时间 the approach of night 夜色来临 the approach to this town 进入…的通道

with open arms 张开手臂欢迎 win the applause of the masses 得到群众的赞扬(= win the hearts of sb.)

unit six a gifted athlete 一个有天赋的运动员 a heart attack 心脏病(= a heart disorder, a heart disease) aim at 瞄准, 针对 an artifical smile 不自然的微笑 arouse my interest 引起我的兴趣 arrange for sb to do arrange to do 安排 安排某人去做

arrive at an agreement 达成协议 arrest sb 拘捕某人

artificial silk 人造的丝绸 as far as i know 据我所知 as for/to 关于,至于 as if 好像(=as though) as/so long as 只要


ascend the mountain 登山 ask about 查问,打听 ask after 问候 ask for a day off 请一天假 ask for leave 请假 ask sb a favour/a favour of sb, ask for 寻找 assemble a machine 装备机器 assign sb sth 分配, 布置 (assign sb to do sth 布置某人做某事) 协助某人 assume the cost 承担费用 叫某人帮忙

assist sb with sth, assist sb to do sth, assist sb in doing sth associate a with b 把 a 和 b 结合在一起, 联想到一起 assure sb of = assure sb that 使(某人)相信 at present = for the time being = right now 现在 attempt to do 企图干= make an attempt to do

attend school 上学 attend the meeting 出席会议 = be present at the meeting attend to sth. 关注,注意 be ( sound / fast ) asleep 熟睡

be ashamed of oneself 为自己感到惭愧 be ashamed to do = be ashamed of doing 做某事感到羞愧 惊讶

be astonished to do = be astonished at = be astonished that be attached to 喜爱 fall asleep 入睡 in a friendly atmosphere 在友好的气氛中 in this aspect = in this respect 在…方面

make arrangements for sb to do 安排某人去做…


make preparations for 为…作准备 on arriving in/at… 一到达… put a little money aside 存一点钱 reduce sth to ashes 把..烧成灰烬(= burn sth. into ashes) show/conduct sb around 带领某人参观…

regard...as 把…认作 (= consider…as/to be, think of…as, have…as, look on…as) shoot at 向…射击, step aside 站在旁边 to one's astonishment = to one’s surprise 让某人惊讶的是 unit seven a certain amount of baggage 一定数量的行李 a small(large) audience 观众少(多) at a bakery 在面包房 attract one’s attention 引起某人注意 avenge one's parents 为父母报仇 average temperature 平均温度 avoid doing sth. 避免做某事 await sb = wait for sb 等待某 awaken sb to sth award sb sth 使…意识到

授予(= award sth to sb.)

awfully = terribly = extremely = very 非常的;糟透了的 back and forth 来回 be (fully) aware of = be conscious of (充分)知道/意识到 be available to sb 可取得的 be available for two weeks 有效期两月 beneficial bacteria 有益的细菌 break balance 打破平衡(=destroy the balance of nature)


call sb bad names

叫…绰号 吸引注意力

catch/draw /attract/hold one's attention

develop an attitude to/towards 养成对…的态度 feel awkward 感到尴尬 fifth avenue (纽约市)第五街 from bad to worse 越来越糟 give away 泄漏

go bad 变质 have an audience of 500 有 500 个观众 have authority over 对…行使权力 historical background 历史背景 keep balance 保持平衡 keep sb awake lie on one's back 使…醒着 四脚朝天躺着

look backward 回头往后看 on the average 平均而论 pay attention to 对…加以注意 (= take notice of) put sth away 收拾整齐 reward sb with sth for doing sth show one's attitude 表明态度 take a form attitude 采取强硬态度 用…来奖励某人

the authorities 政府当局 the back number ...过期的…(the current number 最新一期…) throw away 扔 turn away from 避开,不理睬 turn one's back on sb 不理睬…


wake sb up 唤醒… want sth badly = need sth badly 迫切希望得到… unit eight a band of 一伙 a bare hill 光秃秃的山 a born movie star 天生的电影明星 a steam bath 蒸气浴 at the barber's 在理发店 at the beach 在海滨 ban sb. from doing sth. 禁止某人做某事 ban the use of 禁止使用… basic necessities of life 生活的基本必需品 bathe one's wound 洗伤口 battle with 与...搏斗 be based on 以…为基础 (base sth. on sth.) be basic to 与… 息息相关 bear a share of responsibility 承担一份责任 bear doing sth. = stand doing sth. = put up with 忍受 bear the red cross 标有红十字 beat a bargain with sb 与…讨价还价 (make a bargain with sb 与…成交) before christ 公元前(b.c.)(a.d. 公元) car battery 汽车电池 have/take a hot/cold bath language barrier 语言障碍 lift the ban 取消禁令 洗个热/冷水澡


on the basis of 在…基础上,在…前提下 pick up a bargain 买到便宜货 play baseball 打棒球 practice ballet 练习芭蕾 put up barriers 设置障碍 snack bar 快餐店 the descent of the balloon 气球降落 wrap a bandage around his injured arm 给受伤的手臂缠上绷带 unit nine a bedtime story 临睡前的故事 at the beginning of 在…初 be beneficial to sb 对…有益 beat sb 打败…(defeat sb. ) before long = soon = presently 不久 beg a favour of sb 向…乞求帮助 beg sb to do 乞求某人做某事 begin with 以…开始 = to start with(to begin with 首先) behave yourself 行为规矩些 behind the scenes 幕后 behind the times 落后,陈旧的 behind time 迟到 believe in sb = trust sb 信任… believe sb to have done belong to 属于 bend one's brows 皱眉 beneath the horizon 地平线下 相信某人做过了…


benefit from 从…中获益 benefit sb 有益于某人 beside the point/ to the point 不在要点上/在要点上 between sb. 共同承担,齐心协力 come into being = come into existence from the (very ) beginning 从…一开始 do sth to the best of one's ability = do sth in one's power = go all out to do 竭尽全力 for the time being 目前 from behind the door 从门后 go begging 乞讨 grow beards 蓄胡子 had better ( not ) do 最好去(别)干… have a firm belief in sth. 坚信 know better than 很明白不至于去干… live below the poverty line 生活在贫困线下 long before 很久以前 might as well ( not ) do 最好去(别)干… on the beat 合拍 (off the beat 不合拍) political beliefs 政治信念 ring the bell 敲钟 safety belt 安全带 the beauty of nature 自然美 what's become of him? = what has happened to him? 他出了什么事? unit ten a bitter contest 激烈的竞争 a bitter taste 苦味 开始形成


a blank page 空白页 a bleeding wound 流血的伤口 a blind street/lane 死胡同 a block of 一大块 a chess board 棋盘 a thick blanket of snow 厚厚一层雪 atomic bomb 原子弹 be blind in 在…失明 be blind to 视而不见 be bound to do sth. 一定会,注定 be full of boasts 满口大话 be given to boasting 喜欢吹牛 be in (full) bloom (n.) . 开花, 盛开 beyond my power 超出能力 beyond one’s wildest dreams 某人最渴望的梦想 bind sth. with sth. 把…粘合在一起 bind the soil 粘合土壤

black and blue 青一块紫一块 blow down 吹倒 blame sb for sth 为…而受责怪 (blame sth on sb. , be to blame for) blind sb to sth 使…看不到 blow away 吹走 blow out 吹灭, 车胎的爆裂 by birth 天生 blow up 给…吹气 boast of/ about 吹牛,自夸 blare horns 鸣喇叭


build up one's body 强健体魄 develop one's mind 增长智力 by bicycle = on one’s bicyle 骑自行车 by birth 天生 crease the blouse 将衬衫弄皱 pass the bill 通过议案 pay the bill reject the bill 付账单 否决议案

notice board 布告栏 the bitter winter wind 刺骨寒风 the board of the company 公司的董事会 four types of blood 四种血型 unit eleven a branch of a railroad 铁路支线 a breed of dogs 一种狗

a bridge with a steel framework 一座钢结构桥 a popular brand 名牌商标 a species of fish 一种鱼 a ten-minute break 十分钟休息 at break = at the dawn of the day 在黎明 at the bottom of the page 在页底 at the bottom(foot) of the mountain 在山脚下 be bored with = be tired of = be fed up with 对…感厌烦 be born in/of a worker family 出生于工人家庭 be branded on one's memory 铭刻在…脑中 book in = check in 登记


booking office 售票处 borrowed words 外来词 bother oneself about bottled milk 瓶装牛奶 bottom price 最低价 bow one's head 低下头 bow to sb. 向某人鞠躬 break a record 打破记录 break away from 除去;逃脱 break down 坏了;抛锚 break into pieces 碎成碎片 break into/in 破门而入 break one's promise/words 食言 break out 爆发 break the balance of 打破平衡 bride and bridegroom 新娘新郎 bridge difficulties 度过难关 companion booklet 同学录 from the bottom of one's heart 衷心的 give (offer, hand out) bribes to sb have brains 有头脑 hold/catch one's breath 闭住呼吸 on the brain 念念不完(= in one’s mind) out of breath play bowling 上气不接下气 打保龄球 向某人行贿 为…烦恼

take bribes 受贿


take/draw a deep breath 深呼吸 unit twelve (brief - bye) a brilliant performance 出色的表演 a bunch of keys 一串钥匙 a bundle of firewood 一捆柴 anything but 一点也不 (= not at all) be built of bricks 用砖砌成 be burdened with 肩负着 be buried in 全神贯注 (=bury oneself in one’s work) be busy at work 忙于工作 be busy in doing = be busy with sth 忙于某事

bear a share of responsibility 承担一份责任 bring about = lead to = result in = cause 引起 bring forward = put forward 提出 bring sb. back to health 使…恢复健康 bring up 抚养长大 broad shoulders 宽的肩膀 broadcast live 实况广播 broadly speaking 从广义上讲 browse through = leaf through build up one's body 强健体魄 build (up) one's mind 增强智力 build up one's muscle 锻炼肌肉 bump into sb 撞到某人,遇到某人 (=come across, run across) burn oneself out 精疲力竭 浏览


burn out 烧光 burst into laughter = burst out laughing 哈哈大笑 burst into tears = burst out crying 大哭 but for 要不是 buy sth. by retail 通过零售购买 (buy sth. by wholesale 批发购买) by all means 尽一切办法,一定 by hand 手工 by means of 通过 by no means 决不 by turns = in turn = in one's turn 轮流 by way of 取道 do nothing but do 别无选择只能做(= have no choice but to do ) drive sb. out of business 使某人做不成生意 fire brigade 消防队 in brief 简短而言 (= in short, in a word, all in all)

it's none of your business. = mind your own business. 这不关你的事。 knock sb down 撞倒某人 learn sth. by heart 把…背出 make a brief speech on business 出差 pay sb. by the hour 按小时付费 push the button 按电钮开关 unit thirteen (cabbage - care) a candidate for the position 候选人 简短演讲

a capable man = an able man 一个能干的人


advertising campaign 广告战 answer the call 回电 be capable of doing 有能力做某事; 竟敢做某事 cable tv 有线电视 call at 拜访某地 call for 需要;打电话叫… call off 取消 call on sb to do sth/for sth call on sb. 拜访某人 call sb one's name 叫…名字 call up 打电话给…;应征入伍 calm down 别紧张 camping trip 野营 (go camping 去野营) cancel the flight 取消航班 canned food 罐装食品 can't … too ... 再…也不过分 capture sb 捕获 (= arrest sb 逮捕) capture the attention of audience 抓住…注意力 carbon dioxide 二氧化碳 care about 介意 care for 担心;照顾;喜欢 do sth. with care 很小心地做… enough capital 足够的资金 go camping 野营 in the cafeteria 在自助餐厅 keep calm = remain calm 保持镇定 号召某人做某事


lunar calendar 阴历 make a phone call 电话 on campus 校内 pocket calculator 袖珍计算机 solar calendar 阳历 strongest candidate 具备最好条件的应征者 television camera 电视摄像机 unit fourteen (career - challenge) a birth certificate 出生证 a casual remark 即席发言 a chain of 一系列;一连串 a piece of chalk 一支粉笔 be careful in doing = be careful of sth. = be careful to do 做某事小心

be careful with sth. (fire, work, study) 要小心(火,工作,学习) be certain to do = make certain that… = it's certain that... career diplomats 职业外交官 carry on 继续进行;经营 carry out 实施 carry sth. away 带走 cash this cheque 对换现金 cast a net 撒网 cast a vote 投票 catch fire 着火 catch one's eye/attention 引起…注意 catch sb. by the arm 抓住…手臂 确实,肯定


catch sb. doing 撞见某人正在做… (be caught doing) catch sight of 看到 catch/keep up with 跟上 cause sb. to do 造成…去做… cease fire 停火 celebrate our success 庆祝我们的成功 chair a meeting 主持会议 challenged my view 对我的观点提出异议 follow a music career 从事音乐生涯 for certain = for sure 的确,确实 in any case 无论如何 in cash 用现金 (be credit 用信用卡; by check/cheque 用支票) in most cases 在大都数情况下 in no case 绝不 in the case of my mother 以我母亲为例 in the center of 在…中心 in the later twentieth century 在二十世纪下半叶 in this/that case 在那种情况下 look in the catalog 查查目录 meet with new challenges 遇到新的挑战 pay in cash 现金 pick up sth. as a career/profession raise cattle 养牛 take/get/catch hold of 抓住 the cause of = the reason for …的原因 the cause of world peace 世界和平事业 选择…作为职业


the opening ceremony 开幕式 (the closing ceremony 闭幕式) unload the cargo 卸货 unit fifteen (champion - chill) a blank cheque 空白支票 a childish face 一张稚气的脸 a chill wind 一阵凉风 a man of character 一个有个性的人 a strong character 个性很强 a weather chart 天气表 at the chemist’s 在药房 be in charge of sth 主管 负责...

be in the charge of sb = be in one's charge = take charge of chances are that...= it is likely that 有可能 change a for b = exchange a for b 把 a 换成 b change one’s mind 改变主意

charge sb money for doing sth 因做…而向…索价 (pay sb money for) charge sb with sth 指控 chat over tea 边喝茶边聊天 chat with sb. about sth 闲谈;聊天 cheat in the exam 考试作弊 cheat oneself 自欺欺人 check in 登记;检票 check out 结帐离开 check up 核对 cheer on sb 为…欢呼


cheer up 振作 chew a problem over 仔细考虑问题 create many characters 创造很多人物 free of charge 免费 in a cheerful voice 兴高采烈地 in one’s childhood 在童年时代

pay by cheque 用支票付款 take the chance of doing 利用去做什么的机会 the charming folk songs 迷人的民歌 the chief doctor 首席医生 the leading character 主角 the man in charge 负责的人 win the championship 赢得冠军 unit sixteen (chimney - cliff) a bank clerk 一个银行职员 a bar of chocolate 一条巧克力 a business circle 商业圈 a large/wide choice of at Christmas 在圣诞节 choose from 从中挑选 choose sb. as 把某人选为 circle the correct answer 圈出正确答案 civil duties 公民义务 civil rights 公民权力 civil war 内战 选择


claim a reward 索取回报 claim sth 认领… claim to do = claim that 宣称 classical music 古典音乐 classify books 把书分类 clear away 把…清除掉 clear one's throat 清嗓子 clear up the problem 解决问题 clear up 天放晴; 澄清 first class ticket 头等舱票子 folk music 民间音乐 go to church 去做礼拜 优先选择权 决不

have the first choice

in/under no circumstances = on no account = in no case it is clear that... 很显然 把…说明白

make it clear that...

on christmas day 在圣诞日 pork chops 猪排 senior citizens 老年人 unit seventeen (climate - comedy) a British colony 英国的殖民地 a colony of 一群 a comfortable climate 宜人的气候 a great stand-up comedian 一个出色的脱口秀谐星 a suit of clothes 一套衣服


a table cloth 一块桌布 a very experienced coach 一个很有经验的教练 around the clock = day and night 整天整夜 be close to = be next to 在…附近 close down 关闭 close friend 亲密的朋友 cloudy ideas 模糊的想法 coach sb. 训练某人,辅导某人 coffee cup 咖啡杯 cold-blooded 冷血的 (warm-hearted 热心肠的) collect money = raise money 募集 collect one’s child from school 接孩子 combine a with b 结合

come across = run into = meet with 偶遇 come by = pass by 路过 come to a conclusion 得出结论 come to an agreement 达成协意 come to 苏醒 (= come to oneself, come back to life ); 合计达(= add up to) come up 走近;被提出;出现;发芽 comedy and tragedy 喜剧和悲剧 every coin has two sides. 事物都有两面性。 fair to cloudy 晴到多云 go to college 上大学 have a large collection of 有…收藏

how come? 怎么会这样?(后跟陈述句) in the years to come 接下几年中


make a close study of 仔细研究 people of all colours 各种肤色人 take /have a close look at 仔细看 the area code 邮编 the clue to sth. … 的线索 thread the clues 把线索串起来 three primary colours water colours 水彩颜料 what a coincidence! 多巧啊! unit eighteen (comfort - compute) a commercial course 商科 a commercial radio 商业电视台 三原色

a competitive society 一个竞争的社会 a complete answer 一个完整答案 a complete set of the works of luxun 鲁迅全集 a complicated machine 结构复杂的机器 a compound word 一个复合词 a sense of competition 一种竞赛意识

at one's command 听从…吩咐 be committed to do sth. 全力以赴做某事 be composed of = be made up of = consist of 由…组成 chemical compounds 化合物 comfort sb 使…舒适;安慰… command my respect 博得尊敬

command my sympathy 博得同情


command sb. to do sth. 命令某人做某事 (= order sb to do sth.) comment on 评论 (=make comments on) commit an unforgiveable error commit murder 犯凶杀 common sense 常识 communicate sth to sb. 把…传递给…;向…表达… communicate with sb. 通讯; 交流 犯不可原谅的错误

comparatively speaking 比较地说来 compare a to b 把…比做… 拿…与…比较

compare a with b

compete with 与…比赛; 与…竞争 complain to sb of / about sth 抱怨

compliment sb. on sth. 赞美;恭维 compose music 作曲 european community 欧洲共同体 extend my compliments to your parents 转达对你父母的问候 get a general idea of 对…有大致了解

have a good command of 牢固掌握(=have a good understanding / knowledge of) have something in common 有共同之处

lead a comfortable life 过着舒适生活 letters of coplaint 投诉信(letters of thanks 感谢信) live in comfort 过得很舒适 make comments on... 评论

make complaints to sb about... 抱怨 the communist party of china 中国***党 unit nineteen


(computer - container) a press conference 记着招待会 as far as i am concerned = as for me 至于我 be concerned about 为…担心 be concerned for 关心 be conscious / aware of 意识到 (be conscious / aware that…)

be considered to have done 被认为做过了… be in good/bad/poor condition 情况差 be under construction 在建造中 by contact 通过接触 comfirm my belief 坚定我的信念 conceal sth. from sb. 向…隐瞒…

conceal the truth 隐瞒真相 concentrate on = focus one's attention on = concentrate oneself on 集中注意力 concern sb. 与某人有关 concerning 关于(prep. )= about = with regard to

conclude one’s speech 结束演讲 confess doing 坦白 (confess to sb that… ) conflict with sb. 与…发生冲突(=make a conflict with sb.) confuse a with b 搞混 (confuse black with white 混淆黑白) 祝贺

congratulate sb. on sth.

connect… with… 连接; 接通; 交通工具上的相衔接 conquer nature 征服自然 conquer the fear of height 克服恐高症 conquer the hearts of his audience 赢得了观众的心 consider …as/to be…把…看作(regard…as…)


consider doing sth. 考虑做某事 consist in 位于; 在于 consist of = be made up of = be composed of consult a dictionary/map 查阅词典/地图 consult one’s lawyer 请教律师 consult with sb. 与…商量 很费汽油 由…组成

consume a lot of fuel

contain truth 包含整理 draw/reach/form/gain/arrive at/come to conclusion have confidence in doing sth. (of sth.) 对…有信心 得出结论

have no concept of wrong and right= can't tell right from wrong 没是非观念 in conclusion 总之 it’s considerate of you to do sth. 你真是考虑周到… lose contact with 与…失去联系 make contact with sb. = contact sb. = keep/get in touch with sb. 与…联系 on condition that = if = provided (that) 假如 the armed conflict 武装冲突

the construction site 建筑工地 the inner conflict 内心矛盾 the working conditions 工作环境 unit twenty (contemporary - countryside) a copy of newspaper 一份报纸 a letter in three copies 一式三份信 a striking contrast 一个鲜明对比 around the corner 将近;临近 (= at hand = near)


at a low cost 以低的成本 at all costs 不惜一切代价 at one's convenience 在…方便时 在…控制下

be in control = be under control be in control of 掌管

be out of control = beyond control 无法控制 by contrast 对比之下 contempoarey singers 当代歌手 continue to do/doing 继续做 contribute to sth. 促成,有助于 (= lead to, cause) contribution of money 捐赠 convince sb. of sth. 使某人相信… (convince sb. that …) cooperate with sb. in doing sth. correct one’s pronunciation 合作;协作


cost sb. dearly 使某人付出大的代价 cost sb. one’s life. 使某人付出生命代价 count on = depend on = rely on 信赖,依靠 drive sb. into a corner = corner sb. 使…处于困境 have / start a conversation with sb. 与…交谈 have control over / of 管的住 have no control over / of 管不住 in contract with 相对比 in the corner of 在(里面)角落(at/on the corner of 在拐角;

around the corner 在拐角周围) it cost sb. time/money to do... 花费…时间/钱做某事 it is convenient for sb to do... 对某人而言做某事是方便的


kitchen counter 厨房柜子 lacks content 缺乏内涵 make a contract with sb. 与某人订立契约 make contributions to sth. 对…做贡献 make conversation 没话找话

on the contrary 正相反 sth. cost sb. money …花了某人…钱

the continent 欧洲大陆 under contract 按合同 what really counts is that … 要紧的是;重要的是 count me out 不要把我算在内 (count me in 把我算在内) unit twenty-one (county- cultivate) a car crash 汽车是故 a couple of days 几天 a crowd of 一群人 a happy couple 一对幸福的夫妇 a political crisis 政治危机

a poor creature 可怜的人 a tennis court 网球场 a wanted criminal 一个通缉犯 at a crossroads 在十字路口 be covered with 被…覆盖住 be crazy about/on sth. 对…着迷 be crazy to do sth. be crowed with 挤满 热衷做某事


be cruel to 对…很残忍 bring sth. to a crisis 使…到危机时刻 by credit card 用信用卡 college course commit a crime court of law 法院 cove 30 square miles 占地 30 平方英里 cover 30 miles crash into 撞上 crawl towards 朝…爬去 create a bad impression 产生很坏的影响 走了 30 英里 大学课程 犯罪

create many characters 创造许多人物 create the world 创造世界 criticize sb. 批评 cross out 打叉;删除 cross talk 相声 cry out 大声叫唤 cultivate a love of art 培养对艺术的爱(= develop, raise) cultivate one’s mind 陶冶情操

don't crush this box. 别压坏这个盒子。 from cover to cover 一页页, 从头到尾 have the courage to do sth. 有勇气去干…

ice-cream 冰淇淋 (face cream 粉) in / during the course of 在…期间 (= during) learn crafts 学手艺 lose courage 失去勇


on credit 赊账 screw up one’s counage = summon up one’s courage 鼓起勇气 the crew of the ship 船上的水手 the red cross 红十字会

the staff of the school 学校工作人员 under the cover of 在…掩护下 unit twenty-two (cultural- deaf) 100-metre dash 短跑 a power cut / failure 停电 a shortcut 捷径 at daylight = at dawn = at break 在黎明 be curious about 对…好奇 be deaf to 听不到; 对…充耳不闻 cause damage 造成毁坏 cure sb. of 治好某人疾病 (表结果)

cure sb. of his bad habit = break sb. of a bad habit 使某人改掉坏习惯 cure these diseases 治好疾病 current english 当代英语 cut down the tree 砍倒 cut in 插嘴

cut off the branches 砍掉枝条 cut off the supply of water 切断水供应 cut off 砍掉;中断;隔绝

cut the cost of education 减少教育资费 cut the planned time by two hours 去掉两小时


cut the student's burden 减少学生负担 cut up 切碎 damp weather 潮湿的天气 date back to = go back to date the letter 标日期 day after day 日复一日 dead silence 一片寂静 do damage to 对…造成损坏 (damage sth.) do harm to = be harmful to = be injured in 对…有害 draw the curtain 拉下窗帘 追溯到

from dawn to dark 从早到晚 hurt one's feeling 伤害某人感情

in danger 处于危险中(out of danger 摆脱危险) in the dark 在黑暗中;被蒙在鼓里(keep sb. in the dark 不让某人知道) of the day 当天;当代 out of date 过期了 the current events 时事 the current number of this magazine 杂志最近一期 the current year = this year 今年 the cuts on his hand 手上的伤口 the other day to this day 不久前某天



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