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基础英语第四册五单元 the tapestry of friendship


background information
?☆70年代后,新女权运动从美国波

及到欧洲以及加拿大、日本等国。 联合国曾宣布1975年为国际妇女年. 从后随着经济发展,妇女地位不断 提高。 ?☆This text is taken from Close to Home, which was published by the Boston Globe Newspaper Company/Washington Post Writers Group in 1979.

?The author: Newspaper columnist Ellen Goodman has been with The Boston Globe since 1967. Born on April 11, 1941, in Newton MA, Goodman graduated from Radcliffe College拉德克利夫学院 in 1963. She began her career at Newsweek, where she worked as a researcher at a time when very few women became writers. 2 years later she began writing her column for The Boston Globe.

A friend is a present which you give yourself. 朋友是你送给自己的一份礼物。

In prosperity our friends know us; in adversity we know our friends. 在顺境中,朋友结识了我们;在逆境中, 我们了解了朋友。
A friend in need is a friend indeed 患难见真交。

A man dies often as he loses a friend. But we gain new life by new contacts, new friends. -----Bacon 一个人每逢失去一个朋友就等于经 历一次死亡。但是取得新联系,结 识新朋友却又使我们获得了新的生 命。

Pre-reading Questions


How do you define “friends”?

Can men and women be true friends?


which is stronger, men’s friendship VS women’s friendship.


Part s 1

Paragraphs
1-2 the Prelude
3-6 the Introduction

Main Ideas
the author reveals what kind of film people had just seen.
the author advances the two different standard of friendship

2

3

the detailed distinctions of the two types of 7-18 the Body friendship .
19 the Conclusion

4

It summarizes the fundamental difference

The first part :
◆0.pre-reading question: how does the author feel about the movies? ◆1. It was, in many ways, a slight movie. slight: simple ,trivial in many aspects, it was a trivial film. ◆2. big-budget: costly ◆3. cosmic: vast E.g. This earthquake was a disaster of cosmic scale

◆4.affecting:moving 、touching E.g. Departure is an affecting scene
◆ 5.Slowly, it panned across the tapestry of friendship . Pp. Step by step ,the process of building friendship, from the beginning to ending . pan: vt/i. swing (a video or film camera) to follow an object to have a n all-round view of it摇动(镜头)拍全景.

◆6.fragility: [U] (of an object) being easily broken or damaged. E.g. Older drivers are more likely to be seriously injured because of the fragility of their bones.
Adj. Fragile E.g: I'm feeling rather fragile after all that beer last night.

Part Two paragraph3–6
1. Why does the author list the movies the woman had seen last year?
2. What does the author discuss the shift of

focus for?
.

Paragraph 3-6
Main Idea :The author advances the double standard of friendship on the basis of personally observved shift of focus of film.

Para 2
It seemed that the peculiar eye,the social lens of the cinema ,had drastically shiftly its focus. Explain:It struck me that the social focus had significantlly changed the center from male friendship into female friendship

Drastically

In the paragraph drastically means significantlly
For example:Output has been drastically reduced. adj:drastic, extreme in a way that has a sudden ,serious or violent effect on sth ? a drastic remedy 烈性的药物 take drastic measures 采取果断措施[激烈手段] a drastic debate 激烈的辩论 make drastic change 做彻底的改变

flick
n: 1) a cinema film 2) quick light blow, with a whip or the tip of a finger ?By a flick of his whip, he drove the fly from the horse's head. 3) quick sharp movement He hit the ball with just a flick of the wrist. V:hair filiking

Para 4
This was not just another binge of trendiness ,but a kind of cinema verite. Paraphrase:This wasn’t simply a shift from one fashion to another, but a truthful description of friendship.

binge
t

n. If you go on a binge, you do too much of something, such as drinking alcohol, eating, or spending money.狂饮作乐 1)a short period when you do too much of something, especially drinking alcohol a week-end binge 周末狂饮 2)excessive indulgence in anything a shopping binge 抢购 a gambling binge 赌徒 an eating binge 暴食 They went on a binge last night.

Para 5

Paraphrase
There had been something almost atavistic about these visions of attachments –– as if producers culled their plots from some pop anthropology book on male bonding These stories on men’s friendship were almost like being inherited from our grandfathers. It seemed that the producers of these movies had selected their stories from some popular anthropology books on friendship between men.

Cull
verb select or obtain sth from various places (usu. cull sth. from sth. )

e.g. 1)The program was culled from the show's first 13 episodes. 2)Here are a few facts and figures I have culled from the week’s papers. 3)It is a collection of fascinating stories culled from a lifetime of experience.

Why the author takes Hemingways as an example?What is the influence?

Hemingway:one of the most famous American writers of the
20th century. (novels and short stories) "But man is not made for defeat, a man can be destroyed but not defeated.

pick on sb phrasal verb 1.persistently treat somebody unfairly: He gets picked on by the other boys because he's so small. Why don't you pick on someone your own size? 2.choose sb for a task, esp an unpleasant one : I was picked on to announce the bad news.

Para 6

THE" You’re OK, I’m OK Corral. "refers to what?

Part 3(7-18)
? Do you think the friendship between male and that between female are the same? If not, why?

Para 7
What’s the fundamental difference between male friendship and female friendship? The buddies is action -oriented while the friends is emotion-oriented.

? Main Idea: ? Give a large of examples to illustrate the difference between male friendship and female friendship.

Keywords
? Adversity [?d'v?:siti]---a state of misfortune or affliction ? Eg: ? Adversity makes a man wise, not rich. ? [谚]逆境增才干,并不增财富。 ? 同义词:hardship, hard knocks

Border on----1. be next to sth The two villages border on each other.

2. be almost the same as sth: The boy's reply to his teacher was bordering on rudeness.
I was in a state of excitement bordering on insanity. Our task borders on the impossible

attached 1) adj , full of affection for sb/sth be attached to sb/sth to like sb or sth very much: The children are very attached to their grandparents. I'm very attached to my old guitar. 2) attached to sth, working for or forming part of an organization The research unit is attached to the university

? attachment noun [C or U] a feeling of love or strong connection to someone or something: At university I formed a strong attachment to one of my tutors. She is unlikely to give up her lifelong attachment to feminist ideas.

? Palpably ['p?lp?bli]----capable of being perceived by the senses or the mind. ? Eg: ? It was palpably clear what she really meant.

? ?

Palpable adj.noticable palpability n.the quality of being perceivable by touch ? 反义词:impalpably insubstantially ? 同义词:tangibly obviously clearly

? Accessory [?k'ses?ri]----1.n.a supplementary component that improves capability;someone who helps another person commit a crime. ? Eg: ? He is Tom's accessory. ? 他是汤姆的帮凶。

? 2.adj.furnishing added support ? Eg: ? He was using his accessory muscles of respiration. ? 他在用呼吸辅助肌进行呼吸。

? Soldier ['s?uld??]----1.n.an enlisted man or woman who serves in an army ? Eg: ? The soldier received a serious wound on the chest.

? 2.v.serve as a soldier in the military ? Eg: ? They had made a deal that they would soldier together after graduated. ? soldier on----to continue what we are doing or trying to achieve.

? Count as----to be considered in a particular way. ? Eg: ? A few lines of rhyming doggerel don't count as poetry.

Paraphrase
? Men often keep their buddies in these categories, while women keep a special category for friends. ? Men often divid their buddies into different classes according to their different needs, but women just have one kind of friends---good friends.

? Keep sb. in......category----make sb. in ......class. ? Eg: ? Men often keep their buddies in different categories.

? Buddies hang tough together; friends hang onto together. ? Buddies remain united when in hard times, while friends cling to each other emotionally.

? ? ? ? ? ?

Hang onto----to cling to sth.. Eg: A lot hang onto your decisions. 与hang相关的短语: Hang on 抓紧 Hang over sb. 担心 Hang back 吞吞吐吐

Hang up
v. 1. put a telephone receiver back in its cradle 挂断电话 2. cause to be hanging or suspended 搁置 3. interrupt a telephone conversation 打断 eg. I have to hang up now.

Moan
n. an utterance expressing pain or disapproval 呻吟声;悲叹 v. indicate pain, discomfort, or displeasure 抱怨,悲叹;呻吟

eg.
Tony moaned in his sleep and then turned over on his side. I used to moan if I didn't get at least six hours' sleep at night.

Wretched adj. 1. unhappy
condition
可怜的

令人苦恼

2. of very poor quality or
eg. I feel really confused and

wretched.

Wretch

n

卑鄙的人

可怜的人

wretchedly

adv. 鄙劣地;可怜地 n. 可怜;悲惨;不幸

wretchedness

She knew so many men who had been trained in restraint, afraid of each other’s judgment or awkward with each other’s affection.
paraphrase She knew many men control their emotion for each other because they are afraid of sharing opinion on each other and can not deal with their affection for each other in a skillful way.

Restraint
n. the of act controlling by restraining someone or something Restrain v. 1. keep under control; keep in check 2. place limits on (extent or access) restrain oneself 自制,约束自己 restrain from 抑制;制止;阻止…去… eg. She was so angry that she could hardly restrain herself.

The only relationship that gave meaning to the claustrophobic life of George Babbitt had been with Paul Riesling. But not once in the tragedy of their life had one been able to say to the other: you make a difference.
give meaning to one’s life = be meaningful to one’s life

Claustrophobic
adj 1. uncomfortably closed or hemmed in 2. suffering from claustrophobia; abnormally afraid of closed-in places eg. If so, then there is some aspect of your waking life that makes you feel trapped or claustrophobic.

claustrophobia
n. [心理] 幽闭恐怖症

患者明知自己的恐惧与焦虑是过分的、没有必 要的、不合理的,但却无法控制,从而影响正常 的生活和工作,内心有痛苦感。恐惧发作时往往 伴随有明显的植物神经症状。幽闭恐惧症是对封 闭空间的一种焦虑症。幽闭恐惧症患者在某些情 况下,例如电梯、车箱或机舱内,可能发生恐慌 症状,或者害怕会发生恐慌症状。

Paraphrase Only the relationship with Paul Riesling is meaningful to George Babbitt’s painful life. But none of them say to each other when they experience difficulties in their life: you mean a lot to me.

Even now men shocked her at times with their description of friendship. Paraphrase Even now she is shocked by men’s description of friendship. Shock sb. with sth. Tom shocked me with his impolite behavior.

chum chummy

n. a close friend

adj. 1. (used colloquially) having the relationship of friends or pals 2. (used informally) associated on close terms

chumminess
n. the quality of affording easy familiarity and sociability

The ideal of intimacy wasn’t this parallel playmate, this teammate, this trenchmate. Not in Hollywood.

Paraphrase
The ideal pattern of friends wasn’t the male buddies, but female friendship, not only in movies but also in our real world.

For once the female version was becoming accepted as the general ideal.
For once = for the first time Paraphrase

For the first time, female friendship became widespread among people.

Paragraph 19
? But one’s friends, as Santayana once wrote, “are that part of the race with which one can be human.” ? Everything having been considered, a buddy is just an excellent mate in one’s lifetime, but a friend is different. Friends can help us to become human beings in essence, because they are part of us. What she has defined is a true meaning of a friend.

Rhetorical features

? synecdoche 借代 ? Across millions of miles of celluloid, the ideal of ……(paragraph 5) celluloid 指代 films ? Not even in Hollywood. (paragraph 18) in Hollywood 指代 in the movies ……

? Comparison ? Buddies bonded, but friends loved. Buddies faced adversity together, but friends faced each other. (paragraph 8) ? Buddies hang tough together; friends hang onto each other. (paragraph 11) ……

? Metaphor ? Can you believe me? A thirty-five-year-old lawyer, making a chicken call? ……

? Quotation
? ……as Santayana once wrote, “are

that part of the race with which one can be human.”
……

? analogy 类比 ? In contrast, they portrayed women picking on each other, the way they once picked berries. (paragraph 5) ……

? Parallel ? Buddies hang tough together; friends hang onto each other. (paragraph 11) ? Buddies faced adversity together, but friends faced each other. (paragraph 8) ……

? In this text, the author uses coordinators such as but and yet, in some other cases she uses the subordinators while or whilst and in still others she simply joins two clauses by using a punctuation mark only. We can find the examples in paragraph 8, 11, 12 and so on. The same purpose is to make a strong contrast between two different views on friends.

朋友们,不管是男性之间 的友谊,还是女性之间的友 谊,或是不同性别之间的友 谊都很珍贵,我们大家都应 该珍惜。


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