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ΆC b·NHޱ _egԬ ޶Ήd C΅@J BȽHb c F΅ihʴ MOܵE^ N`OЂܹA DЄMMΈ MݰʞA aLʟ CЃ_ܵ ΄`aBL` FΆ^_f [^ЂЄ ]\ ʠGK `[bE G gKDdN BʟZ ʠΈC LCΆCb· NHޱ_ egԬ ޶ΉdC΅ @JB ȽHbc F ΅ihʴM OܵE^N` OЂܹAD ЄMMΈM ݰʞA aLʟC Ѓ_ܵ΄` aBL`F Ά^_f[ ^ЂЄ] \ʠ GK` [bE Gg KDdN BʟZʠΈ CLCΆ Cb·N Hޱ_eg Ԭ޶Ή dC΅@ JBȽH bc F΅ih ʴMOܵE ^N`OЂܹ ADЄMM ΈMݰʞ AaL ʟCЃ_ܵ ΄`aBL `FΆ^_ f[^Ђ Є] \ʠG K`[bE G gKDd NBʟ ZʠΈC LCΆCb ·NHޱ_ egԬ ޶ΉdC΅ @JB ȽHb cF ΅ihʴM OܵE^N` OЂܹAD ЄMMΈM ݰʞA aLʟCЃ _ܵ΄` aBL`FΆ ^_f[ ^ЂЄ] \ʠG K` [bE Gg KDdN BʟZʠ ΈCLC ΆCb·N Hޱ_eg Ԭ޶ ΉdC΅ @JBȽ Hbc F΅i hʴMOܵE ^N`OЂ ܹADЄMM ΈMݰʞ AaL ʟCЃ_ܵ ΄`aB L`FΆ^_ f[^ ЂЄ] \ʠG K`[bE G gKDd NBʟ ZʠΈC LCΆCb ·NHޱ _egԬ ޶ΉdC ΅@JB ȽHb cF ΅ihʴM OܵE^N` OЂܹAD ЄMMΈM ݰʞA aLʟC Ѓ_ܵ΄` aBL`F Ά^_f[ ^ЂЄ] \ ʠGK `[bE Gg K Dd NBʟZ ʠΈC LCΆCb ·NHޱ_ egԬ ޶ΉdC΅ @JB ȽHb cF ΅ihʴM OܵE^N` OЂܹAD ЄMMΈ MݰʞA aLʟC Ѓ_ܵ΄` aBL`F Ά^_f [^ЂЄ] \ʠ GK` [bE Gg KDdN BʟZ ʠΈCLC ΆCb·N Hޱ_e gԬ޶ ΉdC΅ @JB Hbc F΅ ihʴMOܵ E^N`O ЂܹADЄ MMΈMݰ ʞA aLʟCЃ_ ܵ΄`a BL`FΆ ^_f[^ ЂЄ] \ʠG K`[b EG gKD dNB ʟZʠΈ CLCΆC b·NHޱ _egԬ ޶Ήd C΅@J BȽHb c F΅ihʴ MOܵE^ N`OЂܹA DЄMMΈ MݰʞA aLʟ CЃ_ܵ΄ `aBL` FΆ^_f [^ЂЄ ]\ ʠGK `[bE Gg KDdN BʟZ ʠΈCL CΆCb·N Hޱ_e gԬ ޶ΉdC΅ @JB Hbc F΅ ihʴMOܵ E^N`O ЂܹADЄM MΈMݰ ʞAa LʟCЃ_ ܵ΄`a BL`FΆ^ _f[^ ЂЄ] \ʠG K`[ bEG gK DdNB ʟZʠΈ CLCΆ Cb·NH ޱ_eg Ԭ޶Ήd C΅@ JBȽHb c F΅ihʴ MOܵE^ N`OЂܹA DЄMMΈ MݰʞA aLʟ CЃ_ܵ ΄`aBL` FΆ^_f [^ЂЄ ]\ ʠGK `[bE Gg KDdN BʟZ ʠΈCL CΆCb· NHޱ_e gԬ ޶ΉdC΅ @JB Hbc F΅ ihʴMOܵ E^N`O ЂܹADЄ MMΈMݰ ʞA aLʟCЃ_ ܵ΄`a BL`F Ά^_f[ ^ЂЄ] \ʠG K `[bE Gg KDdN BʟZ ʠΈCL CΆCb·N Hޱ_e gԬ ޶ΉdC΅ @JB Hbc F΅ ihʴMO ܵE^N`O ЂܹADЄ MMΈMݰ ʞA aLʟCЃ _ܵ΄`a BL`FΆ ^_f[^ ЂЄ] \ʠG K`[ bEG gK DdN BʟZʠ ΈCLCΆ Cb·N Hޱ_eg Ԭ޶Ή dC΅ @JBȽH bc F΅i hʴMOܵE ^N`OЂ ܹADЄMM ΈMݰʞ Aa LʟCЃ_ܵ ΄`aB L`FΆ^_ f[^Ђ Є]\ ʠGK `[bE G gKDd NBʟZ ʠΈC LCΆCb ·NHޱ_ egԬ ޶ΉdC΅ @JB ȽHb cF ΅ihʴM OܵE^N` OЂܹAD ЄMMΈM ݰʞA aLʟC Ѓ_ܵ΄` aBL`F Ά^_f[ ^ЂЄ] \ʠG K` [bEG g KDdN BʟZʠ ΈCLC ΆCb·N Hޱ_eg Ԭ޶Ή dC΅ @JBȽH bc F΅ih ʴMOܵE ^N`OЂܹ ADЄMM ΈMݰʞ AaL ʟCЃ_ܵ ΄`aB L`FΆ^_ f[^ ЂЄ] \ʠG K`[bE G gKD dNBʟ ZʠΈ CLCΆCb ·NHޱ _egԬ ޶ΉdC ΅@JB ȽHb cF ΅ihʴM OܵE^N `OЂܹAD ЄMMΈ MݰʞA aLʟC Ѓ_ܵ΄` aBL`F Ά^_f[ ^ЂЄ] \ʠG K` [bE Gg KDdN BʟZʠ ΈCLC ΆCb·N Hޱ_eg Ԭ޶Ή dC΅ @JBȽH bc F΅i hʴMOܵE ^N`OЂ ܹADЄMM ΈMݰʞ A aLʟCЃ_ ܵ΄`a BL`FΆ^ _f [ ^ЂЄ] \ʠG K` [bEG g KDdN BʟZʠ ΈCLC ΆCb·N Hޱ_eg Ԭ޶Ή dC΅ @JBȽ Hbc F΅i hʴMOܵE ^N`OЂ ܹADЄM MΈMݰʞ Aa LʟCЃ_ܵ ΄`aB L`FΆ^ _f[^ ЂЄ] \ʠG K`[b EG gKD dNB ʟZʠΈ CLCΆC b·NH ޱ_egԬ ޶Ήd C΅@ JBȽHb c F΅ihʴ MOܵE^ N`OЂܹ ADЄMMΈ MݰʞA aLʟ CЃ_ܵ΄ `aBL`F Ά^_f [^ЂЄ ]\ʠ GK `[bE Gg KDdN BʟZ ʠΈCL CΆCb·N Hޱ_e gԬ ޶ΉdC΅ @JB Hbc F΅ ihʴMOܵ E^N`O ЂܹADЄ MMΈMݰ ʞA aLʟCЃ_ ܵ΄`a BL`FΆ^ _f[^ ЂЄ] \ʠG K`[b EG gK DdNB ʟZʠΈ CLCΆC b·NH ޱ_egԬ ޶Ήd C΅@J BȽHb c F΅ihʴ MOܵE^ N`OЂܹA DЄMMΈ MݰʞA aLʟ CЃ_ܵ ΄`aBL` FΆ^_f [^ЂЄ ]\ ʠGK `[bE G gKDdN BʟZ ʠΈCL CΆCb· NHޱ_e gԬ ޶ΉdC΅ @JB Hbc F΅ ihʴMO ܵE^N`O ЂܹADЄ MMΈMݰ ʞA aLʟCЃ_ ܵ΄`a BL`FΆ^ _f[^ ЂЄ] \ʠG K`[ bEG gK DdNB ʟZʠΈ CLCΆC b·NH ޱ_egԬ ޶Ήd C΅@ JBȽHb c F΅ihʴ MOܵE^ N`OЂ ܹADЄMM ΈMݰʞ AaL ʟC Ѓ_ ܵ΄`aB L`FΆ^ _f[^ ЂЄ] \ʠG K`[b EG gK DdNB ʟZʠΈ CLCΆC b·NH ޱ_eg Ԭ޶Ήd C΅@ JBȽHb c F΅ih ʴMOܵE^ N`OЂܹ ADЄMMΈ MݰʞA aL ʟCЃ_ܵ ΄`aBL `FΆ^_f [^Ђ Є] \ʠGK `[bE G gKDd NBʟ ZʠΈC LCΆCb ·NHޱ _egԬ ޶ΉdC ΅@JB ȽHb c F΅ihʴM OܵE^N `OЂܹAD ЄMMΈM ݰʞA aLʟCЃ _ܵ΄` aBL`FΆ ^_f[ ^ЂЄ] \ʠG K` [bEG g KDdN BʟZʠ ΈCLC ΆCb·N Hޱ_eg Ԭ޶Ή dC΅ @JBȽH bc F΅i hʴMOܵE ^N`OЂ ܹADЄMM ΈMݰʞ AaL ʟCЃ_ܵ ΄`aBL `FΆ^_ f[^Ђ Є] \ʠG K`[bE G gKDd NBʟ ZʠΈC LCΆCb ·NHޱ_ egԬ ޶ΉdC΅ @JB ȽHb cF ΅ihʴM OܵE^N `OЂܹAD ЄMMΈ MݰʞA aLʟC Ѓ_ܵ΄` aBL`F Ά^_f [^ЂЄ] \ʠ GK` [bE Gg KDdN BʟZʠ ΈCLC ΆCb·N Hޱ_eg Ԭ޶ ΉdC΅ @JBȽ Hbc F΅i hʴMOܵE ^N`OЂ ܹADЄMM ΈMݰʞ AaL ʟCЃ_ܵ ΄`aB L`FΆ^_ f[^ ЂЄ] \ʠG K`[bE G gKDd NBʟ ZʠΈC LCΆCb ·NHޱ _egԬ ޶ΉdC ΅@JB ȽHb c F΅ihʴ MOܵE^ N`OЂܹA DЄ MM ΈMݰʞA aL ʟCЃ_ܵ ΄`aBL `FΆ^_ f[^Ђ Є] \ʠG K`[bE G gKDd NBʟ ZʠΈ CLCΆCb ·NHޱ _egԬ ޶ΉdC ΅@J BȽHb c F΅ihʴM OܵE^N `OЂܹA DЄMMΈ MݰʞA aLʟC Ѓ_ܵ΄ `aBL` FΆ^_f [^ЂЄ ]\ ʠGK `[bE Gg KDdN BʟZ ʠΈCL CΆCb· NHޱ_e gԬ ޶ΉdC΅ @JB Hbc F΅ ihʴMOܵ E^N`OЂ ܹADЄM MΈMݰ ʞAa LʟCЃ_ ܵ΄`aB L`FΆ^ _f[^ ЂЄ] \ʠG K`[b EG gK DdNB ʟZʠΈ CLCΆC b·NH ޱ_egԬ ޶Ήd C΅@ JBȽHb c F΅ihʴ MOܵE^ N`OЂܹA DЄMMΈ MݰʞA aLʟ CЃ_ܵ΄ `aBL` FΆ^_f [^ЂЄ ]\ ʠGK `[bE Gg KDdN BʟZ ʠΈCL CΆCb·N Hޱ_e gԬ ޶ΉdC΅ @JB Hbc F΅ ihʴMO ܵE^N`O ЂܹADЄ MMΈMݰ ʞA aLʟCЃ _ܵ΄`a BL`FΆ ^_f[^ ЂЄ] \ʠG K`[ bEG gK DdNB ʟZʠΈ CLCΆ Cb·NH ޱ_eg Ԭ޶Ήd C΅@ JBȽHb c F΅ihʴ MOܵE^ N`OЂܹA DЄMMΈ MݰʞA aLʟ CЃ_ܵ ΄`aBL` FΆ^_f [^ЂЄ ]\ ʠGK `[bE Gg KDdN BʟZ ʠΈCL CΆCb· NHޱ_e gԬ ޶ΉdC ΅@JB ȽHb cF ΅i hʴ MOܵE^N `OЂܹA DЄMMΈ MݰʞA aLʟ CЃ_ܵ΄ `aBL` FΆ^_f [^ЂЄ ]\ ʠGK `[bE G gKDdN BʟZ ʠΈCL CΆCb· NHޱ_ egԬ ޶ΉdC΅ @JB Hbc F ΅ihʴMO ܵE^N` OЂܹADЄ MMΈM ݰʞA aLʟCЃ _ܵ΄` aBL`F Ά^_f[ ^ЂЄ] \ʠG K` [bE Gg KDdN BʟZʠ ΈCLC ΆCb·N Hޱ_eg Ԭ޶ ΉdC΅ @JBȽH bc F΅ih ʴMOܵE ^N`OЂܹ ADЄMM ΈMݰʞA aL ʟCЃ_ܵ ΄`aBL `FΆ^_ f[^Ђ Є] \ʠG K`[bE G gKDd NBʟ ZʠΈC LCΆCb ·NHޱ _egԬ ޶ΉdC ΅@JB ȽHb cF ΅ihʴM OܵE^N` OЂܹAD ЄMMΈM ݰʞA aLʟC Ѓ_ܵ΄` aBL`F Ά^_f[ ^ЂЄ] \ʠG K` [bEG g KDdN BʟZʠ ΈCLC ΆCb·N Hޱ_eg Ԭ޶ ΉdC΅ @JBȽ Hbc F΅i hʴMOܵE ^N`OЂ ܹADЄM MΈMݰʞ Aa LʟCЃ_ܵ ΄`aB L`FΆ^_ f[^ ЂЄ] \ʠG K`[bE G gKD dNBʟ ZʠΈ CLCΆCb ·NHޱ _egԬ ޶ΉdC ΅@JB ȽHb cF ΅ihʴM OܵE^N `OЂܹAD ЄMMΈ MݰʞA aLʟC Ѓ_ܵ΄` aBL`F Ά^_f[ ^ЂЄ] \ʠG K` [bE Gg KDdN BʟZʠ ΈCLC ΆCb· NHޱ_e gԬ ޶ΉdC΅ @ JB ȽHbc F ΅ihʴM OܵE^N` OЂܹAD ЄMMΈM ݰʞA aLʟC Ѓ_ܵ΄` aBL`F Ά^_f[ ^ЂЄ] \ʠ GK` [bE Gg KDdN BʟZ ʠΈCLC ΆCb·N Hޱ_eg Ԭ޶ ΉdC΅ @JBȽ Hbc F΅i hʴMOܵ E^N`O ЂܹADЄM MΈMݰ ʞA aLʟCЃ_ ܵ΄`a BL`FΆ^ _f[^ ЂЄ] \ʠG K`[ bEG gK DdN BʟZʠΈ CLCΆ Cb·NH ޱ_egԬ ޶ΉdC ΅@J BȽHb c F΅ihʴ MOܵE^N `OЂܹA DЄMMΈ MݰʞA aLʟ CЃ_ܵ΄ `aBL` FΆ^_f [^ЂЄ ]\ ʠGK `[bE Gg KDdN BʟZ ʠΈCL CΆCb· NHޱ_e gԬ ޶ΉdC΅ @JB Hbc F΅ ihʴMOܵ E^N`O ЂܹADЄ MMΈMݰ ʞA aLʟCЃ_ ܵ΄`a BL`FΆ^ _f[^ ЂЄ] \ʠG K`[b EG gK DdNB ʟZʠΈ CLCΆ Cb·NH ޱ_eg Ԭ޶Ήd C΅@ JBȽHb c F΅ih ʴMOܵE^ N`OЂܹ ADЄMMΈ MݰʞA aLʟ CЃ_ܵ ΄`aBL` FΆ^_f [^ЂЄ ]\ ʠGK `[bE G gKDdN BʟZ ʠΈCL CΆCb· NHޱ_e gԬ ޶ΉdC΅ @JB Hbc F΅ ihʴMO ܵE^N`O ЂܹADЄ MMΈMݰ ʞA aLʟCЃ_ ܵ΄`a BL`FΆ^ _f[^ ЂЄ] \ʠG K`[ bEG gK DdN BʟZʠ ΈCLC ΆCb·N Hޱ _e gԬ޶ ΉdC΅ @JB Hbc F΅ ihʴMOܵ E^N`O ЂܹADЄ MMΈMݰ ʞA aLʟCЃ_ ܵ΄`a BL`FΆ ^_f[^ ЂЄ] \ʠG K`[ bEG gK DdN BʟZʠΈ CLCΆ Cb·N Hޱ_eg Ԭ޶Ή dC΅@ JBȽH bc F΅ih ʴMOܵE ^N`OЂ ܹADЄMM ΈMݰʞ AaL ʟCЃ_ܵ ΄`aB L`FΆ^_ f[^ ЂЄ] \ʠG K`[b EG gKD dNBʟ ZʠΈC LCΆCb· NHޱ_ egԬ ޶ΉdC΅ @JB ȽHbc F ΅ihʴM OܵE^N` OЂܹAD ЄMMΈM ݰʞA aLʟC Ѓ_ܵ΄` aBL`F Ά^_f[ ^ЂЄ] \ʠG K` [bE Gg KDdN BʟZʠ ΈCLC ΆCb·N Hޱ_eg Ԭ޶Ή dC΅ @JBȽH bc F΅i hʴMOܵE ^N`OЂ ܹADЄMM ΈMݰʞ AaL ʟCЃ_ܵ ΄`aBL `FΆ^_ f[^Ђ Є] \ʠG K`[bE G gKD dNBʟ ZʠΈ CLCΆCb ·NHޱ _egԬ ޶ΉdC ΅@J BȽHb c F΅ihʴM OܵE^N `OЂܹAD ЄMMΈ MݰʞA aLʟC Ѓ_ܵ΄` aBL`F Ά^_f [^ЂЄ] \ʠ GK` [bE Gg KDdN BʟZʠ ΈCLC ΆCb·N Hޱ_eg Ԭ޶ ΉdC΅ @JBȽ Hbc F΅i hʴMOܵE ^N`OЂ ܹADЄMM ΈMݰʞ AaL ʟCЃ_ܵ ΄`aB L`FΆ^_ f[^ ЂЄ] \ʠG K`[ bEG gK DdNB ʟZ ʠ ΈCLCΆ Cb·N Hޱ_eg Ԭ޶Ή dC΅@ JBȽH bc F΅ih ʴMOܵE ^N`OЂܹ ADЄMM ΈMݰʞA aL ʟCЃ_ܵ ΄`aBL `FΆ^_f [^Ђ Є] \ʠGK `[bE G gKDd NBʟZ ʠΈC LCΆCb· NHޱ_ egԬ ޶ΉdC΅ @JB ȽHbc F ΅ihʴMO ܵE^N` OЂܹADЄ MMΈM ݰʞA aLʟCЃ _ܵ΄`a BL`FΆ ^_f[ ^ЂЄ] \ʠG K`[ bEG g KDdN BʟZ ʠΈCLC ΆCb·N Hޱ_eg Ԭ޶ ΉdC΅ @JBȽ Hbc F΅i hʴMOܵ E^N`OЂ ܹADЄM MΈMݰʞ Aa LʟCЃ_ܵ ΄`aB L`FΆ^ _f[^ ЂЄ] \ʠG K`[b EG gKD dNBʟ ZʠΈ CLCΆCb ·NHޱ _egԬ ޶ΉdC ΅@J BȽHb c F΅ihʴM OܵE^N `OЂܹAD ЄMMΈ MݰʞA aLʟC Ѓ_ܵ΄ `aBL`F Ά^_f [^ЂЄ] \ʠ GK `[bE G gKDdN BʟZ ʠΈCL CΆCb· NHޱ_ egԬ ޶ΉdC΅ @JB Hbc F΅ ihʴMO ܵE^N`O ЂܹADЄ MMΈMݰ ʞA aLʟCЃ _ܵ΄`a BL`FΆ ^_f[^ ЂЄ] \ʠG K`[ bEG gK DdNB ʟZʠΈ CLCΆ Cb·NH ޱ_eg Ԭ޶Ήd C΅@ JB

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ĿͼʽйѧӢĶ ĿThe Function of Schema Theory in Improving the Chinese Students EFL Reading Ability

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ĴѧԺ

壬 ţӴ

ڽڵͻеĽɫ
һУ

壬С ժҪսԺ緶Χս׽ˡս羭õõѸͷչ ιҵڲϸıǵȻڿƽͷٵȫ ֮£ڸս𲻶ϡѧļۣ ĵԡͻۡߺ͢ΪѧɡѧΪս ڶڽ̺ʹͳĻĿ׷ǿҵĻУͻҪԭ ѲΣã»⽻ڽΪֻ֮ijͻ 壬ţ ȻΪʵˡ IJ 20 о ȴ۵ĽǶȷ˸ڽɱ֮ƽݣ ֤ڽ̱Ŀԡ߲˹̵ԭּ˶ չ˼֯ͼ˷ӲӦΪڽ̵Ĵij˵ ܱΪڽ̵һ֡󣬱ͨ͸İԲǰҪ ͻ⣬Գͻȣԭз˵˾º;õ ڵͻռλáɴߵóۣڽǵͻԭ֮һ Ҫԭ ͨĵд߱˶Եǰеͻɹ۵IJͬϣ ķϸµľﵽ֤ڽ̲dzͻ֮ԴĿġʵǣڽ ʷIJù屦ӦԱʹ֮ һУ ؼʣڽ̣ͻ˷ӣͻԴ 壬 ţӴ 3-5 ؼʣ ʼ÷ֺż

ժҪҳ ҳ Сдĸ

i

On the Role of Religion in Regional Conflicts
һУ Abstract һУ
ĺţӴ֣ СģӴ֣

п 5 ַ

Since the end of the Second World War, the world economy has been greatly developed. However, under the background of global prosperity, regional conflicts and wars are still going on. This leads to the intense controversy among scholars. The most influential party is represented by Samuel P. Huntington, who states his standpoint in his book The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order, published in 1996. These scholars believe after Cold War, politics, or economy is no longer the root of conflicts. Instead, due to the global enthusiasm towards religions and Сģ1.5 о࣬˶ civilizations and the increasing senses of cultural belonging, clash between religion-based civilizations becomes the main cause. But, the author believes on the contrary. In the first part of the paper, the author theoretically compares the similarities of the faiths of some major religions and then provides evidence to show that extremists cannot be taken as representatives, even part of religions. Then, through case studies, the author explain in detail many other causes involved in some current hot issues and conflicts, proving that religions are part of the causes of regional conflicts, but far from to be a main one. In this paper, the author expresses her disagreement on the thoughts in Clash of Civilizations and her wish to prove that religions are not the root of todays conflicts according to detailed examples and cases. Religions, with civilizations divided on the basis of them, are precious parts of our human history. Therefore, the author firmly believes that the task on us is to further develop religions, rather than blame, hate, even diminish them. Key words: religion; Clash of Civilizations; root; regional conflicts
Key wordĸ дСģӴ

ii

3-5 ؼʣ ʼ÷ֺż

п 5 ַ ʽҪ ֣

Acknowledgements
һУ

ĺţӴ֣

First and foremost, I would like to express my heartfelt gratitude to my supervisor, Professor X, XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXX.
Сģ 1.5

XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX ࣬˶ XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXX

iii

Contents
һУ
Ӣ״̬µľ

ժҪ.i Abstractii Acknowledgements...iii Introduction...1 I. A Brief Review of Functional Equivalence...2 A. Definition ofڶ Equivalence .3 Functional B. Different Functions..4 C. Aims and Targets.5 II. A Brief Review of Advertisement Translation from English to Chinese.6 A. Targets and Principles of Advertisement Translation..7 B. Requirements for Advertisement Translation..9 C. Cultural Elements in Advertisement Translation11 III. Advertisement Translation from English to Chinese in Light of Functional Equivalence...13
ݲܳҳ볤 ҳ һ

A. The Differences Between Two Languages.15 B. Functional Equivalence in English Advertisement Translation.....17 Conclusion......19 Notes...20 Bibliography...24

Ŀ¼ҳ ҳ

1

On Advertisement Translation from English to Chinese in Light of Functional Equivalence
һУ Introduction һУ
Сģ ֣ ĺţ ֣

In our daily life, we always see or hear many advertisements on the radio, billboards, magazines, newspaper and so on. The translation of advertisement
п 5 ַ plays an important role in the cultural exchanges of different countries. After ʽҪ ֣

entering WTO, China has been faced with fiercer competition, so the
࣬˶

Сģ for it is advertisement has become more and more important1.5 always used as the

way to promote the sales of goods. The excellent advertisement is not only understandable for everyone, but also has an elegant style. It can easily encourage people to buy the goods. Therefore, a good translation of an advertisement is also important to promote the sales of the goods in the country of the target language. Most translators may be familiar with the theory of functional equivalence which is systematically illustrated by Eugene A. Nida. It is stated primarily in
עϱ꣬ ĩβע appreciated the text and the way in which receptors of the translated text ʽע

terms of a comparison of the way in which the original receptors understood and

understand and appreciate the translated text.1 That is to say, the adequacy of translations is judged on the basis of the correspondence in lexicon and grammar between the source and target languages. Functional equivalence is a powerful weapon for information exchange. The translation work which follows the principles of functional equivalence is much easier to understand. However, functional equivalence is very abstract to most people. In order to make it clear, this paper chooses advertisement translation to analyze its every aspect. Due to the differences between English and Chinese, the advertisement translation from English to Chinese should be undertaken in different translation techniques with the guidance of functional equivalence.
ҳáҳ ׶˾Сĸʽ

1

I. A Brief Review of Functional Equivalence һУ
ÿµҳ ţӴ֣

The similarity of the thoughts of human beings determines that the similarities are more than the differences between English and Chinese. The equivalence of languages makes it possible to convert the source language into the target language. However, the convert is not just a process to translate the words from one language to another language. Translation should be a task to recur the information of the original work in a most natural way. That is to say, translation should rebuild the surficial forms of the original information, convert the views of expression and replace the meaning of the original work with the meaning of the translated work. Therefore, equivalence is the most important basis for translation. The translated work can be of higher quality if it achieves more equivalence with the original work. Functional equivalence is very important to all kinds of translation. The reason is that English and Chinese have many differences in their forms, grammars, sentence structures and so on. Therefore, in the process of translation, to convey the information of the original work is the focus and the most difficult part. After all, the receptors of the translated work expect to know the content of the original work. Functional equivalence also emphasizes the cultural elements. If a translated work does not reflect the cultural elements of the original work, it must be a failure. Therefore, the translator should be bilingual and bicultural. Nida always holds a view that syntax and lexeme are the biggest barriers for the translators.2 The translators devoted to English-Chinese translation may agree with him. Most of them have learned English through the grammar, so their translation concept is often affected by the grammar and sentence structure. Functional equivalence is a powerful weapon for the translators to overcome these barriers. Functional equivalence can fall into three parts. First, the word classes replace the traditional parts of speech to describe the semantic relations of the words. Second, the concept of kernel sentence and the concept of sentence transformation can overcome the restriction of syntax to a translator. Third, isomorphism can overcome the barriers
2

ͨ͡תķ ʽñ˵Ĺ۵㣬 ţڼý ֱķʽע

caused by the social and cultural differences.3 һУ
ڱ𶥸 ǰ һУĺţ ֣

A. Definition of Functional Equivalence
һУ

ֱò 4 4 У should be able to understand and appreciate it in essentially the same manner as the Ķģ ֣δϣǰ original readers did.4 ӱ

A maximal, ideal definition could be stated as The readers of a translated text

A minimal, realistic definition of functional equivalence could be stated as The readers of a translated text should be able to comprehend it to the point that they can
ֱӶ öŸ

conceive of how the original readers of the text must have understood and appreciate Ͽ ǰ it.5

Poets, according to Shelley, are the unacknowledged legislators of the world.6 In the 1950s, for example, while Ellington was still alive, Raymond Horricks compared him with Ravel, Delius, and Debussy: һУ
ʱð ָ¸ һ

The continually enquiring mind of Ellingtonhas sought to extend
߿ 10 ַ

steadily the imaginative boundaries of the musical form on which it subsists. Ellington since the mid-1930s has been engaged upon extending both the imagery and the formal construction of written jazz.6

ֻһεij ģ߿ 10 Ellingtons earliest attempt to move beyond the three-minute limit recieved

һУ

Figures in literature are either flat characters one dimensional figures, figures with simple personalities or round characters complex figures. The characters described in the first chapter of The Great Gatsby can well be regarded as flat:
13 ַ

һУ
2 ϳ 13 ַ

I never saw this great-uncle, but Im supposed to look like him----with special reference to the rather hard-boiled painting that hangs ģÿ in fathers office.
߿ 10 ַ

3

I graduated from New Haven in 1915, just a quarter of a century after my father, and a little later I participated in that delayed Teutonic migration known as the Great War. 7 һУ However, F. Scott Fitzgerald succeeds in changing these flat figures into round ones through his master-hand writing skills and in-depth characterization.

B. Different Functions

The theory of functional equivalence involves nine functions: expressive, cognitive, interpersonal, informative

4

Conclusion
һУ

ÿµҳ ţӴ֣

With the rapid development of the international trade, advertisement has become an indispensable part in our life. To some extent, it has become our guide in the aspect of consuming. No doubt, we are now living in the age of advertisement. Therefore, to translate a good and effective advertisement is increasingly important for attracting the potential customers and promoting the sale of the products in the international market. Since Chinese and English are two quite different languages, the translation from English to Chinese is not an easy task. The translator should learn well the cultural and social background of the original work, the differences of their sentence structures and also their habits of expression. Although there are so many differences between the two languages, the functions of all the languages are the same. That is to name the reality and to communicative with the people. It is just the basis for the translation from English to Chinese. Functional equivalence indeed provides the translators an easier way to finish a translation work. It benefits the advertisement translation, and also gives a direction for other kinds of translation, especially the pragmatic texts, because its main target is to guide the translators to retell the information of the original work as much as possible and to represent the information of the original work is just the target of the pragmatic texts. Through a relative thorough analysis of functional equivalence and advertisement translation, the readers of the essay may have a clear understanding of the details and aspects of advertisement translation. The readers may appreciate the advantages of functional equivalence in the process of advertisement translation.

Functional equivalence helps the translators overcome the barrier of translation. That is the forms and structures of the language of the original work. Advertisement translation has its special aims. It is not only for information exchange, but also for encouraging the customers to buy the products. This is the ultimate aim of

5

advertisement translation. Therefore, the translators should not only express the accurate meaning of the original work, but also pay attention to the diction of words and the cultural elements. The translation work will fail to realize its aims if it neglects the cultural elements such as the tradition, customs and habits of the target country. The analysis of these aspects in this essay may give the readers a little enlightenment.

6

βעϱ ʽֺ 1 ַ
1

Notes
һУ

βע ҳĺţ ֣

Eugene A Nida, Language, Culture and Translating (Shanghai: Shanghai

Foreign Language Education Press, 1993), 116.
2

תҶ ߼Ӣʵ 廪ѧ磬
βעȫΪλͨ Ӧע ͵һ¡

2001 ꣬ 164 ҳ
3 4 5

Ҷ, 164 ҳ Eugene A. Nida, 117. Ibid., 118.

11

Ӣעһ עͬ鲻ͬҳ

Eugene A. Nida, Toward a Science of Ttranslating (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1964),

166.
12

Larry A. Samovar, Richard E Porter and Lisa A. Stefani. Communication
βע ߵıŷ ʽǰպFirst Name ɶ תԽ, ʫ͹淭о Firstԭ Ĵѧ磬 2004 עһ עͬ鲻ͬҳ βעк ע͵ĸʽ

between Cultures (Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press, 2000), 60.
13

, 228 ҳ
14 15 16 17

, 229 ҳ , 228 ҳ , 228 ҳ

ֵ½,ӢԱо뷭롷 ɳƼѧ磬2002

꣬ 117 ҳ
18

βע תԼֵ½,ӢԱо뷭롷 ɳƼѧ磬 б

2002 ꣬ 130 ҳ
19

Eugene A. Nida, Translation: Applications and Research (New York: Gardner

Press, 1976), 48.
20

Ibid., 50.

β ע IJ ʽ ÿһע 5 ַ

7

Ӣĸ ˳ͨ

Bibliography
һУ

ο׵ҳ ĺţӴ֣

Davis, Nicolas E., and Gregory Crane, eds. The Printing Press as an Agent of Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979. Ϣ

1 У

http://www.eng.fju.edu.tw/Literary_Criticism/new_criticism/ οĿIJ ʽÿһĿ 5 ַ ͬοĿ֮ 1 Powell, Welter W.. The Health-Science Information Struggle: The Private Information Industry versus The National Library of Medicine. New England Journal of Medicine 307 15 July 1982, 201-223. ڿ¸ֹҳ

Shatzkin, Leonard. In Cold Type: Overcoming the Book Crisis. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1982.
嵥λ֮ʵĵ

Starr, Paul. The Electronic Reader. In Reading in the 1980s. Ed. Stephen Braubard. New York: Bowker, 1983.
ο˳ ĺ

ʫ ѧۡ ѧо磬1997

һ ӵʫ跭Ļ˼20036 5459 ҳ Ƚ δ Ͼ Ļ뷭롷 ͺأ ɹŴѧ棬 1998 Ϊ ˾
ʱ

йⷭ湫˾ ʫʷ йⷭ湫˾ 1987
NB eLЅ LCK JܵaH DFΆ^ BЂPO ΅ΈOe@ ݰD[ cAʠЄb MΈ[Gʞ Zޱ bPN]a ^Ѓ`M C CܹKZ _C ԬB޶Ή A_Ά A\޶ ΄ܹ@ ·dΉʴi Bʟhܵ _g`O ԬfEΉf BNCeN BeL ЅLC KJܵa HDFΆ ^BЂ PO΅ΈOe @ݰD [cAʠЄ bMΈ[ GʞZޱ bPN] a^Ѓ` MC CܹKZ _ CԬB ޶ΉA_Ά A\ ޶΄ܹ @·dΉ ʴiBʟh ܵ_g`O ԬfEΉ fBNCeN BeL ЅLC KJܵa HDFΆ ^BЂ PO΅ΈO e@ݰD [cAʠЄ bMΈ[ GʞZޱ bPN] a^Ѓ` MC CܹKZ _ CԬB ޶ΉA_Ά A\ ޶΄ܹ @·dΉʴ iBʟh ܵ_g` OԬfEΉ fBNCe NBe LЅLC KJܵ aHDF Ά^BЂ PO΅ΈO e@ݰD [cAʠЄ bMΈ[ GʞZޱ bPN] a^Ѓ` MC CܹKZ _ CԬB ޶ΉA_Ά A\ ޶΄ܹ @·dΉ ʴiBʟh ܵ_g` OԬfE ΉfBNCe NBe LЅLC KJܵ aHDF Ά^B ЂPO΅ΈO e@ݰD [cAʠ ЄbMΈ[ GʞZޱ bPN ]a^Ѓ` MC CܹK Z_ CԬB ޶ΉA_Ά A\ ޶΄ܹ @·dΉ ʴiBʟh ܵ_g` OԬfE ΉfBNCe NBe LЅLC KJܵ aHDF Ά^B ЂPO΅ΈO e@ݰD [cAʠ ЄbMΈ[ GʞZޱ bPN ]a^Ѓ` MC CܹK Z_ CԬB ޶ΉA_Ά A \޶΄ ܹ@·d ΉʴiBʟ hܵ_g `OԬfE ΉfBN CeNB eLЅLC KJ ܵaHD FΆ^B ЂPO΅ ΈOe@ݰ D[cA ʠЄbMΈ [GʞZ ޱbP N] a^ Ѓ`M CC ܹKZ _C ԬB޶ΉA _Ά A\޶΄ ܹ@· dΉʴiB ʟhܵ _g`OԬ fEΉfB NCeNB eLЅ LCK JܵaH DFΆ^ BЂP O΅ΈOe @ݰD[ cAʠЄb MΈ[G ʞZޱ bPN]a ^Ѓ` MC CܹKZ _C ԬB޶ ΉA_Ά A\޶ ΄ܹ@ ·dΉʴ iBʟhܵ _g`O ԬfEΉ fBNCeN BeL ЅLC KJܵ aHDFΆ ^BЂ PO΅ΈO e@ݰD [cAʠЄ bMΈ[G ʞZޱ bPN]a ^Ѓ` MC CܹKZ _C ԬB޶ ΉA_Ά A\޶ ΄ܹ@ ·dΉʴ iBʟhܵ _g`O ԬfEΉ fBNCe NBeL ЅLC KJܵ aHDFΆ ^BЂ PO΅ΈO e@ݰD [cAʠЄ bMΈ[ GʞZޱ bPN] a^Ѓ` MC CܹKZ _ CԬB޶ ΉA_Ά A\ ޶΄ܹ@ ·dΉʴ iBʟh ܵ_g`O ԬfEΉ fBNCe NBeL ЅLC KJܵ aHDFΆ ^BЂ PO΅ΈO e@ݰD [cAʠЄ bMΈ[ GʞZޱ bPN] a^Ѓ` MC CܹKZ _ CԬB ޶ΉA_Ά A\ ޶΄ܹ @·dΉʴ iBʟh ܵ_g` OԬfEΉ fBNCe NBe LЅLC KJܵ aHDF Ά^BЂ PO΅ΈO e@ݰD [cAʠЄ bMΈ[ GʞZޱ bPN] a^Ѓ` MC CܹKZ _ CԬB ޶ΉA_Ά A\ ޶΄ܹ @·dΉʴ iBʟh ܵ_g` OԬfEΉ fBNCe NBe LЅLC KJܵ aHDF Ά^B ЂPO΅Έ Oe@ݰ D[cA ʠЄbMΈ [GʞZ ޱbP N]a^Ѓ `MC Cܹ KZ_ CԬB ޶ΉA_ ΆA\ ޶΄ ܹ@·d ΉʴiBʟ hܵ_g `O

Ԭf EΉfB NCeNB eLЅL CK JܵaHD FΆ^ BЂPO ΅ΈOe@ ݰD[c AʠЄbM Έ[Gʞ Zޱb PN]a^ Ѓ`M C CܹKZ _C ԬB޶Ή A_Ά A\޶΄ ܹ@· dΉʴi Bʟhܵ _g`OԬ fEΉf BNCeN BeLЅ LCK Jܵa HDFΆ^ BЂP O΅ΈOe @ݰD [cAʠЄb MΈ[G ʞZޱ bPN]a ^Ѓ` MC CܹKZ _C ԬB޶ ΉA_Ά A\ ޶΄ܹ@ ·dΉʴi Bʟhܵ _g`OԬ fEΉf BNCeN BeLЅ LCK Jܵa HDFΆ ^BЂP O΅ΈOe @ݰD [cAʠЄb MΈ[G ʞZޱ bPN] a^Ѓ` MC CܹKZ _C ԬB޶ ΉA_Ά A\޶ ΄ܹ@ ·dΉʴ iBʟhܵ _g`O ԬfEΉ fBNCeN BeL ЅLC KJܵa HDFΆ ^BЂ PO΅ΈOe @ݰD [cAʠЄ bMΈ[G ʞZޱ bPN] a^Ѓ` MC CܹKZ _C ԬB޶ ΉA_Ά A\ ޶΄ܹ@ ·dΉʴ iBʟh ܵ_g`O ԬfEΉ fBNCe NBeL ЅLC KJܵ aHDFΆ ^BЂ PO΅ΈO e@ݰD [cAʠЄ bMΈ[ GʞZޱ bPN] a^Ѓ` MC CܹKZ _ CԬB޶ ΉA_Ά A\ ޶΄ܹ@ ·dΉʴ iBʟh ܵ_g`O ԬfEΉ fBNCe NBeL ЅLC KJܵ aHDFΆ ^BЂ PO΅ΈO e@ݰD [cAʠЄ bMΈ[ GʞZޱ bPN] a^Ѓ` MC CܹKZ _ CԬB ޶ΉA_Ά A\ ޶΄ ܹ@·dΉ ʴiBʟ hܵ_g `OԬfE ΉfBNC eNB eLЅLC KJ ܵaHD FΆ^B ЂPO΅Έ Oe@ݰ D[cAʠ ЄbMΈ [G

ʞ Zޱb PN]a^Ѓ `M CC ܹKZ _CԬ B޶ΉA _Ά A\޶΄ ܹ@· dΉʴiB ʟhܵ_ g`OԬf EΉfB NCeNB eLЅL CK JܵaH DFΆ^ BЂPO ΅ΈOe@ ݰD[ cAʠЄbM Έ[Gʞ Zޱ bPN]a ^Ѓ`M C CܹKZ _C ԬB޶Ή A_Ά A\޶ ΄ܹ@· dΉʴi Bʟhܵ _g`OԬ fEΉf BNCeN BeL ЅLCK Jܵa HDFΆ ^BЂ PO΅ΈOe @ݰD[ cAʠЄb MΈ[Gʞ Zޱ bPN]a ^Ѓ`M C CܹKZ _C ԬB޶Ή A_Ά A\޶ ΄ܹ@· dΉʴi Bʟhܵ _g`O ԬfEΉf BNCeN BeL ЅLCK Jܵa HDFΆ ^BЂP O΅ΈOe @ݰD [cAʠЄb MΈ[G ʞZޱ bPN]a ^Ѓ` MC CܹKZ _C ԬB޶ ΉA_Ά A\޶ ΄ܹ@ ·dΉʴi Bʟhܵ _g`O ԬfEΉf BNCeN BeL ЅLCK Jܵa HDFΆ ^BЂ PO΅ΈOe @ݰD [cAʠЄ bMΈ[G ʞZޱ bPN] a^Ѓ` MC CܹKZ _C ԬB޶ ΉA_Ά A\޶ ΄ܹ@ ·dΉʴ iBʟhܵ _g`O ԬfEΉ fBNCeN BeL ЅLC KJܵa HDFΆ ^BЂ PO΅ΈOe @ݰD [cAʠЄ bMΈ[G ʞZޱ bPN] a^Ѓ` MC CܹKZ _C ԬB޶ ΉA_Ά A\޶ ΄ܹ@ ·dΉʴ iBʟhܵ _g`O ԬfEΉ fBNCeN BeL ЅLC KJ ܵaHDF Ά^B ЂPO΅Έ Oe@ݰD [cAʠ ЄbMΈ [GʞZޱ bPN ]a^Ѓ `MC CܹK Z_ CԬB ޶ΉA_Ά A\ ޶΄ܹ @·dΉ ʴi

Bʟ hܵ_ g`OԬfE ΉfBN CeNB eLЅLC KJ ܵaHD FΆ^ BЂPO΅ ΈOe@ ݰD[c AʠЄbMΈ [Gʞ Zޱb PN]a^ Ѓ`M CC ܹKZ _C ԬB޶ΉA _Ά A\޶΄ ܹ@· dΉʴiB ʟhܵ _g`OԬ fEΉfB NCeNB eLЅ LCK JܵaH DFΆ^ BЂP O΅ΈOe@ ݰD[ cAʠЄb MΈ[Gʞ Zޱ bPN]a ^Ѓ` MC CܹKZ _C ԬB޶ ΉA_Ά A\޶΄ ܹ@· dΉʴiB ʟhܵ _g`OԬ fEΉfB NCeNB eLЅ LCK JܵaH DFΆ^ BЂP O΅ΈOe@ ݰD[ cAʠЄb MΈ[G ʞZޱ bPN]a ^Ѓ` MC CܹKZ _C ԬB޶Ή A_Ά A\޶ ΄ܹ@· dΉʴi Bʟhܵ _g`OԬ fEΉf BNCeN BeLЅ LCK Jܵa HDFΆ^ BЂP O΅ΈOe @ݰD[ cAʠЄb MΈ[G ʞZޱ bPN]a ^Ѓ` MC CܹKZ _C ԬB޶ ΉA_Ά A\޶ ΄ܹ@ ·dΉʴi Bʟhܵ _g`O ԬfEΉf BNCeN BeL ЅLCK Jܵa HDFΆ ^BЂP O΅ΈOe @ݰD [cAʠЄb MΈ[G ʞZޱ bPN]a ^Ѓ` MC CܹKZ _C ԬB޶ ΉA_Ά A\޶ ΄ܹ@ ·dΉʴi Bʟhܵ _g`O ԬfEΉf BNCeN BeL ЅLCK Jܵa HDFΆ ^BЂP O΅ΈOe @ݰD [cAʠЄb MΈ[G ʞZޱ bPN]a ^Ѓ` MC CܹK Z_ CԬB ޶ΉA_Ά A\ ޶΄ܹ @·dΉ ʴiBʟh ܵ_g` OԬfE ΉfBNCe NBe LЅLC KJܵ aHDF Ά^B ЂPO΅ΈO e@ݰD [

cA ʠЄbMΈ [GʞZ ޱbP N]a^Ѓ `MC Cܹ KZ _CԬ B޶ΉA_ ΆA \޶΄ ܹ@·d ΉʴiBʟ hܵ_ g`OԬf EΉfBN CeNB eLЅL CK JܵaHD FΆ^ BЂPO ΅ΈOe@ ݰD[c AʠЄbM Έ[Gʞ Zޱb PN]a^ Ѓ`M CC ܹKZ _C ԬB޶Ή A_Ά A\޶΄ ܹ@· dΉʴiB ʟhܵ _g`OԬ fEΉf BNCeNB eLЅ LCK Jܵa HDFΆ^ BЂPO ΅ΈOe@ ݰD[c AʠЄbM Έ[Gʞ Zޱb PN]a^ Ѓ`M C CܹKZ _C ԬB޶Ή A_Ά A\޶΄ ܹ@· dΉʴi Bʟhܵ _g`OԬ fEΉf BNCeNB eLЅ LCK JܵaH DFΆ^ BЂP O΅ΈOe@ ݰD[ cAʠЄb MΈ[Gʞ Zޱ bPN]a ^Ѓ`M C CܹKZ _C ԬB޶Ή A_Ά A\޶΄ ܹ@· dΉʴi Bʟhܵ _g`OԬ fEΉf BNCeNB eLЅ LCK Jܵa HDFΆ^ BЂP O΅ΈOe @ݰD[ cAʠЄb MΈ[G ʞZޱ bPN]a ^Ѓ` MC CܹKZ _C ԬB޶Ή A_Ά A\޶ ΄ܹ@· dΉʴi Bʟhܵ _g`OԬ fEΉf BNCeN BeLЅ LCK Jܵa HDFΆ^ BЂP O΅ΈOe @ݰD[ cAʠЄb MΈ[G ʞZޱ bPN]a ^Ѓ` MC CܹKZ _C ԬB޶Ή A_Ά A\޶ ΄ܹ@· dΉʴi Bʟhܵ _g`OԬ fEΉf BNCeN Be LЅLC KJܵ aHDF Ά^BЂ PO΅ΈO e@ݰD [cAʠЄ bMΈ[ GʞZޱ bPN] a^Ѓ` MC CܹKZ _ CԬB ޶ΉA_Ά A\ ޶΄

ܹ@·d ΉʴiBʟ hܵ_g `OԬfE ΉfBNC eNB eLЅLC KJ ܵaHD FΆ^B ЂPO΅ ΈOe@ݰ D[cA ʠЄbMΈ [Gʞ ZޱbP N]a^Ѓ `M CC ܹKZ _CԬ B޶ΉA _ΆA \޶΄ ܹ@· dΉʴiB ʟhܵ_ g`OԬf EΉfB NCeNB eLЅL CK JܵaH DFΆ^ BЂPO ΅ΈOe@ ݰD[c AʠЄbM Έ[Gʞ Zޱ bPN]a^ Ѓ`M C CܹKZ _C ԬB޶ΉA _Ά A\޶΄ ܹ@· dΉʴiB ʟhܵ_ g`OԬf EΉfB NCeNB eLЅL CK JܵaH DFΆ^ BЂPO ΅ΈOe@ ݰD[ cAʠЄbM Έ[Gʞ Zޱ bPN]a^ Ѓ`M C CܹKZ _C ԬB޶Ή A_Ά A\޶΄ ܹ@· dΉʴiB ʟhܵ _g`OԬ fEΉfB NCeNB eLЅ LCK JܵaH DFΆ^ BЂPO ΅ΈOe@ ݰD[ cAʠЄbM Έ[Gʞ Zޱ bPN]a^ Ѓ`M C CܹKZ _C ԬB޶Ή A_Ά A\޶΄ ܹ@· dΉʴi Bʟhܵ _g`OԬ fEΉf BNCeNB eLЅ LCK JܵaH DFΆ^ BЂP O΅ΈOe@ ݰD[ cAʠЄb MΈ[Gʞ Zޱ bPN]a ^Ѓ`M C CܹKZ _C ԬB޶Ή A_Ά A\޶΄ ܹ@· dΉʴi Bʟhܵ _g`OԬ fEΉf BNCeNB eLЅ LCK JܵaH DFΆ^ BЂP O΅ΈOe@ ݰD[ cAʠЄb MΈ[Gʞ Zޱ bPN]a ^Ѓ` MC CܹKZ _ CԬB޶ ΉA_Ά A\ ޶΄ܹ@ ·dΉʴ iBʟh ܵ_g`O ԬfEΉ fBNCe NBeL ЅLC KJܵ aHDFΆ ^BЂ PO

΅Έ Oe@ݰ D[cAʠ ЄbMΈ [GʞZ ޱbPN ]a^Ѓ `MC Cܹ KZ_ CԬB ޶ΉA_ ΆA\ ޶΄ ܹ@·d ΉʴiBʟ hܵ_g `OԬfE ΉfBN CeNB eLЅLC KJ ܵaHD FΆ^B ЂPO΅ ΈOe@ ݰD[c AʠЄbMΈ [Gʞ Zޱb PN]a^Ѓ `M CC ܹKZ _CԬ B޶ΉA _Ά A\޶΄ ܹ@· dΉʴiB ʟhܵ _g`OԬf EΉfB NCeNB eLЅ LCK JܵaHD FΆ^ BЂPO΅ ΈOe@ ݰD[c AʠЄbMΈ [Gʞ Zޱb PN]a^ Ѓ`M CC ܹKZ _CԬ B޶ΉA _Ά A\޶΄ ܹ@· dΉʴiB ʟhܵ _g`OԬf EΉfB NCeNB eLЅL CK JܵaH DFΆ^ BЂPO ΅ΈOe@ ݰD[c AʠЄbM Έ[Gʞ Zޱb PN]a^ Ѓ`M CC ܹKZ _C ԬB޶ΉA _Ά A\޶΄ ܹ@· dΉʴiB ʟhܵ _g`OԬf EΉfB NCeNB eLЅ LCK JܵaH DFΆ^ BЂPO ΅ΈOe@ ݰD[ cAʠЄbM Έ[Gʞ Zޱ bPN]a^ Ѓ`M C CܹKZ _C ԬB޶Ή A_Ά A\޶΄ ܹ@· dΉʴiB ʟhܵ _g`OԬ fEΉfB NCeNB eLЅ LCK JܵaH DFΆ^ BЂPO ΅ΈOe@ ݰD[ cAʠЄbM Έ[Gʞ Zޱ bPN]a^ Ѓ`M C CܹKZ _C ԬB޶Ή A_Ά A\޶΄ ܹ@· dΉʴiB ʟhܵ _g`OԬ fEΉ fBNCeN BeL ЅLC KJܵa HDFΆ ^BЂ PO΅ΈOe @ݰD [cAʠЄ bMΈ[G ʞZޱ bPN] a^Ѓ` MC CܹKZ _C ԬB޶ ΉA

_Ά A\ ޶΄ܹ @·dΉ ʴiBʟ hܵ_g` OԬfE ΉfBNC eNB eLЅLC KJ ܵaHD FΆ^B ЂPO΅Έ Oe@ݰ D[cA ʠЄbMΈ [GʞZ ޱbP N]a^Ѓ `MC Cܹ KZ _CԬB ޶ΉA_ ΆA \޶΄ ܹ@·d ΉʴiBʟ hܵ_ g`OԬfE ΉfBN CeNB eLЅL CKJ ܵaHD FΆ^ BЂPO΅ ΈOe@ ݰD[c AʠЄbM Έ[Gʞ Zޱb PN]a^ Ѓ`M CC ܹKZ _CԬ B޶ΉA_ ΆA \޶΄ ܹ@·d ΉʴiBʟ hܵ_ g`OԬf EΉfBN CeNB eLЅL CKJ ܵaHD FΆ^ BЂPO ΅ΈOe@ ݰD[c AʠЄbM Έ[Gʞ Zޱb PN]a^ Ѓ`M CC ܹKZ _CԬ B޶ΉA _Ά A\޶΄ ܹ@· dΉʴiB ʟhܵ_ g`OԬf EΉfB NCeNB eLЅL CK JܵaHD FΆ^ BЂPO ΅ΈOe@ ݰD[c AʠЄbM Έ[Gʞ Zޱb PN]a^ Ѓ`M CC ܹKZ _C ԬB޶ΉA _Ά A\޶΄ ܹ@· dΉʴiB ʟhܵ _g`OԬf EΉfB NCeNB eLЅL CK JܵaH DFΆ^ BЂPO ΅ΈOe@ ݰD[c AʠЄbM Έ[Gʞ Zޱb PN]a^ Ѓ`M CC ܹKZ _C ԬB޶ΉA _Ά A\޶΄ ܹ@· dΉʴiB ʟhܵ _g`OԬf EΉfB NCeNB eLЅL CK JܵaH DFΆ^ BЂPO ΅ΈOe@ ݰD[c AʠЄbM Έ[Gʞ Zޱ bPN]a ^Ѓ` MC CܹKZ _C ԬB޶ ΉA_Ά A\޶ ΄ܹ@ ·dΉʴi Bʟhܵ _g`O ԬfEΉf BNCeN BeL ЅLCK Jܵa HD

F Ά^B

8


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