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综合英语教程第五册 课后答案 课件Unit-06 How America Lives


新世纪高等院校英语专业本科系列教材(修订版) 综合教程第五册(第2版) 电子教案

Unit 6

How America Lives

上海外语教育出版社 南京信息工程大学 刘杰海

Contents Learning Objectives Pre-reading Activities Global Reading Detailed Reading Consolidation Activities Further Enhancement

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Learning Objectives
Expositive writing developed by facts Key language & grammar points Writing strategies: deductive method, topic sentence The survival of the American system

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Picture Activation | Pre-questions

Can you specify typical Americans?

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Picture Activation | Pre-questions
1. With the ever-increasing contact between the Chinese and American peoples, we are getting to know each other better. Based on your communication with some Americans or your reading about that nation, what opinions do you hold about the American people?

Open for discussion

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Picture Activation | Pre-questions
2. Chinese and Americans are two great peoples in the world. They have obvious similarities and differences. Make some comparison and contrast between them.

Open for discussion

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Text Introduction | Culture Notes | Author | Structure James Albert Michener, in this text, shows readers changes of American society in: politics, courtship and marriage, feminist; and also the existence of three serious problems in: school education, jobs opportunities and welfare, and housing for the young. Despite these problems, the writer feels confident that America has good prospects. He feels proud of his motherland, of the great American people, and of the unique American democratic system.

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Text Introduction | Culture Notes | Author | Structure Puritanism (Paragraph 3) the practices and doctrines of the Puritans who were members of a group of Protestants in 16th- and 17thcentury England and 17th-century America who believed in strict religious discipline and called for the simplification of acts of worship. The movement was an attempt to remove Roman Catholic influences from the Church of England.

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Text Introduction | Culture Notes | Author | Structure balanced system of government (Paragraph 8) The concept refers to the three branches of the United States government — the legislative, the executive, and the judicial — that restrain and stabilize one another through their separated functions. The legislative branch, represented by the Congress, must pass bills before they can become law. The executive branch — namely, the president — can veto bills passed by the Congress, thus preventing them from becoming law. In turn, by a two-thirds vote, the Congress can override the president's veto. The Supreme Court may invalidate acts of the Congress by declaring them contrary to the Constitution of the United States, but the Congress can change the Constitution through the amendment process.
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Text Introduction | Culture Notes | Author | Structure James Albert Michener (1907-1997), American writer, became known for the voluminous research he incorporates and makes accessible and interesting in his writings. His books typically provide a detailed discussion of the history and geography of specific regions. His wide ranging writing career began when his experiences during World War II provided the material for a book of short stories, Tales of the South Pacific (1947); for which he received the 1984 Pulitzer Prize in fiction.

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Text Introduction | Culture Notes | Author | Structure His other works include Sayonara (1954); Hawaii (1959); Chesapeake (1978); The Covenant (1980); Poland (1982); Texas (1985); and Alaska (1988); The Novel (1991); Recessional (1994); A Miracle in Seville (1995); The Bridge at Andau (1957); Iberia: Spanish Travels and Reflections (1968); A Michener Miscellany: 1950-1970 (1973); Michener's memoir, The World Is My Home (1992).
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Text Introduction | Culture Notes | Author | Structure

Part I (1) reality: Americans still follow many of the old ways, similarities than differences.
Part II (2-4) major changes in American society Part III (5-7) main problems in American society Part IV (8-9) explains why America has good prospects and why the American system has survived and should survive.

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Detailed Reading
HOW AMERICA LIVES James Albert Michener 1. Americans still follow many of the old ways. In a time of rapid change it is essential that we remember how much of the old we cling to. Young people still get married (2.41million couples last year as opposed to only 1.52 million in 1960). Of course, many do get divorced, but they remarry at astonishing rates. They have children, but fewer than before.

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They belong to churches, even though they attend somewhat less frequently, and they want their children to have religious instruction. They are willing to pay taxes for education, and they generously support institutions like hospitals, museums and libraries. In fact, when you compare the America of today with that of 1950, the similarities are far greater than the differences.

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Detailed Reading
2. Americans seem to be growing conservative. The 1980 election, especially for the Senate and House of Representatives, signaled a decided turn to the right insofar as political and social attitudes were concerned. It is as if our country spent the 1960s and 1970s jealously breaking out of old restraints and now wishes to put the brakes on, as cautious people often do after a binge. We should expect to see a reaffirmation of traditional family values, sharp restraints on pornography, a return to religion and a rejection of certain kinds of social legislation.

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Detailed Reading
3. Patterns of courtship and marriage have changed radically. Where sex was concerned, I was raised in an atmosphere of suspicion, repression and Puritanism, and although husky young kids can survive almost anything, many in my generation suffered grievously. Without reservation, I applaud the freer patterns of today, although I believe that it's been difficult for some families to handle the changes.

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Detailed Reading
4. American women are changing the rules. Thirty years ago I could not have imagined a group of women employees suing a major corporation for millions of dollars of salary which, they alleged, had been denied them because they had been discriminated against. Nor could I imagine women in universities going up to the men who ran the athletic programs and demanding a just share of the physical education budget. But they are doing this — and with the support of many men who recognize the justice of their claims. At work, at play, at all levels of living women are suggesting new rules.

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Detailed Reading
5. America is worried about its schools. If I had a child today, I would send her or him to a private school for the sake of safety, for the discipline that would be enforced and for the rigorous academic requirements. But I would doubt that the child would get any better education than I did in my good public school. The problem is that good public schools are becoming pitifully rare, and I would not want to take the chance that the one I sent my children to was inadequate.

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6. Some Americans must live on welfare. Since it seems obvious that our nation can produce all its needs with only a part of the available work force, some kind of social welfare assistance must be doled out to those who cannot find jobs. When I think of a typical welfare recipient I think of a young neighbor woman whose husband was killed in a tragic accident, leaving her with three young children. In the bad old days she might have known destitution, but with family assistance she was able to hold her children together and produced three fine, tax-paying citizens. I like that kind of social assistance and am willing to support it. America is essentially a compassionate society.
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7. America cannot find housing for its young families. I consider this the most serious danger confronting family life in America, and I am appalled that the condition has been allowed to develop. For more than a decade, travelers like me have been aware that in countries like Sweden, Denmark, Russia and India young people have found it almost impossible to acquire homes. In Sweden the customary wait was 11 years of marriage, and we used to ask, "what went wrong?" It seemed to us that a major responsibility of any nation would be to provide homes for its young people starting their families.

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Well, this dreadful social sickness has now overtaken the United States, and for the same reasons. The builders in our society find it profitable to erect three-bathroom homes that sell for $220,000 with a mortgage at 19 percent but find it impossible to erect small homes for young marrieds. For a major nation to show itself impotent to house its young people is admitting a failure that must be corrected.

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Detailed Reading
8. Our prospects are still good. I find our chances to be at least as good as those of any other nation and probably better. We have a physical setting of remarkable integrity, the world's best agriculture, a splendid wealth of minerals, great rivers for irrigation and an unsurpassed system of roads for transportation. We also have a magnificent mixture of peoples from all the continents with varied traditions and strengths. But most of all, we have a unique and balanced system of government.

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9. I think of America as having the oldest form of government on earth, because since we started our present democracy in 1789, every other nation has suffered either parliamentary change or revolutionary change. It is our system that has survived and should survive, giving the maximum number of people a maximum chance for happiness.

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Paragraph 1 Analysis The first paragraph is the introductory part of the essay. It mentions and illustrates the main idea that Americans still follow many of the old ways though differences are obvious in American life. The last sentence tells us that a comparison of the America of today with that of 1950 shows that there are more similarities than differences.

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Paragraph 2-4 Analysis These three paragraphs, the second part of the essay, tell us about the major changes that have taken place and that are occurring in American life. From these paragraphs we get to know that Americans are growing conservative, that they have changed their patterns of courtship and marriage, enjoying much more freedom in these two aspects, and that American women are changing the old rules and suggesting new rules. After reading these three paragraphs, we can also have a clear idea of the writer's attitude towards these changes in American life. Obviously, he fully supports and welcomes them.
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Detailed Reading
Paragraph 5-7 Analysis These three paragraphs, the third part of the essay, point out the main problems in American society: American schools are not as good as before; Americans who cannot find jobs do not get sufficient welfare; America shows itself impotent to house its young people. From these paragraphs, we can also see the writer's opinions of these problems.

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Detailed Reading
Paragraph 8-9 Analysis These two paragraphs, the concluding part of the essay, draw our attention to the writer's opinions of the nation's prospects and its system. It is worth noting that the writer provides good reasons for his opinions. From the conclusion, we can also get to know that the writer feels proud of his motherland and thinks highly of the American people and particularly the American system.

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Paragraph 1: Questions 1. Which sentences in this part show the main similarities and differences between American life in the present and that in the past? The following sentences show the main similarities and differences. "Young people still get married (2.41million couples last year as opposed to only 1.52 million in 1960). Of course, many do get divorced, but they remarry at astonishing rates. They have children, but fewer than before. They belong to churches, even though they attend somewhat less frequently, and they want their children to have religious instruction. They
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Detailed Reading
are willing to pay taxes for education, and they generously support institutions like hospitals, museums and libraries."

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Paragraph 1: Questions 2. In what ways are Americans generous?

They are always ready to pay taxes for education, and they generously support institutions like hospitals, museums and libraries.

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Paragraph 2-4: Questions 1. According to this part, what major changes have taken place or are taking place in American society? Give an account of them. First of all, Americans are growing conservative in terms of their political and social attitudes. In the 1960s and 1970s, Americans broke out of old restraints. But the 1980 election, especially for the Senate and House of Representatives, signaled a decided turn to the right insofar as political and social attitudes were concerned. Since the beginning of the 1980s, Americans have become more conservative.
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Detailed Reading
Secondly, patterns of courtship and marriage have changed radically. When the author was a child, there prevailed an atmosphere of suspicion, repression and Puritanism, and many people in his generation suffered grievously. Now people enjoy much more freedom in terms of courtship and marriage. Thirdly, American women, who are no longer discriminated against, are changing the old rules. For example, they are bold enough to sue a major corporation for millions of dollars of salary which has been denied them. And women in universities are

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Detailed Reading
courageous enough to go up to the men who run the athletic programs and demand a just share of the physical education budget. All this was unimaginable in the past. Nowadays, at work, at play, at all levels of life, women are suggesting new rules.

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Paragraph 2-4: Questions 2. Pick out the sentences that indicate the writer's positive attitude towards the changes. 1) "We should expect to see a reaffirmation of traditional family values, sharp restraints on pornography, a return to religion and a rejection of certain kinds of social legislation." This sentence implies that the writer welcomes changes towards the traditional values and beliefs. 2) "Without reservation, I applaud the freer patterns of today. " This sentence tells us that the writer warmly welcomes the freer patterns of courtship and marriage in contemporary American life.
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Detailed Reading
3) “demanding a just share of the physical education budget. But they are doing this — and with the support of many men who recognize the justice of their claims. From his use of "a just share" and "the justice of their claims", we can infer that the writer fully supports American women who are changing the rules.

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Paragraph 5: Question What does the writer think of American schools? James Albert Michener thinks that American schools are not as good as they once were. According to him, public schools are not very safe, they are not very strict with their pupils, and they do not set rigorous academic demands on them. In his opinion, good public schools are becoming pitifully rare, and private schools do not provide satisfactory education, either, though they are better than public schools.

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Paragraph 6: Question Does the writer applaud social assistance to the poor and the jobless? Support your answer by quoting the relevant sentences.
Yes, he does. Clearly, he strongly advocates that social assistance be further promoted in America, which can be seen from the following sentences: "Some Americans must live on welfare. Since it seems obvious that our nation can produce all its needs with only a part of the available work force, some kind of social welfare assistance must be doled out to those who cannot find jobs? I like that kind of social assistance and am willing to support it."
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Paragraph 7: Questions 1. Why cannot America find accommodation for its young married couples?
Because the builders find it profitable to erect threebathroom homes that sell for $220,000 with a mortgage at 19 percent, but they find it impossible to erect small homes for young married couples. In other words, the builders in American society do not want to build small homes for young married people because the building of small homes is less profitable.

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Paragraph 7: Questions 2. What is the writer's attitude towards the young people's housing problem in America?
The writer considers the housing problem the young Americans are faced with to be the most serious danger confronting family life in America, and he is appalled that the condition has been allowed to develop. In his opinion, for a great nation like America to show itself impotent to house its young people means that it admits a failure that must be corrected.

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Paragraph 8: Question Why does the writer say that America has good prospects despite its problems?
He believes that America has chances that are at least as good as those of any other nation and probably better, and that Americans have a physical setting of remarkable integrity, the world's best agriculture, a splendid wealth of minerals, great rivers for irrigation and an unsurpassed system of roads for transportation. America boasts a magnificent blend of peoples from all the continents with varied traditions and strengths, and that most of all, America has a unique and balanced system of government.
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Paragraph 9: Question Why has the American system survived and why should it survive?
Because, according to the writer, the American system of government is a truly democratic system; it has not experienced either parliamentary change or revolutionary change; moreover, it offers the maximum number of people a maximum chance for happiness.

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“In a time of rapid change it is essential that we remember how much of the old we cling to.”
Paraphrase ? In a time of quick transformation it is necessary for us to remember how many of the old ways we still adhere to.

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cling (on) to sb. or sth. to hold on tightly to sb. or sth.; be unwilling to abandon it or refuse to give it up; become attached to it or stick to it e.g. 1. The rescuers saw the survivors clinging to a raft. 2. She clung to the hope that he was still alive. 3. Don't cling to the curb when you are driving.

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“They belong to churches, even though they attend somewhat less frequently, and they want their children to have religious instruction.” Paraphrase

? They belong to particular groups of Christians, even though they attend religious services a bit less often, and they want their children to receive religious instruction.

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“Americans seem to be growing conservative.” Paraphrase ? Americans seem to be increasingly opposed to great or sudden changes.

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conservative adj. in favor of preserving the status quo and traditional values and customs, and against abrupt changes e.g.
1. He made a conservative guess of the floating population in Shanghai. 2. Is it true that old people are usually more conservative than the young?

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“The 1980 election, especially for the Senate and House of Representatives, signaled a decided turn to the right insofar as political and social attitudes were concerned.” Paraphrase ? The 1980 election, especially for the Senate and House of Representatives, indicated a definite change to the right in terms of the voters' political and social attitudes.

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the Senate the upper house of the law-making assembly in some countries, e.g. France, the USA, and Australia the House of Representatives the assembly of elected representatives in the central government of the USA, Australia and New Zealand

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“It is as if our country spent the 1960s and 1970s jealously breaking out of old restraints and now wishes to put the brakes on, as cautious people often do after a binge.” Paraphrase ? It seems as though during the 1960s and 1970s we Americans made bold efforts to escape from old restrictions and now intend to put an end to it, just as cautious people often do after excessive indulgence.

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jealously adv. watchfully, carefully
e.g.

The publishing house is jealously protective of the copyright of all its books.

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restraint n. restriction, sth. that checks or controls e.g.

1. I sharply feel the restraints of a limited income on the family budget. 2. They imposed restraints on wage settlements.

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brake n. a device for reducing the speed of or stopping a car, bicycle, train, etc.; (fig.) restraint on sth. e.g.
1. His brakes failed on a steep hill. 2. The Government is determined to put a brake on public spending. 3. Ignorance acts as a brake to progress.

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binge n. (infml) time of wild eating and drinking; excessive indulgence in anything
e.g. 1. He went on a three-day binge. 2. Business slowed down after a week-long shopping binge.

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“We should expect to see a reaffirmation of traditional family values, sharp restraints on pornography, a return to religion and a rejection of certain kinds of social legislation.” Paraphrase ? We hope and feel confident that traditional family values will be reaffirmed and pornography rigorously restricted, that those who have abandoned religion will come back to it, and that some kinds of social legislation will be turned down.

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reaffirmation n. an act of stating sth. positively again e.g. 1. His reaffirmation of loyalty impressed the Queen. 2. His reaffirmation that he was ready to help touched our hearts. 3. The government's reaffirmation of its principles caused strong responses from all the developing countries.

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pornography n. describing or showing sexual acts in order to arouse sexual desires; books, films, plays, etc. that do this. e.g. 1. Many people strongly believe that pornography is dehumanizing. 2. The government launched a prohibition campaign against pornography.

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legislation n. action of making laws; the laws made e.g.

1. Legislation will be difficult and take time. 2. Legislation is essential in every country. 3. The major function of Congress is legislation.

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“Patterns of courtship and marriage have changed radically.” Paraphrase

? People have thoroughly changed the ways in which they date and marry.

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pattern n. the way in which sth. happens, moves, develops or is arranged; excellent example e.g. 1. Such behavior patterns are not to be imitated. 2. These sentences have the same grammatical pattern. 3. The company's profit-sharing scheme set a pattern for others.

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courtship n. spending time together with a view to marriage; the period of romantic relationship before marriage e.g. 1. They married after a brief courtship. 2. Their long courtship ended in failure.

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“Where sex was concerned, I was raised in an atmosphere of suspicion, repression and Puritanism, and although husky young kids can survive almost anything, many in my generation suffered grievously.” Paraphrase

? With regard to sex, I was brought up in an environment where suspicion, repression and Puritanism dominated. Although stoutly-built young people can endure almost anything, many people in my generation had awful experiences.

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repression n. restraining or suppressing; being restrained or suppressed; action of forcing desires and urges, esp. those in conflict with accepted standards of conduct, into the unconscious mind, often resulting in abnormal behavior e.g. 1. His childhood was characterized by repression and solitude. 2. They held a discussion about unhealthy sexual repression.

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Puritanism n. practices and beliefs of a Puritan, a person who is extremely strict in morals and who tends to regard pleasure as sinful e.g.

1. Puritans strictly practice Puritanism. 2. Puritanism is not very popular nowadays.

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husky adj. big and strong; dry in the throat, sounding slightly hoarse
e.g. 1. Those basketball players are all husky young men. 2. Our teacher is still a bit husky after his bad cold.

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“Without reservation, I applaud the freer patterns of today, although I believe that it's being difficult for some families to handle the changes.” Paraphrase ? I fully praise or approve of the less rigid patterns of courtship and marriage today, despite the fact that, in my opinion, some families are finding it very hard to cope with these changes.

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“Thirty years ago I could not have imagined a group of women employees suing a major corporation for millions of dollars of salary which, they alleged, had been denied them because they had been discriminated against.” Paraphrase ? Thirty years ago, it would be simply unimaginable that a contingent of women employees should sue a major company for millions of dollars of salary which was their due but was denied them by the corporation just because they were the "weaker sex".

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sue vt. make a legal claim (against sb.) e.g.

1. The boss was sued for breaching the contract. 2. The man is suing for a divorce.

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allege vt. state sth. as a fact without proof; give sth. as an argument or excuse e.g. 1. The prisoner alleged that he was at home on the night of the crime. 2. He alleged illness as the reason for his absence.

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“Nor could I have imagined women in universities going up to the men who ran the athletic programs and demanding a just share of the physical education budget.” Paraphrase ? Nor could I have accepted the fact that university women should go up to the men in charge of the sports plans, and ask for an equal share of the amount of money allotted for their physical education.

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athletic adj. of athletes or athletics; physically strong, healthy and active e.g. 1. He often goes to an athletic club. 2. He has an athletic figure. 3. She looks very athletic.

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budget n. an estimate or plan of how money will be spent over a period of time, in relation to the amount of money available; amount of money needed or allotted for a specific purpose e.g. 1. I could not go to the restaurant with you because of my tight budget. 2. She limits herself to a daily budget of ten pounds. 3. A family on a budget cannot afford meat every day.

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“who recognize the justice of their claims” Paraphrase ? who admit that their claims are justified

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“If I had a child today, I would send her or him to a private school for the sake of safety, for the discipline that would be enforced and for the rigorous academic requirements.” Paraphrase

? Should I have a child of school age today, I would have him or her receive education at a private school, where security for kids is guaranteed, discipline is enforced, and strict scholastic expectations are placed on them.

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It is necessary to note that this sentence is in the subjunctive mood. The sentence tells us indirectly that American private schools are safe, they impose strict discipline on their pupils, and that they set rigorous academic demands on them. Therefore, we readers could naturally come to the conclusion that American public schools are not very safe, they do not impose strict discipline, and that they have no rigorous academic requirements.

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rigorous adj. very strict; strictly accurate or detailed e.g. 1. She did not receive any rigorous training in athletics, but she got a prize at the sports meet. 2. You must make a rigorous analysis of the text before you can translate it well.

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“But I would doubt that the child would get any better education than I did in my good public school.” Explanation ? This sentence implies that the author is more than certain that even private schools in America today do not provide any better education than the good public school where he received education. In other words, the author believes that even private schools in America today cannot be compared with good public schools in the past in terms of the education quality.

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“The problem is that good public schools are becoming pitifully rare, and I would not want to take the chance that the one I sent my children to was inadequate.” Paraphrase ? The problem is that nowadays good public schools are becoming fewer and fewer, and I would not run the risk of sending my kids to one of them.

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inadequate adj. not sufficient or enough; not good enough for a particular purpose; not sufficiently able or confident to deal with a difficult situation e.g. 1. These security precautions are totally inadequate in face of terrorism. 2. The war refugees have inadequate supplies. 3. She felt inadequate when faced with so tough a task.

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“Since it seems obvious that our nation can produce all its needs with only a part of the available work force, some kind of social welfare assistance must be doled out to those who cannot find jobs.”
Paraphrase ? As it seems quite clear that only a certain proportion of all the available workers are needed to produce sufficient food and goods, etc. to meet the needs of all the American people, some kind of social welfare assistance must be provided for those who are not able to find any jobs.

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dole sth. out: distribute (esp. food, money, etc.) in small amounts e.g.

1. Allowances are grudgingly doled out to the elderly. 2. The donated money was doled out to the tsunamistricken victims.

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a typical welfare recipient: an exemplary person that enjoys welfare assistance

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Detailed Reading
“In the bad old days she might have known destitution, but with family assistance she was able to hold her children together and produced three fine, tax-paying citizens.” Paraphrase

? In the bad old days she might have experienced or lived in abject poverty, but with welfare assistance for poor families she managed to keep her three children under her care and nurtured them into worthy citizens that made contributions to their country.

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Detailed Reading
destitution n. in a state of poverty; in a condition of being impoverished; being without money, food, and other life necessities e.g.

1. There are still some people who live in complete destitution. 2. After his death, his family was plunged into destitution.

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Detailed Reading
“America is essentially a compassionate society.”
Paraphrase ? America is, in its true nature, a society filled with pity for others' sufferings and inclined to help others. In other words, American people are very sympathetic by nature, and they are always ready to help others.

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Detailed Reading
compassionate adj. sympathetic; being filled with pity inclining one to help or to be merciful e.g.
1. Most people are compassionate beings, but there are some who never know compassion. 2. The compassionate teacher showed lenience to the student who committed cheating for the first time.

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Detailed Reading
“and I am appalled that the condition has been allowed to develop.” Paraphrase ? and I am shocked that this dreadful condition should have been allowed to exist and deteriorate.

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Detailed Reading
appalled adj. very shocked and upset by sth. very bad or unpleasant e.g. 1. The newspaper reports about starving children appalled me. 2. We were appalled at the prospect of having to miss our holiday.

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Detailed Reading
“Well, this dreadful social sickness has now overtaken the United States, and for the same reasons.” Paraphrase ? Well, America has now been seized by this terrible social illness, and for the same reasons. Note This sentence involves a case of metaphor: the terrible condition mentioned in the foregoing sentences is compared to a dreadful social illness.

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Detailed Reading
overtake vt. come level with and pass (esp. a moving person or vehicle); (esp. passive; of unpleasant events) come to sb. or sth. suddenly and unexpectedly e.g. 1. It is dangerous to overtake other vehicles on a bend. 2. Supply will soon overtake demand. 3. The child was overtaken by fear at the sight of a snake.

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Detailed Reading
“The builders in our society find it profitable to erect three-bathroom homes that sell for $220,000 with a mortgage at 19 percent but find it impossible to erect small homes for young marrieds.” Paraphrase ? The builders in our society find it lucrative to build up apartments or houses with three bathrooms that sell for $220,000 with a mortgage at 19 percent but find it less profitable to put up small homes for young married people.

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Detailed Reading
mortgage n. agreement in which money is lent by a bank, building society, etc. for buying a house or other property, the property being the security; sum of money lent in this way e.g. 1. I applied for a large mortgage when I bought the apartment. 2. She has got a mortgage of 500,000 yuan and she has to make monthly mortgage payments.

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Detailed Reading
“For a major nation to show itself impotent to house its young people is admitting a failure that must be corrected.” Paraphrase

? For a powerful nation its inability to provide housing for its young married couples is equivalent to acknowledging a failure that must be put right.

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Detailed Reading
impotent adj. effective action e.g. 1. Without the chairman's support, the committee is impotent. 2. The young mother felt impotent when her baby fell ill and there was nothing she could do. powerless or helpless; unable to take

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Detailed Reading
“We have a physical setting of remarkable integrity, the world's best agriculture, a splendid wealth of minerals, great rivers for irrigation and an unsurpassed system of roads for transportation.” Paraphrase ? We enjoy a wonderful undivided land, the world's best agriculture, a great variety of valuable minerals, great rivers for irrigation and a most effective, incomparable system of roads for transportation.

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Detailed Reading
setting n. surroundings; environment; way or place in which sth. is fixed or fastened; place and time at which an event occurs or a play, novel, story, etc. is set e.g. 1. The castle stands in a picturesque setting surrounded by hills. 2. The setting of the story is a hotel in Paris during the Second World War.

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Detailed Reading
integrity n. a quality of being honest and morally upright; condition of being whole or undivided e.g.

1. He is a man of integrity; he will not break his promise. 2. We shall do our best to preserve our territorial integrity.

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Detailed Reading
“We also have a magnificent mixture of peoples from all the continents with varied traditions and strengths. But most of all, we have a unique and balanced system of government”.
Paraphrase ? In our country, the citizens, who have come from all parts of the world and possess a variety of traditions and advantages, mingle together and live in harmony, constituting a great people. Above all, ours is a government with an unparalleled and stable system.

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Detailed Reading
“I think of America as having the oldest form of government on earth, because since we started our present democracy in 1789, every other nation has suffered either parliamentary change or revolutionary change.” Paraphrase ? I regard America as possessing the oldest form of government on earth, because since we started our present system of government in 1789, every other nation has painfully experienced either governmental changes or fundamental changes.

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Detailed Reading
parliamentary change: change of or relating to parliament; change in the assembly that makes the laws of a country; change in the law-making body of a country

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Detailed Reading
“It is our system that has survived and should survive, giving the maximum number of people a maximum chance for happiness.”
Paraphrase ? It is none other than our system that has continued and should continue to exist, because it offers the greatest number of people the greatest possibility to pursue and enjoy happiness.

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Detailed Reading
第1段 中文译文 在很多方面,美国人依然因循守旧。在日新月异的时 代,我们必须记住我们还在坚守多少过去的东西。年轻人 依然步入婚姻殿堂(去年有241万对男女结为夫妇,而在 1960年仅有152万对)。当然,其中有许多人离婚,然而 他们又以惊人的速度再婚。他们生儿育女,但比以前少多 了。(续)

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Detailed Reading
第1段 中文译文 (接)他们是教会成员,尽管去教堂的次数比以前少,他 们还要子女接受宗教方面的教育。他们心甘情愿地为教育 纳税,他们也为支助医院、博物馆和图书馆等机构慷慨解 囊。事实上,将今日的美国与1950年的相比,相似之处大 大超过差异之处。

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Detailed Reading
第2段 中文译文 美国人好像越来越保守。1980年大选,尤其是参议院 和众议院的选举,标志着选民的政治和社会态度明显右倾。 我们的国家在上个世纪六七十年代不遗余力地挣脱陈旧的 束缚,似乎现在想要刹车了,就像谨小慎微的人在放纵自 己以后常做的那样。我们预计会看到对传统家庭价值观的 重新首肯,对色情严加控制,回归宗教,以及摒弃某些社 会法律条文。

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Detailed Reading
第3段 中文译文 求爱和结婚的方式有了很大的变化。说到性的问题, 我是在猜疑、压抑和清教徒式的生活环境中长大的,虽然 有些粗犷的孩子几乎在什么环境中都能活得不赖,但是我 们这一代人中,大多数人活得真不容易。对当今较为自由 的模式,我鼓掌表示毫无保留地赞成。但是,我相信对有 些家庭来说,要适应这些变化绝非易事。

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Detailed Reading
第4段 中文译文 美国妇女在改变这些规则。30年前,我完全想象不到 一群女性雇员会控告一家大公司,起诉公司因为歧视而少 支付了她们数以百万美元的薪金。我想象不到,女大学生 会去找负责运动项目的男性,要求在体育教育的经费中公 正地获得她们的一份。然而,她们正在这么做,而且得到 许多男士的支持,他们认识到这些女性诉求的公正性。工 作中,娱乐中,在生活的各个层次,女性在提出新的规则。

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Detailed Reading
第5段 中文译文 美国在为学校忧心忡忡。如果我现在有个孩子,那为 了安全问题、为了执行纪律以及为了严格的学业要求,我 宁愿将孩子送到私立学校。但是,我怀疑的是,这个孩子 接受的教育会不会有我当年在那所良好的公立学校里接受 的教育那么好。问题是,良好的公立学校少得可怜。因此, 我不想冒险把孩子送进不够格的学校去。

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Detailed Reading
第6段 中文译文 有些美国人必须靠吃救济为生。显而易见,既然我们 的国家只需要在可供劳动力的一部分就能生产出所有的必 需品,那么对那些找不到工作的人必须要发放某种形式的 社会救助。一想到典型的接受救济的对象,我就想起一个 邻居,一位年轻女子,她丈夫在车祸中惨死,给她留下三 个小孩。在早年的困难时期,她完全可能尝到贫困的滋味。 但是,凭着家庭救助,她能够供养自己的孩子,把他们培 养成三个纳税的良好公民。我喜爱这种社会救助,并且乐 意助上一臂之力。归根到底,美国是个富有同情心的社会。

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Detailed Reading
第7段 中文译文 美国无法为年轻家庭提供住房。我认为这是美国家庭 生活面临着的最为严重的问题,令我十分吃惊的是,国家 竟然任由这种情况发展。十多年来,像我这样周游世界的 人,很清楚在瑞典、丹麦、俄罗斯和印度这样的国家里, 年轻人几乎不可能得到房屋。在瑞典,常常要在婚后等待 十一个年头,我曾经问过:“什么出错了?”在我们看来, 任何国家主要的责任就是为年轻人提供住房,让他们成家。 (续)

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Detailed Reading
第7段 中文译文 (接)然而,这个可怕的社会顽疾现在已降临到美国,而 且出于同样的原因。在我们的社会里,开发商觉得建筑有 三个浴室的住房,售价为 220,000 美元,再加上 19% 的按 揭,有利可图,但却发现几乎无法为年轻夫妇建筑小面积 的住房。一个大国没有能力为年轻人提供住房就等于承认 一个必须加以纠正的失误。

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Detailed Reading
第8段 中文译文 我们的前景仍然一片大好。我发现,与其他任何国家 相比,我们的机会至少不相上下,甚至更好。我们有一大 块完整的疆土,有世界上最强的农业,有丰富的矿藏,有 用以灌溉的宽广的河流,还有无与伦比的运输交通系统。 我们还有来自四大洲的各色人种,完美地结合在一起,各 自拥有自己的传统和优势。但是,最难能可贵的是,我们 拥有一个独一无二、平衡的政府体制。

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Detailed Reading
第9段 中文译文 我认为美国具有最古老的政府模式,因为自从1789年 我们建立起现在的民主制度以来,其他的国家不是经历了 议会制度的变革,就是经过了革命的洗礼;而只有我们的 制度一如既往,而且会经久不衰,给予最大多数的人最高 程度的幸福。

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Consolidation Activities
Text Comprehension Writing Strategies Language Work Translation

Oral Activities
Writing Listening Exercises
综合教程5(第2版)电子教案

Text 1: Text Comprehension
I. Which of the following is NOT a major aspect of the American life discussed by the author? A. B. C. D. Agriculture and transportation. Marriage and women's social status. Social welfare and education. Family value and housing. [A]

综合教程5(第2版)电子教案

Text 1: Text Comprehension
II. Judge, according to the text, whether the following statements are true or false.
[ F ] 1. Young people still get married, but the divorce rate is higher than the remarriage rate because many don't want to raise children. [ T ] 2. The author welcomes the freer patterns of today's courtship and marriage because many young kids of his time suffered bitterly. [ F ] 3. Today still very few women in universities are going up to the athletic programs and demanding a just share of the physical education budget.
综合教程5(第2版)电子教案

Text 1: Text Comprehension
[ T ] 4. American public schools today are inferior to those decades ago. [ T ] 5. Builders seem not willing to erect small homes for young married couples because it is not very profitable.

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Text 1: Writing Strategies
This text is an essay of exposition, for it presents solid facts and major problems about American social life, though the writer inserts his own ideas at times. The whole article is clearly organized, concentrating on the major changes and problems in current American society. The paragraphs are developed by the deductive method. Each paragraph contains a topic sentence, which is proved, explained, or illustrated. For example, each of the first three paragraphs begins with a topic sentence. Can you point out the topic sentences of paragraphs 4-8?

综合教程5(第2版)电子教案

Text 1: Writing Strategies
It is easy to see that each paragraph starts with a topic sentence: Paragraph 4: "American women are changing the rules." Paragraph 5: "America is worried about its schools." Paragraph 6: "Some Americans must live on welfare." Paragraph 7: "America cannot find housing for its young families." Paragraph 8: "Our prospects are still good."

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Text 1: Writing Strategies
? In order to impressively illustrate, prove, or support the topic statements, the author employs various writing strategies, such as comparison and contrast that are used to show the similarities and differences concerning the issues under discussion. For instance, the beginning paragraph contains five sentences that tell us the relevant similarities and differences by means of comparison and contrast. Can you pick out some sentences in other paragraphs that show a relevant contrast?

综合教程5(第2版)电子教案

Text 1: Writing Strategies
to take the chance that the one I sent my children to was inadequate." In Paragraph 6: "In the bad old days she might have known destitution, but with family assistance she was able to hold her children together and produced three fine, tax-paying citizens." (This sentence implies a contrast: it is not the case nowadays.) In Paragraph 9: "I think of America as having the oldest form of government on earth, because since we started our present democracy in 1789, every other nation has suffered either parliamentary change or revolutionary change."

综合教程5(第2版)电子教案

Text 1: Writing Strategies
As can be seen in the text, the tone is mainly objective, and it is definite and resolute when the writer expresses obligations as well as his attitudes or opinions. For example, in Paragraph 6, we find two sentences: "Some Americans must live on welfare." and “…some kind of social welfare assistance must be doled out to those who cannot find jobs." These two sentences resolutely express the moral obligation to those Americans who cannot find jobs and make the writer's attitude absolutely clear. Now list some other examples in the text to show that the tone is definite or resolute when the writer expresses obligations and his attitudes or opinions.
综合教程5(第2版)电子教案

Text 1: Writing Strategies
the freer patterns of today, although I believe that it's been difficult for some families to handle the changes." In Paragraph 5: "The problem is that good public schools are becoming pitifully rare, and I would not want to take the chance that the one I sent my children to was inadequate." In Paragraph 7: "America cannot find housing for its young families. I consider this the most serious danger confronting family life in America, and I am appalled that the condition has been allowed to develop? For a major nation to show itself impotent to house its young people is admitting a failure that must
综合教程5(第2版)电子教案

Explaining | Synonyms | Filling | Sentences | Grammar | Cloze

Explain the underlined part in each sentence in your own words. 1. They belong to churches, even though they attend somewhat less frequently.
believe in Christianity and are members of the Christian churches

2. The 1980 election signaled a decided turn to the right insofar as political and social attitudes were concerned.
insofar as: to the extent that; were concerned: were involved

综合教程5(第2版)电子教案

Explaining | Synonyms | Filling | Sentences | Grammar | Cloze

3. Without reservation, I applaud the freer patterns of today.
With whole-hearted support 4. For a major nation to show itself impotent to house its young people is admitting a failure that must be corrected. to display its inability 5. We have a physical setting of remarkable integrity. an extraordinarily environment
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complete

system

of

physical

Explaining | Synonyms | Filling | Sentences | Grammar | Cloze

II. Fill in each blank with one of the two words from each pair in their appropriate forms and note the difference of meaning between them.
restraint constraint

Restraint and constraint are sometimes interchangeable in use, meaning control over the way you behave which prevents you from doing what you want to do. But restraint can specially refer to calm, controlled, and unemotional behaviour, while constraint is something that limits or controls what you can do.

1. Options are offered subject to staff availability and _________ timetable constraints constraints. 2. Reminding all concerned that violence breeds violence, restraint they repeat their appeal for calm and_______ restraint.
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3. The appalled chief warned his violent officers to show _______ restraint restraint. 4. We have just been looking at the number of coal mine accidents, and they can certainly be a big ________ constraint on constraint what China is striving for.

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Explaining | Synonyms | Filling | Sentences | Grammar | Cloze

expect

hope

Both words pertain to the attitude of looking forward to something that is to occur in the future. Hope suggests looking forward exclusively to some positive or favourable outcome; it may be well-founded in probability or completely beyond the scope of the possible. Expect suggests looking forward either to a positive or to a negative outcome, but the point of this word is that it concerns itself with supposed certainties. Also, the two words fall into different sentence structures: to hope that / or hope to do / to expect something.

1. We are expecting expecting rain again late this afternoon ________ according to the weather report. 2. A draw seems to be the best they can ____ hope for.

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Explaining | Synonyms | Filling | Sentences | Grammar | Cloze

3. I can't manage that by myself, and I don't see why it should be expected expected of me either. _______ 4. Diplomats hope ____ the meetings will help build mutual trust.

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Explaining | Synonyms | Filling | Sentences | Grammar | Cloze

rejection

refusal

Both words mean the unwillingness to accept, receive, or take into account a person or thing. Rejection refers to the failure to accept or grant and carries overtones of casting aside as useless, valueless or unsuitable, while refusal means the failure to comply with or the failure to do something with overtones of firmness and even rudeness.

1. The _______ rejection of the plan by the Congress three weeks ago led to a major protest by the administration. 2. Their ______ refusal to compromise will inevitably invite more criticism from the UN.

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Explaining | Synonyms | Filling | Sentences | Grammar | Cloze

3. His ______ refusal to talk was sheer stubbornness. 4. The _______ rejection of such initiatives indicates that the rejection voters are unconcerned about environmental issues.

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Explaining | Synonyms | Filling | Sentences | Grammar | Cloze

allege assert
Assert means to state with firmness and force, whereas allege means to state without offering necessary proof.

1. Mr. Helm planned to assert _____ that the bill violated the First Amendment. 2. She has strong feelings about the ______ alleged growth of violence against female officers. 3. The Nordic countries have been quick to assert _____ their interest in the development of the Baltic countries.

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Explaining | Synonyms | Filling | Sentences | Grammar | Cloze

4. The enquirer dug deeper into the alleged ______ financial misdeeds of his government.

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Explaining | Synonyms | Filling | Sentences | Grammar | Cloze

Fill in the blank in each sentence with a word or phrase taken from the box, using its appropriate form. allege prospect ponder compassionate destitution dreadful binge dole recipient discriminated grievously reaffirmation

1. When his prospective prospective _________ employers learned that he smoked, they said they wouldn't hire him. 2. In him the polarities of life are resolved and balanced, male and female, strength and compassion compassion, severity and __________ mercy.

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Explaining | Synonyms | Filling | Sentences | Grammar | Cloze

3. Inarticulate and rather shy, he had always dreaded dreaded _______ speaking in public. 4. Allegations Allegations _________ of brutality and theft have been leveled at the army. 5. Our government cannot keep doling _____ out money to doling those who are fastidious about the jobs offered to them. 6. He was deeply grieved grieved by the sufferings of the ______ common people. 7. Many studies have shown that "restrained eaters" will binge and relapse. eventually_____ 8. He reaffirmed ________ his commitment to the country's economic reform program.
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Explaining | Synonyms | Filling | Sentences | Grammar | Cloze

IV. Make a sentence of your own for each of the given words with meanings other than those used in the text. You may change the part of speech of these words. 1. couple Over-use of those drugs, coupled with poor diet, leads to physical degeneration.
2. tax Overcrowding has taxed the city's ability to deal with waste. 3. turn She announced that she was going to turn professional.

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4. just It's not just a financial matter.

5. sharp In the hot sun the rain-washed herbs smelled sharp, spicy, and sweet all at once.
6. husky His voice was husky with grief.

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Explaining | Synonyms | Filling | Sentences | Grammar | Cloze

V. Fill in each blank with a conjunct, selected from those supplied in the parenthesis, which provides the most natural development of thought.
Thank you very much for lending me this book. (1) _______ Actually (Furthermore/So/Actually) I'm afraid I didn't Actually Consequently ___________ understand much of it. (2) (Consequently/On the other hand/However) I read less than half of it! (3) ___________ Nevertheless (Thus/Besides/Nevertheless) it's a subject that interests ________ Moreover (Therefore/Moreover/Consequently) it's me. (4) Moreover one that I need to know more about for my work.

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Besides (In fact/Thus/Besides), this isn't the first time (5) _______ that I've tried to find out something about it, as you may ________ (Therefore/In fact/And yet) you remember. (6) Therefore can see I'm not giving up! (7) However However _______ (Furthermore/However/Thus) I haven't got a lot of time to spend on it. (8) ___ So (So/Nevertheless/On the other hand) perhaps you'd be good enough to send me that simpler book you mentioned.

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Explaining | Synonyms | Filling | Sentences | Grammar | Cloze

VI. Put a word in each blank that is appropriate for the context. Most Americans have great vigor and enthusiasm. rather than be They prefer to discipline themselves (1) _____ disciplined by others. They pride themselves on their independence, their right to make up their own minds. take the initiative, even when They are prepared to (2) ____ there is a risk in doing so. They have courage and do not anywhere give in easily. They will take any sort of job (3) ________ rather than be unemployed. They do not care to be looked after by the government. The (4) average _______ American changes his or her job nine or ten times during his or her working life.
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Americans have a warmth and friendliness which less superficial than any foreigners think. They are is (5) ____ less considered sentimental. When on ceremonial (6) ________ occasions they see a flag, or attend parades celebrating America's glorious past, tears may come to their eyes. Reunions with family and friends (7) ____ tend to be emotional, tend too. They like to dress correctly, even if "correctly" means flamboyantly. They love to boast, (8) ______ though though often with tongue in cheek. They can laugh at themselves and their country, and they can be very self-critical, while remaining always intensely patriotic.

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The U. S. A. is reputed to be a classless society. There is certainly not much social snobbery or job snobbery. The ____ manual worker is usually quite at (9) ease ease in any company. This is partly explained by the fact that people of all (10) income ______ groups go together to the same schools. income Americans are far more race-conscious than they are class-conscious.

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Translating Sentences | Translating Passage 1. 假如你要去英国度假,那么你在与天气打赌。 (take the chance) You take the chance on the weather if you holiday in the UK. 2. 只要超级大国减少核战争的危险,我们便将进入一个较 为安全的时代。 (insofar as) We will be entering a period of less danger insofar as the danger of a nuclear war between the superpowers is reduced.

综合教程5(第2版)电子教案

Translating Sentences | Translating Passage 3. 面对如此高的死亡率,政府终于下定决心,关闭无证煤 矿。 (put the brakes on) Facing such high mortality, the government is determined to put the brakes on unlicensed coal mining. 4. 这条路沿海岸线延伸了几英里,然后转向内陆。 (cling to) The road clings to the coastline for several miles, and then it turns inland.

综合教程5(第2版)电子教案

Translating Sentences | Translating Passage 5. 持续多年的内战已使国家走向赤贫的边缘。(destitution) The civil war that lasted for years has driven the country to the verge of destitution. 6. 随着这些孩子在社会温暖的关爱下渐渐长大,故而生活 的痛苦记忆也就渐渐淡忘了。 (fade away)

As the children grew up with the warmth of social care, memories of the bitterness of their orphanhood faded away.
综合教程5(第2版)电子教案

Translating Sentences | Translating Passage 7. 上了岁数的人要与过去的条条框框决裂,显得不守旧, 着实不易。 (break out of old restraints) It is astonishingly hard for the aged to break out of old restraints in order not to appear conservative. 8. 据报道,与海外华人的捐赠相比,国内富足一族为慈善 事业掏出的钱少得可怜。 (pitifully) It is reported that what the rich at home have contributed to charity is pitifully insignificant, compared with the donations made by the overseas Chinese.
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Translating Sentences | Translating Passage Translate the following into Chinese. The paradoxes are everywhere. We are able to believe that our government is weak, stupid, overbearing, dishonest, and inefficient, and at the same time we are deeply convinced that it is the best government in the world, and we would like to impose it upon everyone else. We speak of the American way of life as though it involved the ground rules for the governance of heaven. We shout that we are a nation of laws, not men — and then proceed to break every law we can if we can get away with it. We proudly insist that we base our political positions on the issues — and we will vote against a man because of his religion, his name, or the shape of his nose.
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Translating Sentences | Translating Passage 参考译文 悖论随处可见。我们可以认为我们的政府软弱、愚蠢、 专横、虚伪、低效,但同时我们又深信它是世界上最好的 政府,恨不得把它强加给世界上所有其他的国家。说起美 国生活方式,似乎它是天堂完美秩序的人间翻版。我们叫 嚷我国是法治而非人治的国家,然而只要能逃避法律的制 裁,我们会不假思索地去违反任何法律。我们自豪地坚称 我们的政治立场依据事物的是非曲直而定,可是我们不投 某人的票常常是由于不喜欢他的宗教信仰、他的姓名甚至 他鼻子的形状。

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Notes of Translating Sentences
take a chance / take chances (on) to do something even though it involves risk e.g. 1. Lorraine didn't know me but she took a chance on my honesty. 2. It is just not worth taking any chances.

综合教程5(第2版)电子教案

Notes of Translating Sentences
insofar as used for talking about the degree to which something happens, or the situation in which something happens e.g. She cites other scholars' work only insofar as it supports her own theories.

综合教程5(第2版)电子教案

Notes of Translating Sentences
brake n. an action or a situation that prevents something from developing or making progress put a brake/the brakes on something: e.g. The high level of debt put a brake on economic recovery.

综合教程5(第2版)电子教案

Notes of Translating Sentences
cling to

to stick to or fit very tightly on something
e.g. Gareth's dripping clothes clung to his body.

综合教程5(第2版)电子教案

Notes of Translating Sentences
destitution n.
the state of having no money or possessions e.g. The few packages of food seemed a mockery in the face of such enormous destitution.

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Notes of Translating Sentences
fade away to disappear slowly e.g. Her footsteps faded away down the staircase.

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Notes of Translating Sentences
break out of … to escape from something such as a situation or way of life e.g. the desire to break out of the boring routine of normal daily living

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Notes of Translating Sentences
pitiful adj. a pitiful amount of something is very small and not enough e.g. pitiful wages

综合教程5(第2版)电子教案

Making a Dialogue | Having A Discussion When some people are complaining about the loss of social virtues, the teacher is trying to help the student understand that, despite some instances of decaying social morality, people in our society are, on the whole, demonstrating in one way or another their willingness to help others. Now construct a dialogue between you and your teacher Miss Hong. The dialogue might begin as follows:

综合教程5(第2版)电子教案

Making a Dialogue | Having A Discussion Hong: Today, instead of lecturing, I’m going to start out by taking questions about social morality. I know you have been talking about it quite heatedly. You: Yes, we seem to have the impression that people nowadays are getting more and more self-absorbed.

综合教程5(第2版)电子教案

Making a Dialogue | Having A Discussion

Making a dialogue (The following dialogue serves as reference.)
Hong: Today, instead of lecturing, I'm going to start out by taking questions about social morality. I know you have been talking about it quite heatedly. I: Yes, we seem to have the impression that people nowadays are getting more and more self-absorbed. We were appalled at the news that the two-year-old girl got killed by the car and ignored by 18 passers-by. Hong: Me too. However, you must have heard about the subsequent reports about this event. The car driver was condemned by public opinion and is now under custody.
综合教程5(第2版)电子教案

Making a Dialogue | Having A Discussion Having a discussion Historical lessons have taught us that social stability ensures and guarantees development in economy, culture, education, welfare, etc. Since the 1980s, immediately after the ten chaotic years, China has been restoring her tradition of social virtues, making great achievements in all walks of life and laying a solid foundation for a brighter tomorrow. After studying the text How America Lives, it would be interesting to hold a discussion on the topic How China Lives. You could share your ideas with your fellow students about what has changed and what has endured in terms of the social values and outlook of the Chinese people.
综合教程5(第2版)电子教案

Making a Dialogue | Having A Discussion

Tips: Take into consideration the following suggestions in your discussion. a) our attitudes toward traditional virtues; b) new patterns of courtship and marriage; c) men’s and women’s roles in society; d) ways of receiving education; e) welfare; f) housing for young families, etc.

综合教程5(第2版)电子教案

Writing
Write an essay of about 400 words on the following topic: QUALITIES OF A GOOD BOSS In the first paragraph of your essay, you can enumerate the qualities you think a good boss is supposed to have. Then in each of the paragraphs that follow, focus on one of them for elaboration. In the final paragraph, summarize what you have written and re-assert your opinion. In writing your essay, you would probably find the transitional devices below useful:

综合教程5(第2版)电子教案

Writing
1. first, firstly, first of all, to begin with; 2. second, secondly, besides, moreover, additionally, furthermore, what’s more, in addition (to); 3. finally, last, lastly, last but not least, above all, most important of all; 4. in conclusion, in summary, to conclude, to summarize, to sum up, in short, in brief, in a word, and; 5. from what has been discussed above, from what has been mentioned above, from the above analysis.

综合教程5(第2版)电子教案

Writing
Sample

QUALITIES OF A GOOD BOSS Being a good boss is anything but easy. He is actually doubly burdened: While he spares no efforts to survive from cut-throat competitions, he should try to gain support and trust from his subordinates. There are, indeed, many differences between a good boss and a man of average performance. Personally, I'm convinced that aggressive spirit, democracy and decisiveness are the three most essential qualities required by all distinguished bosses. Firstly, aggressive spirit has always been regarded as the cornerstone of the position of a good boss. He must
综合教程5(第2版)电子教案

Listening Exercises
I. Listen to the talk once and complete the following two tasks. Task 1: What is the speaker mainly discussing in the talk? [Listen: ]

A. American people. B. American culture. C. American economy. D. American history. [A]

综合教程5(第2版)电子教案

Listening Exercises
Taks 2: Fill in each of the blanks of the following passage with no more than six words you’ve heard on the tape. Minimize letters of your spelling when necessary / possible. After hearing the talk, you will have 2 minutes to complete the full spelling of the words you’ve taken down. [Listen again: ]

综合教程5(第2版)电子教案

Listening Exercises
The American people, like all people, create a culture — a word that, used most broadly, includes everything related to a people organized in a society. The United States Culture discusses how Americans the live — (1) ______________________ the communities communities they they build build, the buildings they construct, the food they eat, the clothes they wear, their sports and (2) _______________________________________ and recreation, recreation, celebrations, celebrations,and andholidays holidays. Of course, it also includes the life of the mind an the — education in the United States and (3)_______________ American arts and letters. _____

综合教程5(第2版)电子教案

Listening Exercises
American culture has been influenced by the democratization of American society. The people who brought their their culture with came to the United States (4) brought ____________________ ____ and once here, they borrowed from each other. As them the United States became (5) _____________________ the favored destination destination of of people leaving their homelands in search of a new ______ country. American culture became a rich and (6) _______________________ complex blending blending of ofcultures cultures from around the world. Generation by generation, decade by decade. American _____________________ infusions of of new elements from culture has received (7) infusions Europe, Africa, Asia, and Latin America.

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Listening Exercises
African Americans, for instance, brought forth (8) ___ the the ____________________________ improvisational music music and and rhythms rhythms of blues and jazz that improvisational globally popular popular cultural became the nations most (9) ____________________ globally ____ form An American can savor the flavors and foods of form. many parts of the world and can hardly read a novel that does m partake of (10) regional culture regional culture or or immigrant _______________________ backgrounds. __________ backgrounds Democracy has also influenced American culture, as indicated by (11) the merging of of elite and thegradual gradual merging elite ______________________ popular cultures. Nowhere has this merging had greater importance than in education.

综合教程5(第2版)电子教案

Listening Exercises
Before (12) World World __________ War II II, only a minority of Americans completed high school, and very few graduated from college. Today, graduation from high school is (13) _____________ nearly universal nearly universal, and a majority of young Americans intend to go to college. With the dramatic increase in the amount of education they receive, Americans have books, museums, museums, become enormous consumers of (14) books, ______________ and __________ concerts and concerts. Never have so many people known so much about literature and the arts.

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Listening Exercises
At the 20th century, an elite no longer controls cultural expression in the United States. Artists of various kinds formal boundaries between fine art and argue that (15) _______________ formal popular art have always been artificial, and they have older, European-based traditions __________________________ dismantled (16) older, traditions in painting, sculpture, music, literature. Many people now contribute to a myriad of cultural forms from cartoons to public-access television programs ___________________________ (17) public-access programs. With creativity arising from unexpected places, American culture now reaches out to all the nation’s diverse peoples. This change has paralleled (18) the political theextension ___________________ extension of political rights ____ to more people, including women and African Americans.
综合教程5(第2版)电子教案

Listening Exercises
Just as the American economy and American political institutions have assumed an unprecedented position on the world scene, American cultural forms — from music and movies to football and fast food to blue jeans and international blues — have become (19) _________________ international in inreach reach. No longer bound by geography, American culture has ______________________ an ambassador goodwill become (20) an ambassadorofof goodwill, enabling people of different religions, and different forms of government to find something in common.

综合教程5(第2版)电子教案

Listening Exercises
Script

This change has paralleled the extension of political rights to more people, including women and African Americans. Just as the American economy and American political institutions have assumed an unprecedented position on the world scene, American cultural forms from music and movies to football and fast food to blue jeans and blues — have become international in reach. No longer bound by geography, American culture has become an ambassador of goodwill, enabling people of different nations, different religions, and different forms of government to find something in common.

综合教程5(第2版)电子教案

Further Enhancement
Lead-in Questions

Text II
Text Comprehension Questions for Discussion Fun Time and Memorable Quotes

综合教程5(第2版)电子教案

Text II Reading
Lead-in Questions Some people think that waiting in a long line is torture. What do you think? Open for discussion.

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Text II Reading
ON THE PRESSURES AND POLITICS OF WAITING IN LINE Georgia Dullea 1. The British queue up and the Americans wait in line, except for New Yorkers, who wait on line. No one seems to know the reason for this local idiom. It is something to ponder while waiting in/on line.

综合教程5(第2版)电子教案

Text II Reading
2. Another thing to ponder: it is estimated that Americans spend up to five years of their lives in that tedious, stressful but unavoidable process known as waiting. The estimate comes from Dr. Thomas Saaty, a University of Pittsburgh mathematician and systems analyst who is also an authority on waiting lines or queues, as scientists call them. 3. "Being forced to wait in long lines by faceless institutions is like being victimized by a monster," he remarked the other day in a telephone interview. Studies show that otherwise rational people act irrationally when forced to stand in line or wait in crowds, even becoming violent. Remember the gas lines a few years ago?
综合教程5(第2版)电子教案

Text II Reading
4. Standing in line is not a necessary requisite to being part of a queue, as Dr. Saaty pointed out. One can be trapped on "hold" at the end of a phone line, stacked up over an airport, tied up in highway traffic, delayed in a doctor's crowded waiting room. 5. Of course, queues are more than a matter of academic interest to ordinary people. They are a grim reality of city life. While there seems to be no consensus on the city's worst line, the ones mentioned most often in talks here and there were lunchtime lines at banks and post offices and, among younger people, movie lines and college-registration lines.
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Text II Reading
6. "Bank lines," said Mark Sloane, an investor. "No matter what time of day you bank, the number of tellers is inadequate to the number of patrons. Even when the bank is open you see long lines in front of the money machines outside." 7. "Department stores," said Margot Albrecht, who resents missing a day's work as a systems engineer to wait for furniture deliveries, another queue of sorts. "They always tell you to expect delivery from 8 A.M. on. You sit home waiting and waiting, and they always arrive at 6 P.M. I don't know if anybody gets furniture delivered before 6 P.M."
综合教程5(第2版)电子教案

Text II Reading
8. "Supermarkets," said Ed Frantz, a graphic artist, who once abandoned a full shopping cart in the middle of a long checkout line. It was not a political act. "The line was filled with coupon clippers and check writers," he recalled. "And suddenly I had to walk away. Food no longer mattered." 9. Not all lines are deadly. "Some lines are actually fun," Doreen Schroeder insisted. She is a hair stylist, and she has met "some interesting men" in the Ray's Pizza line.

综合教程5(第2版)电子教案

Text II Reading
10. In any line the fundamental rule is first come, first served, or what social scientists call "distributive justice". Exceptions may be made, say, in fancy restaurants where the headwaiters have their favorites, but, in general, the rule prevails. 11. In theory, then, everyone should have an equal interest in keeping an orderly line. In practice, the interest varies depending on one's position in line. Researchers in one of Dr. Milgram's classes demonstrated this when they took turns barging into two kinds of lines — railroad ticket lines at Grand Central Terminal and theatre ticket lines at Duffy Square.
综合教程5(第2版)电子教案

Text II Reading
12. In both cases, the strongest protests came from the immediate victims or the people directly behind the line jumpers. People farther down the line complained less or not at all, even though they had been equally penalized by losing a place. 13. Similar findings were reported by Dr. Mary Harris, a University of New Mexico psychologist, in experiments at airports, theaters and supermarkets. She also found people less angered if the line jumper said, "Excuse me, please," or told a hard-luck story or if an accomplice in line agreed to admit the line jumper.

综合教程5(第2版)电子教案

Text II Reading
14. "People will put up with a lot of aggressive behavior as long as they don't feel it is directed at them personally," said Dr. Robert A. Baron, a specialist in human aggression at Purdue University. "Clearly, standing in line is an obnoxious activity for almost everybody. Realizing that you're not being singled out, that you're one of a large group of sufferers, seems to help." 15. If misery loves company, so do sports fans. Dr. Leo Mann documented this several years ago when, as a Harvard professor, he studied the long overnight queues for tickets to ball games in his native Australia.
综合教程5(第2版)电子教案

Text II Reading
16. "Outside the stadium something of a carnival atmosphere prevails," he wrote in The American Journal of Sociology. "The devotees sing, sip warm drinks, play cards and huddle together." 17. Like the teams they had come to watch, the fans in line took timeouts. Some worked in shifts, with certain members leaving to take naps or eat meals, while others saved their places in line. Some staked claims in line with items of personal property such as sleeping bags and folding chairs. "During the early hours of waiting," Dr. Mann noted, "the queues often consisted of one part people to two parts inanimate objects."
综合教程5(第2版)电子教案

Text II Reading
18. Nobody has ever seriously studied Helen Quinn's Saturday morning line for Metropolitan Opera tickets, but perhaps someone should. Miss Quinn is not an official at the Met and she will be the first to tell you that. She is merely a persistent member of the line for standing-room tickets, one with a certain command presence and a certain philosophy: "Standing on line should not be a physical endurance contest. If the wait is long you should be able to report in and then leave to go to the washroom, go to church or have a bite to eat."

综合教程5(第2版)电子教案

Text II Reading
19. For 15 years standees at the opera have been doing just that, thanks to Miss Quinn's ticketing system, which functions like that of a busy bakery. She makes, dates and numbers her tickets — one for each of the 175 standing-room spots available — and dispenses them to early birds, who begin showing up at 6 A.M., two hours before the box office opens. Assured of a place, ticket holders then leave and return shortly before 8 A.M. to line up for the real tickets.

综合教程5(第2版)电子教案

Text II Reading
20. When Miss Quinn's authority as the self-appointed keeper of the line is questioned, she shrugs and says: "Somebody has to do it." When the integrity of her line is threatened she fights: "Last week we had some trouble with a man who tried to jump the line, but we caught him," she said firmly. "We almost always catch them."

综合教程5(第2版)电子教案

Text II: Comprehension
Answer the following multiple-choice questions: 1. Why do the New Yorkers say that they wait ON line while almost all the other Americans and the British people say waiting IN line? A. Maybe the New Yorkers queue up in tall buildings. B. Probably it is only a matter of customary way of speaking. C. Possibly some New Yorkers want to create a language problem for people to think about. D. Some New Yorkers just want to kill time by finding out the difference between in line and on line. [B]
综合教程5(第2版)电子教案

Text II: Comprehension
2. According to Dr. Thomas Satty, which of the following is likely to happen in lines or in crowds? A. Some people could become quite hysterical. B. Some people might doze off. C. Some people may decide to give up. D. Some irrational people may act rationally. [A]

综合教程5(第2版)电子教案

Text II: Comprehension
3. According to the passage, people have to line up for all the following EXCEPT A. Luncheon at banks and post offices. B. Service at banks and post offices. C. Tickets for an interesting movie. D. College or university registration. [B]

综合教程5(第2版)电子教案

Text II: Comprehension
4. What reason didn’t Dr. Mary Harris give for a line jumper to succeed? A. He/She uses polite language. B. He/She pretends to fall ill all of a sudden. C. He/She tells a pathetic tale. D. He/She gets help from a partner. [B]

5. According to Dr. Mann’s estimation, if you find yourself No.61 in a line, how many people would you actually see during the early hours of waiting? A. 60. B. 40. C. 20. D. 10. [C]
综合教程5(第2版)电子教案

Text II: Questions for Discussion
1. According to the passage, what is the definition of queue? Standing in line is not a necessary requisite to being part of a queue. One can be trapped on "hold" at the end of a phone line, stacked up over an airport, tied up in highway traffic, delayed in a doctor's crowded waiting room. So, queue refers to a situation in which someone is made to wait,though not necessarily in a visible queue.

综合教程5(第2版)电子教案

Text II: Questions for Discussion
2. Why did Ed Frantz abandon a full shopping cart in the middle of a long checkout line? People who behave in ways that contradict their own attitudes often experience an unpleasant state of internal tension. Being forced to wait in long lines produces internal tension. Even rational people may act irrationally when they are forced to stand in line or wait in crowds.

综合教程5(第2版)电子教案

Text II: Questions for Discussion
3. According to the passage, what do sociology and psychology study? Both psychology and sociology explore how people behave when they are in groups. However, psychologists try to understand behavior from the vantage point of the individual, whereas sociologists focus on how behavior is shaped by social forces and social institutions.

综合教程5(第2版)电子教案

Text II: Questions for Discussion
4. In the passage, what pressures are being referred to? Physical endurance and conformity pressures. In theory, everyone has an equal interest in keeping an orderly line. People often adjust their own behavior to conform with that of the group. They are more likely to give in to conformity pressures in this way when the group is unanimous, and in cultures that value interdependence and social harmony over individual goals. But, in practice, the interest varies depending on one's position in line.

综合教程5(第2版)电子教案

Text II: Questions for Discussion
5. How does Miss Quinn defend her ticketing system? One day they had some trouble with a man who tried to bump the line, but they caught him. They almost always catch them. She thinks that somebody has to feel responsible and intervene to keep an orderly line.

综合教程5(第2版)电子教案

Notes of Text II
University of Pittsburgh (Paragraph 2) University of Pittsburgh is a state-affiliated university system in Pennsylvania. The system operates a main campus in Pittsburgh and four regional campuses. The University of Pittsburgh was founded in 1787 as the Pittsburgh Academy. It became Western University of Pittsburgh in 1819 and received its present name in 1908. The university is often referred to as "Pitt".

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Notes of Text II
systems analyst (Paragraph 2) someone who studies business or industrial operations, and uses computers to plan them, improve them, etc.

综合教程5(第2版)电子教案

Notes of Text II
institutions (Paragraph 3) established systems or customs in society

综合教程5(第2版)电子教案

Notes of Text II
gas lines (Paragraph 3) energy crisis gas lines. During energy crisis, people frequently have to wait in long lines to purchase gasoline.

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Notes of Text II
the number of tellers is inadequate to the number of patrons (Paragraph 6) Customers completely outnumber bank clerks.

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Notes of Text II
graphic artist (Paragraph 8) Graphic arts is a general term for drawing and other techniques used to reproduce words and pictures. The techniques include block printing, engraving, etching, lithography, and silk-screen printing. Painting was once considered one of the graphic arts, but today it is generally considered a separate art form.

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Notes of Text II
coupon clippers (Paragraph 8) people that have cut the coupons from newspapers and magazines

综合教程5(第2版)电子教案

Notes of Text II
fancy restaurants (Paragraph 10) Fancy hotels, restaurants, cars, etc. are expensive and fashionable.

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Notes of Text II
Grand Central Terminal (Paragraph 11) Two major railroad stations serve New York City Grand Central Terminal (sometimes called Grand Central Station) at 42nd Street and Park Avenue and Pennsylvania Station on 31st Street at Seventh Avenue.

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Notes of Text II
University of New Mexico (Paragraph 13) University of New Mexico is a state-controlled coeducational school in Albuquerque, New Mexico. It has colleges of architecture and planning, arts and sciences, education, engineering, fine arts, nursing, and pharmacy; schools of law, management, and medicine; and a University College. Students belong to the University College in their freshman year, after which they may enter one of the other colleges.

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Notes of Text II
Purdue University (Paragraph 14) Purdue University is a publicly controlled coeducational land-grant school. Its main campus is in West Lafayette, Indiana. The university also has regional campuses in Fort Wayne, Hammond, and Westville. Purdue operates the Fort Wayne campus jointly with Indiana University. Both universities also offer courses at Indiana UniversityPurdue University at Indianapolis. Purdue is supported by the state of Indiana, but it also receives aid from the federal government and various private sources.

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Notes of Text II
standing-room (Paragraph 18) space for standing in a theatre, sports ground, etc. standing room only: no seats left

综合教程5(第2版)电子教案

Fun Time | Memorable Quotes
Only in America Only in America ... can a pizza get to your house faster than an ambulance ... Only in America ... are there handicap parking places in front of a skating rink ... Only in America ... do people order double cheese burgers, a large fry, and a diet coke ... Only in America ... do banks leave both doors open and then chain the pens to the counters ... Only in America ... do we leave cars worth thousands of dollars in the driveway and leave useless things and junk in boxes in the garage ... Only in …

综合教程5(第2版)电子教案

Fun Time | Memorable Quotes
We're here for the American dream, we're not here for any other country, we're not here because we love other countries, we're here because we were told about the American dream. — Gino Zendejas I was not looking for my dreams to interpret my life, but rather for my life to interpret my dreams. — Susan Sontag

综合教程5(第2版)电子教案

上海外语教育出版社 出版 出 版 人:庄智象 策 划:牟 丽 薛东海

责任编辑:徐凌晶 校对测试:*** ***
南京信息工程大学 刘杰海 主 编:刘杰海 何三宁 制作 陈志杰

周幼华

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