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分词课件


The Present & Past Participle





分词是英语中非谓语动词的一种形式,在句中 起形容词和副词的作用,可作表语, 定语, 状语 和宾语补足语。 分词有两种形式:现在分词和过去分词。


△ 现在分词: 主动形式
一般式 完成式 do

ing having done



被动形式
being done having been done




过去分词只有一种形式:
否定形式是在前面加

done
not





现在分词和过去分词的区别很多,但它 们之间的根本区别是: 现在分词在时态上强调动作正在进行, 在语态上侧重于主动; 过去分词在时态上强调动作已经完成, 在语态上侧重于被动。 这种根本的区别具体体现在两种分词分别 充当的各种句子成份中。


1.作表语 2.作定语



3.作状语
4.作宾语补足语

作 表 语
This news sounds encouraging. This cup is broken. 现在分词通常用来表示人或事物的特征;过去分词 通常表示人或事物的状态。

注意:
Her job is answering the telephone. 动名词作表语

The window was broken by Tom. 过去分词用作被动语态

作 定 语
China is a developing country. The USA is a developed country. He is the man swimming in the river just now. (Who swam in the river just now) The building built last year is our library.
(Which was built last year )

分词作定语要看分词与它所修饰的名词之间的关系。 若为主动关系,则用现在分词;若为被动关系,则 用过去分词。现在分词表示正在发生的动作或事情; 过去分词表示完成了的动作或事情。

句型转换练习
Who is the man that is standing beside the door? Who is the man standing beside the door? They built a highway which leads into the mountains. They built a highway leading into the mountains.

句型转换练习
The meeting which was held last week is very important. The meeting held last week is very important. The boy who is named Rick is a football fan. The boy named Rick is a football fan.

作 状 语
Seeing from the mountain, we can see our beautiful school.
(When we see from the mountain) 时间状语

Seen from the mountain, our school looks more beautiful.
(If it is seen from the mountain) 条件状语

分词作状语要看分词与其逻辑主语(即主句的主语) 的关系。若为主动关系,则用现在分词;若为被动 关系,则用过去分词。

句型转换练习
The students sang happily as they walked along the road. The students sang happily, walking along the road. (伴随情况状语) He didn’t come yesterday because he wasn’t well. Not being well, he didn’t come yesterday.
(原因状语)

句型转换练习
If we paid more attention to them, the young trees would grow better. Paid more attention to them, the young trees would grow better. (条件状语) When he was told the truth, he couldn’t help crying. When told the truth, he couldn’t help crying. (时间状语)

作宾语补足语
When I went into the classroom, I saw all the classmates writing homework. He had his leg injured in the basketball match yesterday. I found a small boy standing in front of the house. You’ d better have your hair cut.
分词作宾语补足语,要看分词与宾语的关系。若为 主动关系,则用现在分词;若为被动关系,则用过 去分词。

作宾语补足语
注意比较: I heard the boys sing.

I heard the boys singing.
I heard the song sung by the boy. 动词不定式作宾补,强调动作的整个过程;

现在分词作宾补,强调动作正在发生;
过去分词作宾补,强调动作被做。

练 习
interesting interested 1 The story is very_________. We are________ (interest) in it. 2 The result of the exam made me disappointed _________ (disappoint) . loved 3 She was a teacher _______(love) by all her students. walking 4 I saw a man_______ (walk) in the street, with sitting a little girl _______(sit) on his shoulder. Beaten 5 _______ (beat) black and blue,the lady could hardly stand still. Not knowing 6 ____________(not know) what to do, he telephone the police. lying 7 Do you know the boy ______ (lie) under the big tree?


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