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高中英语阅读理解之主旨大意


高考阅读题型解题方法之

主 旨 大 意

利津一中高三英语组

张萍

★高考中对阅读理解的要求
要求考生能读懂书、报、杂志中关于一般性 话题的简短文段以及公告、说明、广告等。 考生应能: ① 理解主旨和要义; ② 理解文中具体信息; ③ 根据上下文推测生词词义; ④ 作出判断和推理; ⑤ 理解文段的基本逻辑结构; ⑥ 理解作者的意图、观点和态度。

★阅读理解命题分类 主旨大意

命 题 类

细节理解
词义猜测 推理判断

Learning aims:
Develop students’ ability of getting the main idea of a passage or a paragraph in the College Entrance Exams.

Step I:Lead-in Think about the common question patterns 主旨大意题型常见提问形式?
a.The main idea/topic/best title of the passage is ______. b.This paragraph mainly talks about/discusses ____ . The passage is mainly about _______. c.What is the best title/ the main idea of the passage? What does the writer mainly tell us? d.Which of the following statements best summarize/ express the author’s main point? Which of the following is the best title for the passage? …

Step II: Have a try
1.Read the passage (1-2) quickly, and underline the topic sentence in each passage. 2.Pay attention to the structure and the transitional words (过渡词).

1 Smoking cigarettes is harmful to your health. Experiments show that cigarette smoking can cause cancer. Besides the most serious and terrible disease, cancer, cigarette smoking also can cause other health problems. For example, it can give one a “smoker’s cough”. Finally, studies have shown it is easy for cigarette smokers to catch colds. Whether you get an unimportant cold or terrible killer, cancer, smoking is harmful. Is it worth it? Tip 1:at the beginning 主题句在段首:一个主题句常常是一个段落的开头, 其后的句子则是论证性细节。在议论文,科技文献和 新闻报道中多采用这种格式。

2
Some students prefer a strict teacher who tells them exactly what to do. Others prefer to be left to work on their own(by themselves) . Still others like a democratic(民主的) discussion type of class. No one teaching method can be devised(design) to satisfy all students at the same time.
Tip 2: at the end 主题句在段尾。作者先摆出事实依据, 层层推理论证, 最后自然得出结论, 即段落的主题。本段的中心思想在 结尾句得到体现,它是此段内容的结论。

Step II: Have a try
1.Read the passage 3 quickly, and find the topic sentence in each passage. 2.Pay attention to the structure. 3.Discuss about your answer.

3 If you were planning to buy a television set, the following advertisement would certainly attract our attention: “Color TV, only $79. Two day sale. Hurry. ” However, when you go to the store ready to buy, you may discover that the advertised sets are sold out. But the salesman is quick to reassure you that he has another model, a more reliable set which is “just right for you.” It costs $359. This sales tactic is called “bait and switch.” Buyers are baited with a sales offer, and then they are switched to another more costly item. Buying items on sale requires careful consideration of the merchandise and the reasons for the sale.
Tip 3: in the middle 在短文中间.当主题句被安排在段中间时, 通常前面只提出问题或举 例子, 文中的主题由随之陈述的细节或合乎逻辑的引申在文中导 出, 而后又作进一步的解释, 支撑或发展,常用于说明文。

Step II: Have a try
1.Read the passage 4 quickly, and find the topic sentence in each passage. 2. Focus on the structure and transitional words (过 渡词).

4 Good manners are important in all countries, but ways of expressing good manners are different from country to country. Americans eat with knives and forks; Japanese eat with chopsticks. Americans say “Hi” when they meet; Japanese bow. Many American men open doors for women; Japanese men do not. On the surface在表面上 , it appears that good manners in America are not good manners Japan, Tip 4: at both the beginning andin the end and in a way this true. But begins in any country, the only manners Thisis paragraph with a topic sentence and that are important are those involving one person’s ends with a restatement of the same topic sente在文 behavior toward another person. In all countries it is 章开头和结尾 :首尾呼应,为突出主题, 作者先提出主题, good manners to behave considerately towards 结尾时再次点出主题, 这种首尾呼应的写作方式常用于记 others and bad manners not to. It is only the way of 叙文,议论文,但前后表述主题的句子不是简单的重复 , behaving politely that differs from country to country. 后面的表述往往有进一步的引申或发展的意味。

Step II: Have a try
1.Read the passage 5 quickly, summarize and choose the topic sentence. 2. Concentrate on the structure.

5 Tom studied four years at the University of Paris and decided to leave before his graduation. He transferred to the University of Berlin and graduated with honors. Harvard Law School and, later, Boston College provided him with an excellent legal background. He is presently a corporation lawyer in Miami, Florida. The main idea of this paragraph is that ______. Tip 5: No specific topic sentence, so readers should A. Tom, whofrom had studied at Paris Universities for four summarize all the details. years, moved to another university. partial details 从段落中归纳要点抓大意 .有些文章无明确的主题句 .这就 B. Tom became a lawyer since his graduation from 要求考生在阅读过程中根据文中所叙述的事实细节来概括 Harvard Law School and later from Boston College. 总结主旨大意。 C. Tom1. was an excellent when he studied at 注意: 不能以偏概全 . student 2. 不能过于宽泛,要恰如其分。 Berlin university. 3. 注意多次出现的高频词或主题词 D. Tom received an excellent education.

主题 句在 文章/ 命 段落题 中的类 位置

at the beginning

at the end in the middle at both the beginning and the end

no clear topic sentence

Step III: Challenge yourself by using the tips mentioned above.
1.Skim the paragraphs (6-7) fast to choose the main idea. 2.Have a discussion and share your answer. Suggestion: a.先看问题后阅读更有针对性,做到有的放矢, 既省时又高效。 b.注意段落结构,找出/归纳出topic sentence. C.对比选项,进一步提取有效信息,去伪存真。

6 One hundred years ago, school teachers were expected to provide a variety of services in addition to their teaching teaching duties and behave themselves in an exemplary (serving manner as an example) manner. They cared for(take care of) the oil lamps, tended(look after) the fire, and supplied their students with sharp pencils. After a long day in the classroom, they were expected to spend some time every evening reading the Bible. Women teachers could not marry, and barber shops were of limits to men teachers. Of course, alcohol and tobacco were forbidden. Which statement best expresses the main idea?

A. Teachers performed domestic(adj.家庭的)tasks. B. The teaching profession(n.职业)demanded total dedication(n.奉献). C. Teachers needed the guidance of religion. D. Teachers set good examples by not using tobacco and alcohol.

7 When work has accumulated(gather) to the point where you feel over-whelmed(adj.sth is so bad that you cannot deal with it well), you can take certain steps steps to to make make things things easy. easy First, list all the tasks that must be done and decide which requires immediate attention. Next, divide the work into separate piles so you can actually see them disappear as you work. You will avoid a feeling of depression if you can see concrete achievement. Last, assign(give) each task a certain amount of time. If you are realistic and allow yourself a little extra time for each task, you will find that all the work will be done with time to spare and a sense of accomplishment (achievement) will replace the anxiety you felt at first. Which sentence can best express the main idea? A. Quality work requires time and patience. B. The successful person relies on good assistants. C.Discouragement沮丧,气馁and depression result from overwork. D. Organization条理,系统 saves time and energy.

1.Skim the paragraphs (8) fast and write down the best title. (within 6 words) 2.characteristics (特征) of the best title
★ show the main idea ★ attractive ★ simple, brief, summary ★ avoid mistakes (grammar,spelling..ect.) __________________________ Keys:Kleptomania -- an illness Kleptomania is an illness An unusual illness

Step IV: Summary
I.主旨大意题型常见提问形式 eg. What is the best title/ the main idea of the passage? … II.主题句在文章/段落中的位置 1:主题句在段首at the beginning 2:主题句在段尾at the end 3:在短文中间in the middle 4: 在文章开头和结尾at both the beginning and the end 5:从段落中归纳要点抓大意no clear topic sentence

备考建议学法指导
? ? ? ? ?

阅读理解分值高, 作者用意与主旨, 通读全文知大意, 以偏概全为隐患, 围绕各段中心词,

命题意图居首位。 仔细推断细对比。 务必找到中心句。 主旨态度首尾句。 循序渐进得中心。

摒弃不良的阅读习惯。 1.“指读” 2.“声读” 3.“译读” 4.“回读” 5.“析读” 6.“参照读” 7.“视幅过窄” 8.“毛病”(bad habits): 教学过程中,发现学生在 阅读时常做些不利于阅读的坏动作。有的同学晃头、颠腿 、转笔、咬指头、趴在桌子上、揪头发等等。


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