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China's Wine Culture


Chinese Wine Culture
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ABSTRUCT:From cups of jade that glow with wines and grapes at night Drinking to pipa songs We are summoned to fight Don’t laugh if we lie drunk Upon the battleground! How many warriors ever came back Safe and sound? ——Wang Han Liangzhou word Chinese culture of alcoholic beverages has rich and deep meanings,including everything in liquor-making industry.Seems to be from the beginning of society, Chinese and wine are inseparable.Wine has entered into all aspects of China’s society,such as art,spirits and so on.Wine has become an integral part of Chinese culture. Key Words: Chinese wine culture,The history of Chinese wine,Jiusi,Art,China’s celebrities,Jiuling,National minority of China,The spirits of Chinese people,Drinking vessels,Health 1. The History of Chinese Wine Chinese began to brew wine which can trace back to 1900 B.C..It is generally acknowledged that the legend of Du Kang’s brewing wine is the source of China’s wine.Nowadays,archaeologists have found some autiques which may be regarded as a bottle of filling wine at Dawenkou relics in Shandong Province.In Xia and Shang Dynasty,the wine was used in more and more fetes,because the kings of Xia and Shang thought the wine was a gift from the god and wizards always drank wine to get hallucination and then pretended to communicate with the god.Except this,they found a way,distiller’s yeast fermantation,to brew wine.At that time,the wine was called mijiu(rice or millet wine).It has a history of several thousand years and the traditional fermenting technique developed gradually into a mature level. Even in present day, the natural fermenting technique has not disappeared completely and something about such technique still remains a mystery. In Zhou Dynasty,people connected the proprieties with wine.It can also be comprehended that when Chinese was drinking,they were always careful about some manners or chatting words. The output of wine had made marked progress in Qin and Han Dynasty.But until Tang and Song

Dynasty,with limbeck spread in China by western business,white wine(shaojiu) appeared. Huangjiu(yellow rice wine) was brew in Tang Dynasty,which is seen as the peek of China’s brewing technology.This type of wine got a mature development at the end of the Song but finally be replaced by white wine in new Chinese time. But it can’t be ignored that in Ming and Qing Dynasty,people were not concentrate on the type of ingredients,they pay more attention on the places of production.Based on it,they thought there are two types of wine, southern wine and northern wine. In modern society,white wine has become the most common wine in some shops or suoermarkets.And there are so many famous brands of wine,such as Maotai,Jian nanchun...And this is really the prove that China’s wine culture have been developing thrivingly. 2. The Development of Drinkng Vessels As an outstanding part of China alcoholic drink culture,the drinking vessels culture maily cinsists of pottery drinking vessels culture and bronze drinking vessels culture. The earliest drinking vessels may be made in the Neolithic Time.We can found a high handle cup of longshan relics in the National Museum.And from Xia Dynasty to Han Dynasty,drinking vessels are usually bronze wares.These vessels are not only used to drink in common,but also used to fill wine to fete on some crucial occations.And these bronze wares are always beautiful with exquisite workmanship,which represents the highest technology level.From then on,ceramic vessels walk to people's life.During this time,other materials' drinking vessels,such as golden vessels,appeared and got the same development.More and more kind of ceramics are sintered and they became smaller. The emergence of blue and white porcelain is of epoch-making significance in porcelain history. At the same time,more and more people begin to drink with blue and white porcelain cups,and still is. It can be said that the history of the development of vessels is the history of the development of China’s drinking vessels. 3. Jiusi(Ancient China's wine shop 酒肆) Jiusi is also called Jiufang,Jiudian,Jiujia or Qiting,it's a flag of Tang and Song's catering industry.Original person can buy wine and drink or have deals in Jiusi.This place appeared in the Wei Dynasty.Until the mid-tang Dynasty,as the result of the strict fangshi policies(坊市制度),there are few Jiusi.A large number of Jiusi began to appear in Song Dynasty.It's always regarded as a symbol of thrive of city development.Jiusi of Song is open 24-7.Drinkers could go to Jiusi to drink

or buy wine whenever they wanted to.The big Jiusi have the qualification to brew wine,however other small wine workshops could only buy the wine from those big Jiusi and resold it at a profit.The symbols of these small jiusi almost are there flag(jiuqi 酒旗).The managers of the Jiusi in Song Dynasty paid so much attention on the decoration of it. After the Song Dynasty,Hotels gradually have the same function as today's hotel. 4. China’s Celebrities and Drinking From ancient China to modern China,there are millions of stories about celebrities and drinking.Li Bai may be the most famous one.In a way,he was addicted in drinking.With drinking,sometimes,he always could component some excellent poems filling romance and his life pursuits.As his famous poem Drink alone under the Moon goes:put up the wine cup with the Moon,the Moon,the shadow and I.How romantic! And another famous man who love drinking is Tao yuanming(陶渊明).He was a poet who founded pastoral portry of China and have a profound influence on later poets.It can be seen from his poems that he couldn’t live without drinking.The poet was deeply addicted in the chrysanthemum wine brewed by himself. Ou Yangxiu,a famous ci poet in Song Dynasty,write a distinguished artical Record of the Old Tippler's Pavalion.He expressed his life ideal,sharing happiness with ordinery people,in it,which made him so much respected by descendants. 5. Jiuling(drinkers’ wager game 酒令) Drinkers’ wager game is a kind of add to the fun games on the banquet. During the period of drinking,people often played a drinkers' wager game.When playing the game,one person was in charge and the others obeyed him and would be punished if they violated the rules. Drinkers’wager game of China can be traced back to the Western Zhou Dynasty And the most historians sort the game into four categories:Yaling( 雅 令 ),Chouling( 筹 令 ),touling( 骰 令),tongling(通令).Yaling is a game in the form of language and writing skills.Persons must component a poem,a artical or a piece of couplet immmedately.There are descriptions of this wager game in many Chinese literary classics,such as A Dream of Red Mansions(The Story of the Stone ) and Stories of the Ghosts.And the last three are entertainment games. The reason why this game is called Jiuling is that the original form of it is like a court politics. In Western Zhou Dynasty,officials must be serious about Jiuling and they were organized in the

fixed order. Jiuling became very popular since the Tang Dynasty.The drinkers must first drink up their cups of wine completely before they were qualified to play the game. Even in modern society,when families or friends get together,they always play drinkers’wager games if they drink wine. It can be easy to see that the drinkers' wager game not only brought fun to the drinkers at the banquet, but also promoted the popularization of Chinese wine culture. Nowadays wine culture is still an important part of Chinese people's daily life. 6. Wine and Art Alcohol had a greater impact on Chinese artists than any other social group, since many of them produced their peak-of-perfection masterpieces right after drinking. Chinese not only express their spirits through drinking,but also use wine to component some artworks.In 2010,Maotai produced a series of Maotai white wine to celebrate 2010 Shanghai EXPO.The shapes of them were designed as something which could represent national feature of the countries all over the world.Each bottle seems like a artwork.Except this,ancient Chinese were also feel like singing songs or component poems with drinking.From the ancient time to the modern time,Chinese created their own unique cluture of wine tastings and Wine collection. Paintings and calligraphy were raised to a higher level by the aid of alcohol. Wang Xizhi, Chinese famous calligrapher respectfully called the Calligraphy Saint, retried dozens of times to outdo his most outstanding work, Lantingxu (Orchid Pavilion Prologue) which he finished when he was drunk, and he failed. The original one was the best. 7. National Minorities of China and Alcoholic Drink China is a multinational country,so it contains various cultures of 56 national minorities.Wine culture is also a necessary part of some minorities.Northern nomadic people,such as the Mongol nationality,the Oroqen nationality and the Daur nationality,prefer kumis(马奶酒). From ancient date, the Mongolian Kumis brewing technology has a long history.Kumis is made by fermenting raw unpasteurized mare's milk over the course of hours or days, often while stirring or churning. (The physical agitation has similarities to making butter). During the fermentation,lactobacillibacteriaacidify the milk, and yeasts turn it into a carbonated and mildly alcoholic drink.Mongolian food culture’s most winter to eat beef and mutton,drinking horse milk wine,thirsty to drink tea.And Koumiss transmits wildness,boldness and hospitality of Mongolian. In addition,Qingke barley beer is a part of Tibetan Culture.It ferments simple character of the

Tibetan. 8. Wine and the Spirits of Chinese In China, wine is also called the "Water of History" because stories of liquor can traced back to almost every period in Chinese history. It is believed that China has about 4,000 years of history.When Chinese suffer many a setback during their life or his career was tired out,drinking wine is a way to vent their inner emotions.”Should we drink one more glass of wine? there would be no more friends to meet there when passing the Yangguan in the west.”(from Wang Wei A Farewell Song)Chinese also send their farewell to their friends or families through wine.A cup of wine can reflect all of Chinese emotions. 9.Wine and Health Chinese people believe that moderate drinking of alcohol is good for one’s health and excessive drinking will jeopardize one’s physical constitution. As a result, few Chinese, although there are some, will cling to bottles. However, many Chinese do sip a little alcohol at times to keep them fresh and healthy. Some even soak traditional Chinese medicine in liquor to achieve better effect, which has proven effective. 10. Conclusion From wine making techniques we can glimpse a bit of the wisdom of the ancient Chinese; from the relationship between wine and literati or knights, as well as various writings about wine, we can spot a trace of the accomplishments of intellectuals in ancient times; from policy measures prohibiting wine making and measures levying wine taxes, we can discover certain links between wine and national taxes; and from such concepts as the virtues of wine drinking and such customs as playing various games during wine drinking, we can ascertain the cultural concepts and ideology of traditional Chinese people. Wine is an important part of dietary culture, and its significance in Chinese culture should not be overlooked. References [1] Unknow. Chinese Alcohol, Chinese Spirits. Beijing: CHINA DAILY , 2010 [2] Unknow. LIFE WEEK. Beijing: SDX Joint Publishing Company, 2013


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