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The的用法归纳


The 的用法归纳
1 表示特指的人或物 例:Please hand me the key on the desk. 请把桌上的钥匙递给我。 The girl in red is his sister. 穿红色衣服的女孩是他妹妹。 The building over there is the tallest in the town. 那边那幢大楼是这个城里最高的。 I like the music of the film. 我喜欢这部电影的音乐。 2 表示双方都知道的或心中明白的人或物 例:Shut the door, please. 请关门。 Has he returned the book? 那本书他还了吗? Take the blue one, it is cheaper. 拿那个蓝的,它便宜些。 3 第二次提到某人或某物第一次提到时用不定冠词,第二次提到时要用定冠词。 例:He saw a house in the distance. Jim's parents lived in the house. 他看见远处有一所房子, 吉姆的父母就住在那所房子里。 There was once an old fisherman. The old fisherman had a cat. The cat was white. 从前有一 个老渔夫。这个老渔夫有一只猫。这只猫是只白猫。 4 用在世界上独一无二的名词前 这类词有: the sun 太阳, the earth 地球, the moon 月亮, the sky 天空, the world 世界 例:The moon goes round the earth. 月亮绕着地球转。 There is not any cloud in the sky. 天空中没有一丝云彩。 It was a fine day in spring. The sun shone brightly. 这是一个晴朗的春日,阳光灿烂。 He is the richest man in the world. 他是世界上最富的人。 5 用在表示方向、方位的名词前 这类词有: the east 东方,the west 西方,the south 南方,the north 北方,the right 右边,the left 左边 例:The birds are flying to the north. 这些鸟向北方飞去。 The moon rises in the east and sets in the west. 月亮从东方升起,在西方落下。 The wind was blowing from the south. 风从南方吹来。 She lived to the west of the Summer Palace. 她住在颐和园的西边。 Walk along the road and take the first turning on the right. 沿着这条路往前走,在第一个路口往 右拐。 He stood at the back of the door. 他站在门背后。 提示 方位词成对使用构成平行结构时,不用定冠词。 例:The river is two thousand kilometers long from west to east. 这条河自西向 2000 公里长。 They traveled through the country from south to north. 他们自南向北在这个国家旅行。 6 用在形容词最高级前 例:Summer is the hottest season of the year. 夏天是一年中最炎热的季节。

She is the best person for the job. 她是最适合这个工作的人。 Hangzhou is one of the most beautiful cities in the world. 杭州是世界上最美的城市之一。 The car is the most expensive of the four. 这部车是四部车中最贵的。 7 用在序数词等前 定冠词用在序数词前,也用在表示序列的 next, last 等前,还有在表示“同一”或“唯一”等的词前。 例:The first man to land on the moon is an American. 第一个登上月球的人是美国人。 She was the fifth to climb to the top of the mountain. 她是第五个到达山顶的人。 This may be the last chance. 这可能是最后一次机会。 If I miss this train I'll catch the next one. 如果赶不上这趟火车,我就赶下一趟。 He is the only person who knows the secret. 他是唯一一个知道这个秘密的人。 The two coats are of the same colour. 这两件外衣颜色相同。 This is the very book I want. 这正是我要的书。(用 very 表示强调) 提示 a 序数词表示“又一”时,前面用不定冠词 a(an) 例:He bought a second pair of shoes. 他又买了一双鞋。 He asked a question, then a second, then a third…他问了一个问题, 又问了第二个, 第三个…… b 序数词用作状语或表语时,前面不加定冠词。 例:George arrived first. 乔治第一个到。 =George was the first person to arrive. Jim and Jack are both second in the match. 汤姆和杰克在比赛中并列第二。 8 用在单数名词前表示一类人或物,强调整个类别 例:The orange is a kind of fruit. 橘子是一种水果。 The horse is a useful animal. 马是一种有用的动物。 The computer is important to us. 电脑对我们来说是重要的。 提示 不定冠词+单数名词,不带冠词的复数名词也可表示一类人或物。 例:A car runs faster than a bus. 小汽车比公交车跑得快。 Cars run faster than buses. A dog is a faithful animal. 狗是忠实的动物。 Dogs are faithful animals. 9 用在乐器名词前,表示演奏 例:She can play the piano. 她会弹钢琴。 He plays the violin very well. 他小提琴拉得很好。 He played the guitar for the children. 他给孩子们弹了吉他。 提示 但乐器名词表示具体的器物,或表示课程时,不加 the. 例:He bought a piano last month. 他上个月买了一架钢琴。 She taught piano in the school. 她在学校里教钢琴。

10 用在江河、海洋、湖泊、群岛、山脉的名称前例: the Yangtze River 长江 the Red Sea 红海 the West Lake 西湖 the Pacific 太平洋 the Himalayas 喜马拉雅山 the Nile 尼罗河 the Rocky Mountains 落基山脉 the South China Sea 南中国海 提示 例外的情况: Mount Tai 泰山 China Daily《中国日报》 11 用在由普通名词和另外一些词构成的国家名称、机关团体、阶级、等专有名词前 例:the Great Wall 长城 the United Nations 联合国 the New York Times 《纽约时报》 the United States of America 美国 the Red Cross Hospital 红十字医院 the Olympic Games 奥林匹克运动会 the Shanghai Railway Station 上海火车站 the People's Republic of China 中华人民共和国 the North Pole 北极 the People's Daily 《人民日报》 12 用在某些形容词前,表示一类人或物或某种抽象概念 例:the old 老年人 the happy 幸福的人 the poor 穷人 the aged 老人 the sick 病人 the impossible 不可能的事 the young 年轻人 the rich 富人 the blind 盲人 the wounded 伤员 the smooth 顺事 the beautiful 美,美的东西 例:The rich should help the poor. 富人应该帮助穷人。 The good is what people like. 人们总是喜欢美好的东西。 The wounded have been sent to the hospital. 伤员已经被送到医院去了。 13 用在姓氏的复数形式前,表示全家人或这一姓的夫妇二人 例:The Greens will more to the country. 格林一家要搬到乡下去。 The Wangs came to see us yesterday. 王家一家人昨天来看我们。 The Browns are very friendly. 布朗夫妇都很友好。 14 用在表示计算单位的名词前,含有“每,每一”的意思 例:Jim is paid by the hour. 吉姆的工资按小时付。

Eggs are sold by the kilogram. 鸡蛋按千克出售。 This cloth is sold by the yard. 这种布按码出售。 It sells at three dollars the pound. 它以每磅三美元出售。 They sell sugar by the pound. 他们按磅卖糖。 15 用在前面已提到过的人的身体部位或衣着的名词前 这种用法是先把整个对象说出来,然后再说到那个对象的身体的局部或衣着。 结构:动词(hit, pull, pat, strike, catch, hold, take)+sb.+介词(in, on, by, across)+身体部位或衣着 例:She touched him on the shoulder. 她碰了碰他的肩。 He took the girl by the hand. 他拉着小女孩的手。 He hit her on the nose. 他打了她的鼻子。 The stone struck the man in the eye. 石头击中了那人的眼睛。 I caught her by the right hand. 我抓住她的右手。 比较:她拍了拍那男孩的头。 She patted the boy on his head. (误,本结构中身体部位或衣着前不用 one's) She patted the boy on the head. (正) 16 用在逢十的复数数词前,表示年代,也指人的大约岁数 例:The war broke out in the forties. 那场战争发生在 40 年代。 He went abroad in the 1980s. 他在 20 世纪 80 年代出国的。 The old man is in the seventies. 老人大约七十几岁。 17 用在表示自然现象的名词前 这类名词有: the rain 雨,the wind 风, the fog 雾,the snow 雪, the air 空气, the storm 风暴,the snowstorm 暴风雪 例:Don't stand in the rain. 不要站在雨中。 The wind blew down the trees. 风把树刮倒了。 The ship sank in the storm. 船在风暴中沉没了。 The rain has cleaned the air. 下雨净洁了空气。 The fog was so thick that we couldn't see the top of the hill. 雾很大,我们看不见山顶。 提示 a 这类名词前有形容词修饰时,可用不定冠词,表示“一场,一阵,一种” 例:A cold wind is blowing from the north. 冷风从北方吹来。 There was a heavy rain last night. 昨晚下了一场大雨。 A heavy snow is falling outside. 外面正下着大雪。 b 这类名词表示一般物质时,不用冠词。 例:Rain falls in summer; snow falls in winter. 夏天下雨,冬天下雪。 Man can't live without air. 没有空气人不能活。 18 与复数名词连用,指整个群体 例: They are the teachers of this school.指全体教师) They are teachers of this school.(指部分教师)

19 表示所有,相当于物主代词,用在表示身体部位的名词前 She caught me by the arm…… 她抓住了我的手臂。 20 用在某些习惯用语中 例: in the morning 在上午 in the evening 在晚上 in the field 在田野里 in the country 在乡间 in the sun 在阳光下 in the distance 在远处 on the right 在右边 by the way 顺便说一下 in the front of 在前部 in the daytime 白天 go to the concert 去听音乐会 at (/in) the beginning 开始 at the moment 当时,此刻 all the year round 一年到头 go to the cinema 去看电影 go to the theatre 去看戏 at the weekend 周末 in the afternoon 在下午 in the night 在夜里 in the sky 在空中 in the dark 在暗处 in the rain 在雨中 in the shade 在阴凉处 on the left 在左边 all the time 始终 in the middle of 在中间 on the way home 回家途中 all the same 依然 on the whole 总之 at the same time 同时 on the plane 在飞机上 in the year 2008 在 2008 年 the other day 前几天 at the bottom of 在……底部 in the end 终于 on the one hand, on the other hand 一方面,另一方面 提示 下面几个短语前不加定冠词: 例:at dawn 在黎明 at night 在晚上 at noon 在正午 at dusk 在黄昏

英语音标发音规则 1 元音: 1) [i:] 字母组合:ee ea e ie three tree green sheep meet beef see seek eat tea meat leave lead teacher team mean speak clean please he she me piece receive ceiling 2) [i] 发音字母 i y e sit picture it is list six mix fix fit pig big build miss myth many twenty happy dictionary defect decide delicious 3) [] 发音字母 a bag hand and ant happy hat map mad bad black back glad flag shall man 4) [e] 字母组合 ea e a head bread pleasure elephant electric remember sell shell lesson better bed desk hotel yes many any 5) [ε:] 字母组合 ir ur ear ur or girl shirt skirt thirty thirteen third bird turn burn murder nurse turtle Thursday burger learn earn earth heard term her nerd serve work worm work world 6) [ε] 字母组合 er or ou ar o a e u teacher leader remember player speaker farmer powder doctor actor mayor author tractor delicious gracious pleasure familiar collar dollar together tomorrow today shallop lesson Washington control polite around account ago elephant manta banana Canada Japan china men listen famulus Saturday 7) [a:] 字母组合 ar a car farm card arm garden fast class last glass plant aunt calm 8) [] 发音字母 u o ou oo up supper lunch fun gun hunt cup bus come mother dose brother love above trouble rough flourish blood flood 9) []字母组合 al or au our ar small wall talk tall hall ball call walk short more lord horse for forty sport door floor store author caught autumn four mourn court bought warm quarrel quarter

10) [] 发音字母 o a hot lost lot fox box mop hop loss collar not want wash 11) [u:] 字母组合 oo o u food moon room gloom broom doom goose tooth shoe do two true truth blue full 12) [u] 字母组合 oo ou u o look good foot book should could put full bull pull push women whose 13) [ei] 发音字母 a ay ea ai ey name cake late gate plane April play say may way great break rain paint plain they grey 14) [ai] 发音字母 i y bike fine find die nine light night high my try fly eye 15) [au] 字母组合 ou ow house out flour ground account count sound loud around mouse flower down now cow how town 16) [εu] 发音字母 o ow oa home cold go no phone host ghost know low below grow blow show flow boat coat goal 17) [] 字母组合 oy oi boy toy joy oil soil voice choice 18) [iε] 字母组合 eer beer deer ear idea near here fierce 19) [] 字母组合 ear air pear bear chair air fair care there where 20) [uε] hour tour poor flower shower 2 容易混淆的元音 [A] [e] bad bed hand head man men land lend pan pen sad said [i:] [ei] real rail greet great mean main read raid [e] [ai] bet bite red write said side head hide [aU] [R:] house horse loud lord south sauce cloud clause now nor count corn [aU] [Q]

found fond down done gown gone town ton 3 辅音 1) [p] pen pear play pig pour pull push 2) [b] book big boot bike bread break 3) [t] tree two ten ton town twenty city 4) [d] door dull desk dose do dog dictionary 5) [k] king kite key look cook book kitchen sky (发音字母 k) card cat cream correct climb come account accept (发音字母 c) fox box oxygen x-ray (发音字母 x) school schedule schema (字母组合 ch) 6) [g] girl good goal goat grade long language 7) [m] man make moon morning move come comb 8) [n] pen ten nine fine night noon moon clean 9) [N] uncle bank English think thank junk sing king morning evening 10) [l] long land lend lord fly flag black world cold could goal soul 11) [r] read red right run room write 12) [f] five fly fine flag frog fog roof knife life wife cough laugh rough physic photo phone 13) [v] very evening even every voice vest of 14) [s] six sit student same seat kiss miss case scarf (发音字母 s) license city cease cedar ceiling celebrate (发音字母 c) licence piece juice science lance space ace (字母组合 ce) 15) [z] zoo zebra zero zap close nose hose suppose pause those whose 16) [W] think thank three thirty tooth mouth 17) [T] that this those these though 18) [F] sheep shoulder ship shoe she brush wash nation attention station social special sure 19) [V] pleasure 20) [h] hot hop home house horse how who 21) [w] when what where window wind wood 22) [j] yes year yell you your yolk yellow 23) [tF] child chicken china chair lunch ouch catch teach 24) [dV] age language cabbage vegetable stage bridge joy enjoy join July June junk 25) [tr] tree country try treat track trunk 26) [dr] dry dream drop drive drink 27) [ts] students boots boats goats nuts 28) [dz] goods woods moods hoods 4 容易混淆的辅音 [v] [w]

vest west vet wet vine wine very well [s] [W] sink think mass math miss myth sort sought [z] [T] close cloth breeze breathe [n] [N] thin thing sin sing ran rang ban bang win wing 添加一点: 9) []字母组合 al or au our ar aw small wall talk tall hall ball call walk short more lord horse for forty sport door floor store author caught autumn four mourn court bought warm quarrel quarter draw saw flaw 23) [tF] child chicken china chair lunch ouch teach (字母组合 ch) catch watch match (字母组合 tch) 5 字母,组合音节发音规律 1)a [ei] [] [[] [a:] [R] late private grade bake grape nation station page active hand bank fan parent family glad flag accept about above formative machine cinema fast last glass class past father wash what watch want 2)e [i:] [e] [i] [[] 不发音 appreciate extremely secret she me he letter left message generate pebble decide pretty previous result restore problem prosperous student confident active table late wife store lecture 3)i [ai] [i] high price library ice cream wife size line fist pick chicken piano fiancé city unit 4)o [[J] [J:] [Q] [[] [R] lode host cold note okay old home lose do who whose prove love some other mother honey company today tomorrow together control collect lost hot mock office soft honest 5)u [ju] [u] [Q] [[] university refuse unique universe huge put push pull full bull but brush bucket duck bubble support suggest 6)c [k] [s] country camp camera courage cable

city ceiling celebrate cell cease 7)g [g] [dV] [N] girl grade glass glade bag flag village vegetable bridge gentleman gym long song sing morning evening 8) l [l] 读音不同 listen learn language collect English gorilla world cold soil tall sell cool animal 9) n [n] [N] moon night noodle number uncle hungry angry young 10) r [r] [[](美语发音) right read write grade progress card board door floor form north 11)y [j] [i] [ai] yellow year yell young yolk university country pretty happy dyke dying fly buy by my 12)ar [a:] [[] [R:] farm card garden mark dollar warm quarrel quarter 13) ea [i:] [e] [ei] [i[] cease season breathe feature meat please bread breast breath meadow weather great break idea realize 14) ear [[:] [i[] learn earth earn heard hear near clear ear fear 15) er [[:] [[] [i[] deserve serve her person teacher driver anger singer serious experience mysterious fierce 16) ere [i[] [Z[] here mere fere sere there 17) ir [[:] [ai] shirt girl skirt admire desire 18) oo [u:] [u] [Q] [R:] room tool cool moon noon goof food good foot stood wood wool cook wood book blood flood oor floor 19) or [ R:] [[:] [[]

short form corn born for work world worm word worst tractor doctor actor sector senior senator 20) oor [ R:] [J[] door floor moor poor boor 21) our [J[] [R:] hour tour flour bourn lour pour court four mourn 22) ou [au] [Q] [[] house mouth mouse sound found enough trouble touch delicious gracious prosperous 23) ow [[J] [au] window meadow know show low now town how down cow 24) se [z] [s] nose suppose gose lose pose rose mouse house 25) th [W] [T] thank think thought cloth clothes that this then than 26) sion [F[n] [V[n] propulsion tension progression passion protrusion provision conclusion television 27) tion [F[n] [ tF[n](不常见) station nation translation attention question 6 关于语音的几个概念: Phonics 是一种(方法), 是教育学习者从字母排列中去拼读出单个字来. AHD 表示美语发音,The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language(简称 AHD) KK 音标是一套(注音符号系统),是由 John Samuel Kenyon 和 John Albert Knott 两位美国学者 共同编著的发音词典 A Pronouncing Dictionary of American1956 中用于标注美式发音的符号 系统, 这是一套最常用的也是最权威的注音法,从此人们把美语标准发音惯称为 KK 音标。 DJ 是根据英国学者 Daniel Jones 编的英语发音字典 (English Pronouncing Dictionary, 1963) 中的标音而来. 英式读音根据的是 English Pronouncing Dictionary 《英语正音辞典》。它们代表了被称为 “Received Pronuciation”(RP)(标准读音)的读音,这在受过教育的英国人尤其是南部英 格兰人中通用。 1888 年国际语音协会 (International Phonetic Association) 的语言学家便制定出一套可国 际通用的语音符号叫国际音标符号 (IPA—International Phonetic Alphabet),希望以一个符 号代表一音,并避免各人使用一套自己的符号所产生的不便。 国内的英文字典里最常见的音标为英式发音的国际音标 (DJ) 和美式发音的 KK 音标,前者乃根 据 Daniel Jones 编的英语发音字典 (English Pronouncing Dictionary, 1963),后者则是根据 John S. Kenyon & Thomas A. Knott 二氏的美语发音字典 (A Pronouncing Dictionary of American English, 1956)。值得一提的是,KK 音标所使用的符号均从前面提到的国际音标符号 (IPA) 而来,Kenyon & Knott 二氏仅将其中适用于美式英语的符号截取出来。

音素: 音的最小单位,英语中有 48 个音素. 音节: 由元音和辅音构成的发音单位. 元音: 发音响亮,是乐音,口腔中气流不受阻碍,是音节的主要组成部分.英语中有 20 个元音. 辅 音: 发音不响亮,是噪音,口腔中气流受到阻碍,不是音节的重要组成部分,英语中有 28 个辅音. 开音节: 1)辅音+元音+辅音+不发音 e kite cake name bike make take home plane shine 2)辅音+元音 he hi go no do be tree three hello 闭音节: 1)辅音+元音+辅音 sit bed bad bag hot hop let mad map head 2)元音+辅音 it is of in on up out ant 冠词指不定冠词 a,an 和定冠词 the a 读/ei/,/e/, an 读/en/,/an/ the 读/0e/,/0i/ 定冠词 the ,其本音(又叫作强读式),在单独朗读或重读时,发作/ Ti:/ 。但在实际交流 中,很少发这个音。因为它是虚词,绝大多数情况下被轻读,发作其弱读式/ T[ /或者/Ti /。 具体规则如下: 在辅音音素前, 发作/T[/, the pen /T[ pen/; 如 在元音音素前发作/Ti/, the 如 apple /Ti 'Apl/。注意,这里根据其后单词的第一个音素,而不是第一个字母来判断的


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for用法_归纳_计算机软件及应用_IT/计算机_专业资料。介词 for 用法归纳用法 1...He was waiting for the bus. 他在等公共汽车。 【用法说明】在通常情况下,...
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