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选修8 Unit1 Noun Clauses


Unit1. Grammar
--- The Noun Clauses

? 主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位 语从句在复合句中的作用相当于名词。 因此,这四种从句被称为名词性从句。

Who will win the match is still 主语从句 unknown. I want to know what he has told you.
宾语从句

The fact is that we have lost the game.
表语从句

The news that we won the game is exciting. 同位语从句

名词性从句的引导词
分类
从属 连词 that, whether, if

引导词

作用
三者均不在名词性 从句中作成分, whether 与if 表示 ‘是否’,that没有 任何意义

连接
代词

what, who, whom, 在从句中作主语、 宾语、表语或 whose, which...
定语等成分

连接 副词

when, where, why, how...

在从句中作时间、 地点、原因、 方式状语等

what与that在引导名词性从句时的区别:
what引导名词性从句时在从句中充当句 子成分,如主语,宾语,表语,表示…的。 而that在句子中只起连接作用,没有意义。 (1) What you said yesterday is right. (2) That the earth is round is true.

一,主语从句(Subject Clause)
? 主语从句在复合句中作句子的 主语。

That the earth is round is true. ----------------------------------------------------Whether she will come or not is still a question . --------------------------------------------------------------------

--- 引导主语从句的词有连词that (无词 义),whether,且不能省略。
* That-从句作主语通常用it作先行词,而 将that-从句置于句末。 例如: It is true that the earth is round.

What you are doing seems very difficult . --------------------------------------------Who will go makes no difference. ---------------------------Which kind of the food is the best is still not --------------------------------------------------------------------------certain.

--- 引导主语从句的词有连接代词who, what, which。

When they will start has not been decided yet . ----------------------------------------------Why dinosaurs died out remains a puzzle. ------------------------------------------------------Where she has gone is not known yet. ---------------------------------------------How he became a famous scientist is known to -----------------------------------------------------------------------------us all.

--- 引导主语从句的词有连接副词when, where,why,how。

用it作形式主语的that-从句有以下四种不 同的搭配关系: a. It + be +形容词+ that-从句
It is necessary that… 有必要…… It is important that… 重要的是…… It is obvious that… 很明显……

b. It + be + v-ed 分词+ that-从句
It is believed that… 人们相信…… It is known to all that… 从所周知…… It has been decided that… 已决定……

c. It + be +名词+ that-从句
It is common knowledge that … ……是常识 It is a surprise that… 令人惊奇的是…… It is a fact that… 事实是……

d. It +不及物动词+ that-分句
It appears that… 似乎…… It happens that… 碰巧…… It occurres to me that … 我突然想起……

Summary
? 引导主语从句的词 连词 that, whether; 连接代词 who, what, which; 连接副词 when,where,why,how。 *从句作主语时,主句中谓语一般用第三 人称,但当主语从句为what,who引导 时,要视情况而定。

练一练!

1. ____ you don’t like him is none of my business. A. What B. Who C. That D. Whether
2. ____ he said at the meeting astonished everybody present. A. What B. That C. The fact D. The matter

3. ____ leaves the room last ought to turn off the lights. A. Anyone B. The person C. Whoever D. Who 4. _____the sports meet will be held depends on the weather. A. Whenever B. If C. Whether D. That 5. ___ is a fact that English is being accepted as an international language. A. There B. This C. That D. It

表语从句(Predicative Clause)
? 表语从句在复合句中作句子的 表语, 位于连系动词之后, 如:be,seem,remain 等。

? The problem is that I am short of money. -------------------------------------------------------? The question is whether it is worth doing. --------------------------------------------------------? It looked as if it was going to rain.
-------------------------------------------------------

--- 引导表语从句的词有连词 that, whether, as if。

? China is no longer what she used to be . --------------------------------------------? The problem is who can do the work. -----------------------------------------------? The problem is -------------------------------------------------------which term will win the match. ----------------

--- 引导表语从句的词有连接代词who, what, which。

? This is-------------------------------------------------------------------how I dealt with the matter. ? That was why the brothers wanted to make ---------------------------------------------------------------------------a bet. ---------------? His trouble is where he can find a new job. ----------------------------------------------------------------? The question is when we can get there . ---------------------------------------------------

--- 引导表语从句的词有连接副词 when, where,why,how。

Summary
引导表语从句的词有连词 that,whether, as if;连接代词 who,what,which;连接副词 when,where,why,how。 特别提醒
1.表语从句是不用 if 引导的,要用whether. 2.主语是reason时,表语从句常用that,不 用because. e.g.The reason for his absence was that he was ill.

1. What the doctors really doubt is _____ my mother recovered from the serious disease so quickly. A. when B. how C. whether D. why 2. ---- I drove to Zhuhai for the air show last week. ---- Is that ______ you had a few days off ? A. why B. what C. when D. where 3. ____ she couldn’t understand was _____ fewer and fewer students showed interest in her lessons. A. What; why B. That; why C. What; because D. Why; that

4. Go and get your coat.It's ____ you left it. A. where B. there C. here where D. where there 5. Why the explosion occurred was ________ the laboratory attendant had been careless. A. for B. because C. since D. that 6. The city is no longer ________. A. what it is B. that it used to be C. which it was D. what it used to be 7.The problem is_______ he has enough time. A. if B. whether C./ D. that

宾语从句 (Object Clause)
? 宾语从句在复合句中作句子的 宾语,可以作谓语动词的宾语,也 可以作介词和某些形容词的宾语。

? I’m glad (that )you have passed the exam . ? I don’t know whether (if)you are willing to help me .

--- 引导宾语从句的词有连词 that, whether, if。

? I’ m sorry for what I have said. -------------------------------------? Do you know ----------------------------------------------------------------who/whom Tom is speaking to. -----? He can't tell ---------------------------------------------------------------which gesture means "good luck". ------------? He asked whose pen it was. --------------------------------------

--- 引导宾语从句的词有连接代词 who, whose, what, which。

? ? ? ?

He gave me some advice on ------------------------------------how to keep fit. Do you know -----------------------------where he is ? Do you know ------------------------------------------------------why he failed the exam? Please tell me ---------------------------------------------------when he won the game.

--- 引导宾语从句的词有连接副词 when, where,why,how。

Summary
引导宾语从句的词有连词that, whether,if; 连接代词who,whose, that,which; 连接副词when,where, why,how。
特别提示 由连接词that引导宾语从句时,that在口 语或非正式的文体中常被省去,但如从句是 并列句时,第二个分句前的that不可省。

1. He asked ____ for a violin. A. did I pay how much B. I paid how much C. how much did I pay D. how much I paid 2.It is generally considered unwise to give a child _____he or she wants. A. however B. whatever C. whichever D. whenever 3. Little Tommy was reluctant to tell the schoolmaster ____ he had done the day before. A .that B. how C .what D. where

4. I don't doubt ________ he'll come. A. that B. if C. what D. whether 5. Does anybody know __ we will have a sports meeting this weekend or not. A. if B. where C. whether D. that

6. It depends on ____ we will be ready in time. A. whether B. that C. if D. when

同位语从句(Appositive Clause)
? 在主从复合句中,用作同位语的从句,叫 同位语从句。 ? 它一般跟在某些名词(fact,idea,news, promise)的后面,用以说明或解释前面的 名词。

? I have no idea when his film will be on again. ? We're very excited at the news that our term had won. ? The fact that women can work as well as men is clear. ? He maked a promise that he would love her forever.

引导同位语从句的连词有that, 连接副词有how, when, where等

Fill in the blanks.
whether 1. I don’t know ______ he will come or not . 2. _____ he will come and help us is certain. That 3. I want to know _____ he has told you. what 4. Which type of coal they are going to burn _____ needs to be decided. 5. We haven't settled the question of whether it ______ is necessary for him to study abroad.

完成句子
? ______________ (肯定)he will come to It is cetain that the party. ? ________________ (决定什么时候)we will Is it decided when go to Beijing? ? Father made a promise that _____________________ (爸爸许诺)he will buy me a new computer if I passed the exam. ? There is no doubt that (毫无疑问)Mr. Smith __________________ is in good health. ? Our school is not what it used to be .(今非 ____________________ 昔比)

Translation
? 人们都认为努力工作就能成功。
It is believed that hard working leads to success.

? 据报道,一场暴风雨即将来临了。
It is reported that a heavy strom is coming soon.

? 当她面临困难时她从未想过要放弃。
It never occurred to her that she would give up when facing the difficulties.

? 她有可能赢得这场比赛。
It is likely that she will win the match.

Bye Bye


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