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形容词和副词(比较级)


形容词和副词(比较结构) 形容词和副词(比较结构)
1. 副词的位置 1) 程度副词的位置 程度副词通常放在所修饰词的前面,但是 enough必须放在被修饰词的后面. enough必须放在被修饰词的后面.常用的程 度副词有very, 度副词有very, much, almost, hardly, nearly, awfully, fairly等 fairly等

注意: 注意: 第一, 当句子中的谓语动词仅为系动词时, 第一, 当句子中的谓语动词仅为系动词时, 副 词做状语只能放在系动词后.如例句1. 词做状语只能放在系动词后.如例句1. 第二, Enough做形容词时, 第二, Enough做形容词时,修饰不可数名词或 可数名词的复数,可以放在名词前或后. 可数名词的复数,可以放在名词前或后.如果 enough修饰形容词或副词,必须放在后面. enough修饰形容词或副词,必须放在后面.如例 句2. 第三,在英语中, 第三,在英语中,表示 “大约”的副词有 大约” roughly, approximately, some, about等, 可以加 about等 在数词之前. 在数词之前.

例句1: 例句1: C How I wish John recognized the fact that he ____ in the wrong. A. is always nearly B. always is nearly C. is nearly always D. nearly is always 例句2: 例句2: A I couldn’t find ____, and so I took this one. couldn’ A. a large enough coat B. a large coat enough C. an enough large coat D. a coat enough large

2)频率副词的位置 2)频率副词的位置 频率副词通常放在助动词,情态动词或be动 频率副词通常放在助动词,情态动词或be动 词之后或实义动词之前,但是在省略结构中, 词之后或实义动词之前,但是在省略结构中, 必须放于助动词,情态动词或be 必须放于助动词,情态动词或be动词之前.此 be动词之前. 类副词有: 类副词有: always, usually, never, ever, just, shortly, seldom, hardly, scarcely, no sooner, rarely, occasionally等. occasionally等

例句3: 例句3: C San Francisco is usually cool in summer, but Los Angeles ____. A. is rarely B. hardly is C. rarely is D. is scarcely

3) 评注性副词的位置 对全句进行修饰的评注性副词, 对全句进行修饰的评注性副词, 如actually, briefly, certainly, fortunately, surely等,通常放在 surely等 句首并用逗号分开. 句首并用逗号分开. 例句4: 例句4: C Not _____, the process of choosing names varies widely from culture to culture. A. obviously B. particularly C. surprisingly D. normally (B/D两项副词不 (B/D两项副词不 可位于句首) 可位于句首)

2. 形容词和副词的级 1) 两者的比较为主,三者或三者以上的比较为辅 两者的比较为主, 注意事项: 注意事项: 第一,注意比较范围,确定比较级的类型. as就表示 第一,注意比较范围,确定比较级的类型.如as就表示 原级比较. 原级比较. 第二,根据比较级结构的完整性,见到一方时, 第二,根据比较级结构的完整性,见到一方时,应立即 到题句或选择项中寻找与之搭配的另一方. 到题句或选择项中寻找与之搭配的另一方. 第三,只有原级形式的形容词, 第三,只有原级形式的形容词,如superior, inferior, perfect, right, wrong, excellent, junior, senior等. senior等

例句5: 例句5: A Of the two shirts, I chose _____. A. the less expensive B. the least expensive C. the least expensive one D. the least expensive of them 例句6: 例句6: C He is _____ a writer as a reporter. A. more B. rather C. not so much D. not such

例句7: 例句7: B She is ___ a musician than her brother. A. much of B. more of C. much as D. more as 例句8: 例句8: C Everyone asked me where he was, but it was ___ a mystery to me as to them. A. as much of B. much of C. as much D. as of

例句9: 例句9: B Most doctors recognize that medicine is _____. A. an art as much it is a science B. as much an art as it is a science C. as an art as much it is a science D. much an art as it is a science 例句10: 例句10: C Germans used to believe that all other races were inferior _____ to them. A. than B. for C. to D. from

例句11: 例句11: A Beethoven is my favorite musician. I regard him as ____ other musicians. A. superior to B. more superior to C. more superior than D. superior than 例句12: 例句12: A I often advise him not to drink more wine ___ is good for his health. A. than B. as C. but D. that

2) 倍数比较 倍数比较的基本结构为: 倍数+ 倍数比较的基本结构为: 倍数+ 名词或指示 代词 (+of…); 倍数 + what从句; 倍数 + as… (+of… what从句; as… as. 例句13: 例句13: B Output is now six times ____ it was before 1990. A. that B. what C. for which D. of that

例句14: 例句14: A By 1998, production in the area is expected to double ____ of 1980. A. that B. it C. one D. what 例句15: 例句15: D The boy students in this school are nearly ____ as the girl students to say they intend to get a college degree in business. A. as likely twice B. as twice likely C. likely as twice D. twice as likely

3) 比较成分的一致性 在比较结构中,比较的对象必须一致. 在比较结构中,比较的对象必须一致.只有共 性的东西才能进行比较; 性的东西才能进行比较; 比较双方的语法成 分必须一致. 分必须一致.

例句16: 例句16: B He likes doing some reading at home _____ to the cinema. A. than to go B. more than going C. than going D. rather than to go 例句17: 例句17: C That kind of flower requires more frequent watering and more tender care than ___. A. any flower in the garden B. all kinds of flowers in the garden C. any other flower in the garden D. any kind of flowers in the garden

例句18: 例句18: B Some companies have introduced flexible working time with less emphasis on pressure _____. A. than more on efficiency B. and more on efficiency C. and more efficiency D. than efficiency 例句19: 例句19: C They usually have less money at the end of the month than ____ at the beginning. A. which is B. which was C. they have D. it is

4) 替代 在英语的比较级结构中, 在英语的比较级结构中,从句采用助动词替 代与主句相同的谓语动词,以免重复, 代与主句相同的谓语动词,以免重复,是非常 重要的测试项目。 解题方法: 解题方法: 1) 比较从句中用来替代的助动词必须与主 句谓语动词保持一致,例如都用do动词, 句谓语动词保持一致,例如都用do动词,或情 态动词, be动词. 态动词,或be动词. 2) 从句中谓语部分与主句谓语部分相同,用 从句中谓语部分与主句谓语部分相同, 助动词替代全部谓语. 助动词替代全部谓语.如果只有谓语动词相 同,而其它部分不同,助动词只能替代动词而 而其它部分不同, 已.

例句20: 例句20: A The atmosphere is as much a part of the earth as ____ its soils and the water of its lakes, rivers and oceans. A. are B. is C. do D. has 例句21: 例句21: A Flying demands a much greater supply of energy ____ other forms of transportation. A. than do most B. than most do C. than the most do D. do than most 例句22: 例句22: B I know he spends at least as much time watching TV as he _____. A. writes B. does writing C. is writing D. does

5) “ the + 比较级, the + 比较级”的用法 比较级, 比较级” 在“ the + 比较级, the + 比较级”的结构中,前者 比较级, 比较级”的结构中, 为状语从句,后者为主句. 为状语从句,后者为主句.意思是 “越….., 就越…..”. 就越…..” 例句23: 例句23: D The higher the standard of living and the greater the national wealth, the ____. A. greater is the amount of paper is used B. greater amount of paper is used C. amount of paper is used is greater D. greater the amount of paper used

请注意:在此结构中, 请注意:在此结构中,有时还可以将主句放到 从句前,这时候主句的主谓语不需要倒装, 从句前,这时候主句的主谓语不需要倒装,即 用 “正常语序 + 比较级…主句, the +比较 比较级…主句, +比较 级…从句”. 在使用主句在前,从句在后的这 从句” 在使用主句在前, 个结构时,主句中的比较级前面可以省略the, 个结构时,主句中的比较级前面可以省略the, 主句与从句之间的逗号也可以省去. 主句与从句之间的逗号也可以省去.

例句24: 例句24: A A body weighs ____ from the surface of the earth. A. less the farther it gets B. the farther it gets, the less C. less than it gets farther D. less than it, the farther it gets “正常语序 + 比较级…主句, the +比较级…从句” 比较级…主句, +比较级…从句” 等同于 “the +比较级…从句, the + 比较级…主 +比较级…从句, 比较级… 句”. 上例可以这样来看: 上例可以这样来看: A body weighs less the farther it gets from the surface of the earth. = The farther a body gets from the surface of the earth, the less it weighs.

3. 同根形容词 英语中容易混淆的同根形容词有: 英语中容易混淆的同根形容词有: considerable 值得考虑的, 相当大/多的considerate 值得考虑的, 相当大/多的considerate 考虑周到的, 体贴的 respectable 受到尊敬的 respectful 尊敬别人的 respective 各自的 imaginable 可想象得到的imaginative 富有想象力的 可想象得到的imaginative imaginary 虚构的,幻想的 虚构的, historic 历史上重要的, 著名的 historical 历史的,有 历史上重要的, 历史的, 关于历史的 confident 自信的confidential 秘密的 自信的confidential honorable 光荣的,高尚的 honorary 名誉的,纪念性的 光荣的, 名誉的, economic 经济 的,关于经济的 economical 节约的

favorite 特别喜爱的favorable 有利的,赞成的favored 特别喜爱的favorable 有利的,赞成的favored 优惠的 satisfactory 令人满意的satisfiable 可以满足的 令人满意的satisfiable satisfying 令人满意的,使人满足的 令人满意的, practical 实际的,实用的practicable 行得通的,适用的 实际的,实用的practicable 行得通的, continual 不断地, 连续地, 频繁地continuous 连续的, 不断地, 连续地, 频繁地continuous 连续的, 持续的 industrial 工业的,产业的industrious 勤奋的, 勤劳的 工业的,产业的industrious 勤奋的, comparative 比较的,相当的comparable 可比较的,类 比较的,相当的comparable 可比较的, 似的 incredible 难以置信的incredulous 不轻信的,不相信 难以置信的incredulous 不轻信的, 的 negligible 微不足道的neglectful 疏忽的,不注意的 微不足道的neglectful 疏忽的, negligent 粗心大意的


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