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全新版大学英语(第二版)第四册Unit4


Unit 4 Globalization
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An English Song — Imagine
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About the Subject

Background Information

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About the Subject Watch and discuss
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Think and construct

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Background Information
The World Economic Forum (WEF)
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Samuel Phillips Huntington (1927—2008) —An American Political Scientist Overseas Filipino Workers (OFWs)

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An English Song—Imagine Listen to the song and fill in the blanks with what you hear. Imagine Detailed Reading Imagine there?s no heaven. It?s easy if you ___. try No hell below us, above us only sky. living Imagine all the people _____ for today, ah. Imagine there?s no country. It isn?t hard to do. Nothing to kill or die for, and no _______ too. religion Imagine all the people living life in peace . _____ dreamer You may say I?m a _______ , but I?m not the only one.

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world I _____ someday you?ll join us, and the _____ will be as one. hope possessions Imagine no __________ . I wonder if you can. No need for greed or hunger . ______ Detailed Reading A brotherhood of man. sharing Imagine all the people ______ all the world. You may say I?m a dreamer, but I?m not the only one. I hope someday you?ll join us, and the world will live as one.

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Watch and discuss Watch the video clip “No Logo: brands globalization resistance” and discuss within your group questions given.
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1. What information can you get from the video?

2. What is picked out as an example of showing globalization? Tell it in your own words.

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Think and construct In the following, there are some words and expressions. Think and construct new expressions related to globalization. Chang its part of speech if necessary. economy, international, growth, trade, loans, global, workers, foreign, investment, marketplace, political, phenomenon, world, level Tips: Economic Phenomenon, Political Globalization, Foreign Markets, International Organizations, Foreign Investments, Trade Globalization, Foreign Loans, World Economy, Economic Growth, Global Economy, International Marketplace, International Trade, Foreign Workers, Economic Level
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The World Economic Forum (WEF)

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What is the WEF?

What are the themes of it?

What are the Industries?

China and the WEF

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The World Economic Forum An independent, international organization incorporated as a Swiss not-for-profit foundation whose motto is “entrepreneurship in the global public interest”. It Detailed Reading believes that economic progress without social development is not sustainable, while social development without economic progress is not feasible.

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Themes Arts and Culture, Business and Management, Economy, Environment, Global Issue, Humanities, Science, Medicine and Technology Detailed Reading

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Industries Automobile, Aerospace & Defence, Technology, Banking, Business Services, Chemicals, Energy, Engineering and Construction, Financial Services, Healthcare, Information Detailed Reading Technologies, Institutionals, Media, Communication and Entertainment, Multi-industries, Retail and Consumer Goods, Transport Services, Travel and Tourism

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China and the World Economic Forum Chinese Vice Premier Li Keqiang attended the 2010 World Economic Forum (WEF) Annual Meeting opened in Davos, Switzerland. The links between China and the WEF started Detailed Reading in 1979, when a Chinese delegation was invited to the forum for the first time. Since then, China has played a much greater role within the WEF, including hosting the summer session three times.

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Samuel Phillips Huntington (1927—2008) —An American Political Scientist Born Died
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April 18, 1927 New York City, United States December 24, 2008 (aged 81) Martha?s Vineyard Massachuse tts

Nationality American Fields Political science Institutions Harvard University

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Stuyvesant High School Harvard University Alma mater University of Chicago Detailed Reading Yale University Known for Clash of Civilizations Influenced Fukuyama, Zakaria

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Overseas Filipino Workers (OFWs) Filipinos are those who migrate to other nations to find employment tosupport their families in the Detailed Reading Philippines. Each year, more than a million Filipinos leave to work abroad through overseas employment agencies and other programs programs, including government sponsored ones. Overseas Filipinos often work as doctors, physical therapists, nurses, accountants, IT professionals, engineers, architects, entertainers, technicians, teachers, military servicemen, students, caregivers, domestic helpers and household maids.

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Money sent by OFWs back to the Philippines is a major factor in the country?s economy, amounting to more than US$10 billion in 2005. This makes the country Detailed Reading the fourth largest recipient of foreign remittances behind India, China, and Mexico. The amount represents 13.5% of the Philippines? GDP, the largest in proportion to the domestic economy among the four countries mentioned. Overseas Filipinos sent $15.9 billion worth of remittances to the Philippines in 2008.

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Part Division of the Text Match the ideas Further Understanding

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Further Understanding True or False

Questions and Answers

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Part Division of the Text

Part Para(s)
1 1~3

Main Ideas
Introduction to Davos Man and the World Economic Forum. Debate over the impact of globalization on current society and culture. History of globalization and its recent trends and future prospects. Globalization versus nationalism and the challenges it faces

2 3
4

4~5 6~8
9~11

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Match the ideas In the text, there are many names and ideas mentioned. Scan and match the idea presented in Column B with the person in Column A. There are more names listed.

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Column A

1. John Chambers

2. Marco Tronchetti Provera 3. Alex Mandl 4. Patrick Sayer
5. Klaus Schwab 6. William Browder 7. Valerie Gooding

Column B A. There are still too many barriers to cross-border business in Europe, let alone the world. B. Manila woman are strongly patriotic. C. Cultural identity should be local and national in nature. D. U.S. and European companies are now facing high-quality, low-cost competition from overseas. E. I see myself as American without any hesitation.

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True or False 1. People call William Browder an American, because he was born in Princeton, New Jersey, grew up in Chicago, and studied at Stanford University in California. ( F )

William Browder was born in Princeton, New Jersey, grew up in Chicago, and studied at Stanford University in California. But don?t call him an American.
2. Browder believes that national identity makes no (T ) difference for him.

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3. Alex Mandl is also a fervent believer in globalization. He never views himself as an American. ( F ) He sees himself as American without hesitation. 4. Davos man refer to the members of the international business élite who trek each year to the Swiss Alpine town for the annual meeting of the World Economic Forum. ( T )

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5. At the World Economic Forum, the issues discussed include everything from post-election Iraq and HIV in Africa to the global supply of oil and the implications ( T ) of nanotechnology.

6. Professor Samuel Huntington describes Davos Man as an ( T ) emerging global superspecies and a threat.

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Questions and Answers 1. Did global trade exist in the past? What did people doing global trade think of it then?

Yes, global trade has been around for centuries. In the past, the corporations and countries that benefited from global trade were largely content to treat vast parts of the world as places to mine natural resources or sell finished products.

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2. What is Goldman Sachs? prediction about the world economy in the future? He predicted that four economies — Russia, Brazil, India and China — will become a much larger force in the world economy than widely expected, based on projections of demographic and economic growth, with China potentially overtaking Germany this decade. By 2050, these four newcomers will likely have displaced all but the U.S. and Japan from the top six economies in the world.

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3. Who does Manila Woman refer to? It refers to low-paid migrant workers from Asia and elsewhere who are increasingly providing key services around the world. 4. What is the major difference between Davos Man and Manila Woman? Unlike Davos Man, Manila Woman is strongly patriotic. 5. What does the author think Davos Man need to figure out?

Davos Man needs to figure out how to strike a balance on a global scale between being international and being national at the same time.

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Globalization is sweeping aside national borders and changing relations between nations. What impact does this have on national identities and loyalties? Are they strengthened or weakened? The author investigates. In Search of Davos Man Peter Gumbel William Browder was born in Princeton, New Jersey, grew up in Chicago, and studied at Stanford University in California. But don?t call him an American. For the past 16 of his 40 years he has lived outside the U.S., first

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first in London and then, from 1996, in Moscow, where he runs his own investment firm. Browder now manages $1.6 billion in assets. In 1998 he gave up his American passport to become a British citizen, since his life is now centered in Europe. “National identity makes no difference for me,” he says. “I feel completely international. If you have four good friends and you like what you are doing, it doesn?t matter where you are. That?s globalization.”

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Alex Mandl is also a fervent believer in globalization, but he views himself very differently. A former president of AT&T, Mandl, 61, was born in Austria and now runs a French technology company, which is doing more and more business in China. He reckons he spends about 90% of his time traveling on business. But despite all that globetrotting, Mandl who has been a U.S. citizen for 45 years still identifies himself as an American. “I see myself as American without any hesitation. The fact that I spend a lot of time in other places doesn?t change that,” he says.

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Although Browder and Mandl define their nationality differently, both see their identity as a matter of personal choice, not an accident of birth. And not incidentally, both are Davos Men, members of the international business élite who trek each year to the Swiss Alpine town for the annual meeting of the World Economic Forum, founded in 1971. This week, Browder and Mandl will join more than 2,200 executives, politicians, academics, journalists, writers and a handful of Hollywood stars for five days of networking,

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parties and endless earnest discussions about everything from post-election Iraq and HIV in Africa to the global supply of oil and the implications of nanotechnology. Yet this year, perhaps more than ever, a hot topic at Davos is Davos itself. Whatever their considerable differences, most Davos Men and Women share at least one belief: that globalization, the unimpeded flows of capital, labor and technology across national borders, is both welcome and unstoppable. They see the world increasingly as one vast, interconnected marketplace in which corporations search for the most advantageous locations to buy, produce and sell their goods and services.

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As borders and national identities become less important, some find that threatening and even dangerous. In an essay entitled “Dead Souls: The Denationalization of the American Elite,” Harvard Professor Samuel Huntington describes Davos Man (a phrase that first got widespread attention in the 1990s) as an emerging global superspecies and a threat. The members of this class, he writes, are people who “have little need for national loyalty, view national boundaries as obstacles that thankfully are vanishing, can

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and see national governments as residues from the past whose only useful function is to facilitate the élite?s global operations.” Huntington argues that Davos Man?s global-citizen self-image is starkly at odds with the values of most Americans, who remain deeply committed to their nation. This disconnect, he says, creates “a major cultural fault line. In a variety of ways, the American establishment, governmental and private, has become increasingly divorced from the American people.”

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Naturally, many Davos Men don?t accept Huntington?s terms. Klaus Schwab, the founder and executive chairman of the World Economic Forum, argues that endorsing a global outlook does not mean erasing national identity. “Globalization can never provide us with cultural identity, which needs to be local and national in nature.” Global trade has been around for centuries; the corporations and countries that benefited from it were largely content to treat vast parts of the world as places to mine natural resources or sell finished products. Even as the globalization of capital accelerated in the 1980s, most

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most foreign investment was between relatively wealthy countries, not from wealthy countries into poorer ones. U.S. technology, companies and money were often at the forefront of this movement. However the past two decades have witnessed the rise of other significant players. The developed world is beating a path to China?s and India?s door — and Chinese and Indian companies, in turn, have started to look overseas for some of their future growth. Beijing has even started what it calls a “Going Out” policy that encourages Chinese firms to buy assets overseas. Asian nations are creating “a remarkable environment of innovation,” graduating

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says John Chambers, chief executive of Cisco Systems. “China and India are graduating currently more than five times the number of engineers that we are here in the U.S.” That means that U.S. and European companies are now facing high-quality, low-cost competition from overseas. No wonder so many Western workers worry about losing their jobs. “If the issue is the size of the total pie, globalization has proved a good thing,” says Orit Gadiesh, chairman of consultants Bain & Co. “If the issue is how the pie is divided, if you?re in the Western world you could question that.”

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The biggest shift may just be starting. A landmark 2003 study by Goldman Sachs predicted that four economies — Russia, Brazil, India and China — will become a much larger force in the world economy than widely expected, based on projections of demographic and economic growth, with China potentially overtaking Germany this decade. By 2050, Goldman Sachs suggested, these four newcomers will likely have displaced all but the U.S. and Japan from the top six economies in the world.

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It?s also entirely possible that the near future may see the pendulum of capital swing away from Davos Manstyle globalization. One counterpoint is Manila Woman — low-paid migrant workers from Asia and elsewhere who are increasingly work providing key services around the world. Valerie Gooding, the chief executive of British health care company BUPA, says the British and U.S. health care system would break down without immigrant nurses from the Philippines, India, Nigeria and elsewhere. Unlike Davos Man, she says, they?re not ambivalent about being strongly patriotic.

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Not all Davos Men seek global markets, either. Patrick Sayer runs a private equity firm in France called Eurazeo, and complains there are still too many barriers to cross-border business in Europe, let alone the world. So he?s focused Eurazeo on its domestic market. “I profit from being French in France. It?s easier for me to do deals,” Sayer says. “It?s the same elsewhere. If you?re not Italian in Italy, you won?t succeed.”

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That may sound like a narrow nationalism, yet it contains a hidden wisdom. Recall that Italy itself was, until 1861, not a unified nation but an aggregation of city-states. Despite tension between its north and south, there?s no contradiction between maintaining a regional identity and a national one. Marco Tronchetti Provera, chairman of Telecom Italia, for example, can feel both Milanese and Italian at once, even as he runs a company that is aspiring to become a bigger international presence. The question is whether it will take another 140 years for Davos Man to figure out how to strike the same balance on a global scale.

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Browder now manages $1.6 billion in assets. 1. What information can you get from the sentence?

Browder is quite a rich businessman and right now there are $1.6 billion worth of assets under at his investment firm. 2. Translate the sentence into Chinese
布劳德如今掌管着价值16亿美元的资产。

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“National identity makes no difference for me,” he says. Why does Browder say so? Because he doesn?t think he only belongs to the countries he was born, studied, or worked. He shares the history, culture, or language of other countries. He is undoubtedly international.

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Although Browder and Mandl define their nationality differently, both see their identity as a matter of personal choice, not an accident of birth.
1. How do you understand “not an accident of birth”? not the place of their birth 2. Translate the sentence into Chinese 虽然布劳德和曼德尔对各自的国籍界定不同,他们都 将国籍视为个人选择,而不是由出生地决定的。

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Whatever their considerable differences, most Davos Men and Women share at least one belief: that globalization, the unimpeded flows of capital, labor and technology across national borders, is both welcome and unstoppable.

1. Underline the main structure of the sentence.
most Davos Men and Women share … one belief: that Globalization,…,is both welcome and unstoppable. 2. Translate the sentence into Chinese 尽管与会男女各不相同,但他们大多数有一个共同信念: 全球化,亦即资本、劳动力和技术不受阻碍地跨国界流 动,是值得欢迎和不可阻挡的。

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This disconnect, he says, creates “a major cultural fault line.
1. What can we infer from the sentence?

Years ago, people loved their country and considered national Identity important. 2. Paraphrase the sentence
The disconnection forms an important line dividing a culture into two camps, which is likely to cause problems.

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“If the issue is how the pie is divided, if you?re in the Western world you could question that.”
1. What does “that” refer to? It refers to globalization. 2. Translate the sentence into Chinese 如果问题在于蛋糕怎么分,而你又是西方人,那你就 会质疑全球化。

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globalization: n. free flows of capital, labor, technology, and personal contact across national borders Some see the spread of English as an international language as just another consequence of globalization. Thanks to globalization, the burger you buy in Moscow is exactly the same as the one you buy in New York.

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sweep aside: clear away or get rid of suddenly or forcefully; refuse to pay attention to Anyway, by then she was sure that Julius would simply have swept any curbs aside. 他们对所有的反对意见不予理睬。

They swept all the objections aside.

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Collocation: sweep away sweep out sweep over sweep up 扫清,迅速消灭 扫掉, 清除 眺望,环视 打扫干净,收拾干净

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strengthen: vt. become stronger or make strong(er) We must strengthen the weak links. The President?s first priority was to strengthen the economy.

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asset: n. 1) (usu pl) money or property that a person or company owns

Copyrights, patents, trademarks, brand names, and trade secrets are all part of a company?s intangible assets.
目前,他们的资产有623万美元。 Currently, they have $6,230,000 in assets. 2) an advantage or a resource

The most powerful asset we have is our skilled, dedicated workforce.
A sense of humor is an important asset for any teacher.

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Collocation: capital / fixed assets cash assets 资本/固定资产 现金资产

liquid/ circulating/ current assets 流动资产 net assets 净资产

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make no / little difference: have no / little effect (on), be of no / little importance (to)
That does not mean it makes no difference to social welfare which rules we settle upon. 姚明的缺席似乎对休斯顿火箭队没有 太大的影响。

The absence of Yao Ming seemed to make little difference to the performance of the Houston Rockets.

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identify… as: recognize and correctly name someone or sth. His accent identified him as a Frenchman. The policeman identified him as the thief.

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élite: n. a group of people who have a lot of power and influence because they have money, knowledge, or special skills
Only a small elite can afford to send their children to this school. 这些人构成了有决定权的精英集团。 These people form an elite who have the power to make decisions.

Collocation:
political/social/economic elite 政治/社会/经济精英

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a handful of: a very small number of people or things That place was of little interest. I only took a handful of pictures. What counts is having a handful of young that are exceptional.

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earnest: adj. marked by or showing deep sincerity or seriousness
Friends described Jackson as an earnest, hard-working young man. 你可以笑,但我绝对是认真的。 You may laugh but I?m in deadly earnest.

Collocation:
in earnest 郑重地,严肃认真

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CF: earnest, serious, severe 这三个形容词均有“严肃的”之意。 earnest 指严肃,认真,含诚恳和热情意味。例如: I could tell she was speaking in earnest. 我看得出来她的话是当真的。 serious 具有关键、严肃或严重意义的事情。例如: We give serious consideration to safety recommendations. 我们认真考虑安全建议。

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severe 指面孔的严肃,法律的严厉,伤病的严重。着重 严厉性,无丝毫温情。例如: Many people feel the punishment should have been more severe. 许多人认为惩罚本应该更加严厉些。

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considerable: adj. fairly large, especially large enough to have an effect or be important Attracting tourists to the area is going to take considerable effort. A considerable amount of research was done here by our science department.

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interconnect: vi. connect to or with each other Our operating system can now interconnect with other networks. 人们的生活是如何互相联系在一起 的, 真是不可思议。 It?s strange how people?s lives interconnect.

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advantageous: adj. helpful and likely to make you successful

Many bus companies provide advantageous fare tickets especially for tourists.
你会发现等几周再作答复是很有好处的。 You may find it advantageous to wait a few weeks before replying. NB: ―advantageous‖ 的名词形式为 “advantage‖。与其 搭配常用的短语是: “have the advantage of‖ “有优势”; ―take advantage of‖ “(以不正当手段)利用,占便宜”

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entitle: vt. 1) give a title to 给?题名,给?取名

She was reading a poem entitled Auguries of Innocence.
He entitled the book The Secret Garden. 2) give someone the official right to do or have sth.

Full-time employees are entitled to receive health insurance.
他们有资格享有许多优惠和特权。 They are entitled to enjoy many advantages and privileges.

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Pattern: be entitled be entitled to (do) sth. 叫做, 称为 对?享有权利/有资格

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vanish: vi. disappear suddenly, especially in a way that cannot be easily explained My keys were here a minute ago but now they?ve vanished. The plane vanished from radar screens soon after taking off. CF: vanish, disappear, evaporate 这三个动词均有“消失”之意。 vanish 语气强,指完全、往往是神秘而突然的消失,不 留任何蛛丝马迹。 disappear 普通用词,强调从视线或脑海中消失。这消失可 能是暂时的、突然的或永久的,视上下文而定。

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CF: vanish, disappear, evaporate 这三个动词均有“消失”之意。 evaporate 指像水蒸发时那样悄然逝去,也指某人悄悄地、 突然退出或离去。

Fill in the blanks with the words above. Change the form where necessary.
disappear 1. Drugs won?t make the pain _________ altogether, but they will help. 2. All hopes of finding the boy alive have vanished . ________ evaporate 3. Hopes of achieving peace are beginning to _________ .

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CF: vanish, disappear, evaporate Fill in the blanks with the words above. Change the form where necessary. 4. Before she could scream, the man had vanished into the ________ night. disappeared 5. 13 year-old Nicola ___________ from her home on Saturday night. evaporates 6. They then fan the water so that it __________ and in doing so lowers the temperature. 7. By the time of the trial, the tape had mysteriously disappeared ___________ .

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facilitate: vt. make it easier for a process or activity to happen Both centers are electronically linked to facilitate communication. 学校都建在同一校区内,以便资源 共享。 Schools were located in the same campus to facilitate the sharing of resources

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at odds with: in conflict with; disagreeing or quarrelling with The government decision to raise taxes was at odds with their policies on inflation. Briggs found himself at odds with his colleagues. Collocation: at odds it makes no odds take odds odds and ends 矛盾,不一致 没有关系,无关紧要 占优势 小事,不要紧的东西

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be committed to: promise to do (sth.); be devoted to A lot of money has been committed to this project.

中国承诺发展低碳经济。
China is committed to pursuing a low carbon economy.

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endorse: vt. give support or approval to The Prime Minister is unlikely to endorse this view. I fully endorse the measures taken to improve safety standards. Collocation: endorse a proposal / an idea/a candidate endorse a cheque 赞成提议/想法/候选人 背书支票

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erase: vt. remove by or as if by rubbing, wipe out Their dream is to erase poverty and injustice from the world. 没有什么东西可以使他忘记那件事。 Nothing can erase the incident from his memory. CF: erase, delete 这两个动词都有“去掉,抹去”之意。 erase 指 “把写的或画的痕迹擦去或刮掉”, 用于比喻意义 时, 指“从记忆中抹去”, 例如: He erased the wrong answer and wrote in the right one. 他擦去了错误答案, 写上了正确答案。

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CF: erase, delete 这两个动词都有“去掉,抹去”之意。 erase 指 “把写的或画的痕迹擦去或刮掉”, 用于比喻意义 时, 指“从记忆中抹去”, 又如: Nothing can erase the incident from his memory.

没有什么东西可以使他忘记那件事。
delete 指“去掉、擦掉(字迹等)”、“勾掉、删掉(字句 等)”, 例如: If you delete several words, we can put the whole story on one page. 如果你删去几个字, 我们可把整个故事写在一页上。

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accelerate: v. (cause to) move faster or happen earlier
The runners accelerated smoothly round the bend. 选手们跑过弯道时平稳地加速。 The runners accelerated smoothly round the bend.

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forefront: n. the foremost part or area The company has always been at the forefront of science and technology. Companies compete to stay at the forefront of research and development. Collocation: at / in /t o the forefront 位于最前列,成为领导力量 (of sth) keep sb/sth at/in/to 使?保持在最前列

come into/to

跃居最前列

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witness: 1. vt. be present and see The crash was witnessed by scores of holiday weekenders along the beach. 20世纪80年代,电子传媒得到了空前的发展。 The 1980s witnessed an unprecedented increase in the scope of the electronic media. 2. n. someone who sees a crime or an accident and can describe what happened Police have appealed for witnesses to come forward. The witness was asked to identify the defendant in the courtroom.

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beat a path to/ beat down sb?s door: if people beat a path to your door, they are interested in sth. you are selling, a service you are providing, etc.
The new design was supposed to have consumers beating a path to their door. 现在她已经成名, 她家门庭若市。 Now that she has become famous, all sorts of people will be beating a path to her door.

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Pattern: beat a path to / beat down sb?s door beat a big drum for / about beat a bargain 门庭若市 为?鼓吹,为? 大肆宣传 还价成交

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remarkable: adj. unusual or surprising and therefore deserving attention or praise Clark did a remarkable job setting things up for the meeting. She has made remarkable progress. CF: remarkable, outstanding, striking 这三个形容词均有“显著的,引人注意的”之意。 remarkable 通常指因有与众不同的特点或优越性而引起人们 注意或称道。 outstanding 通常指与同行或同类的人相比显得优秀或杰出, 或具有他人或别的事物所没有的特征。 striking 强调能给观察者产生强烈而深刻印象。

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CF: remarkable, outstanding, striking Fill in the blanks with the words above. Change the form where necessary. striking 1. From the outside, the most ______ aspect of the building is its tall, slender tower. remarkable 2. It?s a __________ achievement for the company. 3. The lowest ranks of society showed the most striking and ______ significant contrasts. 4. With her mass of black hair and pale skin she looked very striking . ______

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CF: remarkable, outstanding, striking Fill in the blanks with the words above. Change the form where necessary. outstanding 5. The book is a series of interviews with __________ artists and writers. remarkable 6. His drawings are __________ for their accuracy. 7. She would create something special, something outstanding __________ for her.

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landmark: n. 1) sth. that is easy to recognize, such as a tall tree or building, and that helps you know where you are The Washington Monument is a popular historical landmark. 这座塔曾是船只的陆标。 The tower was once a landmark for ships. 2) one of the most important events, changes, or discoveries that influences someone or sth. The Reform and Open Door Policy has become a landmark in Chinese history. 小孩的出世是所有相关人生活中一件大事。 The birth of a child is an important landmark in the lives of all concerned.

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overtake (overtook, overtaken): 1. v. go past a moving vehicle or person because you are going faster than them and want to get in front of them Before you start to overtake, make sure the road is clear ahead of you. Two trucks overtaking one another brushed him to the side. 2. vt. catch up with or pass after catching up with Television soon overtook the cinema as the most popular form of entertainment. 在工业产量方面德国迅速超过了英国。 Germany rapidly overtook Britain in industrial output.

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NB:

前缀over可以放在名词,动词,形容词前边表达“too much 过分”的含义。例如: ―overpopulation‖ “人口 过 剩 ” ; ―overwork ‖“ 过 度 工 作 ” ; “overweight‖“超重的”。

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displace: vt. take the place of; supplant Coal has been displaced by natural gas as a major source of energy. Some of the companies that have been displaced have, in their time, displaced others.

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elsewhere: adv. in, at, or to another place He?ll work as a freelance consultant, unless he finds a better job elsewhere.

我们最喜欢去的那家饭店客满了, 因此不得不改去别处。
Our favourite restaurant was full so we had to go elsewhere.

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patriotic: adj. feeling, or expressing, inspired by love of for one?s country
Relatives remembered him as a deeply patriotic man. The presidential candidate said paying higher taxes was a patriotic act.

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let alone: much less; not to mention Many thousands of children had never even seen, let alone owned a pair of shoes. 他连带领保龄球队的本事都没有, 更别提领导国家了。

He was incapable of leading a bowling team, let alone a country.
Pattern: let sb /sth. be let sth. drop / fall let sb. / sth. go 别打扰,不干预 无意中说出,不经意透露 放,释放

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domestic: adj. of or inside a particular country
Security on domestic flights in the US has been stepped up considerably. History books do not tell us much about the domestic lives of our ancestors.

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strike a balance: find a compromise between two conflicting things Effective organizations will strike a balance that allows them not only to accept uncertainty but to take advantage of it. 他发现平衡家庭和工作的关系是很困难的。 He was finding it difficult to strike a balance between his family and his work.

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Useful Expressions Sentence Translation Dictation
Writing Practice

Word Understanding
Picture Talking

Proverbs and Quotations

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Writing Practice A brief introduction Samples Homework

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Useful Expressions 1. 国家认同 2. 扫除 3. 寻找 4. 狂热信徒 5. 认为 6. 毫不迟疑 7. 国际商业精英 national identity sweep aside

in search of
a fervent believer identify… as without any hesitation international business élite

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8. 少数几位

a handful of

9. 没完没了的认真的讨论 endless earnest discussion 10. 资本、劳动力和技 术的流动 11. 最佳地点 12. 全球超级物种 13. 与?渐行渐远 14. 文化断层 15. 处于?的前沿 flow of capital, labor and technology the most advantageous locations global superspecies increasingly divorce from cultural fault line at the forefront of

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16. 开辟一条通向?的道路

beat a path to

17. 一个创新的卓越环境
18. 根据对各国人口和经 济增长的预计 19. 从?脱离 20. 低薪流动劳工 21. 医疗保健体系 22. 跨国界经营

a remarkable environment of innovation
be based on projections of demographic and economic growth swing away from low-paid migrant workers health care system cross-border business

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23. 更别提 24. 狭隘民族主义

let alone a narrow nationalism

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Sentence Translation 1. Huntington argues that Davos Man?s global-citizen selfimage is starkly at odds with the values of most Americans, who remain deeply committed to their nation. 亨廷顿提出,达沃斯人以全球公民自居的自我形象, 与大多数美国人的价值观完全相悖。

2. If the issue is the size of the total pie, globalization has proved a good thing. If the issue is how the pie is divided, if you?re in the Western world you could question that.
如果问题涉及的是整个蛋糕的大小,那全球化已经被证明 是件好事。如果问题在于蛋糕怎么分,而你又是西方人, 那你就会质疑全球化。

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3. The question is whether it will take another 140 years for Davos Man to figure out how to strike the same balance on a global scale. 问题是,达沃斯人是否需要再花上140年,才能搞明 白如何在全球规模上取得同样的平衡。 4. 他们都将国籍视为个人选择,而不是由出生地决定的。 Both see their identity as a matter of personal choice, not an accident of birth.

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5. 欧洲跨国界经营中还有太多障碍,更别提全球经营了。 There are still too many barriers to cross-border business in Europe, let alone the world. 6. 这听上去也许像狭隘民族主义,但内中确大有学问。 That may sound like a narrow nationalism, yet it contains a hidden wisdom. 7.随着边界和对国家的认同变得越来越不重要,有些人将 此视作威胁,甚至危险。 As borders and national identities become less important, some find that threatening and even dangerous.

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Dictation Listen to the following passage and fill in the blanks with the words you hear. Multiculturalism is a concept with many meanings. acceptance But it often refers to __________ of immigrant and minority groups as distinct communities, distinguishable from the majority population. Like bilingualism, debate multiculturalism provokes ______ . Advocates of multiculturalism believe that members of minority groups should enjoy equal rights in American society without ethnic cultures giving up their diverse _____________ . Multicultural education programs, for instance, strive to teach the

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content of different cultures, to build ________ of these tolerance cultures, and to eliminate discrimination (歧视). The hope is to enable students to understand how other cultures view the world. Multiculturalists reject the idea of a melting pot __________ and assimilation (同化); they dismiss the idea that national identity must be based on a common heritage and values. Critics argue that multicultural education creates conflict ______________ among groups more than it fosters tolerance of one group for another. Cultural pluralism, critics contend, promotes rivalry (敌对) and ________ . divisions

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Moreover, they assert, European traditions remain central to American culture and institutions (风俗). Some critics find multiculturalism a token (象征性的) gesture ________ designed to hide continuing domination of American culture by the recognition majority group. Others argue that __________ of cultural address differences and group identities does not help _______ social and economic disadvantages.

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A brief introduction

Coherence literally means “sticking together.” The elements of coherent writing — the words and the information they convey — are related to one another so that readers can follow the flow of thought easily from sentence to sentence, paragraph to paragraph. The problem with the term coherence is that it sounds static, as if coherent writing just sits there sticking together. Coherence in writing actually has a dynamic quality, because it has to do with movement: movement of information and ideas, movement of the reader?s changing perceptions and knowledge.

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Transitional devices used to achieve coherence addition comparison concession again, also, and, and then, besides, equally important, finally, first, further, furthermore, in addition, in the first place, last, moreover, next, second, still, too also, in the same way, likewise, similarly granted, naturally, of course

contrast

although, and yet, but at the same time, despite that, even so, even though, for all that, however, in contrast, in spite of, instead, nevertheless, notwithstanding, on the contrary, on the other hand, otherwise, regardless, still, though, yet

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emphasis example or illustration

certainly, indeed, in fact, of course after all, as an illustration, even, for example, for instance, in conclusion, indeed, in fact, in other words, in short, it is true, of course, namely, specifically, that is, to illustrate, thus, truly all in all, altogether, as has been said, finally, in brief, in conclusion, in other words, in particular, in short, in simpler terms, in summary, on the whole, that is, therefore, to put it differently, to summarize

summary

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time sequence

after a while, afterward, again, also, and then, as long as, at last, at length, at that time, before, besides, earlier, eventually, finally, formerly, further, furthermore, in addition, in the first place, in the past, last, lately, meanwhile, moreover, next, now, presently, second, shortly, simultaneously, since, so far, soon, still, subsequently, then, thereafter, too, until, until now, when

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Samples Sample 1: Paragraph Coherence It is also possible to claim that information technology is playing an increasingly vital role in education. One way this happens is that more and more academic books are generated electronically and in consequence many students are using computers to study. An additional point is that computer technology is frequently used by students to make presentations both to their peers and professors. Indeed, it is probably true to say that most courses at university require some level of computer literacy.

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Sample 2: Essay Coherence

There is one major argument in favour of replacing art, music and sport on the curriculum with subjects like IT. This is that the purpose of school is to prepare children for their working life after school, so the subjects on the curriculum should be relevant to their potential careers. From this point of view, IT is much relevant to schoolchildren as they need to be computer literate if they want to survive in the workplace. For example, it is easy to see that word processing and programming skills will impress employers more than the ability to run fast or draw well.

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There are also, however, strong arguments for retaining the more traditional subjects as part of the curriculum. One significant counter-argument is that the purpose of education is not just to prepare children for later careers, but also to develop their all round “culture”. It is important that children leave school with some knowledge of art, music and sport as all these are all help develop aspects of young people?s personalities. My own personal point of view is that there is merit in both sides of the debate and that all children should study some IT, art music and sport at least at primary school. At secondary school, however, children should be offered a choice

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choice between these subjects so that they can continue to study them if they wish. In this way, no child will be disadvantaged.

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Homework For this part, you are allowed 30 minute to write a short essay on the topic “How Will Our Life Go on Without Internet?”. You should write at least 120 words following the outline given bellow: How Will Our Life Go on Without Internet? 1. 网络提供给了人们丰富多彩和便捷的生活 2. 很多人开始感觉离开网络寸步难行 3. 你对网络依赖症的看法

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As a primary source of information as well as an efficient means of communication, Internet offers people a colourful and convenient life. Just by clicking the mouse, we can enjoy a brilliant and easy life that could not be achieved ever before: shopping, making friends, contacting relatives, looking for jobs, downloading music and movies, conducting business deals, and freely airing our opinions. For its convenience, Internet has attracted people like magnets and some people even claim that it is indispensable. To them, life can?t go on without Internet. Every day millions of people spend hours on end surfing the Internet. They are obsessed with it so much that they forget many other important matters.

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As for me, I don?t approve of unrestrained Internet reliance. Although Internet is a gift of the technological revolution and a blessing of this information age, we should never let it control our life. Internet absolutely doesn?t mean the whole world to us. Instead, we should guard against its negative effects. To those Internet addicts, I would add: “Self-control can make or break your life. With proper use, Internet serves you; otherwise, it kills you.”

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Word Understanding Look at the following words and expressions relating to the world problems existing nowadays. Match the definition and drag the word or expression into the gap after the definition. pollution, extremist, refugee, terrorism, famine, minorities, discrimination, drought, illegal immigrant, human rights 1. when people do not like or trust someone because they are of a different race, sex, religion, etc. ( discrimination )

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pollution, extremist, refugee, terrorism, famine, minorities, discrimination, drought, illegal immigrant, human rights 2. someone who has had to leave their country to escape from danger or war ( refugee )

3. the basic rights that everyone has to say what they think, vote, be fairly treated, etc. ( human rights ) 4. the use of bombs and violence, especially against ordinary people, to try to force a government to do something ( terrorism

)

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pollution, extremist, refugee, terrorism, famine, minorities, discrimination, drought, illegal immigrant, human rights 5. someone with very strong political or religious opinions ( refugee ) 6. someone who comes into a country to live or work without official permission ( illegal immigrant )

7. a group of people of a different race or religion than ( minorities most people in a country or area
8. damage caused to the air, water, soil, etc by harmful ( pollution chemicals and waste.

)
)

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pollution, extremist, refugee, terrorism, famine, minorities, discrimination, drought, illegal immigrant, human rights 9. a situation in which a large number of people have little or no food for a long time, and some people die as a ( famine ) result 10. a very serious disease that stops your body defending itself against infection ( AIDS

)

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Talk about the Pictures

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Proverbs and Quotations 1. A man dies still if he has done nothing, as one who has done much. 既然无所事事亦难逃一死,何不奋斗终生。 2. The man who has made up his mind to win will never say “impossible”. 凡是决心取得胜利的人是从来不说“不可能的”。

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3. Business? That?s very simple —— it?s other people?s money. — Alexandre Dumas, French novelist
做生意吗? 那太简单了—— 叫别人掏钱包。 —— 法国小说家 小仲马 A 4. There can be no economy where there is no efficiency. — Disraeli, British statesman 没有效率就没有经济。 —— 英国政治家 狄斯雷利

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5. Something attempted, something done. — H.W. Longfellow, American poet

有所尝试,就等于有所作为。 ——美国诗人H.W.朗费罗
6. The people who get on in this world are the people who get up and look for circumstances they want, and if they cannot find them, make them. — Bernard Shaw, American playwright, novelist, critic. 在这个世界上取得成功的人,都努力去寻找他们想要 的机会,如果找不到时,他们就自己创造机会。 —— 美国剧作家、小说家、批评家 肖伯纳

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Culture Notes Reading Comprehension Task

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Thomas L. Friedman (1953– )
an American journalist, columnist, Marshall Scholar and multi Pulitzer Prize winning author. Friedman graduated summa cum laude (以最优异的学业成绩) from Brandeis University with a degree in Mediterranean studies and received a master’s degree in modern Middle East studies from Oxford. He has served as a visiting professor at Harvard University and has been awarded honorary degrees from several U.S. universities.

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Thomas Friedman’s Three Eras of Globalization Watch the video clip and fill in the blanks of the table.

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Great Era 1st 2nd 3rd

Period

Size

Characteristics

1492—early countries? __________ _______________ Large—medium globalization 1800 __________ _______________

_____________ small—medium companies? 1820—2000 —small _____________ globalization
2000— individuals? __________ small—tiny ____________ _______________ present globalization __________ ____________ _______________

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Opponents of globalization are naturally keen to seize upon any event that would appear to support their case, and the terrorist attacks on the United States on September 11, 2001, seemed to provide one such opportunity. Yet despite some wishing to see an end to globalization it survives alive and well, and with good reason, argues New York Times columnist Thomas Friedman.

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Globalization, Alive and Well

Thomas L. Friedman
If one were having a contest for the most wrongheaded prediction about the world after 9/11, the winner would be the declaration by the noted London School of Economics professor John Gray that 9/11 heralded the end of the era of globalization. Not only will Sept. 11 not be remembered for ending the process of global financial, trade and technological integration, but it may well be remembered for bringing some sobriety to the anti-globalization movement.

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If one thing stands out from 9/11, it?s the fact that the terrorists originated from the least globalized, least open, least integrated corners of the world: namely, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Afghanistan and northwest Pakistan. Countries that don?t trade in goods and services also tend not to trade in ideas, pluralism or tolerance.

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But maybe the most important reason why globalization is alive and well post-9/11 is that while pampered college students and academics in the West continue to debate about whether countries should globalize, the two biggest countries in the world, India and China — who represent one-third of humanity — have long moved beyond that question. They have decided that opening their economies to trade in goods and services is the best way to lift their people out of abject poverty and are now focused simply on how to globalize in the most stable manner. Some prefer to go faster, and some prefer to phase out currency controls and subsidies gradually, but the debate about the direction they need to go is over.

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“Globalization fatigue is still very much in evidence in Europe and America, while in places like China and India, you find a great desire for participation in the economic expansion processes,” said Jairam Ramesh, the Indian Congress Party?s top economic adviser. “... Even those who are suspicious now want to find a way to participate, but in a way that manages the risks and the pace. So we?re finding ways to ?glocalize? to do it our own way. It may mean a little slower growth to manage the social stability, but so be it.... I just spent a week in Germany and had to listen to all these people there telling me how globalization is destroying India and adding to poverty, and I just said to them, ?Look, if you want to argue about ideology, we can do that, but on the level of facts, you?re just wrong.? ”

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That truth is most striking in Bangalore, India?s Silicon Valley, where hundreds of thousands of young Indians, most from lower-middle-class families, suddenly have social mobility, motor scooters and apartments after going to technical colleges and joining the Indian software and engineering firms providing back-room support and research for the world?s biggest firms — thanks to globalization. Bangalore officials say each tech job produces 6.5 support jobs, in construction and services.

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“Information technology has made millionaires out of ordinary people [in India] because of their brainpower alone —not caste, not land, not heredity,” said Sanjay Baru, editor of India?s Financial Express. “India is just beginning to realize that this process of globalization is one where we have an inherent advantage.”

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Taking advantage of globalization to develop the Indian I.T. industry has been “a huge win in terms of foreign exchange [and in] self-confidence,” added Nandan Nilekani, chief executive of Infosys, the Indian software giant. “So many Indians come and say to me that ?when I walk through immigration at J.F.K. or Heathrow, the immigration guys look at me with respect now.? The image of India changed from a third-world country of snake charmers and rope tricks to the software brainy guys.” Do a majority of Indians still live in poor villages? Of course. Do we still need to make globalization more fair by compelling the rich Western countries to open their markets more to those things that the poor countries are best able to sell: food and textiles? You bet.

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But the point is this: The debate about globalization before 9/11 got really stupid. Two simple truths got lost: One, globalization has its upsides and downsides, but countries that come at it with the right institutions and governance can get the best out of it and cushion the worst. Two, countries that are globalizing sensibly but steadily are also the ones that are becoming politically more open, with more opportunities for their people, and with a young generation more interested in joining the world system than blowing it up.

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with good reason: with good cause; justifiably One who hesitates does so with good reason

很多居民担心他们的工作是有道理的。
Some residents feared for their jobs with good reason.

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herald: vt. announce or signal the approach of

Halloween heralds the beginning of the dark, cold half of the year.
先知宣告了巴比伦的毁灭。 The prophet heralded the destruction of Babylon.

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If one were having a contest for the most wrongheaded prediction about the world after 9/11, the winner would be the declaration by the noted London School of Economics professor John Gray that 9/11 heralded the end of the era of globalization. Translate the sentence into Chinese. 如果组织一次对9/11后的世界局势最错误的预言评选的 话,冠军将会是著名的伦敦经济学院教授约翰· 格雷所 宣称的9/11预示着全球化时代的终结。

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originate: v. come into being, begin to exist His book originated from a newspaper report. 所有的理论都来源于实践。 All theories originate from practice.

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globalize: v. make (sth.) become generally accepted all over the world
The report paints a picture of a world of increasingly globalized education. 总经理强调,要保持全球化生产成本的竞争力。 The General Manager stressed the need to globalize production to remain cost-competitive.

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namely: adv. that is to say There are two ways to slide easily through life: namely, to believe everything, or to doubt everything; both ways save us from thinking. 他懂三个国家的外语,即:日语、英语和法语。 He knows three foreign languages, namely Japanese, English and French.

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stable: adj. firmly fixed; not likely to move, change or fail More and more nomads have settled down and led a stable life.

慢下来, 以稳速回答问题。
Slow down, and answer questions at a stable pace. NB: stability 是“stable‖ 的名词形式, 意为 “the state or quality of being stable‖

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phase out: bring or come to an end, one stage at a time
Citing its high cost at a time of tight budgetary constraint, the University of Illinois will phase out an art history program. 即显(Polaroid film)胶片早已被淘汰。 Polaroid film was phased out long ago.

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currency: n. money in actual use Germany once had a solid economy, good fiscal and monetary policies,and a hard currency. 你的外币账户允许以美元、英镑和欧元提款。 Your foreign currency account allows withdrawal in USD, GBP and Euros.

Unit 4 Globalization
Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Supplementary Reading

subsidy: n. monetary assistance granted by a government in support of an enterprise regarded as being in the public interest An increasing number of China export products are facing anti-subsidy lawsuits in foreign countries. 补助金只提供购买3500元以下的电脑。 The subsidy was offered only for purchases of computers below 3500 yuan.

Unit 4 Globalization
Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Supplementary Reading

fatigue: n. great tiredness, usu. resulting from hard work or exercise

The plane crash was most probably caused by metal fatigue.
他被劳累拖垮了。

He was worn down with fatigue.

Unit 4 Globalization
Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Supplementary Reading

in evidence: plainly visible; easily seen or noticed As there was a pattern in evidence in all these murders, we?re quite sure they were committed by the same person. 这位女演员确信她的订婚戒指是引人注目的。 The actress made sure that her engagement ring was in evidence.

Unit 4 Globalization
Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Supplementary Reading

participation: n. the act of taking part in or sharing in sth. There is a need for more infected persons with HIV/AIDS to come out in the open and take active participation in activities to raise people?s awareness. 课堂参与占期末成绩的20%。 Participation in class accounts for 20% of your final grade.

Unit 4 Globalization
Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Supplementary Reading

“Globalization fatigue is still very much in evidence in Europe and America, while in places like China and India, you find a great desire for participation in the economic expansion processes,” said Jairam Ramesh, the Indian Congress Party?s top economic adviser.
Translate the sentence into Chinese. “全球化疲劳在欧美仍很显著,而在中国和印度这样的 地方,你会发现人们急切地想参与到经济扩张进程中 来,” 印度国大党的首席经济顾问杰伦· 兰密施说。

Unit 4 Globalization
Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Supplementary Reading

so be it: (used to express acceptance, esp. of a situation one is not entirely happy with) I accept it as it is If it?s your wish, so be it.

没有什么好做的。就这样吧。
There is nothing better to do. So be it.

Unit 4 Globalization
Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Supplementary Reading

add to: increase

The strike is adding to the chaos, but it is not causing it. 大米的价格最近几月急速上涨,增添了穷人的痛苦。
Rice prices have risen sharply over recent months, adding to the pain of the poor.

Unit 4 Globalization
Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Supplementary Reading

software: n. computer programs

India is said to turn out more software engineers than any other country.
小公司需要更便宜的软件。 Small companies need cheaper software.

Unit 4 Globalization
Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Supplementary Reading

inherent: adj. existing as a natural and permanent feature or quality of sb. / sth. Weight is an inherent property of matter. 对美的渴望使我们所有人与生俱来的。 The desire for beauty is inherent in us all.

Unit 4 Globalization
Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Supplementary Reading

advantage: n. sth. that puts you in a better position than others There is an advantage to being multilingual. 天气对我们的小组有利。 The weather is of advantage to our team. Collocation: take advantage of to advantage 利用,占便宜

使最好方面突出,有利地,有效地

Unit 4 Globalization
Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Supplementary Reading

a majority of: the greater number or part of

A new poll shows that a majority of New Yorkers support gay marriage.
大多数的公司禁止在工作期间登陆社会网站。 A majority of companies prohibit social networking websites at work.

Unit 4 Globalization
Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Supplementary Reading

you bet: (used for saying “yes” in an emphatic way) you can be sure — Are you a fan of Michael Jackson? —You bet! 你发誓这是一个阴谋。 You bet it?s a conspiracy.

Unit 4 Globalization
Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Supplementary Reading

upside: n. an advantageous aspect

The upside of the whole thing is that we got a free trip to Africa. 恼人的是我们星期四才能旅行, 但好处是票价会更便宜。
It?s annoying that we can?t travel until Thursday, but the upside is that the fare?s cheaper then. NB: upside 的反义词是 ―downside‖, 意为 “不利方面,缺 点”。例如:The downside of the book is that it is written in a rather boring style. 这本书的缺点是,它 的写作风格太单调。

Unit 4 Globalization
Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Supplementary Reading

blow up: damage or destroy violently

We need to blow up the old bridge and build a new one. 海盗威胁要炸毁船只。
The pirates threatened to blow up the ship.

Unit 4 Globalization
Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Supplementary Reading

Globalization has its upsides and downsides, but countries that come at it with the right institutions and governance can get the best out of it and cushion the worst.
Translate the sentence into Chinese. 全球化有优点也有缺点,但如果参与全球化的国家有恰 当的制度和管理,它们就能从中获得最大的好处,并且 能缓和最不利的方面造成的影响。

Unit 4 Globalization
Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Supplementary Reading

Comprehension Task— Group Discussion Watch the video clip entitled “American Born Chinese (ABC)” and discuss in the group the following questions.

Unit 4 Globalization
Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Supplementary Reading

1. Do you know anyone who is an ABC? Say sth. of him / her. 2. Are there any differences between a Chinese and an ABC? What do you think are the differences? 3. With the globalization, is it helpful to be an ABC? Why or Why not?


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