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供应链管理讨论题及答案 (1)


第1章

理解供应链

1. 如果在一家便利店购买一听苏打水,请描述供应链的不同阶段,并且说明涉及的流程。 When a customer purchases a can of soda at a convenience store, his purchase represents the end of a supply chain’ s delivery of an item and the beginning of information regarding his purchase flowing in the opposite direction. The supply chain stages include customers, retailers, wholesalers/distributors, manufacturers, and component/raw material suppliers. A customer’s purchase moves product towards the customer and dollars and information towards the retailer. The retailer places an order from the wholesaler/distributor to replenish stock, thereby moving information back up the supply chain while moving product down the supply chain. As the order is filled, the retailer will move dollars back up the supply chain. The wholesaler/distributor transmits information and dollars to the manufacturer who produces product and ships it down the supply chain to the wholesaler. Finally (or initially, depending on your perspective) the manufacturer moves orders (information) and dollars towards suppliers in exchange for material flow into their production processes. 当一个顾客在便利店买一听苏打水, 他的购买行为代表着一个商品在供应链中传递的结束, 同 时他顺利的购买行为代表着信息在供应链相反方向的开始。 供应链平台包括消费者、零售商、批发商/分销商、生产者和零件/原材料供应商。一个顾客的 购买行为是商品向顾客的转移与信息向零售商的转移。 零售商从批发商/分销商那列出一份订单,以便补充库存。因此信息是沿着供应链逆向移动而 商品是顺着供应链正向移动。 当订单完成后, 零售商将会把资金沿着供应链的逆向传至供应链上游。 批发商/分销商将信息与资金传递给生产者即生产产品,并将(产品)顺着供应链送至批发商 手中的一方。 最后(或最初,取决于你自己的观点)生产者将订单(信息)和资金转移给供应商以换取材料 来投入生产流程。 5. 考虑顾客从亚马逊订购书籍的供应链,辨别推/拉界限以及这两个流程的推动和拉动阶段。 In Amazon’ s original operations design the push/pull boundary existed betwixt the retailer (Amazon) and their distributor. Amazon ordered product from the distributor and the customer order arrived. Today, Amazon has six warehouses where it stocks an inventory of items it is confident that will sell. In this scenario, the push/pull boundary exists between the customer and the retailer. Processes in the pull phase are the order fulfillment, shipping, customer returns, and customer billing. Processes in the push phase are production, stock replenishments, shipping, and payment. 在亚马逊的原始运营设计中,推/拉边界存在于零售商(亚马逊)和他们的分销商之间。亚马 逊从分销商和顾客手中获取订单后订购产品。 如今亚马逊有六个仓库, 在这六个仓库中存放着确定 会被卖出的商品。在这种情况下,推/拉边界存在于顾客和零售商之间。 拉动阶段为订单的满足,运输,顾客的反馈与顾客的发票。推动阶段是生产,库存的补充,运 输与付款。

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第2章

供应链绩效:赢得战略匹配与战略范围

8. 7—11 便利店、超级市场连锁店和没过好市多这样的折扣零售商,他们面临的隐含不确定性有什 么不同? When customers go to a convenience store chain such as 7-Eleven, they go there for the convenience of a nearby store and are not necessarily looking for the lowest price. Implied demand uncertainty would be high as customers are looking for a variety of products and convenience versus cost and demand levels are hard to predict. A supermarket chain focuses on cost and quality, with some specialty chains adding flexibility by carrying a broader range of products that may be targeted towards customers interested in organic products or ethnic cuisine. Implied demand uncertainty for a supermarket chain tends to be low; shoppers are typically repeat customers and have a constant demand level. The supermarket supply chain must be responsive by receiving produce quickly to ensure freshness and have a high service level. Supermarket supply chains tend to be well-established and can improve strategic fit by emphasizing speed to maintain freshness, hence perceived quality. Low price is very important to customers of discount retailers such as Costco. This customer is willing to tolerate less variety and even purchase very large package sizes as long as the price is low. Customer demand can be more predictable and supply side needs are large and fairly stable. 当顾客去类似 7-11 的连锁便利店时,他们追求的是邻近商店的便利,寻找最低价对他们来说 并没有必要。顾客寻找各种各样的商品时,便利性和成本相对,需求水平很难预料,隐含的需求不 确定性会很高。 超级市场连锁店关注成本和质量, 一些特色的连锁店因为持有大范围的目标客户群 为对邮寄产品和民族烹饪有兴趣的顾客的商品而增加了对灵活性的关注。 超级市场连锁店的隐含需 求不确定性偏低, 因为光顾的通常是老顾客并且有一个持续的需求水平。 超级市场供应链一定要通 过快速接收产品进行响应以确保新鲜度并保持高服务水平。 9. 当供应链的每个环节仅仅专注于自己的利润时,在作决定时会引起哪些问题?识别一些有助于 零售商和制造商共同努力去拓展战略匹配范围的行动。 High inventories, poor quality, low customer service, increased returns are just a number of problems that occur when each stage of a supply chain focuses solely on its own profits. The trucking company requires full truck loads for delivery forcing the retailer to carry more inventory than wanted or needed. The supplier offers discounts to their buyers to maximize production but forcing the buyers to purchase in larger quantities than desired. This concept was very prevalent during the 1950s and 1960s as companies to minimize local costs and maximize their own profits. Today, retailers and manufacturers have the opportunity to plan promotions jointly such as Wal-Mart and P&G. They can share sales information to determine customer trends. Joint product development opportunities are being explored throughout the supply chain between retailers, manufacturers and raw material suppliers. 当供应链的每个环节仅仅专注于自己的利润时,(会造成)高库存、低质量、低客户服务,获得的 回报。 运输公司要进行整车运输迫使零售商持有的库存比需求多。 供应商给买家提供价格折扣以使 生产最大化,却导致购买者买进超过需求的大批量商品。这个观念,在公司将成本最小化并且使自
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己的利润最大化的 20 世纪 50 年代到 60 年代很流行。现今,零售商和制造商有机会去共同计划提 升, 例如沃尔玛和宝洁。 他们可以共享销售信息以决定顾客购买倾向。 在供应链的零售商、 制造商、 原材料、 供应商之间实现联合产品发展的机会正在探索当中。 超级市场供应链趋于完好建立并且能 够通过强调速度来提高战略适应性以保持新鲜度,因此被认为是高质量的。 低价对于类似“好市多”的折扣零售商的顾客是非常重要的。只要价格低,这些顾客很乐意接 受少品种甚至大包装的商品。因此, (对于折扣零售商)顾客的需求很容易被预测,供应需求很大 很稳定。

第3章

供应链驱动因素与衡量指标

2. 汽车制造商如何使用运输提高供应链的效率? Transportation, a logistical driver, entails moving inventory from point to point in the supply chain. The trade-off in transportation is between the cost of transportation and the speed at which product is transported. Slower modes of transportation reduce cost, but could be a reasonable approach if suppliers are co-located with the assembly operations. If the supply chain is designed in such a way, and assembly operations are located with proximity to markets, then the supply chain can be run cheaply without holding too much inventory in transit. 运输,物流司机,在供应链中需要实现货物点到点的运输,在运输中需要权衡货物运输的速度 和运输成本。 速度慢的运输是可以降低运输成本的, 但是如果组装作业与供应商在同一处会是一个 非常合理的方法。 如果供应链按照组装作业安排在离市场非常近的地方这种方式设计供应链, 这样 供应链可以不需要太多的在途存货就可以以便宜的方式运行。 4. 工业物资分销商如何使用信息增加响应性? Information is a cross-functional driver and consists of data and analysis concerning facilities, inventory, transportation, costs, prices, and customers throughout the supply chain. Information serves as a connection among all members of the supply chain and operates within each member to facilitate internal operations. Accurate information can improve responsiveness by helping an industrial supplier better match supply and demand. Information that is gathered farther down the supply chain can be transmitted instantaneously and accurately to the supplies distributor. Instead of waiting for a human to call or FAX an order, the distributor can replenish inventory to the necessary levels or provide what is needed to fill the order as it is realized. 信息是一个跨职能的驱动程序,包括数据和分析有关的设施,库存,运输,成本,价格,以及 整个供应链的客户。 信息是供应链各成员间的连接和在每个构件可促进内部操作。 准确的信息可以 提高响应能力,帮助一个工业供应商更好地匹配供应和需求。那是在更远的供应链可以传送即时、 准确地对供应经销商信息。 而不是等待一个人打电话或传真订单, 经销商可以补充库存的必要水平 或提供什么是需要填写订单。

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第 4 章 分销网络的设计与在线销售的应用

4. 哪种类型的分销网络最适合日用商品? Commodity items are available from many sources and customers expect them to be delivered quickly; if a supply chain can’t be responsive, the customers will move on to the next source. A distribution network designed for retail storage with customer pickup achieves quick response for high demand, low variety products. Other commodity products can be effectively distributed using distributor storage with last-mile delivery, which is also suited for high demand, quick response products. 商品项目可以从许多来源和客户期望他们快速交付,如果供应链不能响应,客户将继续下一个来 源。零售的分销网络设计的存储与客户传感器实现高需求的快速响应,低品种产品。其他商品可以 使用经销商有效的分布式存储与最后一英里交付,也适合高需求,快速响应产品。 7. 为什么在线渠道在 PC 行业比在食品杂货行业更加成功?在未来,在线渠道在 PC 行业的价值可 能会是怎样的? The PC industry is selling a highly customized product that is purchased on a per-household basis, less routinely than the commodity products that make up groceries. A company like Dell can leverage the Internet as a marketing and distribution tool to advertise new capabilities and options before bricks and mortar retailers can. Dell also removes whatever intimidation (or frustration) factor might be experienced by conversing with in-store sales representatives. Computers have a very high value to shipping cost ratio, so the increased shipping costs when compared to a traditional store are negligible. Groceries have a much lower ratio; although in-store shoppers are incurring costs to pick up their groceries, those costs are hidden in comparison to the delivery charge on an itemized bill from Peapod. E-business will continue to be a valuable tool in the PC industry; none of the advantages currently being enjoyed by Dell and Gateway are likely to change significantly. 个人电脑行业是高度定制的产品销售,购买在每户的基础上,通常低于商品构成杂货。像戴尔这 样的公司可以利用互联网作为一种营销和分销工具来宣传新功能和选项之前的砖和砂浆零售商。 戴 尔也删除任何恐吓(或沮丧)所经历的因素可能同店内销售代表谈话。电脑有很高的价值航运成本比 率,因此,增加运输成本相比传统商店可以忽略不计。食品有一个低得多的比率;尽管店内顾客付 出成本去接他们的杂货,这些成本都隐藏在一个分项账单递送费用的比较从豆荚。 电子商务将继续是一个有价值的工具在个人电脑行业, 都享有的优势; 目前戴尔和网关可能显 著改变。

第 5 章 供应链的网络设计

3. 运输成本的上升可能会怎样影响全球化的供应链网络? As transportation costs rise, more companies will elect to place facilities closer to the customer in order to lower overall transportation costs. Companies must weigh these increasing costs against the
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cost of additional inventory and infrastructure costs in making the strategic decision where to place facilities. As transportation costs rise, these decisions will greatly impact overall supply chain profits. 随着运输成本的上升, 更多的企业选择将设施选址在离客户更近的地方, 目的是在总体上降低 运输成本。 企业在做设施选址问题的决策时, 必须权衡这些增加的花销, 附加仓库和基础设施花销。 因为运输成本上升,这些决策将会在很大程度上影响整个供应链的利益。 7. 考虑一个像福特公司这样的企业,其在全球的设施超过 150 个。请列出拥有很多设施的利弊并 考虑这种方式是否适合汽车行业。 Automakers often use a multiplant strategy to create server facilities. These server facilities provide product for the market where they are located, thereby taking advantage of tax incentives, local content requirements, tariff barriers, and high logistics costs. This can be a good strategy if market demand exists for your product; when demand drops, the producer is left with expensive excess capacity. If the facilities are flexible, production of popular models can continue to prepare product for export. If facilities are inflexible or all sales are flat, then the producer must bear the cost or shed assets. 汽车制造商通常采取多工厂的战略来建造服务设施。这些设施为他们所在位置的市场提供商 品,因此可以利用税率的优惠,当地需求的优势并且避免了关税壁垒和高昂的物流成本,如果市场 的需求存在于这些产品中,这将是一个很好的战略。当需求下降,生产者就剩下昂贵的过剩产能, 如果设备是柔性的,通用模型的产品可继续为出口而准备生产。如果设备是非柔性的或所有的销售 是平稳的,那么销售商必须承担花销或者剥离资产。

第 6 章 设计全球供应链网络

1. 为什么在评估供应链设计决策时考虑不确定性是非常重要的? There is little in life that is certain, so it is important to consider the impact that uncertainty has on the supply chain. Modeling techniques discussed in this text require assumptions about future demand, price structures, paradigms, etc. It is safe to say that most assumptions that we make in using these models are false; we are permitted to apply these models because the assumptions occasionally are not false enough to make a difference. The supply chain decisions that must be made require considerable investments that cannot be changed or rescinded in the short run without incurring losses. It is important for the decision maker to weigh all alternatives and the uncertainties attached to the events that the future holds in order to arrive at the best decision. 没有在生活中是确定的,所以重要的是要考虑这种不确定性对供应链的影响。建模技术在本文 讨论需要假设未来的需求,价格结构范式等。可以肯定地说,大多数假设我们在使用这些模型是错误 的,我们被允许应用这些模型,因为偶尔的假设不是假足以产生影响。 供应链决策,必须需要相当大的投资, 在短期内不能改变或撤销不遭受损失。 很重要的决策者权 衡所有备选方案和未来的不确定性附加到事件以到达最好的决定。

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2. 能够影响供应链决策价值的主要的不确定性的来源是什么 The major sources of uncertainty are fluctuations in demand and price. These may vary for a number of reasons; Porter’s five forces model suggests that the presence or absence of substitute goods and services, the threat of existing competitors, of new competitors and the bargaining power of customers will affect a company’s existing product. Prices may fluctuate according to supply and demand, changes in tariffs and exchange rates, and inflation. 不确定性的主要来源是波动的需求和价格。 这些可能会有所不同的原因: 波特的五种力量模型 表明,替代产品和服务的存在与否,现有竞争对手的威胁,新的竞争对手和客户的议价能力将会影 响公司的现有产品。根据供给和需求价格可能波动,关税和汇率的变化,以及通货膨胀。

第 7 章 供应链的需求预测

2.戴尔公司如何才能与供应商进行合作预测来改进供应链? Collaborative forecasting requires all supply chain partners to share information regarding parameters that might affect demand, such as the timing and magnitude of promotions. Dell could share with their components suppliers all of the promotions, e.g., holiday, back-to-school, etc., they have planned. These suppliers could, in turn, notify their suppliers of discrete components that a spike in demand is anticipated. These demand forecasts for end items determine the demand for components and coupled with knowledge of fabrication times, allows all members of the supply chain to provide the right quantity at the right time to their customers. 协作预测要求所有的供应链合作伙伴共享有关可能影响需求的参数, 如促销活动的时间和幅度 信息。戴尔可能有计划的与他们的零部件供应商分享所有的促销活动,例如假期,回校上课等等。 反过来,这些供应商可能会通知他们的供应商,在需求峰值预计分立元件。这些需求预测最终的项 目是确定组件的需求, 再加上制造时代的知识, 使供应链上的所有成员向他们的客户在正确的时间 提供正确的数量。 7.如果预测人员利用上一年的销售数据而不是实际需求数据进行来年的预测,会出现什么问题? Last year’s sales data is fine as long as there were no stock outs. If an item is not on the shelf or is explicitly indicated as being sold out, the manager may be blissfully unaware of customer demand that existed but was not expressed. Also, if there were special promotions last year that are not planned for the following year, the data must be adjusted to accommodate this factor. 去年的销售数据很好, 因为没有缺货。 如果一个产品没有放在货架上或者明确指出已经销售完, 管理人员可能不会察觉到那些存在但没有表达的客户需求。 同时, 如果去年有没有为第二年计划的 特别促销,那么为了适应这一因素,数据肯定需要调整。

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第 8 章 供应链综合计划

5.综合计划需要输入哪些类型的成本? The major cost categories needed as inputs for aggregate planning are production costs and inventory costs. Production costs include labor costs of regular and overtime, costs of subcontracting production, costs of changing capacity by hiring or laying off workforce and increasing or reducing machine capacity. Inventory costs include the cost of having too much (storage costs per period) and too little (backorder or stockout costs). 需要输入的成本类型有生产成本和库存成本。生产成本包括正常人工成本、加班人工成本、转 包生产成本和产能变更成本。 其中产能变更成本具体包括招聘或解雇工人的成本和增加或减少机器 产能的成本。库存成本包括过多(每周期存储成本)和过少(延期交货或缺货成本) 。 8.在选择综合产品单位时,需要考虑的一些关键因素有哪些? While planning is done at the aggregate level, it is important that the aggregate unit be identified in a way that when the final production schedule is built, the results of the aggregate plan reflect what can be accomplished in practice. Given that the bottleneck is likely to be the most constraining area in any manufacturing facility, it is important to focus on the bottleneck when selecting the aggregate unit and identifying capacity as well as production times. It is also important to account for activities such as setups and maintenance that use up capacity but do not result in any production. 而规划是在总体水平上,重要的是总的单元被识别的方式,当最后的生产计划建立,总计划的 结果反映在实践中能获得。 鉴于瓶颈可能是在生产设施最受限制的地区, 集中在选择集料装置与识 别能力以及生产时间瓶颈的重要。同样重要的是要考虑设置和维护,使用能力,不影响任何生产。

第 9 章 销售和运作计划:供应链的供给和需求计划

2.讨论为什么转包商通常能够以低于企业自制的成本为企业提供产品和服务。 The subcontractor can offer services more cheaply for a number of reasons. In many cases, the subcontractor is a specialist in the area and is more flexible, hence cheaper. If a subcontractor is performing similar work for a number of clients, they can take advantage of the zero-sum nature of business competition. By aggregating orders from a number of clients, the subcontractor is able to satisfy peaks in demand from some of their clients because other standard clients will be experiencing valleys in demand. If subcontracting occurs because a firm is at capacity, the subcontractor (that is not overcapacity) can handle the production more cheaply simply because is expensive to operate a system at excess capacity. 分包商可以提供的服务更便宜一些的原因。 在许多情况下,转包商在该地区是一个专家并且更灵活,因此更便宜。如果转包商为客户正在 表演类似的工作,他们可以利用零和商业竞争的性质。通过聚合订单的客户,转包商能够满足高峰 需求的客户,因为其他标准的一些客户的需求将会经历着山谷。如果转包是因为一个公司的能力,
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转包商(即不是产能过剩)能够处理生产更便宜,因为是昂贵的操作系统产能过剩。 4.讨论如何为供应链中的企业建立协作机制。 Collaboration mechanisms in a supply chain should begin with the initial partnering process as the supply chain is being established. All parties in the chain must be aligned and dedicated to the success of the entire chain. Trust and open communication are of primary importance; there should be a myriad of formal and informal communication channels open among all parties. If constancy of purpose is ever in question, each firm might devote some resources towards equitable “chain incentives” such that behaviors that benefit the entire supply chain are recognized and rewarded. The incentives, communication, and trust should be established at all levels of every chain member. Company leadership should provide for highly visible evidence of these activities on their level and among cross-business supply chain teams. 供应链合作机制是当供应链建立时便开始最初的合作过程。 供应链中的各方必须团结, 并致力 于使整个供应链的成功。 信任和开放式的沟通是最重要的, 这儿应该有各种在各方之间正式和非正 式的沟通渠道。如果坚定的目标存在质疑,每个企业应该对公平的“链激励机制”投入一些资源, 这样做有利于整个供应链并使其得到认可与奖励。 激励, 沟通和信任应建立在各级的每一个供应链 成员之间。公司领导层应在他们之间和跨业务的供应链团队之间提供这些高度可见活动的证据。

第 10 章 供应链的协调

1.什么是牛鞭效应?它与供应链失调有何关系? The bullwhip effect refers to the fluctuation in orders along the length of the supply chain as orders move from retailers to wholesalers to manufacturers to suppliers. The bullwhip effect relates directly to the lack of coordination (demand information flows) within the supply chain. Each supply chain member has a different idea of what demand is, and the demand estimates are grossly distorted and exaggerated as the supply chain partner is distanced from the customer. 牛鞭效应是指订单按顺序沿供应链的长度波动,从零售商转向批发商转向制造商再转向供应 商。牛鞭效应直接关系到在供应链中协调的缺乏程度(需要信息流的情况下) 。每一个供应链成员 有不同的关于需求的想法,当供应链合作伙伴疏远客户时,这个需求评估会被严重歪曲和夸张。 7.如何在供应链内构建战略伙伴关系和信任? Cooperation and trust within the supply chain help improve performance for the following reasons: When stages trust each other, they are more likely to take the other party’s objectives into consideration when making decisions, thereby facilitating win-win situations. Action-oriented managerial levers to achieve coordination become easier to implement and the supply chain becomes more agile. An increase in supply chain productivity results, either by elimination of duplicated effort or by allocating effort to the appropriate stage. Detailed sales and production information is shared; this allows the supply chain to coordinate production and distribution decisions.
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供应链中的合作与信任有助于提高业绩,原因如下: 当阶段内相互信任, 他们作决定时更容易把其他第三方的利益(目标)考虑在其, 从而促进双赢。 以行动为导向的管理杠杆会使合作变得更容易实现,而且供应链变得更加灵活。 通过消除重复的工作或分配工作到适当的阶段都会得到供应链效率增加效果。 详细的销售和生产信息是共享的,这使得供应链能协调生产和分配各项决策。

第 11 章 供应链的规模经济管理:周转库存

1.一家超市正在决定向宝洁公司补充订购的订货批量。决策时应考虑哪些成本? The main cost categories for the supermarket’s inventory policy are material costs, ordering costs, and holding costs. Material cost is the money paid to Proctor and Gamble for the goods themselves. Ordering costs, also called procurement costs, are incurred by requesting the goods from the supplier and are fixed in the sense that they do not vary with the size of the order. Examples of such fixed costs are the labor required to place the order, handle the resultant paperwork and the transportation fee to ship the order. The holding cost is the cost to carry one unit in inventory for a specified period of time, usually one year. This cost is variable and includes the cost of capital and all of the costs associated with physically storing inventory – shrinkage, spoilage or obsolescence, insurance, the cost of capital, the cost of the warehouse space, etc. 超市的库存策略的主要成本类别是材料成本,订购成本,及持有成本。材料成本的钱支付给宝 洁是货物本身的价值。订购成本,也可称为采购成本,向供应商要求货物的时候产生,他们是固定 的,不随订单的大小而变化。这种固定成本的例子有下订单、处理结果的文书工作所需的人工和订 单发货的运输费用。持有成本是一定时间内,通常为一年,持有一个单位的库存的成本。这种成本 具有可变性,包括资本成本和的所有与物理存储库存有关的费用——缩水、变质或报废、保险、资 本成本、仓库空间等等。 6.什么情况下供应链中的数量折扣是合理的? Quantity discounts are justified in a supply chain as long as they are the fruits of a coordinated supply chain and maximize total supply chain profits. For commodity products for which price is set by the market, manufacturers with large fixed costs per lot can use lot size-based quantity discounts to maximize total supply chain profits. 只要他们是供应链协调的结果并能实现总供应链利润最大化, 数量折扣在供应链是合理的。 对 于价格由市场设定的商品产品, 对于每批次有大的固定成本的制造商来说, 可以用基于大小的每批 次的数量折扣来使总供应链利润最大化。

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第 12 章 供应链的不确定性管理:安全库存

1.安全库存在供应链中起着什么样的作用? Safety inventory is inventory carried to satisfy demand that exceeds the amount forecasted for a given period. As such, it tends to have a negative impact on supply chain cost but a positive impact on supply chain responsiveness. Safety inventory is carried because product demand and lead time are uncertain and a product shortage may result if actual demand during lead time exceeds the forecast amount. 安全库存是满足超过一个给定期间内的预测的需求而持有的库存。 因此, 它往往对供应链成本 有负面影响, 但对供应链响应能力有积极的影响。 安全库存的设置是因为产品需求和提前期是不确 定的,而如果在提前期期间的实际需求超过预测的量,一种产品有可能发生缺货。 5.供给不确定性对安全库存会产生哪些影响? The required safety inventory increases with an increase in the standard deviation of periodic demand. The standard deviation of periodic demand is a function of the variance in the lead time and the variance in the demand. Anything that causes supply to be more deterministic will minimize the need for safety inventory. 所需的安全库存会随着定期需求的标准偏差的增加而增加。 对定期需求的标准偏差是由提前期 和需求的差异产生的函数得出的。 任何可以导致供求更具有确定性的东西将会减少对安全库存的需 要。

第 13 章 最优产品可获得性水平的确定

3.一家公司运用更完备的市场信息提高了预测的准确性。这将给供应链库存和盈利带来怎样的影 响?为什么? Improved forecast accuracy should result in a closer match between supply and demand, resulting in improved profitability. An improved match will result in lower levels of unplanned carryover inventory and shortages at the end of planning periods. The improved match will lower the expected costs of having too much or too little inventory. 提高预测准确性的结果是使供应商与需求拥有更紧密的匹配, 这也将会提高利润率。 一个提高 的匹配度会在计划阶段的末期降低无计划的库存移动和短缺的水平。 同时高匹配度也会降低过多或 过少库存的预期消费。

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5.在什么情况下,对所有产品的差异进行延迟不能增加利润?量身定制式延迟如何应用于这些情 况? Postponement is valuable in a supply chain when a firm sells a large variety of products with highly unpredictable demand of about the same size that is not positively correlated. Postponement is not as valuable if a large fraction of the demand comes from a few products. In such a setting, tailored postponement is most effective whereby base loads are not postponed but the variation is postponed. 当一个企业销售繁多品种的产品并且很难预测相同规格而不是正相关产品的需求量时, 延迟策 略在供应链中的应用是很重要的。 如果大部分的需求是来自小部分商品, 那么延迟策略就不是很重 要。在这种背景下,量身定制式延迟是最有效的,因此基本货物不进行延迟,但差异化产品进行延 迟。

第 14 章 供应链的运输

2.为什么在对基础设施使用定价的过程中考虑拥堵因素非常重要? Infrastructure often requires government ownership and is not something that can be increased in capacity in the short term. If congestion is not factored in to the price structure for infrastructure, then demand for the resources will exceed capacity and major delays will occur. Pricing may be used to force users to internalize the marginal impact of their choices, thus alleviating some of the demand during peak periods. 基础设施往往需要政府的所有权, 以及是不是可以在短期内增加的能力。 如果基础设施不计入 拥塞价格结构, 那么对资源的需求将超过容量并且会发生重大延误。 定价可以用来迫使用户使用内 部化的边际影响他们的选择,从而减轻一些在高峰时期的需求。 3.在沃尔玛设计的网络中,各个地区都建有配送中,并由它们负责周边大型零售超市的产品供应。 请解释为什么该公司利用上述网络能在频繁补货的同时降低运输成本? A distribution center that supports several large retail stores can reduce supply chain costs in four ways: 1) Inbound shipments to the DC achieve economies of scale because each supplier sends a large shipment; 2) The outbound transportation costs for a DC can be low because it serves retail locations nearby; and very large inbound shipments that match retail demand can be cross-docked at the DC, which saves both 3) storage and 4) material-handling costs. A DC also can replenish retail inventories more frequently; the DC breaks bulk from manufacturers on one side of the warehouse and sends it to retail locations on the outbound side. Since retail demands are aggregated at the DC level, the amount of inventory actually stored at the DC is very low and as Little’s Law indicates, the time between replenishments is low also. 一个支持几家大型零售店配送中心可以降低供应链成本四方面:1)进货出货的配送中心实现 规模经济,因为每个供应商运输的装载量很大;2)对于配送中心出境运输成本低,因为它可以提 供零售地点附近;3)非常大的入境货物符合零售需求可以停靠在直流,从而节省了存储;4)材料
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处理成本。 直流也可以更频繁地补充零售库存;直流卸货从制造商的一侧仓库并将其发送给零售店出站。 由于零售需求聚合在直流级别,库存的数量实际存储在直流很低,小定律表明,之间的时间补货也 低。

第 15 章 供应链的采购决策

2.虽然许多零售商外包它们的运输,但什么因素促使沃尔玛拥有自己的车队? Wal-Mart is able to run its own fleet of trucks because it can ship TL throughout its supply chain. Wal-Mart’s shipment sizes are large and the company achieves aggregation across the many retail stores it owns. If Wal-Mart elected to go with a carrier, they might be able to match Wal-Mart’s costs, but Wal-Mart would cede control to the carrier. 沃尔玛经营自己的车队是因为这样可以进行整车运输。 沃尔玛的运输规模很大 (经营自己的车 队)可以使他在自己的众多零售店之间实现集成化运输。如果沃尔玛将运输外包,也许运输公司的 花费和沃尔玛差不多,但是沃尔玛会失去对运输公司的控制。 8.为什么电子类消费品工业的组装由第三方承担,而汽车工业的组装几乎从未外包? In the consumer electronics industry, the third parties aggregate the demand across multiple firms when performing assemblies thereby gaining production economies of scale that no single firm in this industry can. The auto industry on the other hand, maintains volume levels for its models that each individual manufacturer can reap the benefits of their own assembly. 在电子类消费品工业中, 第三方可以在组装方面集合多个公司的需求实现产品的规模经济, 任 何一个这个工业中的公司都做不到这一点。另一方面,汽车工业保持了其模型水平,使得每个制造 商能获得自己组装方面的利益。

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