Unit 3 Grammar
the present perfect Passive voice
挑战你的观察力 Have you made any plans? I have made a plan. I have decided to go to ….
>A lot of things have been brought into our lives They have greatly changed the way we live.
Computers have computers been used in Since whenhave been used in offices and homes since 1970s. offices and homes?
The Present Perfect Passive Voice （现在完成时的被动语态） 现在完成时：动作发生在过去, 到现在已经完成或对现在仍有影响 （需用现在完成时态的副词： so far /since the 1970s/ already/yet , for +three times,etc 被动语态：主语是动作的承受着
1. Over time I have been changed a lot. 经过一段时间我已经被改变了很多。
2. First as a PC(Personal computer) and then as a laptop, I have been used in offices and homes since the 1970s. 自二十世纪七十年代以来，我一直被用在办公室和家庭里， 先是被用作个人电脑， 后来又被做成便携式。\
3. Over time my memory has developed so much that, like an elephant, I never forge anything I have been told. 随着时间的推移，我的记忆能力发展得如此之快，就像一头大象一样， 从来不会 忘记告诉我的任何事情！ 4. Since the 1970s many new applications have been found for me. 从二十世纪七十年代起，我又被开发出了很多新的用途。
5. I have also been put into robots and used to make mobile phones as well as help with medical operations. …我还被放在机器人里面，被用来制作移动手机，并且用来帮助作医疗手术。 6、 I have even been put into space rockets and sent to explore the Moon and Mars. 我还被放置在航空火箭里去探测月球和火星。
实战演练 The Present Perfect Passive Voice
（现在完成时的被动语态） 现在完成时的被动语态表示动作发生在过去, 到 现在已经完成或对现在仍有影响 1. 构成： 主动语态 被动语态 现在完成时 have/has done have/has been done
Examples: Someone has locked the door. The doorhas been locked (by someone). We have learned seven units so far. Seven units have been learned (by us) so far.
1. A new personal computer has been bought by my friend. 2. My computer has been repaired by the shop very quickly. 3. My computer has just been attacked by an unknown virus. 4. The problem hasn’t been solved yet. 5. The computers have been given away to a local school by the company. 6. A kind of intelligent robot has been developed by the scientists.
has been stolen. 1. His newly-bought motorbike ________(已经被偷了). been repaired? 2. Where has the car ___________(被修理的)? have been planted 3. Many young trees _____________(被种) in the park this year. has not been told about the news, 4. Jack ________ (还没被告知这个消息), so you should ring him up. have (已被派遣) 5. How many workers _____ been sent to rescue the people who were buried? have 6. Christmas is coming! The windows of shops_______already_______ been decorated ________________ (已经用…装饰起来) with Christmas trees.
The usage of passive voice in different tenses 不同时态中的被动语态
时态 一般现 在时 时间状语 主动语态 被动语态 被动语态的 含义 某事（经常， 总是、） 被… (过去某个时 间)被…
every day, always, usually, often, sometimes, am/is/are done do/does hardly, never，once a week 一般过 Last week, two days ago, was/were done yesterday, in 2008, just 去时 did now(刚才) 一般将 next Saturday, in two Wil do will be done 来时 days(两天之后) be going to do be going to be done in the future be to do be to be done in 2012
现在完 already(肯定), yet（否定，疑 问）, just(刚刚)， ever, never, 成时 so far, up to now(到目前为止) since+过去时间点 for + 一段时间/次数 in the last/past 10 years(在过 去多久以来)
must/can/ should do
must/can/should be done have/has been done
(到现在某 个时间为 止)已经 被…
把下列主动语态转化为被动语态: 1. People play football all over the world. is played Football __________all over the world. 2. Grandma Wang has taken good care of the child all these years. has been taken good care of The child ____________________________by Grandma Wang all these years. 3. I have given him the book. (双宾语) =He __________________the book. has been given has been given to =The book ____________________ him. 4. The farmer made the horse work the whole day. The horse ________________ work the whole day. was made to
Someone has turned off the light. The light has been turned off.
He has thought of a way of solving the problem.
A way of solving the problem has been thought of.
带双宾语的动词give /send/bring/ /teach/show/ tell/ sell/buy/ ask/ lend/ offer/….
give sb. sth. send sb. sth. teach sb. sth. bring sb. sth. buy sb. sth. …
= give sth. to sb.. = send sth. to sb =teach sth. to sb. =bring sth. to sb. =buy sth. for sb. …
He bought her a watch. 人作主语 → She was bought a watch. 物作主语→ A watch was bought for her.
有些动词在主动结构中，后面接不带to的不定式，但如 果改为被动，则需把省略的to加上，这类动词有make, help, let , hear, watch 等， make sb. do sth. help sb. do sth. hear sb. do sth. =be made to do .. =be helped to do.. =be heard to do… …
How time flies! It’s about four months since we began our high school life. The high school life is an interesting and colorful one. Soon after the Our headteacher, Mr. Lai, is a kind but strict man. Soon after the were told start of school, we ____________ (tell) about some rules by him. school will be punished And if we break the rules, we ________________(punish). rules months, In the last four months however, we have made a lot of have been replaced progress. For example, some bad habits ________________(replace) by good ones. What’s more, a lot of activities _____________ have been organized (organize) for us. have been made to Since last week we ___________________(make) run in the week, morning. It is really a good way to exercise in the cold winter. Still, there are some bad things. For example, we__________________ (give) tests every month which of month, are given usually not welcomed is course______ usually___________ (not welcome) by most of us. in the future Anyway, the term is almost at an end now. In the future, I’m sure more things ___________(do) to make our life better. will be done
1. Many problems has been found with our new computer. have 2.She is often heard sing the song. to 3. The plan has studied by the experts for three times. been 4. The computer was used every day since we bought it. has been used 5. How long have you borrowed the book? kept
6. Can you tell me who the story was written?
1. — ______ the sports meet might be put off. — Yes, it all depends on the weather. A. I’ve been told B. I’ve told C. I’m told 2. I got caught in the rain and my suit____. (2007 北京)
A. has ruined C. has been ruined B. had ruined D. had been ruined
D. I told
3. Every possible means ___ to prevent the air pollution, but the sky is still not clear. A. is used B. are used C. has been used D. have been used 4. All the preparations for the task ___ and we’re ready to start. A. completed B. complete 3.C. had been completed by the have been the film? ----Were you surprised D. ending of completed ----No, I _______the book, so I already knew the story? A. was reading B. had read C. am reading D. have read
5. There is a police car in front of our neighbor’s house. What do you suppose _______? A. was happened B. has been happened C. has happened D. had happened
Homework： 1. 同步第二课时 2. 预习Using language