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PanSystem 解析试井解释软件 培训手册

北京富林思博石油科技有限责任公司

目

录

例子 1：使用 PanWizard 进行数据准备（1）..........................................1 例子 1：使用 PanWizard 进行数据准备（2）..........................................8 例子 2：常规数据准备流程.....................................................................22 例子 3：PanSystem 文件的打开与分析..................................................33 例子 4：断层与边界条件.........................................................................45 例子 5：双孔油藏....................................................................................52 例子 6：封闭油藏....................................................................................59 例子 7：平行断层油藏.............................................................................64 例子 8：水平井油藏.................................................................................71 例子 9：部分射开井.................................................................................79 例子 10：径向复合油藏...........................................................................86 例子 11：压裂井......................................................................................91 例子 12：气井试井..................................................................................97 例子 13：等时试井................................................................................109 例子 14：数据拟合................................................................................116 例子 15：试井设计................................................................................122 例子 16：干扰测试设计.........................................................................129 例子 17：数据输出................................................................................138

Example 1

Example 1- Part I

Data Preparation WorkFlow Using

PanWizard

Part I

Overview

EX 1.2

This example uses various features of the DATAPREP section in PanSystem and focuses mainly on how to get the data in an analysable stage

PanWizard has been designed to simplify the input of data necessary for analysis of a simple welltest

This is a gas well example, incorporating an initial flow initial initial buildbuild-up, a flowflow-afterafter-flow (FAF) test and a final buildbuild-up

1

Example 1

Data Preparation

PanWizardPanWizard-Initialization

Starting a New file

Click on Next >>

EX 1.3

Loading an available file

Click on Load PAN file

Data Preparation

PanWizardPanWizard-Reservoir Description

EX 1.4

2

Example 1

Data Preparation

Dry gas reservoirs Use Condensate fluid type for Wet gas reservoirs (Pres>Pdew ) (Pres>Pdew) Select Condensate fluid type and Tick Multiphase option for Gas condensate reservoirs (Pres<Pdew ) (Pres<Pdew)

0?<?<75?

EX 1.5

Reservoir Description

Use Multiphase PseudoPseudoPressure Method when more than one phase are moving inside the reservoir.

Data Preparation

PanWizardPanWizard-Well Parameters

EX 1.6

3

Example 1

Data Preparation EX 1.7

Well Parameters

Reservoir Description

Mandatory parameters appear in RED

Data Preparation

PanWizardPanWizard-Layer Parameters

EX 1.8

4

Example 1

Data Preparation

Reservoir Description

EX 1.9

Layer Parameters

Data Preparation

PanWizardPanWizard-Fluid Parameters

EX 1.10

5

Example 1

Data Preparation EX 1.11

Gas Fluid Parameters

Reservoir Description

The calculate button will not overwrite any data whose check box has been switched off

Data Preparation

PanWizardPanWizard-Pseudo Table Entry

EX 1.12

6

Example 1

Data Preparation

Pseudo Table Editing

Click Calculate all button Keep the default settings in Pseudo Table Data subsub-dialog Click OK

EX 1.13

Data Preparation

Click Quit in PanWizard Dialog Box

Keep all the entered data

EX 1.14

FileFile-Save As …- Example01

7

Example 1

Example 1- Part II

Data Preparation WorkFlow Using

PanWizard

Part II

Overview

EX 1.2

Normally the gauge data are provided as electronic files. There may be more than one gauge. Type of the gauge

Gauge Gauge Gauge Gauge Accuracy Drift Resolution Histerices

8

Example 1

Data Preparation

PanWizardPanWizard-Initialisation

Load PAN file

Example01

EX 1.3

Data Preparation

PanWizardPanWizard-Gauge Data Entry

EX 1.4

9

Example 1

Data Preparation

Pressure and Rate Data Preparation

Click on Import From File Open Test1.dat

EX 1.5

Data Preparation

PanWizardPanWizard-Define Gauge Data …

EX 1.6

10

Example 1

Data Preparation

Data File …

Click on Import

EX 1.7

Data Preparation

PanWizardPanWizard-Draw Dataprep Plot

EX 1.8

11

Example 1

Data Preparation

Data Edit Plot

EX 1.9

Data Preparation

PanWizardPanWizard-Enter Rate Changes

Click on Example button

EX 1.10

12

Example 1

Data Preparation

PanWizardPanWizard-Rate Change

Note that the Rate is the flow rate leading up to the selected Rate Change Data points (as illustrated by the red line).

EX 1.11

Data Preparation

PanWizardPanWizard-Rate Change

Rate Changes are normally defined graphically by identifying the points where the flow rate changed on the Dataprep Data Edit plot.

EX 1.12

13

Example 1

Data Preparation

For this example the test rates are as follows:

Time, hrs 0.0 5.66 8.67 11.73 18.85 26.31 32.34 37.77 61.56 Rate, MMscf/d 0.0 0.0 12.25 0.0 3.95 6.60 9.00 12.11 0.0 Comment

Setting the gauge Start Cleaning-up End Cleaning-up End 1st PBU End 1st Flow Period End 2nd Flow Period End 3rd Flow Period End 4th Flow Period End Final PBU

EX 1.13

Data Preparation

EX 1.14

14

Example 1

Data Preparation

PanWizardPanWizard-Rate History

EX 1.15

Data Preparation

PanWizardPanWizard-Rate History

Click on the Quick button and, Keep all the data

EX 1.16

15

Example 1

Data Preparation

Appending Gauge Data:

Go to Dataprep/Gauge Dataprep/Gauge Data… Data…, Import Test2.tpr and Test3.tpr Note that these files include one gauge data which has been split into two files. Change the Master data file to TEST2 and Click on the Append button

EX 1.17

Data Preparation

TEST2 TEST3 TEST2

EX 1.18

16

Example 1

Data Preparation

Shifting Gauge Data:

Plot both pressure records, TEST1 and TEST2 Note that the two data sets are displaced in time Click on shift button

EX 1.19

Shifting data horizontally by constant time value

Shifting data vertically by constant signal value

Draw a box before using the Shift button

Data Preparation

Shift TEST2 pressure data

Use Shift button Use Zoom to improve resolution

EX 1.20

When satisfied with shift… shift…

Make a note of DeltaDelta-t (at the bottom of the screen) Click Difference button

Use Shift and Difference until you get a good time match

17

Example 1

Data Preparation

TEST 1&2 Time Match

EX 1.21

Difference

Data Preparation

EX 1.22

NOTE: In Data Edit plot the Rate Change buttons are Active ONLY if the Master file is plotted.

TEST2 data file is chosen to plot

NOT Active

TEST1 is the Master data file

18

Example 1

Data Preparation

There are three icons on the Dataprep tool bar used for copying data:

Copy & Paste Including Time (patch section from another data file) Copy, Resample & Paste (patch column from another data file) Resample column from one data file to create a new column in another

EX 1.23

Note: The Master file is always the destination for copying

Data Preparation

EX 1.24

Copy & Paste Including Time (patch section from another data file)

File 1 (Master data file) Time 1.0 1.5 . . . Pressure 4000 3995 . . . File 2 Time Pressure 3999 3997 . . .

}

File 1 (new) Time 1.0 1.2 1.3 1.5 . .

{

1.2 1.3 . . .

Pressure 4000 3999 3997 3995 . .

19

Example 1

Data Preparation EX 1.25

Copy, Resample & Paste (patch column from another data file)

File 1 (Master data file) Time 1.0 1.25 1.5 . . Pressure 4000 4150 3995 . . File 1 (new) Time 1.0 1.2 1.5 . . Pressure 4000 3998 3995 . . File 2

}

{

Time 1.2 1.3 . . .

Pressure 3999 3997 . . .

Data Preparation

EX 1.26

Resample column from one data file to create a new column in another

File 1 (Master data file) Time 1.0 1.25 1.5 . . Time 1.0 1.25 1.5 . . Pressure 4000 3998 3995 . . File 1 (new) Pressure 1 4000 3998 3995 . . File 2 Time 0.9 1.3 1.7 . . Pressure 2 3999.25 3996.62 3993.50 . . Pressure 4000 3997 3990 . .

}

{

20

Example 1

Data Preparation EX 1.27

END OF EXAMPLE 1

21

Example 2

Example 2

Data Preparation: Large Data Files

Dataprep Overview

Import data file Delete data at start and end Confirm deletions Define flow periods

EX 2.2

Reduce number of data points of each test period Confirm reductions Define Well, Layer and Fluid Parameters

22

Example 2

Dataprep-Import

Start PanSystem: File - New Dataprep - Well and Reservoir Description

Select Oil as reservoir fluid (Default)

EX 2.3

Config - Units

Select OILFABS in Units System (Default)

DataPrep - Gauge Data - Import

Example02.tpr Review File format

View Gauge Data

EX 2.4

23

Example 2

View Gauge Data EX 2.5

PanSystem will specify the columns automatically

The user should define each column

Should be used to import Date column. (Time column format must be (DATE)hh:mm:ss)

Dataprep

Note data column format /units:

Column 1: Time in decimal hours Column 2: Pressure in psia Column 3: Temperature in oF.

EX 2.6

Click Import Data import should take a matter of seconds To plot the imported data highlight the dataset of interest from the Data File/Column List Click on Add to List icon and then Plot

24

Example 2

Viewing Imported Data EX 2.7

Dataprep

EX 2.8

Plot the pressure column only Delete data at start and end i.e. during running in and pulling out Confirm deletions

Draw box around data at start and end of the test and hit Delete toolbar icon Confirm deletion to minimise plotting time Check with the Number toolbar button. There should now be approximately 25,000 data points remaining Save file as Example02.PAN

25

Example 2

Dataprep EX 2.9

Dataprep

EX 2.10

Comments on all flow periods Delete all points up to just before the fourth Buildup Delete the data points at the end of the test Confirm deletions There will be around 8400 points

26

Example 2

Dataprep EX 2.11

Dataprep

Define the flow periods:

EX 2.12

ZoomZoom-in on the beginning of the last drawdown Select the ‘Nearest data point’ option and define the beginning of the drawdown then ZoomZoom-out ZoomZoom-in on the beginning of the Buildup period and use the ‘Exact point’ option to define the start of the buildbuild-up (very noisy data) Enter the rate as 400 bbl/day then zoomzoom-out ZoomZoom-in on the end of the buildup period and use the ‘Nearest data point’ option to define the end of the buildup then zoomzoom-out

27

Example 2

Data Reduction

Select: Whole test (no selection) Box Test period Click Data Reduction Button

EX 2.13

Methods of Reduction Signal column which will be reduced Name of new Reduced Data file. PS does keep the original file just in case.

Data Smoothing

Data Smoothing Select

Whole test (no selection) Box Test period Click Data Smoothing Button Determines the number of points to be used for smoothing Define how to select the points Define how to weight each point

EX 2.14

28

Example 2

Data Smoothing EX 2.15

Select the data column that you would like to smooth

Define the name of smoothed output data column (default is SM1 Pressure #1 )

NOTE: PS does keep the original file just in case

Data Reduction

EX 2.16

Select the drawdown period on the ruler bar Click on ‘Data Reduction and Smoothing facility’ button and

Reduce to 200 points per log cycle Smooth with 0.1 window span this should leave about 430 data points

Select the final buildbuild-up on the ruler bar

Reduce the buildbuild-up data again using 200 points per log cycle Smooth with 0.1 window span This should leave approximately 370 data points

Highlight any extra erroneous points and delete by clicking the trash icon and Confirm deletions Save file

29

Example 2

Dataprep EX 2.17

Dataprep

Go to Dataprep

Well and Reservoir Description (Analytical)...

EX 2.18

Enter the following data in well, layer and fluid parameters screens

Rw = 0.35 ft. h = 87 ft. ? = 0.17 Bo = 1.12 resbbl/STB resbbl/STB Poil = 0.7 cp Ct = 5.2E5.2E-5 psipsi-1

Click OK Save File

30

Example 2

Analysis

Select Analysis - Plot Select BuildBuild-up on the ruler bar Select LogLog-Log Plot icon

Note: in the early time region the pressure and derivative data should follow unit slope trend and overlay each other. If not the BU start time and pressure have not been defined properly.

EX 2.19

Adjust T0 to find a ‘good’ good’ value T0 = 78.186 Hours.

Log-Log Plot

EX 2.20

31

Example 2

Example 2 EX 2.21

END OF EXAMPLE 2

32

Example 3

Example 3

Loading a PanSystem File and Analysing the data

DATAPREP

Load file Example03.pan

File - Open

EX 3.2

In Dataprep

Review Well and Reservoir Description (Analytical… (Analytical…) Review Gauge Data

Plot data

33

Example 3

DATAPREP

What kind of test are we looking at ?

Fluid type Well orientation Drawdown (Dd ) or Buildup (Bu) (Dd) Constant or variable rate

EX 3.3

Plot data again including Rate Changes Any comments on data quality ?

ANALYSIS

Analysis – Plot

Test Overview Cartesian LogLog-Log

Check Time Function Vary to see effect Set to Use Full History

EX 3.4

SemiSemi-Log

Check Time Function Vary to see effect Set to Horner

Tile Plots (last four plots)

34

Example 3

ANALYSIS EX 3.5

Radial Flow (Middle Time Region)

Note: In PanSystem the term “Horner” Horner” is a general term to denote a particular formulation of the superposition function for multimulti-rate tests.

ANALYSIS

EX 3.6

Radial Flow (Middle Time Region)

Note: The “notnotHorner” Horner” mode correspond to Agarwal formulation of an equivalent drawdown time.

35

Example 3

ANALYSIS

Plot LogLog-Log derivative Draw diagnostic lines, checking Line Results

Unit slope Horizontal line

EX 3.7

Comments on the reservoir model Confirm reservoir parameters Mark Flow Regimes

Note: Using the FR icon (Flow Regime definition) is optional. Generated markers will be carried through from plot to plot to aid in line fitting.

ANALYSIS

EX 3.8

Radial Flow Regime, Horizontal trend on the derivative

Wellbore Storage Flow Regime, unit slope trend

36

Example 3

ANALYSIS

Plot SemiSemi-Log Then Confirms results

EX 3.9

Data affected by WBS

Middle Time Region, Infinite Acting, Radial Flow

ANALYSIS

SemiSemi-Log Plot Results Box:

EX 3.10

K: kh: kh:

Permeability, md PermeabilityPermeability-thickness product, md.ft

Rinv:Radius of Investigation, ft FE: Flow Efficiency, Actual PI/Ideal PI

dps: dps: Skin pressure drop/recovery, psi S: P*: Skin Extrapolated Pressure, psia

37

Example 3

ANALYSIS

Select Cartesian Plot Zoom on the early time region (WBS) Select WBS Flow Regime on the Ruler Draw best fit line through WBS region How does Cs compare with that from LogLog-Log plot ?

EX 3.11

ANALYSIS

EX 3.12

38

Be st Fit Lin e

Example 3

SIMULATION

Plot LogLog-Log Simulate - Quick Match (QM) Verify data boxes are complete Click Calculate Change parameters to get better match OK/Confirm if acceptable

EX 3.13

QM uses the analysis model and results to calculate the pressure response.

SIMULATION

EX 3.14

Quick Match Simulation Pressure Response

Quick Match Simulation Derivative Response

39

Example 3

SIMULATION

Plot SemiSemi-Log and Quick Match

EX 3.15

SIMULATION

Plot Cartesian and Quick Match

EX 3.16

40

Example 3

SIMULATION

Tile Plots

EX 3.17

TYPE CURVES

Click on TC button Click on M (match) icon

Select the appropriate type curve

EX 3.18

Note: The number and type of type curves depend on the model which has been selected for analysis.

41

Example 3

TYPE CURVES

Move type curves to match position Click on M icon, verify curve number Click the “NextNext-Stage” Stage” arrow button

This takes you to the next stage of matching (if applicable)

EX 3.19

If you would like to go back one step use ‘Previous stage of type curve matching’ matching’ button Confirm results Run Simulate - Quick Match to fine tune the parameters as before.

TYPE CURVES

EX 3.20

Curve numbers are increasing upward (1, 2, 3,… 3,…)

42

Example 3

TYPE CURVES

Show or Hide Pd/Derivative curves button: This button allows the user ton switch the pressure and/or derivative curves on/and off for display purposes. “Show curve labels” labels” allows you to see the value of each curve.

EX 3.21

TYPE CURVES

EX 3.22

Force type curve parameter button: This button will fix the derivative match, so the user is not allowed to move the curves vertically any more.

43

Example 3

FINAL RESULTS

Storage coefficient, Cs = 0.025 Permeability, k = 177 mD Skin, S = 0.17 Initial Pressure, Pi = 3331 psia (app.)

EX 3.23

Example 3

EX 3.24

END OF EXAMPLE 3

44

Example 4

Example 4

Faults and Boundaries

DATAPREP

Load file Example04.PAN This is a PrePre-prepared pan file Before going on to Analysis Review Dataprep sections

EX 4.2

45

Example 4

DATAPREP

Well and Reservoir Description (Analytical… (Analytical…)

Check the fluid type Make sure the wellbore radius has been defined

EX 4.3

Check the Layer and Fluid parameters

Check the Well Orientation

DATAPREP

Gauge Data… Data…

EX 4.4

Check the Production history by clicking the Rate changes… changes… button

Select the gauge data, Add to list, then Plot

46

Example 4

ANALYSIS

Go to ANALYSISANALYSIS-PLOT On the Test Overview Plot:

Select the BU period by clicking on the ruler Go to LogLog-Log plot The character of the derivative suggest the following: WBS effect at the beginning A NoNo-Flow boundary very close to the wellbore Single fault radial flow Another NoNo-Flow boundary away from the wellbore Check SemiSemi-Log plot to confirm this model

EX 4.5

ANALYSIS

EX 4.6

Note that the infinite acting radial flow could not be seen on this test.

WBS early time effect

NoNo-Flow Boundary effect close to the wellbore

Single fault Radial flow

Second NoNo-Flow boundary effect, intersecting the first one (90 degree)

47

Example 4

ANALYSIS

Analysis Procedure 1: ANALYSISANALYSIS-MODEL Choose appropriate flow Model (Radial homog.) homog.) Use Single fault boundary model to get the permeability and distance to the first nono-flow boundary. OK

EX 4.7

ANALYSIS

Analysis Procedure 1 (Cont.):

EX 4.8

Use Type curve analysis to get the distance to the nonoflow boundary Use Single Fault radial flow to calculate reservoir permeability Change the boundary model to Intersecting faults (90), use type curve analysis and calculate the distance to the second nono-flow boundary.

48

Example 4

ANALYSIS EX 4.9

Calculate the distance to the first boundary and get an idea about the permeability value.

Curve No. 1

ANALYSIS

EX 4.10

Define Single fault radial flow on loglog-log plot and get the permeability from SemiSemi-log plot.

Confirm the results on SemiSemi-log plot

49

Example 4

ANALYSIS EX 4.11

Change the boundary model to Intersecting Faults (90), use type curve analysis and calculate the distance to the second nono-flow boundary.

!When confirming the results, DO NOT confirm the permeability as it is irrelevant.

Curve No. 2

ANALYSIS

EX 4.12

Use Quick Match simulation technique to fine tune the results. Final match and results are shown below:

50

Example 4

ANALYSIS

Analysis Procedure 2: ANALYSISANALYSIS-MODEL Choose appropriate flow Model (Radial homog.) homog.) Use Intersecting faults (90) boundary model Use Type curve matching only to analyse the test. This is an exercise for the participants

EX 4.13

Example 4

EX 4.14

END OF EXAMPLE 4

51

Example 5

Example 5

Dual Porosity Reservoir

DATAPREP

Load file Example05.PAN This is a PrePre-prepared pan file Before going on to Analysis Review Dataprep sections

EX 5.2

Make sure all the required information (Well, Layer and Fluid parameters) has been defined properly.

52

Example 5

DATAPREP EX 5.3

This is an actual Constant Rate Drawdown (CRD) test for a vertical oil well.

ANALYSIS

EX 5.4

Go to ANALYSISANALYSIS-PLOT Select the Dd test period and go to LogLog-Log plot:

Do you recognise the character of the LogLog-Log derivative diagnostic plot ? Note: only allowed deltaT (elapsed time) as time function on the x-axis Select the appropriate analysis model (Dual(Dual-Porosity (Pseudo Steady State)) Define the following flow regimes: Wellbore storage Transition to system radial flow System radial flow Confirm results

53

Example 5

ANALYSIS EX 5.5

Wellbore Storage effect

Total System Radial Flow

Dual Porosity Behaviour (Transition to system radial flow)

ANALYSIS

Go to SemiSemi-Log plot

EX 5.6

Does it look just what you expect from having seen on the LogLogLog derivative? If there is any further radial flow, the trend should be parallel parallel to system radial flow so use parallel line button and add a parallel line. A value for ǔ should be calculated as ǔ is a function of the vertical distance between those two parallel lines. Select the “Transition to system radial flow” flow” flow regime and add the best fit line. A value of ? should be calculated as it is a function of the trend of the transition zone. Confirm results

54

Example 5

ANALYSIS EX 5.7

ANALYSIS

Dual Porosity Parameters

EX 5.8

ǔ:Fracture Storativity, Storativity, it represents the fracture volume compared with total volume. Smaller ǔ means smaller fracture volume or more matrix volume so deeper V shape behaviour on the loglog-log plot. ?:Interporosity flow coefficient, it represents the flow between the matrix and fracture. Higher ? means sooner and better matrix support therefore on the logloglog plot it does move the V shape to the left hand side.

55

Example 5

ANALYSIS

Once you have got all parameters… parameters…

Select LogLog-Log plot SIMULATESIMULATE-QUICK MATCH Fine tune the analysis parameters to get the final match Check SemiSemi-log, Cartesian, and test overview match ? We are getting the fracture’ fracture’s permeabilitypermeabilitythickness product not the fracture permeability as it is not relevant. ? The skin factor represents the intersection of the fracture network and the wellbore. wellbore.

EX 5.9

ANALYSIS

Final results and match:

EX 5.10

56

Example 5

TYPE CURVES

Use TC button to start type curve analysis Use Type curve match button (M) 1st Stage

Chose Derivative Match/Dual Porosity (PSS flow) Get k, O, Z

EX 5.11

TYPE CURVES

Red parameters are not calculated by TC matching.

EX 5.12

57

Example 5

TYPE CURVES

2nd Stage:

Use Next stage of type curve matching button to calculate Cs and S

EX 5.13

Confirm results SIMULATESIMULATE-QUICK Match to combine the type curves and fine tune the parameters

+QM

Example 5

EX 5.14

END OF EXAMPLE 5

58

Example 6

Example 6

Closed Reservoirs

DATAPREP

Load file Example06.PAN This is a PrePre-prepared pan file Before going on to Analysis Review Dataprep sections

EX 6.2

Make sure all the required information (Well, Layer and Fluid parameters) has been defined properly.

59

Example 6

DATAPREP

vertical oil well. The main objective of an extended test is to get the distances to all boundaries and calculate the amount of hydrocarbon connected to a particular well. The main criteria of this type of tests is to reach SemiSemiSteadySteady-State behaviour during which the flowing pressure is a linear function of time.

EX 6.3

This is an actual Extended (Reservoir Limit) test for a

ANALYSIS

EX 6.4

SemiSemi-SteadySteady-State behaviour

60

Example 6

ANALYSIS

of SSS is Unit Slope trend on the derivative. Set the model to Closed System

Analysis\ Analysis\ Model\ Model\ Boundary Model

EX 6.5

On the loglog-log diagnostic plot, the late time characteristics

Define all appropriate flow regimes

Wellbore storage (not enough points) Radial Flow Closed System PSS flow

Confirm results

ANALYSIS

EX 6.6

PSS Unit Slope Trend (Late Time Region) Radial Flow (Middle Time Region)

61

Example 6

ANALYSIS

(K,S, etc… etc…) On the Cartesian plot, the best fit line through the late time region will provide the Area, Volume and Dietz shape factor. The area/volume is a function of the line slope and Dietz shape factor is a function of area and line’ line’s intercept. Confirm results

EX 6.7

As usual go to SemiSemi-log plot and confirm the results

ANALYSIS

EX 6.8

Best fit line through PSS flow regime

62

Example 6

Closed Reservoir EX 6.9

Use SIMULATESIMULATE-QUICK MATCH to fine tune the analysis parameters.

Wellbore Storage, Cs = 0.009 bbl/psi bbl/psi Permeability, k = 7.6 mD Skin, S = 6.25 Distance to Boundary, L = 1300 ft Initial Pressure, Pi = 4412 psia Dietz shape factor, Ca = 31.6 Drainage area = 153 acres

Save the file

Example 6

EX 6.10

END OF EXAMPLE 6

63

Example 7

Example 7

Parallel Faults and Phase Redistribution Effect

DATAPREP

Load file Example07.PAN Review Well, Layer, and Fluid parameters Review the gauge data in Dataprep Check the Rate changes table

EX 7.2

This is a constant rate PBU test for a vertical oil well.

64

Example 7

ANALYSIS

Examine the shape of the derivative Select T’ button

Plot linear derivative with smoothing factor of 0.2 (smoothing factor determines the window in which the data points will be used for derivative calculation.)

EX 7.3

Select the BU test period and start with the loglog-log plot.

Note late time linear flow:

Radial derivative is following half slope trend Linear derivative is following zero slope trend

Remove Linear derivative

ANALYSIS

EX 7.4

Half slope trend on radial derivative, an indication of parallel faults or channel

Zero slope trend on linear derivative, confirming linear flow in a channel

65

Example 7

ANALYSIS EX 7.5

There are three possible reservoir / boundary models to analyse this test:

Variable wellbore storage effect (phase redistribution), radial homogeneous with parallel faults equidistant Dual porosity with parallel faults equidistant, follow the same procedure as in Example05. A nono-flow boundary very close to the wellbore followed by single fault radial flow and finally another nono-flow boundary parallel to the first one, follow the same procedure as in Example04.

ANALYSIS

Select Analysis / Model

Select Fair wellbore storage

EX 7.6

Change the reservoir model to Radial homogeneous Change the boundary model to Parallel faults Select FR on the toolbar and mark the different flow regimes Wellbore storage is not clearly seen on this test, so the first point will give the maximum Cs value.

66

Example 7

Log-Log Plot EX 7.7

Variable wellbore Middle time storage effect region, infinite acting radial flow

Late time region, linear flow in a channel

ANALYSIS

EX 7.8

Select SemiSemi-log plot, confirm the permeability, skin factor, etc... Make note of the Extrapolated pressure value Select the Linear flow plot (square root of time) Confirm all results on this analysis plot Make note of the extrapolated pressure

How do you compare this pressure value with the one from semisemi-log plot ? Which one is more reliable ? Why ?

Confirm Results

67

Example 7

LINEAR FLOW PLOT

EX 7.9

LINEAR FLOW PLOT

Liner Flow Plot Results: W: Channel width, ft

EX 7.10

L1: Distance to the first nono-flow boundary, ft Sconv: Sconv: Convergence skin P*: Extrap. Extrap. Press. from linear flow plot, psia

A B C

In order to produce oil particles A and C compared with oil particle particle B more pressure drop is required. This extra pressure drop is called called convergence skin.

68

Example 7

VARIABLE WBS EX 7.11

The variable wellbore storage parameters are as follows: Wellbore storage coefficient (Cs) is the final value when phase redistribution effects have dissipated. Storage Amplitude (Cphi ) is the maximum phase (Cphi) redistribution pressure change. It can be positive (=increasing wbswbs- e.g.“ e.g.“humping” humping” caused by rising gas in an oil well when it is shutshut-in) or negative (decreasing wbswbs- e.g. compression of wellbore fluids). Storage Time Constant (Tau ) is the time required for 63% (Tau) of the total change occure. occure. The easiest way of getting these parameters is by doing Quick Match (refer to Fair’ Fair’s paper)

ANALYSIS

Return to LogLog-Log plot Perform Simulate/Quick Match, Use:

Central well position (L:L) option Cphi=300 Cphi=300 psi Tau=0.06 Tau=0.06 hr

EX 7.12

Adjust values to obtain best match Review SemiSemi-Log and Cartesian plots

69

Example 7

ANALYSIS EX 7.13

Example 7

EX 7.14

END OF EXAMPLE 7

70

Example 8

Example 8

Horizontal Well Oil Reservoir

DATAPREP

Select File Open - Example08.PAN

EX 8.2

Select Dataprep - Gauge data & plot rate and pressure Review Well, Layer and Fluid parameters This is a constant rate drawdown test of a horizontal well in an oil reservoir.

71

Example 8

ANALYSIS

Select Analysis - Plot

Test Overview Select the darwdown test period for analysis Log - Log plot

EX 8.3

Select model: Two no flow boundariesboundaries-homogeneous Select FR and identify flow regimes

Wellbore storage Vertical Radial Flow Linear Flow through Reservoir Late Time Radial Flow

Confirm results

ANALYSIS

Linear flow through reservoir

EX 8.4

Vertical Radial flow

Late time Radial flow

72

Example 8

ANALYSIS

Vertical Radial Flow Is a function of:

Horizontal Permeability Vertical Permeability

EX 8.5

Provides the average permeability, kbar

Top boundary

Bottom boundary

ANALYSIS

Linear Flow through reservoir Is a function of:

Horizontal Permeability Effective horizontal length

EX 8.6

Provides the Effective Horizontal Length if the horizontal permeability is known.

73

Example 8

ANALYSIS

Late time Radial flow/Pseudoflow/Pseudo-Radial flow Is a function of:

Horizontal Permeability Effective net thickness

EX 8.7

Provides the ThicknessThickness-Permeability product and therefore the horizontal permeability.

ANALYSIS

SemiSemi-log plot: Examine 1st (vertical) radial flow Examine 2nd (horizontal) radial flow Note:

1st line gives average permeability 2nd line gives horizontal permeability, & by inference vertical permeability.

EX 8.8

Select each line and use LR button to view further line results Confirm Results

74

Example 8

ANALYSIS EX 8.9

Vertical radial flow best fit line PseudoPseudo-Radial flow best fit line

ANALYSIS

Linear plot: Examine linear flow period line Confirm Results LogLog-Log plot: Select Simulate - Quick Match

EX 8.10

Fine tune the parameters to get the best match Review Cartesian, SemiSemi-log , Linear flow plots Tile

75

Example 8

ANALYSIS EX 8.11

TYPE CURVES

Type Curve Matching: Click on “TC” Click on “M”

EX 8.12

Fixed Well Length: The user should define the well length and use type curve to get the well position with respect to the top boundary.

Unknown Well Length: The user should define the well position and use type curve to get the well length.

Use unknown well length for this example, well position is 0.5

76

Example 8

TYPE CURVES EX 8.13

Choose curve no.8 Go to the next stage of TC to get WBS and S Confirm results Do QM to fine tune the parameters

Results

Final Analysis Parameters Cs = 0.0015 bbl/psi bbl/psi K = 1.08 md Kz = 0.95 md S=0 Zwd = 0.5 Lw = 1000 ft Pi = 5000 psia

EX 8.14

77

Example 8

Example 8 EX 8.15

END OF EXAMPLE 8

78

Example 9

Example 9

Partial Completion

Overview

To analyse a typical completion well test Review the necessary completion data Spherical flow behaviour Use of spherical flow derivative and analysis plot Type curve matching Automatic matching in PanSystem

EX 9.2

79

Example 9

Partial Completion

Select File OpenOpen- Example09.PAN Select DataprepDataprep- Gauge data & plot rate and pressure Review Well, Layer and Fluid parameters This is a constant rate drawdown test in a partially perforated vertical well in an oil reservoir.

EX 9.3

ANALYSIS

AnalysisAnalysis-Plot

EX 9.4

Test Overview Select Drawdown flow period LogLog-Log diagnostic plot Use T’ T’ button and plot the spherical derivative as well Use PanWizard - Model Selection to make a decision on the most appropriate analysis model

80

Example 9

ANALYSIS

AnalysisAnalysis-Model Select Partial Penetration flow model Review the Input/Model Parameters Select Closed System boundary model as late time data is following unit slope trend on the radial derivative LogLog-Log diagnostic plot

EX 9.5

ANALYSIS

Horizontal trend is confirming the spherical flow regime

EX 9.6

Wellbore storage effect

Negative half slope is an indication of spherical flow regime

Unit slope trend closed system behaviour

81

Example 9

ANALYSIS

Define all the flow regimes on the LogLog-Log plot: Wellbore storage Spherical transition to total system Radial flow Closed system PSS flow Confirm results Go to SemiSemi-Log plot Confirm results Go to Cartesian plot Confirm results

EX 9.7

Spherical flow

ANALYSIS

Spherical Flow Plot Pressure vs 1/(square root of time) Provides vertical permeability, kz

EX 9.8

Spherical flow regime

82

Example 9

ANALYSIS

Confirm results on Spherical flow plot LogLog-Log plot SimulateSimulate-Quick Match

CalculateCalculate-Modify parameters, if required Ok/Confirm

EX 9.9

Note that hp is the perforation height and htop is the distance between the top of the perforation and top of the formation or bottom of the perforation to bottom of the formation.

Auto Match

EX 9.10

On the loglog-log plot select some points from derivative curve covering the most important/interested flow regimes: Use mouse button or Use Automatch point selection button

If you select n points, and there are N points in the dataset, the selection routine will pick every (N/n)th (N/n)th point. The first and last points are always picked. number of points you want to use in the regression <500

If the data spans M log cycles of time and you want to select n points, the selection routine will pick (n/M) points per cycle, spaced logarithmically in time.

83

Example 9

Auto Match EX 9.11

Select SimulateSimulate-Auto Match… Match… Choose Square reservoirreservoir-well at the centre Select the regression variables Adjust the Lower and Upper limits for each variable

Uncheck the checkbox if the parameter is to be held constant at the start value

Auto Match

EX 9.12

Match Quality: These are qualitative definitions of tightness of the match tolerance to be met, “Excellent” Excellent” being the closest match criterion. Auto Match stops when the current iteration produces a match to within tolerance. If the full run of iterations fails to achieve this, the set of parameters giving the the closest match will be taken.

Adaptive method is preferred for smooth data (refer to the Adaptive solution method paper) Select how much weighting, to assign to Pressure and Derivative. Levenberg method is preferred for noisy data (refer to the LevenbergLevenbergMarquardt solution method paper)

84

Example 9

Final Match EX 9.13

Review SemiSemi-log, Spherical and Cartesian plots as well.

Example 9

EX 9.14

END OF EXAMPLE 9

85

Example 10

Example 10

Radial Composite Reservoir

DATAPREP

Start PanSystem Open file Exampl10.PAN In DATAPREP

Review Well, Layer and Fluid data Review Gauge data and Production History (Rate changes) Plot pressure data including rate changes

EX 10.2

86

Example 10

DATAPREP EX 10.3

This is a FallFall-Off test for a Water Injection well in an oil reservoir The Inner zone fluid properties should be used for the analysis The injection rate is defined by a negative number In this type of tests there are at least two radial regions: Inner zone - Water bank Outer zone - Oil bank

ANALYSIS

ANALYSISANALYSIS-PLOT Test Overview Select FallFall-Off Test Period LogLog-Log plot

Radial Composite behaviour on the derivative

EX 10.4

The mobility in the inner zone is higher than the mobility in the the outer zone Select AnalysisAnalysis-Model and choose Radial Composite flow model Review the model parameters

87

Example 10

ANALYSIS EX 10.5

Lrad is the outer radius of the inner zone or inner radius of the outer zone (Distance to a radial discontinuity).

M is the outer/inner Mobility ratio (k/P)outer/ (k/P)inner

w is the outer/inner Stortivity ratio (ICt)outer/( Ct)outer/(ICt)inner Ct)inner

ANALYSIS

EX 10.6

On the LogLog-Log plot define all the relevant flow regimes:

Wellbore Storage effect Outer zone radial flow Inner zone radial flow

88

Example 10

ANALYSIS EX 10.7

Confirm the results on the LogLog-Log plot and go to SemiSemiLog plot Select each line and check the line results Confirm results

Lrad is a function of the intersection time of these two straight lines.

There is no analysis procedure to get an initial estimate for w. the best way is to start with w=1.0 and then use QM/AM to find the final value. So it is a matching parameter.

ANALYSIS

Go back to LogLog-Log plot Use Quick Match (QM) or Auto Match (AM) Fine tune the analysis parameters

EX 10.8

89

Example 10

Example 10 EX 10.9

END OF EXAMPLE 10

90

Example 11

Example 11

Hydraulically Fractured Well

Objectives

The objectives of this test are:

EX 11.2

Determine fracture half length (xf) Determine fracture conductivity (KfW) or type of the fracture:

Finite conductivity Uniform flux Infinite conductivity

Calculate the Fold Of Increase (FOI) which represents the increase in the productivity of the well due to hydraulic fracturing Determine the skin factor

91

Example 11

DATAPREP

Start PanSystem Open file Example11.PAN In DATAPREP

Review Well, Layer and Fluid data Review Gauge data and Production History (Rate changes) Plot pressure data including rate changes

EX 11.3

DATAPREP

EX 11.4

This is a hydraulically fractured welltest in a tight oil reservoir A prepre-frac test is required to get the rock permeability and use it in the postpost-frac welltest analysis In this type of tests it takes too much time to reach reservoir radial flow

92

Example 11

ANALYSIS

AnalysisAnalysis-Plot Test Overview Select BuildBuild-up test period LogLog-Log diagnostic plot:

Wellbore storage Bilinear flow behaviour (1/4 slope trend) Fracture Linear flow (1/2 slope trend) Select AnalysisAnalysis-Model and choose Vertical fracturefracture-finite conductivity flow model Review the model parameters

EX 11.5

ANALYSIS

EX 11.6

Fracture face skin, Sf Fracture halfhalf-length, Xf Dimensionless fracture conductivity, FCD

The vertical fracture - finite conductivity model has a single symmetrical vertical fracture intercepting the well. The fracture has a finite permeability, and flow tends to be concentrated more towards the wellbore end. The height of the fracture is assumed to be the same as the layer itself.

93

Example 11

ANALYSIS EX 11.7

Fracture Bilinear Flow Regime (1/4 slope trend)

Fracture Linear Flow Regime (1/2 slope trend)

ANALYSIS

EX 11.8

Select Linear Flow Analysis Plot to calculate the fracture half length (Xf) Confirm results

Fracture Linear Flow Regime

94

Example 11

ANALYSIS EX 11.9

Select BiBi-Linear Flow Analysis Plot to calculate the fracture conductivity (FCD) Confirm results

Fracture Bilinear Flow Regime

ANALYSIS

EX 11.10

Use Quick Match or Auto Match to fine tune the analysis parameters

95

Example 11

ANALYSIS EX 11.11

Select DeliverDeliver-IPR Pseudo Radial Skin (Spr) is an apparent skin factor computed when pseudopseudo-radial flow develops in some flow models. Spr is required in the deliverability IPR section because PanSystem uses the (pseudo(pseudo-) radial inflow equation to compute the productivity indices.

Example 11

EX 11.12

END OF EXAMPLE 11

96

Example 12

Example 12

Gas Well Testing

Overview

EX 12.2

This example explains the Gas welltest analysis workflow It is a DST test in a gas well

Analyse Initial BU - reservoir pressure Analyse Final BU - reservoir parameters Analyse FlowFlow-AfterAfter-Flow for Darcy and NonNon-Darcy skin factors

Verify / Refine complete test sequence Calculate Deliverability Perform LIT and C&n analysis

97

Example 12

DATAPREP EX 12.3

Run PanSystem FileFile- Open Example12.PAN DataprepDataprep- Gauge data Plot pressure data Note the sequence of flowrates which represents a complete DST in a gas well.

DATAPREP

EX 12.4

Dataprep - Well and Reservoir Parameters (Analytical… (Analytical…) Note that the fluid type is gas and the well is vertical Select the layer parameters

Note that the Layer Pressure and Layer Temperature are required as the reference gas properties have been computed at this condition. It is mandatory for analysis of gas wells.

98

Example 12

DATAPREP EX 12.5

Set model to Radial Homogeneous and Infinite Acting and check the model parameters Note that there is a nonnon-Darcy skin parameter for gas wells which should be determined from the analysis.

NonNon-Darcy skin is the pressure drop due to turbulence effect. Near the wellbore the gas velocity is quite high therefore the flow behaviour is turbulent flow which causes more pressure drop compared with Darcy flow. It is a function of rock and fluid properties.

DATAPREP

Select the fluid parameters button

EX 12.6

The gas specific gravity is the main parameter required: Input this parameter directly or Use Gas composition and EOS to calculate it Use Gas Composition... button and input the following composition:

N2 H2S CO2 1.54 C1 C2 C3 3.2 iC4 0.49 nC4 1.14 iC5 0.42 C6 0.57 C7+ 5.11 MwC7+ 100.2

1.17 0.0

76.8 8.82

Use Calculate button to calculate gas SG

99

Example 12

DATAPREP EX 12.7

Note that SchmidtSchmidt-Wenzel EOS is implemented in PS to calculate the gas SG.

Normalising the composition if the sum is not 100%

DATAPREP

EX 12.8

Tick the EOS option and use the appropriate gas viscosity correlation Review pseudopseudo-pressure table

This button calculates individual selected table This button calculates all table

Check AnalysisAnalysis-Pressure Transformation...

100

Example 12

ANALYSIS

AnalysisAnalysis-Plot Test Overview Select the first BuildBuild-up test period SemiLog plot: Semi

Select TWO points on the radial flow regime, note that the radial radial flow is not fully developed. Use best fit lineline-Radial Flow Make note of the Extrapolated Pressure, P* P*

EX 12.9

ANALYSIS

EX 12.10

P*=7221.2768 psia

101

Example 12

ANALYSIS EX 12.11

Go back to Test Overview Select the final BU and go to LogLog-Log plot Not considerable WBS effect Define Radial flow regime and go to SemiSemi-Log plot Confirm results

P*=6948 psia

ANALYSIS

NonNon-Darcy Skin Calculation

EX 12.12

Return to Test Overview and click on the ruler bar to select the first of the drawdowns following the first BU Hold down the Ctrl key and click on the other three drawdowns to select all the periods in the flowflow-afterafter-flow test Perform SemiSemi-Log plot There should be a line automatically on this plot Use the mouse right click to activate this line Adjust the slope to get the same permeability as the one from final BU analysis (3.3 mD) mD)

102

Example 12

ANALYSIS

NonNon-Darcy Skin Calculation Move this line to fit the radial flow of Test Period 1 (TP1) Use Parallel line button to fit parallel lines through other test periods Perform Analysis ? NonNon-Darcy Skin Analysis ReRe-assign the type of each lines to its appropriate test period

EX 12.13

ANALYSIS

EX 12.14

103

Example 12

ANALYSIS

The Skin vs Rate button is active now Use this button to get S vs Q plot Select first and last points Use best fit line button to get the damage skin and Non Darcy skin coefficient Confirm results

EX 12.15

ANALYSIS

EX 12.16

F is Non-Darcy flow coefficient

104

Example 12

ANALYSIS

Full Test Match and Verification:

Perform Test Overview Select Analysis, Model, Model Parameters and change the initial wellbore pressure to the extrapolated pressure from the initial buildup. buildup. Simulate Quick Match note the poor quality of the match at the initial buildup and at late time data. Change the initial wellbore pressure as above to 7150 psi and repeat the simulation The data still does not match The simulated pressure is much higher than the observed data - we must have some material balance / boundary effect causing this Add boundaries - Single fault and simulate again

EX 12.17

Final Results

EX 12.18

105

Example 12

LIT ANALYSIS EX 12.19

Relationship between flowing pressure and flow rate:

? m( p ) m( pwf ) ie m( pwf ) where B F 1422T kh

§1 · 4A ¨ ¨ 2 ln JC r 2 S DQ ? ? A w ? ? 2 m( p ) ( BQ FQ ) 1422QT kh

§1 · 4A ¨ ¨ 2 ln JC r 2 S ? ? A w ? ? 1422TD kh

LIT ANALYSIS

EX 12.20

Click on the ruler bar to select the first drawdown of the FAF test. Hold down Ctrl and click on the other flow periods to select all of the other drawdown periods. Click on the LIT toolbar icon, select FlowFlow-AfterAfter-Flow and review the tabular data

106

Example 12

LIT ANALYSIS EX 12.21

Click on OK and draw a line on the plot, ‘best fit’ through the points Confirm results

Deliverability

Select Deliver - IPR Click on calculate Click on OK Click on T/L Lin button to see the Transient and LIT results on the same plot Repeat the above exercise for the C&n Analysis

EX 12.22

You can generate up to 5 IPR curves for different cases.

107

Example 12

Deliverability EX 12.23

Example 12

EX 12.24

END OF EXAMPLE 12

108

Example 13

Example 13

Gas Well Testing: Isochronal Test

Overview

Skin factors Generate Deliverability from transient results

EX 13.2

Use Transient analysis to give Damage and Rate Dependent

Use LIT or C&n analysis for Deliverability alone Compare different deliverabilities

109

Example 13

DATAPREP

Load Example13.PAN Review input data in Dataprep Plot pressure and rate This is an Isochronal test in a dry gas reservoir.

EX 13.3

Transient Analysis

Select Analysis - Plot

EX 13.4

Select all the drawdowns (excluding the extended drawdown at the end) Perform SemiSemi-log plot Draw parallel lines through the different flow periods (Try K = 1.28 md) md)

110

Example 13

Transient Analysis EX 13.5

Transient Analysis

EX 13.6

Select Analysis - Non Darcy Skin Analysis Confirm each line as Radial flow line for each test period Perform S vs. Q plot Draw line and confirm results

Note that F is nonnon-Darcy flow coefficient.

S = Intercept

D = Slope

111

Example 13

Transient Analysis

Return to SemiSemi-log plot Select Analysis - Correct for Rate Dependency Return to Test Overview and select the buildbuild-ups Repeat the above exercise

EX 13.7

Transient Deliverability

Select Deliver - IPR Review data and calculate transient deliverability Click OK to get the IPR plot

EX 13.8

Use these arrows to compare up to 5 IPR curves.

112

Example 13

LIT Analysis

m( pwf ) m( p ) ( BQ FQ 2 )

EX 13.9

m( p ) m( pwf ) Q

B F 1422T kh

B FQ

§1 · 4A ¨ ¨ 2 ln JC r 2 S ? ? A w ? ? 1422TD kh

F is independent of reservoir volume and shape

LIT Analysis

EX 13.10

Select Analysis - Plot Select all the drawdowns (including the extended drawdown at the end) Use LIT button, choose Isochronal and review input data

113

Example 13

LIT Analysis EX 13.11

Plot data, and fit free model line through short drawdown points Fit a parallel line through extended flow point Confirm results

F = Slope

B = Intercept

LIT Analysis

Select Deliver - IPR again Plot IPR and compare with transient IPR

EX 13.12

LIT IPR

Transient IPR

114

Example 13

C&n Analysis

n 2 Q C( pres p2 j)

EX 13.13

log Q

2 log C n log( pres p2 j)

2 log( pres p2 j)

1 1 log Q log C n n

plot

2 log( pres p2 j ) vs log Q

1 1 is the slope and log C is the intercept n n

Repeat the LIT exercise for C&n analysis.

Example 13

EX 13.14

END OF EXAMPLE 13

115

Example 14

Example 14

Advanced Simulation

Overview

EX 14.2

Analyse Example14.PAN (already prepared) to obtain estimate of reservoir parameters Set up Start Pressures for simulation Perform simulation Compare with test data Correct reservoir parameters and simulate again...

116

Example 14

ANALYSIS

Analyse final buildbuild-up: Define wellbore storage flow regime and confirm Cs Define flow regime for radial flow on loglog-log plot Examine SemiSemi-log plot, skin estimation Confirm the permeability and skin factor Note the Extrapolated pressure

EX 14.3

Advanced Simulation

Quick Match starts the pressure calculation at the start of the test period being analysed.

EX 14.4

117

Example 14

Advanced Simulation

Advanced Simulation always starts the pressure calculation at the start of the first test period

EX 14.5

The user can Save, Analyse, Report, etc… etc… the Advanced Simulation results but not the Quick Match results.

Advanced Simulation

EX 14.6

Advanced Simulation allows the user to model a start pressure in the wellbore and a start pressure in the layer The layer pressure is entered in the layer parameters screen The wellbore pressure is the pressure associated with the first rate change Go back to dataprep and check this values. If you do not have a good value then enter the extrapolated pressure from the semisemi-log plot.

118

Example 14

Advanced Simulation

Select Simulate - Advanced Simulation option:

Select input Rate Channel Enter individual column names in output data file

EX 14.7

Select Solution Model, TCX file, for looklook-up Pd calculations

Select speed option

Advanced Simulation

Dataprep - Gauge Data:

EX 14.8

The output data file will now have three extra columns: simulated pressure calculated total down hole rate calculated layer rate

119

Example 14

Advanced Simulation

Compare the test data with the simulated data: Plot them together in Dataprep - Gauge Data or Go to Analysis - Plot Use the EditEdit-Overlay Pressure... option to display calculated pressure on the same plot. (This can be done on Cartesian, SemiSemi-log, LogLog-Log etc... plots as well)

EX 14.9

Advanced Simulation

EX 14.10

120

Example 14

Summary of Results

A good match can be obtained with: Cs K S = = = 0.023 bbl/psia bbl/psia 80 md - 0.35

EX 14.11

Example 14

EX 14.12

END OF EXAMPLE 14

121

Example 15

Example 15

Test Design

Overview

Set up reservoir data for the test design Set up initial test design Calculate pressure based on initial test design

EX 15.2

Analyse calculated pressure and check if pressure behaviour meets test objectives Investigate if the fault seen on the seismic map is sealing

122

Example 15

Model Preparation

Build the simulation model: Initialise the system with FileFile-New Ensure the fluid type is Oil (Single Phase) Ensure the well orientation is vertical Ensure there is only one well and one layer

EX 15.3

Model Preparation

Enter the well data

Rw = 0.35 ft Cs = 0.01 bbl/psi bbl/psi

EX 15.4

Enter the layer data

h = 100 ft I = 0.2 Po= 5000.0

Flow model should be Radial Homogeneous Enter the model parameters

k S = 91mD = 2.3

123

Example 15

Test Design

Enter the fluid parameter data

Bo = 1.1 Uo = 0.7 Ct = 1.0e1.0e-5

EX 15.5

Set up boundary data

Set boundary model to single fault, seen on the seismic map L = 250.0 ft Calculate image wells

Test Design

Set up the test design: Select Dataprep - Gauge Data Test Design Enter the following test periods

t = 10.0, q = 200.0, steps = 50, format = 2 t = 20.0, q = 0.0, steps = 50, format = 2

EX 15.6

Enter a wellbore pressure = 5000.0 psia

124

Example 15

Test Design

Perform advanced simulation Analyse the results:

Check the buildbuild-up on the loglog-log plot to see if we have met the test design objective(s)

EX 15.7

Results:

Wellbore storage slightly obscures radial flow We can only see the start of the doubling of the semisemi-log slope due to the single fault

Test Design

EX 15.8

Start of Boundary effect

125

Example 15

Test Design

Let’ Let’s try again... Delete the previous test design data “file” file” Set up another test design extending the length of the buildbuild-up

t = 10.0, q = 200.0, steps = 50, format = 2 t = 110.0, q = 0.0, steps = 50, format = 2

EX 15.9

Proceed as before Check the loglog-log plot of the buildbuild-up No change - it is the time of the drawdraw-down that dictates how far we see into the reservoir

Test Design

EX 15.10

Let’ Let’s try again... Delete the previous test design data “file” file” Set up another test design extending the length of the drawdown as well

t = 100.0, q = 200.0, steps = 50, format = 2 t = 200.0, q = 0.0, steps = 50, format = 2

Proceed as before Check the loglog-log plot of the buildbuild-up Better - now we can see the beginning of the second radial flow regime Complete the analysis to obtain k, S, & L

126

Example 15

Test Design EX 15.11

Test Design

Let’ Let’s repeat the test with downhole shutshut-in. Do NOT delete the previous test data “file” file” Change wellbore storage to 0.001 bbl/psi bbl/psi

EX 15.12

Simulate as before, but give new names to the simulation results channels (“ (“pressure1” pressure1”, etc) Check the loglog-log plot of the buildbuild-up Do the analysis again to obtain k, S, & L Use EditEdit-Overlay Pressure to compare with high storage case

127

Example 15

Test Design

Conclusions A 100 hour drawdown followed by a 100 hour buildup will define system (with a little error). Wellbore storage needs to be reduced as possible (downhole (downhole shutshut-in?), for more accurate results.

EX 15.13

Example 15

EX 15.14

END OF EXAMPLE 15

128

Example 16

Example 16

Interference Test Design

Example 16

EX 16.2

To design a pressure interference test using PanSystem, it is necessary to define: Wells Layer and Fluids description Flow Rates Advanced Simulation Parameters In designing, it is necessary to have the reservoir parameters and a specific sequence of flowrates to generate the pressure response.

129

Example 16

Objectives

The objectives of this example are: To build a model to handle the interference between two wells, a Producer and an Observation. Investigate the pressure behaviour in the producer well. Analysing observed pressure using available type curve.

EX 16.3

Well Definition

EX 16.4

Initialize the system with FileFile-New Select DataPrep and Reservoir Description Select type of fluid Oil and well Vertical Use the option Add well... and change the name to Observer. Select WellWell-1 and change the name to : Producer The producing well is preceded by the letter P- that means it is the principal well and is always located at the coordinates (0,0).

130

Example 16

Well Parameters

For the producing and observation wells use: Well radius 0.3 ft. Storage 0.01 bbl/psi bbl/psi The coordinates of the observation well are (0, 2500), this means that it is on the yy-axis.

EX 16.5

Layer Description

Select Layer Parameters and input:

Layer thickness 25 ft. Porosity 0.20 Layer pressure 4000 psia Temperature 200 F

EX 16.6

Choose Radial Homogeneous model and use the following values:

Permeability: 250 mD Skin Factor :

For Producing well: 5 For Observation well : 0

131

Example 16

Fluids Description

Select Fluid Parameters and input the values:

Oil Formation Volume Factor, Bo : 1.3 Oil Viscosity, uo : 2.5 cp Total Compressibility : 1e1e-5 (1/psi)

EX 16.7

Test Flowrates

EX 16.8

Select DataPrep and Gauge Data Flow rates are defined for the Principal well (i.e. producing well in this case) Make sure to select the Producing well in the Well to Edit dialog box Select the option Test Design and input the following two flow periods as shown in the graph below:

132

Example 16

Test Flowrates

Select the option Test Design Reply No. to use the principal well times for the Observation well Input the following two flow periods as shown in the graph below:

EX 16.9

Select the Observation well in the Well to Edit dialog box

Advanced Simulation

Select Simulate - Advance Simulation...

EX 16.10

Everything is ready to run Advanced Simulation. Do Not change controls such as:

flow rates name of the generated columns observation points speed

Select Ok to run the simulation Select DataPrep - Gauge Data

133

Example 16

Analysis EX 16.11

For the producing well (Well to edit : Producer) define the following flow periods

Start and final points for each period. make sure that the pressure, the rate and the time correspond with the graph

Proceed to Analysis - Plot of the build up section.

BU Analysis Flowing Well

EX 16.12

134

Example 16

Observation Well Analysis EX 16.13

Go back to DataPrepDataPrep- Gauge Data In Well to edit dialog box select the Observer well Delete SIMULATED Sim Q Total and Sim Q#1 using Delete button Select Sim P and Plot Define flow periods for this well. Double click the flowing test period and select and select Interference Test as the test period type.

Observation Well Analysis EX 16.14

Note that the Rate Change Table is not automatically initialized for this well.

135

Example 16

Observation Well Analysis EX 16.15

Proceed to Analysis – Plot Select Observer well for analysis Select the Drawdown test period and proceed to TYPE Curve analysis

Observation Well Analysis

EX 16.16

136

Example 16

Example 16 EX 16.17

END OF EXAMPLE 16

137

Example 17

Example 17

Reporting

Example 17

Load Example07.PAN Select Report - Configure Report Click on Format Note the number of pages in each section Select Analysis - Plot Select Report - Configure Report Click on Format

EX 17.2

Note that the report is built up as you create plots and an analysis analysis plot will not be included unless plotted (it may be omitted by specific dede-selection)

138

Example 17

Analysis

Perform LogLog-Log plot Select AnalysisAnalysis- Model and select Dual porosity with parallel faults Add flow regime markers to the plot Select Edit -Description Type some text - this ‘Description’ Description’ text box will remain attached to the loglog-log plot and will be displayed on the printed report. (it will also be saved in the .PAN file)

EX 17.3

Report

Select Report / Cover Page Type data in some of the requested fields

EX 17.4

Click on Edit - Remarks and type some text Return to the loglog-log plot File - Save as - EXAMP17.PAN Now exit PanSystem Restart PanSystem and load EXAMP17.PAN Check the remarks box and note that all of the report related data data has been included in the .PAN file.

139

Example 17

Report

Select Report - Configure Report Click on Edit beside the Input Data line Note the various fields which can be included or not as required in the report Click on other Edit buttons - review options Click on Edit Layout button to review those settings

EX 17.5

Report

EX 17.6

Select Report - Select Report Template Note the ability to create, load, edit and save templates Note that the logo used in the reports can be included or not Entering a LOGO.BMP file in the reports subdirectory will allow the user to include his own logo. A second logo may be used in the report at the other end of the page header by including a CLIENT.BMP file in the reports directory

140

Example 17

Example 17 EX 17.7

END OF EXAMPLE 17

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