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Unit 1 Love

A Kiss for Kate Every afternoon when I came on duty as the evening nurse, I would walk the halls of the nursing home, pausing at each door to chat and observe. Often, K

ate and Chris, their big scrapbooks in their laps, would be reminiscing over the photos. Proudly, Kate showed me pictures of bygone years: Chris—tall, blond, handsome; Kate pretty, dark-haired, laughing. Two young lovers smiling through the passing seasons. How lovely they looked now, sitting there, the light shining on their white heads, their time-wrinkled faces smiling at the memories of the years, caught and held forever in the scrapbooks. How little the young know of loving, I'd think. How foolish to think they have a monopoly on such a precious commodity. The old know what loving truly means; the young can only guess. Kate and Chris were always together—in the dining room, the lounge, strolling around the big porches and lawns, always holding hands. As we staff members ate our evening meal, sometimes Kate and Chris would walk slowly by the dining-room doors. Then conversation would turn to a discussion of the couple's love and devotion, and what would happen when one of them died. We knew Chris was the strong one, and Kate was dependent upon him. How would Kate function if Chris were to die first? We often wondered. Bedtime followed a ritual. When I brought the evening medication, Kate would be sitting in her chair, in nightgown and slippers, awaiting my arrival. Under the watchful eyes of Chris and myself, Kate would take her pill, then carefully Chris would help her from the chair to the bed and tuck the covers in around her frail body. Observing this act of love, I would think for the thousandth time, good heavens, why don't nursing homes have double beds for married couples? All their lives they have slept together, but in a nursing home, they're expected to sleep in single beds. Overnight they're deprived of a comfort of a lifetime. How very foolish such policies are, I would think as I watched Chris reach up and turn off the light above Kate's bed. Then tenderly he would bend, and they would kiss gently. Chris would pat her cheek, and both would smile. He would pull up the side rail on her bed, and only then would he turn and accept his own medication. As I walked into the hall, I could hear Chris say, "Good night, Kate," and her returning voice, "Good-night, Chris," while the space of an entire room separated their two beds.
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I had been off duty two days and when I returned, the first news I heard was, "Chris died yesterday morning." "How?" "A heart attack. It happened quickly." "How's Kate?" "Bad." I went into Kate's room. She sat in her chair, motionless, hands in her lap, staring. Taking her hands in mine, I said, "Kate, it's Phyllis." Her eyes never shifted; she only stared. I placed my hand under her chin and slowly turned her head so she had to look at me. "Kate, I just found out about Chris. I'm so sorry. At the word "Chris", her eyes came back to life. She looked at me, puzzled, as though wondering how I had suddenly appeared. "Kate, it's me, Phyllis. I'm so sorry about Chris." Recognition and sadness flooded her face. Tears welled up and slid down her cheeks. "Chris is gone," she whispered. "I know," I said. "I know." We pampered Kate for a while, letting her eat in her room, surrounding her with special attention. Then gradually the staff worked her back into the old schedule. Often, as I went past her room, I would observe Kate sitting in her chair, scrapbooks on her lap, gazing sadly at pictures of Chris. Bedtime was the worst part of the day for Kate. Although she was allowed to move from her bed to Chris's bed, and although the staff chatted and laughed with her as they tucked her in for the night, still Kate remained silent and sadly withdrawn. Passing her room an hour after she had been tucked in, I'd find her wide awake, staring at the ceiling. The weeks passed, and bedtime wasn't any better. She seemed so restless, so insecure. Why? I wondered. Why this time of day more than the other hours? Then one night as I walked into her room, only to find the same wide-awake Kate, I said impulsively, "Kate, could it be you miss your good-night kiss?" Bending down, I kissed her wrinkled cheek. It was as though I had opened the floodgates. Tears ran down her face; her hands gripped mine. "Chris always kissed me good-night," she cried. "I know," I whispered. "I miss him so, all those years he kissed me good-night." She paused while I wiped the tears. "I just can't seem to go to sleep without his kiss." She looked up at me, her eyes full of tears. "Oh, thank you for giving me a kiss."

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A small smile turned up the corners of her mouth. "You know," she said confidentially, "Chris used to sing me a song. "He did?" "Yes,"—her white head nodded—"and I lie here at night and think about it." "How did it go?" Kate smiled, held my hand and cleared her throat. Then her voice, small with age but still melodious, lifted softly in song: So kiss me, my sweet, and so let us part. And when I grow too old to dream, That kiss will live in my heart.

Benefits from Pets Recently, a number of US newspapers carried a very small article entitled "Things You Can Learn from Your Dog". The article listed seven things done regularly by pet dogs which could be helpful to pet owners if they themselves did them. These things are: 1) When your loved one comes home, run to greet him. 2) Eat with pleasure. 3) When it's hot, drink lots of water. 4) Take naps. 5) Don't bite, just growl. 6) When you want something badly, dig for it. 7) Give unconditional love. There are many people who would like to insist that only human beings are capable of feeling the emotion of love. However, there are many more people, usually pet owners, who feel that they not only love their pets, but that their pets love them in return. This is only one, but a very important, benefit of owning a pet. All of us want to enjoy good health. Thousands of articles are written in newspapers and magazines giving advice of all types as to what people should be doing if they wish to improve their chances of having good health. Most often this advice includes suggestions that we should eat right, exercise, take vitamins and get a pet. Why get a pet? Because more and more studies are showing that people who have pets are healthier, both physically and mentally, than those who don't. Right now more than half of the households in the United States have a companion animal. That includes 51 million dogs, 56 million cats, 45 million birds, and other small animals. Besides the obvious things, like being cute, interesting to watch, and a lot of fun, pets do more for us than we often realize. If you now have or have ever had a pet, you know how wonderful it is to have someone there for you, no matter how you look, how you are dressed, or what you are doing. Pets love
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you unconditionally and don't require brilliant conversation. A simple "good boy" and a pat on the head or scratch under the chin is enough for them. They will find ways to let you know their appreciation of your praise, whether it is by wagging their tails, rubbing against you, purring, or simply looking at you with adoring eyes. People who own pets often remark on what good company they are and what fun they have together. Pet experts and researchers identify many other additional benefits that come with pet ownership or interaction. In addition to those mentioned thus far, pets ease stress and anxiety, aid relaxation, provide a sense of security, and are a great diversion from troubles. One medical study showed that people's blood pressure would fall when they stroked their pets. Pets are increasingly being used in therapy for the elderly and those who have Alzheimer's disease or physical disabilities. One lady in Tucson, Arizona, shares her lovely little dog with many elderly nursing home residents. She takes her dog there at least once or twice a week and allows the elderly people to hold and pat her little dog. They eagerly await its arrival and always ask when she and her dog will be back. She is just one of hundreds of people who share their pets with the old and lonely. And then, of course, there are countless stories of dogs trained to aid blind, deaf, or wheel-chair bound individuals, often allowing them to live independently when otherwise this would not be possible. The love between these people and their four-footed friends is touching. Even brushing or patting a dog is great physical therapy, and we all know the benefits of walking, which is something a dog needs too. James Herriot, a country veterinarian in England, has been a very popular writer in the English-speaking world. He has written a number of books and stories about pet owners and their pets. Many of his stories tell of the love between them as well as the benefits that owners and pets derive from each other. Part of his great popularity as a writer comes from the fact that people who love pets like to read about and identify with other pet lovers. A Good Heart to Lean On More than I realized, Dad has helped me keep my balance. When I was growing up, I was embarrassed to be seen with my father. He was severely crippled and very short, and when we would walk together, his hand on my arm for balance, people would stare. I would be ashamed of the unwanted attention. If he ever noticed or was bothered, he never let on.

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It was difficult to coordinate our steps—his halting, mine impatient—and because of that, we didn't say much as we went along. But as we started out, he always said, "You set the pace. I will try to adjust to you. Our usual walk was to or from the subway, which was how he got to work. He went to work sick, and despite nasty weather. He almost never missed a day, and would make it to the office even if others could not. It was a matter of pride for him. When snow or ice was on the ground, it was impossible for him to walk, even with help. At such times my sisters or I would pull him through the streets of Brooklyn, N.Y., on a child's sleigh to the subway entrance. Once there, he would cling to the handrail until he reached the lower steps that the warmer tunnel air kept ice-free. In Manhattan the subway station was the basement of his office building, and he would not have to go outside again until we met him in Brooklyn on his way home. When I think of it now, I marvel at how much courage it must have taken for a grown man to subject himself to such indignity and stress. And I marvel at how he did it—without bitterness or complaint. He never talked about himself as an object of pity, nor did he show any envy of the more fortunate or able. What he looked for in others was a "good heart", and if he found one, the owner was good enough for him. Now that I am older, I believe that is a proper standard by which to judge people, even though I still don't know precisely what a "good heart" is. But I know the times I don't have one myself. Unable to engage in many activities, my father still tried to participate in some way. When a local baseball team found itself without a manager, he kept it going. He was a knowledgeable baseball fan and often took me to Ebbets Field to see the Brooklyn Dodgers play. He liked to go to dances and parties, where he could have a good time just sitting and watching. On one memorable occasion a fight broke out at a beach party, with everyone punching and shoving. He wasn't content to sit and watch, but he couldn't stand unaided on the soft sand. In frustration he began to shout, "I'll fight anyone who will sit down with me! I'll fight anyone who will sit down with me!" Nobody did. But the next day people kidded him by saying it was the first time any fighter was urged to take a dive, even before the bout began. I now know he participated in some things vicariously through me, his only son. When I played ball (poorly), he "played" too. When I joined the Navy, he "joined" too. And when I came home on leave, he saw to it that I visited his office. Introducing me, he was really saying, "This is my son, but it is also me,

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and I could have done this, too, if things had been different." Those words were never said aloud. He has been gone many years now, but I think of him often. I wonder if he sensed my reluctance to be seen with him during our walks. If he did, I am sorry I never told him how sorry I was, how unworthy I was, how I regretted it. I think of him when I complain about trifles, when I am envious of another's good fortune, when I don't have a "good heart". 13 At such times I put my hand on his arm to regain my balance, and say, "You set the pace. I will try to adjust to you."

Unit 2 Psychology in Our Daily Life

The Psychology of Money Are you a compulsive spender, or do you hold on to your money as long as possible? Are you a bargain hunter? Would you rather use charge accounts than pay cash? Your answers to these questions will reflect your personality. According to psychologists, our individual money habits not only show our beliefs and values, but can also stem from past problems. Experts in psychology believe that for many people, money is an important symbol of strength and influence. Husbands who complain about their wives' spending habits may be afraid that they are losing power in their marriage. Wives, on the other hand, may waste huge amounts of money because they are angry at their husbands. In addition, many people consider money a symbol of love. They spend it on their family and friends to express love, or they buy themselves expensive presents because they need love. People can be addicted to different things—for example, alcohol, drugs, certain foods, or even television. People who have such an addiction are compulsive; that is, they have a very powerful psychological need that they feel they must satisfy. According to psychologists, many people are compulsive spenders; they feel that they must spend money. This compulsion, like most others, is irrational—impossible to explain reasonably. For compulsive spenders who buy on credit, charge accounts are even more exciting than money. In other words, compulsive spenders feel that with credit, they can do anything. Their pleasure in spending enormous amounts is actually greater than the pleasure that they get from the things they buy. There is even a special psychology of bargain hunting. To save money, of course, most people look for sales, low prices, and discounts. Compulsive
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bargain hunters, however, often buy things that they don't need just because they are cheap. They want to believe that they are helping their budgets, but they are really playing an exciting game: when they can buy something for less than other people, they feel that they are winning. Most people, experts claim, have two reasons for their behavior: a good reason for the things that they do and the real reason. It is not only scientists, of course, who understand the psychology of spending habits, but also business people. Stores, companies, and advertisers use psychology to increase business: they consider people's needs for love, power, or influence, their basic values, their beliefs and opinions, and so on in their advertising and sales methods. Psychologists often use a method called "behavior therapy" to help individuals solve their personality problems. In the same way, they can help people who feel that they have problems with money: they give them "assignments". If a person buys something in every store that he enters, for instance, a therapist might teach him self-discipline in this way: on the first day of his therapy, he must go into a store, stay five minutes, and then leave. On the second day, he should stay for ten minutes and try something on. On the third day, he stays for fifteen minutes, asks the salesclerk a question, but does not buy anything. Soon he will learn that nothing bad will happen to him if he doesn't buy anything, and he can solve the problem of his compulsive buying. How to Jump Queue Fury If you find yourself waiting in a long queue at an airport or bus terminus this holiday, will you try to analyse what it is about queuing that makes you angry? Or will you just get angry with the nearest official? Professor Richard Larson, an electrical engineer at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, hates queuing but rather than tear his hair out, he decided to study the subject. His first finding, which backs up earlier work at the US National Science Foundation, was that the degree of annoyance was not directly related to the time. He cites an experiment at Houston airport where passengers had to walk for one minute from the plane to the baggage reclaim and then wait a further seven minutes to collect their luggage. Complaints were frequent, especially from those who had spent seven minutes watching passengers with just hand baggage get out immediately. The airport authorities decided to lengthen the walk from the aircraft, so that instead of a one-minute fast walk, the passengers spent six minutes walking. When they finally arrived at the baggage reclaim, the delay was then
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only two minutes. The extra walk extended the delay by five minutes for those carrying only hand baggage, but passenger complaints dropped almost to zero. The reason? Larson suggests that it all has to do with what he calls "social justice". If people see others taking a short cut, they will find the wait unbearable. So in the case of the airport, it was preferable to delay everyone. Another aspect Larson studied was the observation that people get more fed up if they are not told what is going on. Passengers told that there will be a half-hour delay are less unhappy than those left waiting even twenty minutes without an explanation. But even knowing how long we have to wait isn't the whole answer. We must also believe that everything is being done to minimize our delay. Larson cites the example of two neighbouring American banks. One was highly computerised and served a customer, on average, every 30 seconds. The other bank was less automated and took twice as long. But because the tellers at the second bank looked extremely busy, customers believed the service was faster and many transferred their accounts to the slower bank. Ultimately, the latter had to introduce time-wasting ways of appearing more dynamic. Comforting Thoughts First I read about a study in Meriden, Connecticut, which indicated that talking to yourself is a perfectly good way of getting comfort during a difficult time. Then I saw an item about research at Yale demonstrating that stress seems to be reduced in some people by exposing them to the aromas of certain desserts. Then I started talking to myself about desserts with aromas I find soothing. Then I felt a lot better. Isn't science grand? I didn't feel perfect. One thing that was bothering me was that the ten most popular methods of comforting yourself listed in the Meriden study didn't mention sniffing desserts, even though Yale, where all the sniffing research was going on, is only about twenty miles down the road. Does this mean that some of these scientists are so busy talking to themselves that they don't talk to each other? It got me so upset that I went to the back door of a baker in our neighborhood to sniff the aroma of chocolate chip cookies. I was talking to myself the whole time, of course. "What the Yale people think," I said to myself, "is that a person is soothed by the smell of, say, chocolate chip cookies because it brings back pleasant memories, like the memory of his mother baking chocolate chip cookies." "What if his mother always burned the chocolate chip cookies?" I replied. "Are you talking about my mother?"
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"Whose mother do you think I'm talking about?" I said. "We're the only ones here." "Were those cookies burnt?" "What do you think all that black stuff was?" "I thought that was the chocolate chips." "No, she always forgot the chocolate chips." I wasn't finding the conversation very comforting at all. I don't like to hear anyone make light of my mother's chocolate chip cookies, even me. I must have raised my voice, because the next thing I knew, the baker had come out to see what was going on. Even though the Meriden study had shown that being with someone else was the most comforting thing of all—it finished ahead of listening to music and even watching TV—I saw right away that being with the baker wasn't going to be much more comforting than talking to myself. He said, "Are you crazy?" I told him that I was engaging in two therapies that had been scientifically proven effective: sniffing chocolate chip cookies and talking to myself. He told me that I owed him two dollars and fifty cents. "For sniffing, we charge a buck and a quarter a dozen." he explained. "How do you know I sniffed two dozen?" I asked. "I just know it." he said. I told him that according to the research done at Yale, certain odors caused the brain to produce alpha waves, which are associated with relaxation. I told him that in my case the odor of chocolate chip cookies—particularly slightly burnt chocolate chip cookies—was such an odor. I told him that he ought to be proud to confirm the scientific research done at one of the great universities of the English-speaking world. That alone, I told him, ought to be payment enough for whatever small part of the aroma of his chocolate chip cookies I had used up with my sniffing. He thought about it for a moment. Then he said, "Take a walk, buddy." I was happy to. As it happens, going for a walk finished tenth in the Meriden study, just behind recalling pleasant memories. Naturally, I talked to myself on the way. "Maybe I can find some place to smell what the Yale people call 'spiced apple'," I said to myself. "They found that the smell of spiced apple is so effective that with some people it can stop panic attacks. "But I don't know what spiced apple smells like," I replied. "Spiced with what?" That was bothering me enough that my walk wasn't actually very soothing. I thought about bolstering it with some of the other activities on the list, but

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reading or watching TV seemed impractical. Prayer was also on the list, but praying for the aroma of spiced apple seemed ridiculous. I walked faster and faster. It occurred to me that I might be getting a panic attack. Desperately I tried to recall some pleasant memories. I recalled the time before I knew about the Meriden list, when I talked to myself only in private. I recalled the time before I knew about the Yale research and didn't have to worry about finding any spiced apple. Then I felt a lot better. I didn't feel perfect, but you can't always feel perfect. Is There a Doctor in the Body? When you go to the doctor, you like to come away with a prescription. It makes you feel better to know you will get some medicine. But the doctor knows that medicine is not always needed. Sometimes all a sick person needs is some reassurance that all will be well. In such cases the doctor may prescribe a placebo. A placebo is a sugar pill, a harmless shot, or an empty capsule. Even though they have no medicine in them, these things seem to make people well. The patient thinks it is medicine and begins to get better. How does this happen? The study of the placebo opens up new knowledge about the way the human body can heal itself. It is as if there was a doctor in each of us. The "doctor" will heal the body for us if we let it. But it is not yet known just how the placebo works to heal the body. Some people say it works because the human mind fools itself. These people say that if the mind is fooled into thinking it got medicine, then it will act as if it did, and the body will feel better. Other people say this is not so. They say that the placebo makes the wish to get better become reality. The placebo will not work if the patient knows it is a placebo. This shows that the body is not fooled by it. It seems that if patients think they have been given medicine, they will have hope. They feel that they are getting some help. This gives them a stronger will to get better, and that is what helps to heal them. Placebos do not always work. The success of this treatment seems to rest a lot with the relationship between the patient and the doctor. If the patient has a lot of trust in the doctor and if the doctor really wants to help the patient, then the placebo is more likely to work. So in a way, the doctor is the most powerful placebo of all.

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An example of the doctor's role in making the placebo work can be seen in this study. Some patients with bleeding ulcers were put in two groups. The first group were told by a doctor that they had been given a new drug which, it was hoped, would give them some relief. The second group were told by a nurse that they had been given a new drug but that not much was known about how it would work. As a result, 70 percent of the people in the first group got much better. Only 25 percent of the people in the second group got better. And both groups had in fact been given the same thing—a placebo. The placebo has been found to work with a lot of different cases. It helps such things as seasickness, coughs, colds, and even pain after an operation. And there was an experiment done to see if a placebo could help old people stay healthy and live longer. The test was done in Romania with 150 people over the age of 60. They were put in three groups with 50 people in each group. The first group were given nothing at all. The second group were given a placebo. The third group were given a real drug and told that it would help with the problems of old age. (In fact, it was not a drug for old age at all.) The three groups were studied for many years. The first group showed no changes from the way old people in that village had always been. The second group (with the placebo) had much better health and a lower death rate. The third group (with the real drug) showed much the same results as the group that took the placebo. A placebo can also have bad effects. If patients expect a bad reaction to medicine, then they will also show a bad reaction to the placebo. This would seem to show that a lot of how you react to medicine is in your mind rather than in your body. Some doctors still think that if the placebo can have bad effects it should never be used. They think there is still not enough known about it. And yet, the use of the placebo has been well known for hundreds of years in other countries. Tribal doctors in some African countries have known for a long time that patients will get better if they think they are going to. Many of the "treatments" they use do not seem able to make a sick person better, and yet such treatments work. The strange power of the placebo does seem to suggest that the human mind is stronger than we think it is. There are people who say you can heal your body by using your mind. And the interesting thing is that even people who swear this is not possible have been healed by a placebo.

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Unit 3 Culture

Dining Customs in America Every country has its own peculiar dining customs. Americans feel that the first rule of being a polite guest is to be on time. If a person is invited to dinner at six-thirty, the hostess expects him to be there at six-thirty or not more than a few minutes after. Because she usually does the cooking, she times the meal se that the hot rolls and the coffee and meat will be at their best at the time the guests come. If they are late, the food will not be so good, and the hostess will be disappointed. When the guest cannot come on time, he calls his host or hostess on the telephone, gives the reason, and tells at what time he can come. Depending on the situation, guests sometimes bring a box of candy or some flowers to give to the hostess as a sign of appreciation. As guests continue to arrive, it is usually considered polite for the men in the group to stand when a woman enters the room and continue to stand until she is seated. However, most young people and some groups of older people that stress equality of the sexes no longer observe the custom. A visitor should be sensitive to each situation and follow the lead of the Americans present. When the guests sit down at a dinner table, it is customary for the men to help the ladies by pushing their chairs under them. Some Americans no longer do this, so the visitor must notice what others do and do likewise. Until the meal is under way, if the dinner is in a private home, a guest may avoid embarrassment by leaving the talking to someone else. Some families have a habit of offering a prayer of thanks before they eat. Other families do not. If a prayer is offered, everyone sits quietly with bowed head until the prayer is over. If the family does not follow the custom, there is no pause in the conversation. There is a difference between American and European customs in using the knife and fork. Europeans keep the knife in the right hand, the fork in the left. They use both hands in eating. Americans, on the contrary, use just one hand whenever possible and keep the other one on their lap. They constantly change their fork to the left hand when they have to cut meat. Between bites they put the fork on their plate while drinking coffee or buttering bread. Europeans are more apt to drink coffee after the meal and to keep their knife and fork in hand until they finish eating. Since Americans often lay their silverware down during the meal, certain customs have developed. It is not considered good manners to leave a spoon in a soup bowl or coffee cup or any other dish. It is put where it will lie flat (a coffee spoon on the saucer, a soup spoon on the service plate beside the soup
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bowl, etc.) but not on the tablecloth. By doing this, one is less likely to knock the silverware onto the floor or spill the food. Another difference in custom is that Americans and Europeans use the side of the soupspoon, not the tip. Americans do not use silverware for eating bread. They hold it in their fingers, usually breaking it first. Other things that Americans eat with their fingers are corn on the cob, celery, radishes, and olives. In America a person does not eat lettuce that way, nor pick up a soup bowl to drink what remains at the bottom. If for any reason a guest has to leave the table during a meal, he or she should ask the hostess, "Would you please excuse me for a minute?" When the meal is finished, the guests put their napkins on the table and rise. Guests do not fold their napkins in the original folds unless they are houseguests and intend to stay for more than one meal. Following dinner, guests usually stay for two or three hours, but the thoughtful person is careful not to overstay his or her welcome. The host and hostess may urge a guest to stay longer in order to be polite, but most dinner parties break up at about 11 o'clock. As the guests leave, it is the custom to thank the hostess for a very pleasant evening. One may say anything that expresses appreciation. Common expressions are: "Good-bye. It was so nice of you to have me," or "Good-bye. It's been a thoroughly enjoyable evening," or "Thank you. I've had a very nice time." For larger favors than a dinner party, such as an overnight or weekend visit, it is customary to send a thank-you note. Chinese and American Culture Body Language Even body language has a cultural accent. Chinese stamp their feet to show anger; Americans interpret this as impatience. Chinese clap for themselves after a speech. Americans may see this as immodest. When giving or receiving a gift, Chinese use two hands to denote respect. Americans never even notice. Americans may pat other adults on the head to show sympathy, affection or encouragement. This behavior could insult Chinese. Americans point to their chest to signify "me", but think it is funny when Chinese point to their nose. Even laughter has the potential either to communicate or miscommunicate.An American who fell off his bike was very angry when on-looking Chinese laughed at him. I myself was angered when my son fell
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down and bystanders laughed. But I learned later that their laughter conveyed sympathy or understanding, not ridicule. When East meets West, how often is offense taken when none is given? Body Space American individualists value privacy and men always maintain a distance of 45-80 centimeters between them when they talk. To stand farther apart is inconvenient, to stand closer violates body space. And males rarely touch each other, except for a brief but firm handshake. They certainly never hold hands or sit with arms around one another. In American culture, frequent, prolonged bodily contact between males suggests homosexuality. Chinese males not only touch each other but also hold hands—a practice that frightens Western males. Chinese often shake my hand and don't let go. They talk away contentedly, unaware of my discomfort as I struggle to free my hand! Cultural Bridges Chinese and Americans may be different in many ways, but a comparison of some basic idioms shows that in some ways we think alike. "Where there's smoke there's fire." "Look before you leap." "Where there's a will there's a way." "At sixes and sevens." "Birds of a feather flock together." "Oil and water don't mix." "Henpecked." "Strike while the iron is hot." "More haste, less speed." "Out of sight, out of mind." "All good things must come to an end." "Great minds think alike." "Too many cooks spoil the broth." Both Chinese and Americans face life and death, love and hate, hope and fears work and play. All people's basic needs and philosophies are similar, even when their expression is clouded and confused by racial, cultural or political trappings. And it is these cultural common characteristics upon which we can build understanding, respect and communication.

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Specific Taboos If someone gave you a lily at any time other than Easter, you might be surprised because in our culture a lily is regarded as a symbol of death. Husbands here might feel hurt if some well-intentioned visitor gave their wives sexy undergarments. Those are just two examples of taboo gifts in America. So it is with other cultures. 1 We can't possibly mention all of the taboos here—indeed, they probably are not all listed anywhere. However, the following list covers some key taboos: The Japanese customarily wrap their gifts in paper, but they don't use white paper (color of death); they don't use bright colored paper; and they don't use bows. Don't give four of anything to a Japanese or Korean; it is the "bad luck" number, like the number 13 in many cultures including the United States and England. Don't give a clock to a Chinese; the word for clock in Chinese has a funeral connotation to it. For someone from Hong Kong, giving two of something, or a pair, carries better luck than a single item. Among Latin Americans, the gift of a knife or knives suggests the "cutting" of a relationship; yet this notion can be blunted by including a coin with the knives. In the Middle East, a handkerchief suggests tears or parting, and therefore is inappropriate as a gift. Flowers carry all kinds of symbolism: purple flowers are the flowers of death in Mexico and Brazil; the same with white flowers in Japan; and white chrysanthemums are the flower of death in many European countries. Also, it is considered bad luck in many European countries to present an even number of flowers. Therefore, always present an odd number (except 13, of course). When you present flowers to a person from Germany, always unwrap the bouquet first. Giving red roses in Germany signals that you have strong romantic interests. In fact, throughout history, the rose has signified "secrecy". Consider the Latin word sub rosa, meaning secret, and note that many confessional booths in Catholic churches have carvings of roses above the doors. Giving a French person a gift of perfume is carrying the proverbial coals to Newcastle. In the Middle East, any pictures of partially unclothed females (even of famous statues) or of pet animals, like dogs who are considered dirty and lowly, are inappropriate gifts.
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In rank-conscious societies like Japan, be careful to present gifts in accordance with position and prestige. If several people are involved and you are uncertain about the hierarchy, give the group a joint gift (e. g., a silver tray, a carving, porcelain statue, fine molded glass). Tone down corporate symbols on your gifts. Either make them very subtle or simply insert your business card with the gift. Bridging Cultural Gaps Gracefully Why is it that when you study a foreign language, you never learn the little phrases that let you slip into a culture without all your foreignness exposed? Every Chinese-language textbook starts out with the standard phrase for greeting people; but as an American, I constantly found myself tongue-tied when it came to seeing guests off at the door. An abrupt goodbye would not do, yet that was all I had ever learned from these books. So I would smile and nod, bowing like a Japanese and trying to find words that would smooth over the visitors' leaving and make them feel they would be welcome to come again. In my fluster, I often hid behind my Chinese husband's graciousness. Then finally, listening to others, I began to pick up the phrases that eased relations and sent people off with a feeling of mission not only accomplished but surpassed. Partings for the Chinese involve a certain amount of ritual and a great deal of oneupmanship. Although I'm not expected to observe or even know all the rules, as a foreigner, I've had to learn the expressions of politeness and protest that accompany a leave-taking. The Chinese feel they must see a guest off to the farthest feasible point—down a flight of stairs to the street below or perhaps all the way to the nearest bus stop. I've sometimes waited half an hour or more for my husband to return from seeing a guest off, since he's gone to the bus stop and waited for the next bus to arrive. For a less important or perhaps a younger guest, he may simply say, "I won't see you off, all right?" And of course the guest assures him that he would never think of putting him to the trouble of seeing him off. "Don't see me off! Don't see me off!" That's all very well, but when I'm the guest being seen off, my protests are always useless, and my hostess or host, or both, insists on seeing me down the stairs and well on my way, with our going through the "Don't bother to see me off" ritual at every landing. If I try to go fast to discourage them from following,

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they are simply put to the discomfort of having to flee after me. Better to accept the inevitable. Besides, that's going against Chinese custom, because haste is to be avoided. What do you say when you part from someone? Not "farewell" or "Godspeed", but "Go slowly." To the Chinese it means "Take care" or "Watch your step" or some other such caution, but translated literally it means "Go slowly." That same "slowly" is used in another polite expression used by the host at the end of a particularly large and delicious meal to assure his guests what a poor and inadequate host he has been. American and Chinese cultures are at polar opposites. An American hostess, complimented for her cooking skills, is likely to say, "Oh, I'm so glad that you liked it. I cooked it especially for you." Not so a Chinese host or hostess (often the husband does the fancy cooking), who will instead apologize for giving you "nothing" even slightly edible and for not showing you enough honor by providing proper dishes. The same rules hold true with regard to children. American parents speak proudly of their children's accomplishments, telling how Johnny made the school team or Jane made the honor roll. Not so Chinese parents, whose children, even if at the top of their class in school, are always so "naughty", never studying, never listening to their elders, and so forth. The Chinese take pride in "modesty"; the Americans in "straightforwardness". That modesty has left many a Chinese hungry at an American table, for Chinese politeness calls for three refusals before one accepts an offer, and the American hosts take a "no" to mean "no", whether it's the first, second, or third time. Recently, a member of a delegation sent to China by a large American corporation complained to me about how the Chinese had asked them three times if they would be willing to modify some proposal, and each time the Americans had said "no" clearly and definitely. My friend was angry because the Chinese had not taken their word the first time. I recognized the problem immediately and wondered why the Americans had not studied up on cultural differences before coming to China. It would have saved them a lot of confusion and frustration in their negotiations. Once you've learned the signals and how to respond, life becomes much easier. When guests come, I know I should immediately ask if they' d like a cup of tea. They will respond, "Please don't bother," which is my signal to fetch tea.

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Unit 4 Festival

Merry Christmas The winter holiday season is the most festive time of the year in the United States. Students from elementary school through college have about two weeks' vacation, beginning shortly before Christmas and ending soon after New Year's Day. Many families go away for the holidays, but those who stay home have fun, too. There are many parties to celebrate the birth of Christ and the arrival of the New Year. In America, the spirit of Christmas arrives about a month before the holiday itself. Late in November, street lights and store windows are decorated with the traditional Christmas colors of red and green. Santa Claus, shepherd and angel scenes appear in shop windows. Winter scenes with snowmen, sleighs, skaters, and skiers decorate cards and windows. The manufacture and sale of Christmas items is big business. Stores depend on Christmas shoppers for about one-fourth of their annual sales. Smart shoppers buy their gifts far in advance, before the Christmas rush makes shopping a chore. Although Americans enjoy the commercial friendliness of Christmas, the most beautiful and meaningful parts of the holiday occur at home. Many families gather around the tree and open their gifts. Then they sit down to enjoy a traditional Christmas dinner—turkey or ham, sweet potatoes, vegetables, and cranberry sauce. Dessert is usually fruit cake, plum pudding, or apple pie. Most of the Christmas customs which Americans enjoy today are variations of traditions brought here by European immigrants. These are some of the most popular customs: Exchanging Gifts. The first Christmas gifts were those that the Three Wise Men brought to the infant Jesus. In the United States, it is customary to exchange gifts with family members and close friends. Both children and adults get Christmas presents, although children usually get many more. Receiving Toys from Santa Claus. Many American children believe that on Christmas Eve, Santa Claus, (a fat, cheerful man who wears a red suit, red hat, and long white beard) slides down their chimney to bring them gifts. According to the story, Santa Claus flies through the air in a sleigh pulled by eight reindeer. Several days or weeks before Christmas, children tell Santa Claus what toys they want by writing him letters or visiting him in a local department store.
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Then, on Christmas Eve, many youngsters lie awake listening for Santa and his sleigh. Where did this legend come from? Santa Claus is the American name for St. Nicholas, a generous fourth-century bishop who lived in what is now Turkey. It was his custom to go out at night and bring gifts to the poor. After his death, his fame spread throughout Europe. Dutch immigrants brought the idea of St. Nicholas to the United States, where the name was mispronounced and finally changed to Santa Claus. Then, in the early 1800s American artists and authors changed St. Nick's appearance and created the fat man in red that we know today. Santa's sleigh and reindeer came from an old Norse legend. So today's Santa Claus is really a blend of several different cultures. Hanging a stocking near the chimney. As in Great Britain, American children hang stockings by the fireplace, hoping that Santa will fill them with candy and toys. Decorating the Home with evergreens. This winter custom began in ancient times. Branches of evergreens were thought to bring good luck and guarantee the return of spring. Germans of the 16th century probably started the custom of decorating trees. In the 19th century, the idea spread throughout Europe and North America. Now, at Christmastime, decorated trees stand in about two-thirds of American homes. The modern American tree is usually covered with colored balls and strings of colored lights. In ancient times, a branch of mistletoe was hung over doorways for good luck. Today the custom continues, but now it is for fun. Anyone standing under the mistletoe is likely to be kissed. Singing Christmas carols. In the early days of the Christian Church, the bishops sang carols on Christmas Day. Now, everybody sings them. Christmas carols on the radio, on TV, in church, and in school all help fill the winter air with beautiful music. Copying an old English custom, many Americans join with friends and walk from house to house singing the traditional songs of Christmas. Sending Christmas cards. This custom began in London in 1843 and came to the United States in 1875. Today, most Americans send dozens of Christmas cards or season's greetings to relatives, friends, and business associates. Christmas performances. Among the Christmas traditions are two beautiful theatrical performances that all people enjoy. One of these is a classic work performed annually during the Christmas season. It is the Russian composer Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky's ballet The Nutcracker. This is a favorite with children because it tells the delightful story of a little girl's Christmas dream about her toys. Another one is the story A Christmas Carol by the
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19th-century English author Charles Dickens. It is traditionally performed as a play (sometimes with music) and tells the tale of a character named Ebenezer Scrooge. Scrooge is a selfish, lonely, rich, old man who, with the help of ghosts from his past, present, and future life, learns to understand and regain the spirit of Christmas—the spirit of caring for and sharing with others. April Fools' Day A visitor from the planet Mars looking through the newspapers on 1 April would surely wonder why all the most extraordinary advances in human knowledge seem to be discovered on 31 March, just in time for them to be reported the following day. (Some years ago, the German car manufacturers BMW placed an advertisement in the British newspapers for a car which would only start when it recognised the feel of the owner's body in the driver's seat.) For 1 April is, of course, April Fools' Day, the day traditionally reserved for jokes. No one knows exactly when and why April Fools' Day began, but it has been observed for centuries in several countries in Europe and Asia. It was certainly well-established in Britain and France by the early 18th century. More recently, China has been joining in the fun. In 1993, Beijing's normally serious newspaper China Youth Daily printed a whole page of April Fool jokes. One article said that, in an important change to China's one-child per-family policy, intellectuals with doctorates would now be allowed a second child. It was so convincing that a French news agency used the report. Another story on the same page claimed that the Libyan leader Colonel Gaddafi was looking for a female Chinese bodyguard, aged 23 to 25, with a university degree and expertise in Kung Fu (not so hard to believe since Gaddafi does use female bodyguards). However, not everyone was amused by these April Fools' jokes, and the newspaper was forced to print a front-page apology. In Britain, 1 April has increasingly come to be seen by the British press as an occasion to abandon all professional scruples about telling the truth; instead they try to tell bigger and better lies than their rivals. In 1995, for example, the "archaeology correspondent" of the respected Guardian newspaper wrote a report saying that the village of a well-known French comic strip character had been discovered in northern France: "Incredibly, the fortified village is almost exactly as described in the comic strip. Author Ren é Goscinny was not aware of its existence when he wrote his stories but he had only one major detail wrong: the fortifications are straight,

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not curved as depicted in the comic strip. But Goscinny got the location exactly right—in the right place, on top of a high cliff overlooking the English Channel." It was, of course, untrue. Another Guardian April Fool classic was their 1977 seven-page supplement on a totally imaginary island. Article after article described the island's attractions for sun-seeking tourists and its economic and social development. This was not the first time that British journalists had tried to fool the public. In fact, the inspiration came from that bastion of responsible reporting—the BBC. In 1957, the BBC broadcast a television programme showing Italian "spaghetti farmers" harvesting spaghetti from trees. Newspaper editorials strongly criticised the programme's producer for misleading the British public. But if all this makes you feel determined not to be tricked this year, be careful when you are trying to uncover the jokes. For some newspapers have found a new way to deceive their readers—by not lying. Last year, The Guardian examined the most unlikely stories published by its rivals and decided that The Daily Telegraph's report about the world's first flying moth-collecting machine couldn't possibly be true. But it was. To add to The Guardian's humiliation, The Telegraph questioned the authenticity of some unknown poems by the young W. H. Auden (the British-born 20th-century poet), which had appeared in The Guardian. We do not know, If there be fairies now, Or no. The Telegraph decided that the poems were so dreadful, they had to be genuine. And they were right. So if this year you read, for example, an article telling of goats being wrapped in life-jackets and launched into polluted waters to eat up all environmentally harmful vegetation, don't be a fool—think twice before deciding it's a joke. More Stuffing? "Merry", as you may know, has two meanings: happy and drunk. If you're like a large number of British people, then your Christmas will be an alcoholic, rather than a religious, occasion. Throughout the whole Christmas season, which stretches from early December to the end of the first week in January, you will spend hours drinking with friends, relatives and colleagues. Whether you are surrounded by the noisy friendliness of a pub or whether you are seated in the peaceful comfort of someone's home, you will be sipping away on a drink.
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If you walk down Piccadilly or Oxford Street just before Christmas, you will see an incredible amount of money being spent on electronic games, bottles of spirits, expensive clothes, CDs, cassettes, cameras, and a large number of luxury items. If you walk down the main street of several towns in the East end of London just before Christmas, you won't see a large amount of money being spent on presents. If you have the money or if you are prepared to go into debt, you will participate in the conspicuous consumption that Christmas has come to represent. If you are poor, you will feel sad and disappointed because you cannot give the gifts you would like to give to your loved ones. Christmas is supposed to be a time to express our love and goodwill towards others. It is supposed to be a time when we perform acts of kindness for people less fortunate than ourselves. But do we think of other people when we sit down to our Christmas dinner? Of course not—we're too busy eating those delicious foods associated with Christmas. We are too busy wondering whether the presents we gave were as nice or better than the ones we received. We forget to think of the sick and the homeless. The whole idea of Christmas now is completely unchristian—I'm sure that Christ would be distressed if he could see what sort of celebrations are being carried out in his name. So I'm against Christmas—I agree with Scrooge: "It's all humbug." If we're going to continue with this wasteful, thoughtless ceremony, then let's be truthful about it, and call it "Stomach Week"—but let's get rid of the hypocritical pretence that Christmas is "the season of goodwill". Let's face it, Christmas is a holiday that has lost its meaning. Not only for Children? Lynne Knight Recently, a rather sophisticated woman told me shyly that she saves up all her presents until Christmas morning and then sits up in bed and opens them, just like a child. She thought I would laugh at her and say how silly she was. But in fact I was absolutely delighted to meet someone who treats Christmas as I do. Many people today have a very different attitude to Christmas. They think it's just a time when shopkeepers make a lot of money and everyone rushes round buying presents they don't want to give and food they don't want to eat. But have they grown so far away from their own childhood that they can't remember all the good things? First of all, Christmas takes you out of the ordinary routine of life. For children, the fun begins weeks before when the decorations are put up, and excitement gradually increases as December the 25th approaches.

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Everyone seems much friendlier to each other than usual at Christmastime. You can lean out of a car window when you're stopped at the traffic lights and say "Merry Christmas", and people will smile and respond. You probably wouldn't think of doing that at any other time of the year. Perhaps it's because most people are on holiday or because everyone knows that they are sharing a similar experience. Giving presents can be very satisfying, too, if you plan far enough in advance and really think of the right present for the right person. Indeed, whatever shopkeepers gain out of Christmas, it is still a "holy day", the words from which "holiday" is derived and it gives people time to pause and concentrate for a moment on non-commercial values.

Unit 5 Money

Time Spent Agonizing over Money Within hours of a recent major stock market drop, I telephoned my Ford dealer and ordered the station wagon that I test-drove the day before. As my friends not so subtly pointed out, the Dow Jones Industrial Average didn't have much to do with my financial situation and shouldn't affect my purchase. Besides, my old car had caused me headaches for months. Still, I spent the evening asking myself: Could I afford a new car? Should I be saving instead of spending? Would we need to cut back on vacations? On the list of items people worry about, money is almost always at the top. A study in The Wall Street Journal found that 70 percent of the public lives from paycheck to paycheck. Mortgage debt has increased 300 percent since 1975, and consumer bankruptcies are at an all-time high. Most marriages that fail list financial problems as a contributing factor. When the Dow fell 554 points last October, millions of people lost billions of dollars, on paper anyway. There was expert anxiety on Wall Street and old-fashioned worry on Main Street. Our reaction confirmed what we already knew: We are a people consumed by financial stress. A "Raw Material" As the Bible tells us, worrying about money—or anything else for that matter—won't do us any good. "Who of you by worrying can add a single hour to his life?" Jesus asked. "And why do you worry about clothes? See how the lilies of the field grow? They do not labor or spin.
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In my heart, I aspire to be like those lilies. But in my head, I feel a need to hoard. It is an unusual person who can live free from financial stress, or who can spend money on others as easily as he spends it on himself. Thomas Edison was one of that rare breed. Had the great inventor stored his money, he would have died a wealthy man. His first successful invention netted him $ 40,000, a huge sum in 1869. During his lifetime, he patented 1,093 inventions, yet he departed the world penniless. Years later, his son Charles recalled his father's approach to money: "He considered it a raw material, like metal, to be used rather than amassed, and so he kept plowing his funds back into new objects. Several times he was all but bankrupt. But he refused to let dollar signs govern his actions." John Wesley was the same. The founder of Methodism had the highest earned income in 18th century England, but he gave it all away. His philosophy about money was simple: "Earn all you can, save all you can, give all you can." Root of Evil? Money may not be the root of all evil, but if it keeps us up at night, it has become ways too important in our lives. That was the lesson of Leo Tolstoy's tale "Elias", which told of a rich farm couple who lost all their money and were forced to take jobs as servants. A guest one day asked the wife if she was miserable being poor, especially in light of the great wealth she had once enjoyed. The woman's answer—that she was happier than ever before—surprised the visitor. "When we were rich, my husband and I had so many cares that we had no time to talk to one another, or to think of our souls, or to pray to God," the wife explained. "We lay awake at night worrying, lest the ewes should lie on their lambs, and we got up again and again to see that all was well ... Now, when my husband and I wake in the morning, we always greet each other in love and harmony. We live peacefully, having nothing to worry about." For most of us, financial security is an elusive goal. No matter how much we have, it's not enough. Kahlil Gibran put it this way: "The fear of need, when the pantry is full, is the thirst that can not be satisfied." When the stock market falls, we can panic, hoard, and worry if we have enough. Or we can take a deep breath and remember: money is merely a raw material to be plowed back into something else.

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Elias: A Parable At one time the elderly couple had been the wealthiest in the region, now they were merely servants who had nothing but each other. In the Province of Oufa there lived a man named Elias. His father died a year after he married, and left him a poor man. At that time Elias's property consisted only of seven mares, two cows, and twenty sheep, but now that he had become master he began to better himself. He and his wife worked hard from morning till night for thirty years, growing richer each year. Elias had two sons and a daughter, all of whom he duly married off. In the days of his poverty his sons had worked with him; but when they became rich, they began to indulge in foolish pleasures. One of them, in particular, began to drink to excess. Eventually the elder of the two was killed in a fight, and the other one, because he disobeyed his father, was turned out. Elias turned him out, but at the same time he gave him a house and cattle. His own wealth was thus diminished in proportion. Soon afterwards his sheep became infected with disease, and many of them died. Next, there was a year of drought, when no hay grew, so that many cattle starved to death during the following winter. Then the Khirgizes came and stole the best of his horses, and his property was diminished even more. By the time he had reached his seventieth year, all the property left to him consisted of the clothes on his body and his wife, Sham Shemagi, who was as old as himself. The son whom he had turned out had gone to a distant land, and his daughter was dead; so that there was no one left to help the old people. However a former neighbor of theirs, named Muhamedshah, felt sorry for them. He was neither rich nor poor, but lived plainly and was a respectable man. Remembering the days when he had been a guest in the house of Elias, he asked the couple to come and live with him and do some work for him if they liked. Elias thanked his good neighbor, and went with his old wife to live in the service of Muhamedshah. At first it grieved them to do so; but in time they got used to it, and settled down to live there and to work as much as their strength permitted. It suited their master to have them in his service, since the old people had been in authority themselves, and so knew how to do things. Moreover, they were never lazy, but worked the best they knew. Yet Muhamedshah used to feel sorry to see people formerly so high in the world now reduced to such a difficult situation. 7 One day some of Muhamedshah's friends came to visit him. When the guests learned that Elias, once the wealthiest man in the region, was merely a servant of the host, they were so surprised that they asked the couple
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about their former life. 8 "Old man," said one of the guests, "tell me whether it grieves you—now as you look upon us—to remember your former fortunes and your present life of misery? Elias smiled and answered: "If I were to speak to you of our happiness or misery you might not believe me. You should rather ask my wife. She has both a woman's heart and a woman's tongue, and will tell you the whole truth about that matter. Then the guest called to the old woman who was seated behind the curtain: "Tell me, old woman, what you think concerning your former happiness and your present misery." And Sham Shemagi answered from behind the curtain: "This is what I think concerning them. I lived with my husband for fifty years—seeking happiness, and never finding it; but now, although we live as servants, and this is only the second year since we were left poor, we have found true happiness, and desire no other." 12 Both the guests and their host were surprised at this—the latter, indeed, so much so that he rose to his feet to draw aside the curtain and look at the old woman. There she stood—her hands folded in front of her, and a smile upon her face, as she gazed at her old husband and he smiled back at her in return. Then she went on: "I am telling you the truth, I am not joking. For half a century we sought happiness and never found it so long as we were rich; yet now that we have nothing—now that we have come to live among humble folk—we have found such happiness as could never be exceeded." "Where, then, does your happiness lie?" asked the guest. "When we were rich my husband and I had so many cares that we had no time to talk to one another, or think of our souls, or pray to God. If guests were with us we were fully occupied in thinking how to entertain them. Moreover, when guests had arrived we had their servants to look after. In addition, we constantly worried lest a wolf kill one of our fowls or calves, or thieves drive off the horses. We lay awake at night worrying, lest the ewes should lie on their lambs, and we got up again and again to see that all was well. When we retired to rest, we would find ourselves filled with fresh anxieties as to how to get fodder for the winter, and so on. Moreover, my husband and I could never agree. He would say that a thing must be done in this way, and I that it must be done in that and so we would begin to quarrel. The life led us only from worry to worry, but never to happiness." "But how is it now?" asked the guest. "Now," replied the old woman, when my husband and I rise in the morning, we always greet each other in love and harmony. We live peacefully, having nothing to worry about. Our only care is how best to serve the master. We work according to our strength, and with a good will, so that the master
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profits from our work. Then, when we come in, we find dinner and supper ready for us. Whenever it is cold we have fuel to warm us and sheepskin coats to wear. Moreover, we have time to talk to one another, to think about our souls, and to pray to God. For fifty years we sought happiness—but only now have we found it." The guests burst out laughing, but Elias cried: "Do not laugh, good sirs. This is no joke, but the truth. We have revealed it to you—not for our own diversion, but for your good." Then the guests ceased to laugh, and became thoughtful. A Letter to God The house—the only one in the entire valley—sat on the crest of a low hill. From this height one could see the river and, next to the corral, the field of ripe corn dotted with the kidney-bean flowers that always promised a good harvest. The only thing the earth needed was a rainfall, or at least a shower. Throughout the morning Lencho—who knew his fields intimately—had done nothing else but scan the sky toward the northeast. "Now we're really going to get some water, woman. The woman, who was preparing supper, replied: "Yes, God willing." The oldest boys were working in the field, while the smaller ones were playing near the house, until the woman called to them all: "Come for dinner ... It was during the meal that, just as Lencho had predicted, big drops of rain began to fall. In the northeast huge mountains of clouds could be seen approaching. The air was fresh and sweet. The man went out to look for something in the corral for no other reason than to allow himself the pleasure of feeling the rain on his body, and when he returned he exclaimed: "Those aren't raindrops falling from the sky, they're new coins. The big drops are ten-centavo pieces and the little ones are fives ... " With a satisfied expression he looked at the field of ripe corn with its kidney-bean flowers, draped in a curtain of rain. But suddenly a strong wind began to blow and together with the rain very large hailstones began to fall. These truly did resemble new silver coins. The boys, exposing themselves to the rain, ran out to collect the frozen pearls. "It's really getting bad now," exclaimed the man. "I hope it passes quickly."

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It did not pass quickly. For an hour the hail rained on the house, the garden, the hillside, the cornfield, on the whole valley. The field was white, as if covered with salt. Not a leaf remained on the trees. The corn was totally destroyed. The flowers were gone from the kidney-bean plants. Lencho's soul was filled with sadness. When the storm had passed, he stood in the middle of the field and said to his sons: "A plague of locusts would have left more than this." The hail has left nothing: this year we will have no corn or beans ... " That night was a sorrowful one: "All our work, for nothing!" "There's no one who can help us!" "We'll all go hungry this year ... But in the hearts of all who lived in that solitary house in the middle of the valley, there was a single hope: help from God. "Don't be so upset, even though this seems like a total loss. Remember, no one dies of hunger!" "That's what they say: no one dies of hunger ... " All through the night, Lencho thought only of his one hope: the help of God, whose eyes, as he had been instructed, see everything, even what is deep in one's conscience. Lencho was an ox of a man, working like an animal in the fields, but still he knew how to write. The following Sunday, at daybreak, after having convinced himself that there is a protecting spirit, he began to write a letter which he himself would carry to town and place in the mail. It was nothing less than a letter to God. "God," he wrote, "if you don't help me, my family and I will go hungry this year. I need a hundred pesos in order to re-sow the field and to live until the crop comes, because the hailstorm ... " He wrote "To God" on the envelope, put the letter inside, and, still troubled, went to town. At the post office he placed a stamp on the letter and dropped it into the mailbox. (How do you think the story wilt go?) One of the employees, who was a postman and also helped at the post office, went to his boss laughing heartily and showed him the letter to God. Never in his career as postman had he known that address. The postmaster—a fat, amiable fellow—also broke out laughing, but almost immediately he turned serious and, tapping the letter on his desk, commented: "What faith! I wish I had the faith of the man who wrote this letter. To believe the way he believes. To hope with the confidence that he knows how to hope with. Starting up a correspondence with God!"
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So, in order not to destroy that wonderful example of faith, revealed by a letter that could not be delivered, the postmaster came up with an idea: answer the letter. But when he opened it, it was evident that to answer it he needed something more than goodwill, ink, and paper. But he stuck to his resolution: he asked for money from his employees, he himself gave part of his salary, and several friends of his were obliged to give something "for an act of charity". It was impossible for him to gather together the hundred pesos, so he was able to send the farmer only a little more than half. He put the bills in an envelope addressed to Lencho and with them a letter containing only a single word as a signature: God. The following Sunday Lencho came a bit earlier than usual to ask if there was a letter for him. It was the postman himself who handed the letter to him, while the postmaster, experiencing the contentment of a man who has performed a good deed, looked on from the doorway of his office. (How do you expect Lencho will react to the letter and the bills?) Lencho showed not the slightest surprise on seeing the bills—such was his confidence—but he became angry when he counted the money ... God could not have made a mistake, nor could he have denied Lencho what he had requested! Immediately, Lencho went up to the window to ask for paper and ink. On the public writing table, he started to write, with much wrinkling of his brow, caused by the effort he had to make to express his ideas. When he finished, he went to the window to buy a stamp which he licked and then stuck to the envelope with a blow of his fist. The moment that the letter fell into the mailbox the postmaster went to open it. It said: "God: of the money that I asked for, only seventy pesos reached me. Send me the rest, since I need it very much. But don't send it to me through the mail, because the post-office employees are a bunch of crooks. Lencho."

Unit 6 Shopping

Consumer Behavior of Young People Marketers are interested in understanding what products will sell well in the youth market. It is also important to appreciate the influence that young people have on the purchases of others, such as parents. In fact, sometimes
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marketers are more interested in young people's influence on other buyers than in their role as the main purchasers of certain items. How do youths spend their incomes? Both female and male teenagers spend most of their money on clothes, CDs, stereo equipment, entertainment, and travel. Young women spend most on cosmetics, followed by clothes and jewelry. Young men spend the most on sporting goods, cameras, CDs, stereo equipment, bicycles, shoes, jeans, musical instruments, and electronic games. As members of a highly consumption-oriented society, teenagers have become increasingly aware of new products and brands. They are natural "triers" and spend hours shopping for themselves. In addition to their direct impact on the marketplace, youths have a secondary influence on many of the products and brands their parents choose. For example, research reveals that three out of four teens influence their parents' purchasing decisions. For major purchases, teens' highest influence occurs in the first stage of the decision-making process and is strongest for aesthetic considerations such as style, color, and make of the product but weakest for decisions such as where and when to purchase and how much money to spend. Apple computer's research showed that teens are influencing family decisions about buying computers. As a result, one of its recent model introductions used contemporary hit radio and computer magazines popular with young people to encourage teens to convince their parents to buy the new product. With the large growth in the number of families of two working parents, youths are doing more of the food shopping and other shopping for parents. For example, one study found that 80 percent of teenagers were "heavily involved" in family food shopping. Kraft recognized the importance of teenage grocery shopping and is advertising in music television programs, in teen magazines, and on contemporary hit radio, emphasizing recipes containing Kraft products. Along with the ad campaign, Kraft also produced an educational kit on "Food Buymanship" which is given to home-economics teachers to distribute to teenagers in school. Thus, it is clear that this market also occupies an important position in terms of its secondary influence on parents' buying decisions. Another factor emphasizing the market importance of the youth is that this is the time when brand loyalties may be formed that could last well into adulthood. For example, a brand-loyalty study done by seventeen magazine found that at least 30 percent of adult women were using the same brands they first chose as teenagers. Translated into total market figures, the findings
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would mean, for instance, that 6,760,000 women still are using the same brand of cosmetics and 8,900,000 still are eating the same kind of packaged cheese that they first bought. During the process of making their buying decision, to what extent are teens influenced by parents, friends, sales clerks, media, or other sources? For many product decisions, friends are the most significant influence. Nevertheless, parents are still an important factor affecting many buying decisions. The important point is that although peer pressure is quite strong, family influences are also significant. Thus, the marketer should know which group, parents or peers, has the most influence at any given time so they can plan their marketing strategies properly. Teenagers often spend hours shopping, especially on weekends. The fact that they are doing more shopping may result in their spending more money in stores they go to. In addition, youths often have a great deal of authority in store-selection decisions, which means that stores must attract them with an effective appeal. Although the popular belief is that young people buy products impulsively and are less rational than the market as a whole, surveys indicate that most respondents aged 14 to 25 compare prices and brands before buying. Research on adolescent shopping behavior has produced the following tentative conclusions: —Adolescents tend to rely more on personal sources for information on sophisticated products such as computers, and most on media for information on more ordinary products such as clothing or cosmetics. —At the product-evaluation stage of the decision process, price and brand name are perceived as the most important criteria, with a relatively low influence coming from parents and peers. —As teenagers mature, they use more sources of consumer information prior to decision making, rely more on friends and less on parents for information and advice in buying, and prefer to purchase products without parental supervision. About Buying Things What the Law Says about Buying Things When you buy something, you and the seller make a contract. Even if all you do is talk! The seller—not the manufacturer—must sort out your complaint. The law has three rules:

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i) Goods must be of marketable quality. This means that they must be reasonably fit for their normal purpose. Bear in mind the price and how the item was described. A new item must not be broken or damaged. It must work properly. But if it is cheap, second-hand or a "second"' you cannot expect top quality. ii) Goods must be as described—on the package, a display sign or by the seller. Shirtsleeves must not be long if marked "short" on the box. Plastic shoes should not be called leather. iii) Goods must be fit for any particular purpose made known to the seller. If the shop says a glue will mend china, then it should. All goods—including those bought in sales—are covered (food too) if bought from a trader—for example, from shops, in street markets, through mail order catalogues or from door-to-door sellers. Please Note If you are entitled to reject something, take it back yourself if you can. It is quicker and you can discuss it face to face. Strictly speaking, the seller should accept it. You may be able to claim extra compensation if you suffer loss from a faulty buy, for example, when a faulty iron ruins clothes. Making Your Complaint To make a complaint: —stop using the item and tell the shop at once; —take it back (if you can); —take a receipt or proof of purchase (if you can); —ask for the manager or owner; —keep calm. If it is a tricky problem it may be better to write. To be on the safe side it is better to use recorded delivery. Keep copies of all letters. Do not send receipts or other proofs of purchase—give reference numbers or send photocopies. If you phone: —first make a note of what you want to say; —have receipts and useful facts handy; —get the name of the person you speak to; —jot down the date and time and what is said; —keep calm! If you see the notice NO REFUNDS you can ignore it. Such notices are illegal, even for sales goods. A trader cannot wriggle out of his responsibility if he sells you faulty goods.

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The Older Subculture Although business people have a very high opinion of the opportunities in the youth market, elderly people have been largely neglected by marketers and frequently by society itself. Many people feel that American marketers have gone too far in attempting to please the youth market and particularly those aged 18 to 34. A recent survey found that over 40 percent of the nation's leading advertisers said the 50-plus market has little impact on their current marketing strategies. An advertising executive observed that markets have long concentrated only on consumers below the age of 49. He noted that "it is as if the world ceases to exist once you are beyond 49. One of the problems with retailing in America is that merchants have lost touch with older customers—their customer has changed, but they have not. Why the neglect? Many marketers consider the youth market to be attractive and exciting, whereas older consumers are thought to be dull and uninteresting. Although this situation may be understandable psychologically, it may make poor economic sense, because middle-aged consumers hold considerably more promise for a wide range of consumer goods and services than do the young. Nevertheless, many Americans—even many marketers—hold negative stereotypes about the 50-plus market that are not based on fact. The following eight myths about this group can limit a company's success in attracting older customers: i. Older consumers are all the same. (Actually this market is comprised of numerous groups.) ii. They think of themselves as old. (" Old age" is typically 15 years older than they are, and doesn't begin until well past 70.) iii. They aren't an important percentage of consumers. (Those 50 and over often have a lot of spending money and they account for almost one-third of spending on refrigerators, floor coverings, new cars, jewelry, and groceries.) iv. They won't try something new. (A survey for one company found that in one year, 45 percent had tried a new brand of cereal, and 30 percent had tried a new canned soup and soft drink brand.) v. They have impaired mental faculties. (Only about 5 percent have serious mental impairment. Moreover, intelligence tests reveal little change from age 17 to 80.) vi. They are in poor health. (Most are not disabled and will remain healthy until their last years.) vii. They keep to themselves. (Many are socially active, are involved as volunteers, and are taking on new responsibilities.)
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viii. They aren't physically active. (A recent Gallup poll revealed almost half of those 65 and over regularly engage in exercise.) Bargains Let us take the orthodox definition of the word bargain. It is something offered at a low and advantageous price. It is an opportunity to buy something at a lower price than it is really worth. A more recent definition is: a bargain is a dirty trick to extort money from the pockets of silly and innocent people. I have never attended a large company's board meeting in my life, but I feel certain that the discussion often takes the following lines. The cost of producing a new toothpaste, for example, would make 80p the decent price for it, so we will market it at 1.20 pounds. It is not a bad toothpaste (not especially good either, but not bad), and as people like to try new things it will sell well to start with: but the attraction of novelty soon fades, so sales will fall. When that starts to happen we will reduce the price to 1.15 pounds. And we will turn it into a bargain by printing 5p OFF all over it, whereupon people will rush to buy it even though it still costs about forty-three percent more than its fair price. Sometimes it is not 5p OFF but 1p OFF. What breathtaking impertinence to advertise 1p OFF your soap or washing powder or dog food or whatever. Even the poorest old-age pensioner ought to regard this as an insult, but he doesn't. A bargain must not be missed. To be offered a "gift" of one penny is like being invited to dinner and offered one single pea (tastily cooked), and nothing else. Even if it represented a real reduction it would be an insult. Still people say, one has to have washing powder (or whatever) and one might as well buy it a penny cheaper. When I was a boy in Hungary a man was accused of murdering someone for the sake of one pengo, the equivalent of a shilling, and pleaded guilty. The judge was outraged: "To kill a man for a shilling! ... What can you say in your defence?" The murderer replied: "A shilling here ... a shilling there ... " And that's what today's shopper says, too: "A penny here ... a penny there ... " The real danger starts when utterly unnecessary things become "bargains". There is a huge number of people who just cannot resist bargains and sales. Provided they think they are getting a bargain they will buy clothes they will never wear, furniture they have no space for. Old ladies will buy roller-skates and non-smokers will buy pipe-cleaners. And I once heard of a man who bought an electric circular saw as a bargain and cut off two of his fingers the next day. But he had no regrets: the saw had been really cheap.

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Quite a few people actually believe that they make money on such bargains. A lady I know, otherwise a charming and seemingly sane woman sometimes tells me stories such as this: "I've had a lucky day today. I bought a dress for 120 pounds, reduced from 400 pounds; I bought a suitcase for 40 pounds, reduced from 120 pounds and I bought a beautiful Persian carpet for 600 pounds, reduced from 900 pounds." Perhaps she may add vaguely that she has been a trifle extravagant, but it will never occur to her that she has actually wasted 760 pounds. She feels as though she has made 660 pounds. She also feels, I am sure, that if she had more time for shopping, she could make a living out of it. Some people buy in bulk because it is cheaper. At certain moments New Zealand lamb chops may be 3p cheaper if you buy half a ton of them, so people rush to buy a freezer just to find out later that it is too small to hold half a ton of New Zealand lamb. I once knew a couple who could not resist buying sugar in bulk. They thought it a tremendous bargain, not to be missed, so they bought enough sugar for their lifetime and the lifetime of their children and grandchildren. When the sugar arrived they didn't know where to store it—until they realized that their loo was a very spacious one. So that was where they piled up their sugar. Not only did their guests feel rather strange whenever they were offered sugar to put into their coffee, but the loo became extremely sticky. To offer bargains is a commercial trick to make the poor poorer. When greedy fools fall for this trick, it serves them right. All the same, if bargains were prohibited by law our standard of living would immediately rise by 7.39 per cent.

Unit 7 Emotions and Health

The Secrets of Good Health Exercise. Eat right. Don't smoke. These are some of the most common words of advice to people who wish to stay healthy. But a growing amount of scientific research shows that there is another, equally important, aspect to staying well, peace of mind. Think about how your heart races while you are waiting to be called into the doctor's office or how unhappy a bad headache can make you. There is a two-way connection between mind and body. When one is bothered, the other feels it. At the heart of the communications network are brain chemicals called
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neurotransmitters which communicate messages not only within the brain, but also within the body. One key receptor, the immune system, is a network of cells and organs that work to fight off viruses and bacteria. When you experience joy, fear, or relaxation, the immune system may increase or decrease production of disease-fighting cells, thus helping you to fight off the flu, or even cancer. By now, how the immune system is affected by stress has been well documented. In one study involving newlywed couples, for example, those who showed hostile behavior during a 30-minute discussion about marriage problems had lower immune functioning for the 24-hour period following the experiment than people who showed less negative behavior. It is not just stress that can do damage. One researcher thought that if the same cold virus was put under two different noses, the person who is depressed or anxious or pessimistic would be more likely to develop the cold. What is it about stress and related emotions that can encourage poor health? These feelings can cause the production of substances that damage or weaken our immune cells. Negative emotions can also cause our bodies to produce fewer immuno-transmitters which ultimately help fight off disease. If stress, depression, anger and other negative feelings can make you more likely to get sick, can the reverse be true? Will you have a stronger immune response and greater health if you are happier, less stressed, and more optimistic? Experts believe that the answer is yes. There are studies showing that by employing certain mind-body techniques that help reduce stress and improve outlook, cancer patients can live longer. But cancer patients aren't the only ones who can benefit. Certain mind-body techniques can help all of us. Research has found that when patients with chronic pain used relaxation therapies and other behavioral techniques to manage discomfort, they reduced their visits to the doctor by 36 percent. Relaxation produces better health through deep, rhythmic breathing, muscle loosening, and a slower heart rate. When some of the tension is taken out of the body, the strain is taken off the entire system. Relaxation decreases blood pressure, heart rate and respiration and increases one's sense of well-being. That is important because a body that is constantly tense will eventually give out. There are dozens of mind-body techniques for you to choose from. The key is to find one you're comfortable with and then do it regularly. Simply writing about negative, unpleasant events may actually boost your immunity according to researchers. Scientists are not completely sure why it works, but they know that when individuals write, it helps them organize events, which in turn gives them more understanding of the situation. When you can give a stressful experience meaning through writing, you don't think about it or worry
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about it as much. And when you reduce stress, you boost immune functioning. How much you write or how long you write depends upon how much stress you feel about the event. One doctor suggests that people write until they aretired of writing and then read over what they have written. This helps make more sense of it. Also, just talking about a stressful experience with a friend can have the same positive effect. Study after study has shown that people with good support systems—caring, helpful family, friends and co-workers—have better health. Researchers think that the understanding we get from them reduces stress, which in turn helps the immune system. As one psychologist states, "When you have someone who loves you and cares about you to share your problems and feelings with, you don't feel you have to fight your problems, or the world, alone." Another interesting study has shown that the more diverse your social network, the better, that people who have a number of different social relationships have a lower risk of getting colds than those with fewer. There are other fast but effective mind-body relaxation techniques. One could be called "belly breathing." Sit in a comfortable chair in a quiet room. Close your eyes. Breathe through your nose, fill your lungs with air, then slowly release the breath through your mouth. Another technique could be called "mindfulness." Take a slow walk and be aware of exactly what is happening to you at each moment—whether the wind is on your face, an insect is flying near you, or you hear birds singing. Even if you continue thinking about problems, you will become calmer and distance yourself from your problems. If you are at home, you might dance. Put on some fast music, close the door, and let yourself go. The dancing will energize you and that alone will make you feel better. Whichever mind-body techniques work best for you, never rely on them and them alone to keep you mentally and physically well. Like exercise, good nutrition and proper medical care, methods such as relaxation therapies are only one part of the recipe for good health. Still, they are an important ingredient. Your Anger Can Kill You For well over 2000 years the world's great religions have taught the virtues of a trusting heart. Now there is another reason to heed the wisdom of the ages: scientific evidence indicates that those with trusting hearts will live longer, healthier lives.

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As a result of the work published in the US by two pioneering cardiologists, Meyer Friedman and Ray H. Rosenman, nearly every American is aware that Type A people are impatient and easily moved to hostility and anger. Many have come to believe that Type A's are at much higher risk of suffering a heart attack or dying of coronary disease than others. Just as the public was about to add Type A behavior to the list of cardiac risk factors—such as smoking, high cholesterol levels, high blood pressure and lack of physical exercise—reports began to appear suggesting that the Type A story was not so simple. New studies failed to find an increased risk of heart attack in all Type A's. But recent research is clarifying and refining our understanding of the problem. The good news is that not all aspects of Type A behavior are equally toxic. Recent research shows that being in a hurry appears harmful only as it aggravates one's hostility. Now for the bad news: hostility and anger can be fatal. They not only raise the odds that you will develop coronary heart disease but may also increase your risk of suffering other life-threatening illnesses. If yours is a hostile heart, it is important that you learn to reduce your anger. The driving force behind hostility is a cynical mistrust of others. If we expect others to mistreat us, we are seldom disappointed. This generates anger and leads us to respond with aggression. The most characteristic attitude of a cynic is suspicion of the motives of people he doesn't know. Imagine you are waiting for an elevator and it stops two floors above for longer than usual. How inconsiderate! you think. If people want to carry on a conversation, why don't they get off the elevator so the rest of us can get where we're going! You have no way of knowing what is causing the delay. Yet, in a few seconds, you have drawn hostile conclusions about unseen people and their motives. Meanwhile, your cynical mistrust is triggering an outpouring of adrenalin and other stress hormones, with noticeable physical consequences. Your voice changes to a higher pitch. The rate and depth of your breathing increases. Your heart is beating faster and harder, and the muscles of your arms and legs tighten. You feel full of energy and ready for action. If you frequently experience these feelings, your anger quotient is too high, and you may be at increased risk of developing serious health problems. The cumulative effect of the hormones released during these anger episodes can add to the risk of coronary and other diseases. Over time, sadly, it becomes easier for the hostile heart to express anger. Do you often show your irritation to someone you just met? This can range from the mild (" I believe you have too many items in your basket for this
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express checkout lane") to the not-so-mild (" Hey, you can't go through this line with that many items!"). The first clue that your behavior in a situation is hostile can be gleaned from your answer to the question "What is my purpose in doing this?" If it is to punish the other person for what he has done, then you are guilty as charged. Is it possible to reduce your hostility, to become more trusting? Research on heart-attack prevention conducted by cardiologist Meyer Friedman's group is encouraging. He and his colleagues recruited 1,013 heart-attack victims—nearly all Type A's—to participate in the study. Cardiologists counseled a group of the volunteers about their diet and exercise habits. Another group received the same counseling plus a program to reduce their Type A behavior. Assessments after 4.5 years showed that the group receiving both cardiac and behavioral counseling had decreased its dangerous Type A behavior by a substantial degree. Those in the comparison group had done so to only a limited extent. More important, there was a 45 % reduction in the rates of mortality and recurrent heart problems among those who modified their behavior. It follows, then, that reducing anger should help prevent a first heart attack. How to Live to Be 100 Living until 100 isn't possible for everyone, still most of us can take steps to lengthen our lives. Here's how to vastly improve your chances of a long, happy, healthy, and productive life. Why do we age? No one knows why our bodies seem to wear out, but most guesses fall into one of two categories. We can describe these as "wear and tear" and "alarm clocks". The "wear and tear" side argues that aging reflects a lifetime of accumulated damage to cells and organs. This damage arises from natural sources like cosmic rays and minor errors in the body's chemical reactions and from self-caused choices like smoking cigarettes and eating too much fat. The "alarm clocks" side argues that the aging process is programmed into our genes. Thus aging is a scheduled event much like one's first permanent tooth. Of course everyone's biological alarm clock is set differently and there is no way of knowing when it will go off for any individual. However, both the "wear and tear" and the "alarm clocks" theorists agree on one important point: Most of us waste some of our allotment of time, and we could add 20 years to our life expectancy if we all adopted better living habits.

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The best place to begin living longer is at the dinner table. Everything from cancer to heart disease to diabetes can be caused or made worse by a lifetime of bad eating habits. Eating less fat is the most important thing for most people. That is the best way to lower the amount of cholesterol in the blood. Exercise is essential. Vigorous exercise can slow the aging process. One research group found that a group of intensively trained athletes aged 55 or older, men who jogged or ran as much as 50 miles a week, were as fit in many respects as were healthy 25-year-old athletes. Another study shows that among 17,000 Harvard University graduates, those who exercised regularly and vigorously after graduation had death rates a quarter to a third lower than their classmates who did not exercise. Of course, there are obvious things that people need to remind themselves of from time to time: Don't leave poisons in the medicine cabinet where "sleepy" hands can find them in the night; don't daydream while crossing the street; when driving a car, don't drive at excessive speed. People should also stop damaging their bodies with drugs, including cigarettes and too much alcohol. If they will do this, they will probably add years to their lives. Studies show that the body can often begin to reverse the ill effects of such damage even in later years. It really is never too late to quit smoking or heavy drinking. The most heartening possibilities of all for longer life have been found in the area of mental outlook. Keeping mentally active will increase one's chances of staying healthy farther into one's senior years. One study of healthy individuals whose average age was 71 indicated that the people in the group who had high goals and interests as well as a high degree of organization in their lives were the ones who lived longer. The nature of the interest was not important. It could be interest in a grandchild, in community activities, or even the success of some sports team, just as long as there was strong interest. Researchers have also found that the interests that keep older people going can be solitary as well as shared with others. Other research studies have found that the best predictor of one's longevity is the age at which one's parents die. If they lived a long life, chances are good that their children will also. Many studies have also shown that married people get sick less and live longer than those who remain single.

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Unit 8 Social Problems

Latchkey Children—Knock, Knock, Is Anybody Home? In the United States the cost of living has been steadily rising for the past few decades. Food prices, clothing costs, housing expenses, and tuition fees are constantly getting higher and higher. Partly because of financial need, and partly because of career choices for personal fulfillment, mothers have been leaving the traditional role of full-time homemaker. Increasingly they have been taking salaried jobs outside the home. Making such a significant role change affects the entire family, especially the children. Some consequences are obvious. For example, dinnertime is at a later hour. The emotional impact, on the other hand, can be more subtle. Mothers leave home in the morning, feeling guilty because they will not be home when their children return from school. They suppress their guilt since they believe that their work will benefit everyone in the long run. The income will enable the family to save for college tuition, take an extended vacation, buy a new car, and so on. The emotional impact on the children can be significant. It is quite common for children to feel hurt and resentful. After all, they are alone several hours, and they feel that their mothers should "be there" for them. They might need assistance with their homework or want to share the day's activities. All too often, however, the mothers arrive home exhausted and face the immediate task of preparing dinner. Their priority is making the evening meal for the family, not engaging in relaxed conversation. Latchkey children range in age from six to thirteen. On a daily basis they return from school and unlock the door to their home with the key hanging around their necks. They are now on their own, alone, in quiet, empty rooms. For some youngsters, it is a productive period of private time, while for others it is a frightening, lonely void. For reasons of safety, many parents forbid their children to go out to play or to have visitors at home. The youngsters, therefore, feel isolated. Latchkey children who were interviewed reported diverse reactions. Some latchkey children said that being on their own for a few hours each day fostered, or stimulated, a sense of independence and responsibility. They felt loved and trusted, and this feeling encouraged them to be self-confident. Latchkey girls, by observing how their mothers coped with the demands of a family and a job, learned the role model of a working mother. Some children stated that they used their unsupervised free time to perfect their athletic skills,
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such as playing basketball. Others read books or practiced a musical instrument. These children looked upon their free time after school as an opportunity for personal development. It led to positive, productive, and valuable experiences. Conversely, many latchkey children expressed much bitterness, resentment, and anger for being made to live in this fashion. Many claimed that too much responsibility was placed on them at an early age; it was an overwhelming burden. They were little people who really wanted to be protected, encouraged, and cared for through attention from their mothers. Coming home to an empty house was disappointing, lonely, and often frightening. They felt abandoned by their mothers. After all, it seemed to them that most other children had "normal" families whose mothers were "around," whereas their own mothers were never home. Many children turned on the television for the whole afternoon day after day, in order to diminish feelings of isolation; furthermore, the voices were comforting. Frequently, they would doze off. Because of either economic necessity or strong determination for personal fulfillment, or both, the phenomenon of latchkey children is widespread in our society. Whatever the reason, it is a compelling situation with which families must cope. The question to ask is not whether or not mothers should work full-time. Given the reality of the situation, the question to ask is: how can an optimum plan be worked out to deal effectively with the situation. It is advisable for all members of the family to express their feelings and concerns about the inevitable change candidly. These remarks should be discussed fully. Many factors must be taken into consideration: the children's personality and maturity, the amount of time the children will be alone, the safety of the neighborhood, accessibility of help in case of an emergency. Of supreme importance is the quality of the relationship between parents and children. It is most important that the children be secure in the knowledge that they are loved. Feeling loved provides invaluable emotional strength to cope successfully with almost any difficulty that arises in life. It's a Mugger's Game in Manhattan Martin had lived in New York for forty years and never been mugged once. This did not make him confident—on the contrary, it terrified him. The way he saw it, he was now the most likely person in Manhattan to get mugged next. "What are the odds of my getting mugged?" he asked his friend Lenny. "How much are you willing to bet?" said Lenny, who was a compulsive gambler.
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"Oh come on, this is too important to bet on!" "Nothing is too important to bet on," said Lenny, shocked. That was the end of their friendship. "How do you think I can avoid getting mugged?" Martin asked his friend Grace. Grace had not been outside her apartment in five years, as a sure-fire way of avoiding being mugged. It had failed; someone had broken in and mugged her. "I've no idea, Martin," she said. "Most of these guys are on drugs anyway, and they need the money for their addiction." This gave Martin an idea. If the muggers only needed the money for drugs, why didn't he offer them drugs instead? Then possibly they would be so grateful they wouldn't harm him. Through some rich friends he knew he bought small quantities of heroin and cocaine. He had never touched the stuff himself, so he had to label them carefully to make sure he didn't get them mixed up. One day he was walking in a part of Central Park he shouldn't have been in (the part where there is grass and trees) when three men leapt out at him. One was black, one was Puerto Rican and one was Caucasian. Well, at least mugging is being integrated he thought. "You want drugs?" he cried. "I've got drugs! Anything you want you can have. Just name it. But don't touch me!" The three men let go of him respectfully. "We almost made a big mistake there," said one of them. "This guy's a pusher. Hurt him, and we could have the Mafia down on us. Let's see what you got, mister." Somewhat to his surprise Martin found himself displaying his wares to his clientele. Even more to his surprise, he found himself accepting money for the drugs, much more than he'd paid for them. "How come you guys have all this money?" He said. "Why are you out mugging if you have money?" "Well, we're not real muggers," said the Caucasian embarrassed. "We're out-of-work actors." "I thought out-of-work showbiz people always became waiters or barmen," said Martin. "Right. But there are so many showbiz people in catering now that you can't get work as waiters. So we had to get work as muggers. When Martin got home, he bought some more drugs from his friend. Pretty soon he sold them to some more muggers. Pretty soon after that he found he was spending more and more time pushing drugs, and making more

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and more money at it. Being afraid of muggings had turned him into a professional drug-pusher. One day a man leapt out at him and grabbed him. "You want drugs?" said Martin. "I got drugs. "I want money," said a familiar voice. "Lenny!" cried Martin. "How're you doing?" "Badly," said Lenny. "I lost everything gambling." He hit Martin over the head and took his money, wallet and all his credit cards, leaving the little packets of white powder behind. Thief He is waiting at the airline ticket counter when he first notices the young woman. She has glossy black hair pulled tightly into a knot at the back of her head—the man imagines it loosened and falling to the small of her back—and carries over the shoulder of her leather coat a heavy black purse. She wears black boots of soft leather. He struggles to see her face—she is ahead of him in line—but it is not until she has bought her ticket and turns to walk away that he realizes her beauty, which is pale and dark-eyed and full-mouthed, and which quickens his heartbeat. She seems aware that he is staring at her and lowers her gaze abruptly. The airline clerk interrupts. The man gives up looking at the woman—he thinks she may be about twenty-five—and buys a round-trip, coach class ticket to an eastern city. His flight leaves in an hour. To kill time, the man steps into one of the airport cocktail bars and orders a Scotch and water. While he sips it he watches the flow of travelers through the terminal—including a remarkable number, he thinks, of unmarried pretty women dressed in fashion magazine clothes—until he catches sight of the black-haired girl in the leather coat. She is standing near a Travelers Aid counter, deep in conversation with a second girl, a blonde in a cloth coat trimmed with gray fur. He wants somehow to attract the brunette's attention, to invite her to have a drink with him before her own flight leaves for wherever she is traveling, but even though he believes for a moment she is looking his way he cannot catch her eye from out of the shadows of the bar. In another instant the two women separate; neither of their directions is toward him. He orders a second Scotch and water. When next he sees her, he is buying a magazine to read during the flight and he becomes aware that someone is pushing him. At first he is startled that

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anyone would be so close as to touch him, but when he sees who it is he musters a smile. "Busy place," he says. She looks up at him—Is she blushing?—and an odd grimace crosses her mouth and vanishes. She moves away from him and joins the crowds in the terminal. The man is at the counter with his magazine, but when he reaches into his back pocket for his wallet the pocket is empty. Where could I have lost it? He thinks. His mind begins enumerating the credit cards, the currency, the membership and identification cards; his stomach churns with something very like fear. The girl who was so near to me, he thinks—and all at once he understands that she has picked his pocket. 8 What is he to do? He still has his ticket, safely tucked inside his coat—he reaches into the jacket to feel the envelope, to make sure. He can take the flight, call someone to pick him up at his destination—since he cannot even afford bus fare—conduct his business and fly home. But in the meantime he will have to do something about the lost credit cards—call home, have his wife get the numbers out of the top desk drawer, phone the card companies—so difficult a process, the whole thing suffocating. What shall he do? First: Find a policeman, tell what has happened, describe the young woman; damn her, he thinks, for seeming to be attentive to him, to let herself stand so close to him, to blush prettily when he spoke—and all the time she wanted only to steal from him. And her blush was not shyness but the anxiety of being caught; that was most disturbing of all. Damned deceitful creatures. He will spare the policeman the details—just tell what she has done, what is in the wallet. He grits his teeth. He will probably never see his wallet again. He is trying to decide if he should save time by talking to a guard near the X-ray machines when he is appalled—and extremely happy—to see the black-haired girl. She is seated against a front window of the terminal, taxis and private cars moving slowly beyond her in the gathering darkness she seems interested in a book. A seat beside her is empty, and the man occupies it. "I've been looking for you," he said. She glances at him with no sort of recognition. "I don't know you," she says. "Sure you do." She sighs and puts the book aside. "Is this all you characters think about—picking up girls like we were stray animals? What do you think I am?" "You lifted my wallet," he says. He is pleased to have said "lifted," thinking it sounds more worldly than stole or took or even ripped off. "I beg your pardon?" the girl says.
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"I know you did—at the magazine counter. If you'll just give it back, we can forget the whole thing. If you don't, then I'll hand you over to the police." She studies him, her face serious, "All right," she says. She pulls the black bag onto her lap, reaches into it and draws out a wallet. He takes it from her. "Wait a minute," he says. "This isn't mine." The girl runs; he runs after her. It is like a scene in a movie—bystanders scattering, the girl zigzagging to avoid collisions, the sound of his own breathing reminding him how old he is—until he hears a woman's voice behind him: "Stop, thief! Stop that man!" Ahead of him the brunette disappears around a corner and in the same moment a young man in a marine uniform puts out a foot to trip him up. He falls hard, banging knee and elbow on the tile floor of the terminal, but manages to hang on to the wallet which is not his. The wallet is a woman's, fat with money and credit cards from different stores, and it belongs to the blonde in the fur-trimmed coat—the blonde he has earlier seen in conversation with the criminal brunette. She, too, is breathless, as is the policeman with her. "That's him," the blonde girl says. "He lifted my wallet." It occurs to the man that he cannot even prove his own identity to the policeman. Two weeks later—the embarrassment and rage have diminished, the family lawyer has been paid, the confusion in his household has receded—the wallet turns up without explanation in one morning's mail. It is intact, no money is missing, all the cards are in place. Though he is relieved, the man thinks that for the rest of his life he will feel guilty around policemen, and ashamed in the presence of women.

Unit 9 The Joy of Travel

Transformative Travel Twenty-five years ago I felt like a wreck. Although I was just 23, my life already seemed over. The future appeared as much like a wasteland as the emptiness I could see while looking back to the past. I felt lost, without choices, without hope. I was stuck in a job I hated and trapped in an engagement with a woman I didn't love. At the time, both commitments seemed like a good idea, but I
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suppose it was the fantasy of being a successful, married businessman that appealed to me far more than the reality. I decided to take a class just for the entertainment value. It happened to be an introductory counseling course, one that involved personal sharing in the group. We were challenged to make commitments publicly about things we would like to change in our lives, and in a moment of pure impulsiveness, I declared that by the next class meeting I was going to quit my job and end my engagement. A few days later I found myself unemployed and unattached, excited by the freedom, yet terrified about what to do next. I needed some kind of transition from my old life to a new one, a sort of ritual that would help me to transform myself from one person into another. So I did something just as impulsive as my previous actions: I booked a trip for a week in Aruba. In spite of what others might have thought, I was not running away from something but to something. I wanted a clean break, and I knew I needed to get away from my usual environment and influences so as to think clearly about where I was headed. Once settled into my room on the little island of Aruba, I began my process of self-change. I really could have been anywhere as long as nobody could reach me by phone and I had the peace and quiet to think about what I wanted to do. I spent the mornings going for long walks on the beach, the afternoons sitting under my favorite tree, reading books and listening to tapes. Probably most important of all, I forced myself to get out of my room and go to meet people. Ordinarily shy, I now decided that I was someone who was perfectly capable of having a conversation with anyone I chose. Since nobody knew the "real" me, the way I had always been, I felt free to be completely different. It took me almost a year to pay off that trip, but I am convinced that my single week in Aruba was worth three years in therapy. That trip started a number of processes that helped me to transform myself. This is how I did it: I created a mindset that made me ready for change. I expected that big things were on the horizon, that a trip such as this could change my life. I believed with all my heart that I could change, if only I could find a quiet place to sort things out and experiment with new ways of thinking and acting. I insulated myself from the usual influences in my life and the people whose approval was most important. One of the reasons that therapy often takes so long is that, once you leave the safety and support of a session, you reenter the world where familiar people elicit the familiar reactions. By separating myself from others' approval and influences, I was able to think more clearly about what I really wanted.
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I structured my time in order to produce change and growth. Solitude, isolation, or new environments in themselves are not enough; you must also complete tasks that are relaxing and educational. The most important part of any therapy is not what you understand or what you talk about, but what you do. Insight without action is entertaining but not always helpful. Instead of reading novels and calling home regularly, I took the time to participate in different activities that would make me change. I pushed myself to experiment with new ways of being. I sampled alternative lifestyles and pretended to be a different person. I acted in unfamiliar ways just to see how it felt. Whatever I would usually do in various circumstances, I forced myself to do the opposite. This reinforced the idea that anything was possible, that I could do anything I wanted. I made public commitments of what I intended to do so it would be harder to back down. There were times when I wanted to avoid doing those things I found most frightening. Until this trip, I had never traveled to a strange place deliberately alone. Whenever I thought about taking safe routes, I imagined that I would soon have to face my classmates and that I would have to explain my actions to them. I processed my experiences systematically. I wrote in a journal each day and spoke to people I met about what I was doing and why. When I returned, I talked to several people I trusted about what had taken place. Each of them offered a different perspective that I valued and found useful in incorporating the experience into my life. I made changes when I returned that continued the transformation that started while I was in Aruba. It is easier to make changes when you are away from home than to maintain the changes after you return. To make sure I didn't slip back into old patterns, I immediately made new decisions about my work and my relationships that kept me moving forward. I decided that much of my future traveling would have some transformative dimension to it. Although it is possible to make extraordinary progress in a single week, transformative change takes place over a lifetime. I promised myself that I would make other trips from time to time in order to continue my growth. The Romance of Train Travel If there is one main characteristic of the modern world that makes our lives different from our grandparents, it is probably speed. We are always on the move, and we don't have much patience with slow systems of
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transportation. We want to get there, and we want to do it fast! Carmakers, airline owners, and the planners of mass transit systems all share a common goal. They are all trying to provide us with faster and faster ways to reach our destinations. Nevertheless, many of us actually want to slow down. Although we complain when our plane isn't on schedule or when we have to wait in a traffic jam, we also complain about always being in a hurry. Every once in a while, we hear the sound of a train whistle—clear and high in the night air—and we feel sad. There is a strong sense of nostalgia for other places and other times, when life was slower and, perhaps, better. Why does a train whistle bring on a feeling of nostalgia? Perhaps it's because many of us remember a favorite novel or movie that took place on a train, and the story told of danger and excitement. There's a sense of romance about a train that simply doesn't exist on a modern jet plane. Several railroad companies are taking advantage of the nostalgia for train travel: They are offering unique tours for travelers who aren't in a hurry and who enjoy the romance of the past. For almost a hundred years, the famous Orient Express carried royalty, the rich, spies, and dangerous international criminals. It was the scene of mystery, crime, and often history. But after World War II, when air travel became popular, it never got back its old sense of romance, and it finally went out of business in 1977. Soon after that, however, an American businessman began to buy the old Orient Express cars and fix them up. He restored the train to its former condition, and since 1982, the train has run twice a week from London to Venice and back. Although the twenty-four-hour trip doesn't offer the danger and excitement—the adventure—of the past, it offers luxury: rich dark wood, fresh flowers, champagne, very special food, and live entertainment in a bar car with a piano. Another famous excursion by train is the Trans-Siberian Special, which makes just three trips each summer from Mongolia to Moscow. As passengers board the train at the beginning of their trip, they toast one another with Russian vodka at a welcoming party. For the next week they cross the former Soviet Union with occasional stops for sightseeing in big cities and small villages. In addition, there is a bonus on this trip; this extra advantage is a daily lecture on board the train in which an expert explains Russian history and culture to the passengers. If you are looking for fun and adventure, you might want to try the "Mystery Express", which runs from New York to Montreal, Canada. This trip interests people who have always wanted to play a role in an Agatha Christie play or a Sherlock Holmes detective novel. A typical journey on the Mystery
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Express offers the opportunity to solve a challenging murder mystery right there on the train. In the middle of the night, for instance, there might be a gunshot; soon, the passengers learn that there has been a "murder" on board. For the rest of the trip, everyone on board participates in solving this mystery by exchanging information and opinions about the crime. By the time the train has pulled into Montreal, the traveling "detectives" will have figured it out and caught the "criminal." Of course, no real crime takes place. The "murderer"—as well as several other passengers—are actually actors. The trip is a safe, entertaining, and very creative weekend game. If you're looking for variety and beauty on a train journey, you might want to try the trains of India. The Indian government offers several special tours. One, a fifty-mile trip on the famous "Toy Train," takes seven hours one way. The train travels through rich, luxurious forests with flowers, trees, and more than six hundred varieties of birds. Before it reaches its destination, it makes several stops so that passengers can take photographs or have picnics if they want to. Another tour, "Palace on Wheels," is for travelers with more time and money. Each of the luxurious cars on this train used to belong to an Indian prince. For seven days, passengers go sightseeing to palaces and cities where musicians, camels, and women with flowers meet them. Perhaps the most unusual Indian train is "The Great Indian Rover," for travelers who are interested in religion. On this six-day tour from Calcutta, passengers travel to a town in Nepal, where Buddha was born, and also to the place where Prince Gautama sat under the bodhi tree and became Buddha. Aruba "The greatness of our people is their great cordiality" is a line from the national anthem of Aruba, and from the moment one sets foot on this beautiful island in the center of the blue Caribbean Sea, this will be found to be true. The Arubans, descended from native Arawak Indians and Spanish and Dutch settlers, offer a warm welcome at any time of the year, but they show unusual hospitality and special happiness during the New Year's holiday, when the island's many gambling casinos and night clubs as well as other types of entertainment places celebrate the New Year with great festivity and warmth. A spectacular midnight fireworks display will add to the celebration and musicians will walk from house to house singing good-luck greetings for the New Year.

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But before putting on a party dress (dressing up is expected at Aruba's night clubs) one should see the island's many spectacular daytime attractions. Sunbathers and swimmers can stretch out on seven miles of beautiful sunny beaches. They can also head to the northern coast with its uncrowded beaches and snow-white sand dunes. Divers will marvel at one of the Caribbean's largest shipwrecks, a 400-foot World War II German freighter that was abandoned by its crew and later sank off one of the famous beaches. Experienced divers will want to explore the notorious CALIFORNIA, the only ship that received the sinking TITANIC's distress signals in that Atlantic Ocean tragedy. Unfortunately, the CALIFORNIA failed to respond, thus it will be known forever as the "notorious" CALIFORNIA. Experienced windsurfers can ride the fast-moving waves off the island, but beginners will want to try the calmer, shallower water near the shore, and divers will find many reefs full of colorful undersea life including coral, marine worms, and fish of unbelievable variety in color, shape and size. Aruba also has many sports facilities for sailing, deep-sea fishing, water-skiing, golf, tennis, horseback riding, and less demanding activities like shuffle-board, table tennis, and countless board and card games Of course, there's more to Aruba than sunny beaches and nightclubs. The island boasts a fascinating history and has many historic sites to show for it. These range from the Stone Age cave-wall drawings at the National Park to the marvelous 20th-century Dutch architecture in the capital city. For natural wonders, there are the back roads of the northern coast where strange looking trees and rock formations can be seen. The Natural Bridge, a dramatic coral structure 100 feet long and rising 25 feet above sea level, is also a favorite scene along the northern coast road. And if a woman forgets to bring her beautiful dress for New Year's, there is no big worry—Aruba is a shopper's paradise. There are wonderful boutiques and duty-free stores throughout the capital and in the more than a dozen shopping malls and many luxury hotels. If one is dressed for an elegant evening of entertainment, the casinos are places where one can place bets and hope to win a fortune. Win or lose, a person is always lucky while visiting the fantastic island of Aruba! Caribbean beaches are famous, but the cordiality experienced in Aruba makes it a true jewel in the crown of Caribbean islands.

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Unit 10 Men and Animals

Aggression in Humans and Animals Man must be the most aggressive and cruel of all living creatures. We may say a violent man is behaving "like a beast", but, in fact, no beast behaves as violently as man. When a territorial animal or bird intrudes on the territory of another creature of the same species, the latter will only perform some hostile gestures to warn off the intruder. Nevertheless, should a fight follow, neither creature will be badly hurt, for the loser will save himself by making a gesture of submission. Normally one animal will only kill another for food, and rarely does an animal kill a member of its own species. If, however, an animal finds itself in abnormal conditions, it may show abnormal aggressiveness. A tiger that once came out of the jungle into a village and attacked a man was later found to have an injured paw that had evidently prevented it from hunting its usual prey. If it had not had this disability it would have undoubtedly stayed in the jungle and hunted for food in the customary way. Animals in zoos are kept in cages and often become more aggressive than they would be in the wild. If the caged lion, for example, were free to wander on the grassy plains of Africa, it would be continually active, ranging over long distances, hunting in family groups. In the zoo it is probably better fed and cared for, but it is evidently bored and frustrated for lack of company. Some zoologists and psychologists compare modern man to a caged lion. Living conditions in crowded cities, they say, are similar to those of animals in a zoo and make the inhabitants unusually aggressive. If the human population had not increased so rapidly, people would have had more space and freedom. In prehistoric times a group of about 60 people had many kilometres of empty land to wander and search for food in. If conditions had remained thus, man might have been no more aggressive than his fellow creatures. As it is, it is possible for as many as 30,000 people to be working in a single office-building. It is not surprising if in these conditions people behave aggressively towards each other. In fact, it is almost impossible for them to behave otherwise. Man must have become more aggressive over the years as the world population has increased. However, aggression in itself is not necessarily a bad thing. Some psychologists believe that aggression is a basic human instinct that must be satisfied. If constructive means are not available to satisfy this instinct, man will turn to destructive means. The impulse to assert himself has enabled him to survive in a dangerous world, but, ironically, he is now likely to destroy his own
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species unless alternative, non-violent ways of expressing aggression can be found. In fact, it is growing more and more difficult for people to assert themselves as individuals, as towns, nations and organizations become steadily bigger, with authority increasingly centralized and remote. A man who may once have been a self-employed craftsman, master of his own trade, might now have a boring job in a factory. A small firm that once worked as a team to produce high-quality goods is likely to be absorbed into a vast organization where their work is mechanical and there is no possibility for personal expression. Unable in these conditions to channel their aggression into creative work, people will probably express it through resentment and anger. At the international level an accumulation of hostile emotions finally finds expression in large-scale impersonal warfare. A man who would hesitate to hit another person in front of his eyes may kill thousands of people by dropping a bomb from a plane; to him they are too remote to be human beings, but are merely figures on a chart of his routine job. Nevertheless, it might be possible at least to improve the situation. The encouragement of competition in all possible fields should tend to diminish the likelihood of war rather than increase it. In his book Human Aggression, Anthony Storr suggested that the United Nations should organize international competitions in sports and also for the best designed house or hospital, or the safest car. Even the enormous amount of money and energy devoted to the space race is, he says, to be welcomed, for this kind of competition can be regarded as similar to the ritual conflicts of animals. Only if hostility and aggression can be expressed in constructive activity and non-violent competition, will the human race be able to survive. Should the Navy Draft Dolphins? First they risked their lives guarding American ships in Vietnam. Next, they protected a fleet of Naval boats from mines and enemy frogmen in the Persian Gulf. Now, they may guard submarines armed with nuclear weapons in Washington's Puget Sound. Who are they? Dolphins. The Navy plans to recruit 16 of them as underwater watchdogs. The plan has set off a storm of controversy. The Navy recognizes that the dolphins are highly intelligent. They say dolphins are easy to train and important in protecting against surprise attacks by enemy submarines. But animal rights groups and dolphin trainers protest. They charge that it's wrong to recruit the animals in the military.
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It's immoral for people to use animals in their own wars, says Mitchell Fox, of the Progressive Animal Welfare Society (PAWS). PAWS is one of 15 animal rights groups who have joined together to take the Navy to court. The groups charge that the Navy's plan violates federal laws that protect animals from being mistreated. For instance, says Fox, the Navy plans to use Atlantic bottle-nosed dolphins captured in the Gulf of Mexico's warm water. Putting them into Puget Sound's icy cold water could kill them, he says. One dolphin died suddenly just 11 days after arriving at the Navy's submarine base in Washington. But the Navy says they take very good care of their dolphins. "It would be foolish to jeopardize them, mistreat them, or put them in an unsafe area," says Navy spokesman Lt. James Wood. "It would just be wasting our money and effort." In the past four years, he says, the Navy has spent $ 32 million training marine mammals. 9 If the dolphins don't like the training, they can easily swim away, Lt. Wood points out. In May 1988, Science magazine reports, five dolphins had a chance to swim free when someone cut the nets at a Navy training center in San Diego. But they stayed close by. When trainers returned in the morning, the highly trained dolphins swam back in. Much of the criticism of the program stems from the fact that we are very fond of dolphins, says Thomas Lapuzza, spokesman at the Navy's dolphin training center in San Diego. "Dolphins are cute," he told the New York Times. "They are lovable. People have an emotional attachment to them. I wish we were able to use cows. It would probably be a lot easier for us." But cows can't do the job. Dolphin sonar (tracking by sound) works even better than man-made tracking devices, the Navy claims. With their eyes closed, dolphins can locate a vitamin pill on the bottom of a tank. Dolphins find things by first making a series of clicking and whistling sounds. Then, by listening to the echoes made when the sounds reflect from an object, they determine its position. This system is called echo-location. The swimming sonar comes cheap. All dolphins ask for is 20 pounds of fish a day and a few pats on the nose. For the Navy, that's a real bargain. To actually make a system as good as the dolphins would be much more expensive, says Lt. Wood. But critics wonder if dolphins can be trusted to guard nuclear weapons. Fox worries, for instance, that the animals may decide to take surprise breaks from their duties. "You only have control over them when they are hungry," he says. "Once they are full they may start being a little too playful." Lt. Wood reports that the animals obey orders well. And he stands by his claim that we need dolphins to protect the country.
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Animals on the Job Animals not only make good pets, they sometimes make perfect workers—if they have the right traits and training. Every morning, Allie wakes up and accompanies her friend to the washroom. She turns on the light, soaps up a washcloth, and begins cleaning her friend's face. Is Allie an extremely devoted companion? Yes! Allie is a capuchin monkey who helps her disabled friend perform everyday tasks. Monkeys like Allie are just one of many kinds of animals that help improve—or even save—human lives. But not all animals are suited to do every job. Certain animals are "hired" for specific jobs based on their traits, or characteristics. By using different methods of conditioning (training animals to act in a particular way in response to a stimulus, or signal), humans can teach animals to perform extraordinary tasks. Throughout history, humans have relied on animals' traits to get certain jobs done. For example, compared with humans, dogs are "far superior at tracking down odors," says Marian Bailey, an animal behaviorist at Henderson State University in Arkansas. That's because dogs have millions of olfactory receptors, or smell nerves, in their noses. For that reason, hunters used dogs to track down prey even in ancient Egypt. Today, dogs may be employed to sniff out illegal substances in school lockers or earthquake victims buried beneath the rubble of a collapsed building or highway. Primates may not be good sniffers, but they can certainly lend a helping hand—or two. Monkeys are perfect helpmates for quadriplegics, people paralyzed from the neck down who are unable to use their own hands (and legs). Like humans, explains Bailey, monkeys have opposable thumbs—thumbs that face the hand's other fingers—so monkeys can pick up objects. Capuchins learn to open doors, clean up spills, and unscrew bottle tops. They can even get a sandwich out of the refrigerator and load your favorite tape into the VCR. And speaking of VCRs, animals are even helping scientists make a videotape. Jennifer Hurley, an animal researcher at the Long Marine Lab in Santa Cruz, California, is training two sea lions to carry video cameras on their backs to record the natural behavior of whales. Hurley could never dive to the depths at which whales swim, she says. But sea lions can. And whales behave naturally around sea lions because these mammals are part of the whales' natural environment—unlike humans or submarine-like research boats.
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So how do you get an animal employee to do its job? The answer: career-training. Trainers teach the animals to obey their instructions through a process called conditioning. Most trainers condition animals by using positive reinforcement, rewarding an animal for doing something correctly, says animal behaviorist Bailey. For example, trainers teach their dogs how to sniff out drugs by hiding a towel with the smell of drugs. "Dogs love to retrieve objects so the towel becomes a reward," says Morris Berkowitz, who heads up a canine drug-sniffing program in New York. After repeating this game of hide-and-seek many times, the dog begins to "associate the odor with a reward," says Berkowitz. When he gives the command, or stimulus, the dog seeks out drugs. (It's like learning to study hard for a test in order to get a good grade as a reward.) At "Helping Hands—Monkey Helpers for the Disabled," capuchin monkeys are trained twice before being teamed with a disabled human. First, monkeys are placed with a foster family to become socialized to people. For five years, families help the monkeys adapt to a human environment, so the monkeys will trust and enjoy being around people. Taking the monkeys in when they're four to six weeks old is important, says Bailey. "That's when monkeys normally become socialized to other monkeys," she says. Second, trainers at Helping Hands train the monkeys to perform specific tasks to assist a particular person. For example, a monkey may be trained to scratch an itch, or slip a floppy disc into a computer drive. Trainers reward the monkeys by using positive reinforcement, such as food, drink, praise, and affection. This phase of training can take a year.

Unit 11 Advertisement

Advertising: The Selling of a Product A consumer walks into a store. He stands in front of hundreds of boxes of laundry detergent. He chooses one brand, pays for it, and leaves. Why does he pick that specific kind of soap? Is it truly better than the others? Probably not. These days, many products are nearly identical to each other in quality and price. If products are almost the same, what makes consumers buy one brand instead of another? Although we might not like to admit it, commercials on
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television and advertisements in magazines probably influence us much more than we think they do. Advertising informs consumers about new products available on the market. It gives us information about everything from shampoo to toothpaste to computers and cars. But there is one serious problem with this. The "information" is actually very often "misinformation." It tells us the products' benefits but hides their disadvantages. Advertising not only leads us to buy things that we don't need and can't afford, but it also confuses our sense of reality. "Zoom toothpaste prevents cavities and gives you white teeth!" the advertisement tells us. But it doesn't tell us the complete truth: that a healthy diet and a good toothbrush will have the same effect. Advertisers use many methods to get us to buy their products. One of their most successful methods is to make us feel dissatisfied with ourselves and our imperfect lives. Advertisements show us who we are not and what we do not have. Our teeth aren't white enough. Our hair isn't shiny enough. Our clothes aren't clean enough. Advertisements make us afraid that people won't like us if we don't use the advertised products. "Why don't I have any dates?" a good-looking girl sadly asks in a commercial. "Here," replies her roommate, "try Zoom toothpaste!" Of course she tries it, and immediately the whole football team falls in love with her. "That's a stupid commercial," we might say. But we still buy Zoom toothpaste out of fear of being unpopular and having no friends. If fear is the negative motive for buying a product, then wanting a good self-image is the positive reason for choosing it. Each of us has a mental picture of the kind of person we would like to be. For example, a modern young woman might like to think that she looks like a beautiful movie star. A middle-aged man might want to see himself as a strong, attractive athlete. Advertisers know this. They write specific ads to make certain groups of people choose their product. Two people may choose different brands of toothpaste with the identical price, amount, and quality; each person believes that he is expressing his personality by choosing that brand. Advertisers get psychologists to study the way consumers think and their reasons for choosing one brand instead of another. These experts tell advertisers about the motives of fear and self-image. They also inform them about recent studies with colors and words. Psychologists have found that certain colors on the package of an attractive product will cause people to reach out and take that package instead of an identical product with different colors. Also, certain words attract our attention. For example, the words new, improved," "natural," and "giant size" are very popular and seem to pull our eyes and hands toward the package.

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Many people believe that advertising does not affect them. They know that there is freedom to choose, and they like to think they make wise choices. Unfortunately, they probably don't realize the powerful effect of advertising. They may not clearly understand that advertisers spend billions of dollars each year in aggressive competition for our money, and they are extremely successful. Do you believe that ads don't influence your choice of products? Just look at the brands in your kitchen and bathroom. Should Advertising Be Banned? Advertising is a powerful medium for manipulating people's desires, values, and lifestyles. In general, advertising is done hypocritically, manipulating people without regard for their good. Advertising causes people to want things that they do not need, distracts them from values of life that do not involve buying and consuming products, and weakens traditional symbols. Those who control advertising control culture by controlling what we spend our money on and what our values and lifestyles are. Almost any message can be packaged in the language of advertising. Charities and good causes project the same stereotyped images and values that products do. With the right advertising, who knows what people could be persuaded to believe? Advertising could be used as easily to support racial violence or violence against police as to support sentiments like saying no to drugs or loving your children. The medium is perfect for propaganda. There are also clearly some cases where, although the thing advertised is not bad, it is made worse when packaged in advertising. For example, the advertising agency for a political candidate discovers what slogans and symbols voters respond positively to and then packages the candidate in those things. The candidate is associated with images with positive emotional value—the family dog, the American flag, and so on—and the right words are put into her mouth or said in the voice-over. In the thirty-second television slot we see the candidate with her husband and children and pet dog and it tells us that we should vote for her because she loves America. Advertisements show the candidate as a person who looks as if she has the right virtues for the office. The commercials show the candidate talking to workers, minorities, or senior citizens to convince us that ordinary people just like ourselves will vote for her and she cares for our concerns. Thus, in the short advertising message, too short to communicate any real content, the candidate tells the viewers what her market researchers say the viewers already believe, and shows the viewers images of voters backing the candidate for them to identify with. This is the
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same thing that advertisements for products do. They reflect the average consumer back at himself, using the product. This sort of advertising corrupts the political process by showing us the candidate, not as she is, but packaged to appeal. Thus, it shares in the general atmosphere of hypocrisy and dishonesty of advertising. The political process has been corrupted by letting political issues be reduced to which market researcher is the most skillful in constructing an appealing image, and which candidate has the most money to throw into ads. When we vote for a candidate because of her television commercials, we are voting for an advertising package, not for the individual and her true political convictions. Some want to blame the advertising professionals for the corrupting influence of advertising. They say that advertising artists and copywriters should consent to persuade people only of things that are good for them. But what is good for people? At the moment, business and industry control advertising and hence control culture. It is up to them to determine how advertising is used. It is business and industry that pay artists and copywriters to package their messages, and mass media to distribute them. Blaming advertising specialists for the negative impact of advertising is like blaming the messenger when you don't like the message. If we want to blame someone we should blame business and industry. Some suggest that instead of allowing business and industry so much freedom in advertising, there should be some sort of governmental regulations banning advertising for potentially harmful products, such as cigarettes or alcohol. Everyone agrees that some advertising should be kept away from children, but perhaps we should be keeping some of it away from adults as well. However, even if we were to restrict advertising to products that are not harmful, restrict the advertising that is targeted at children, and stop political advertising, advertising would still be bad for us. It is not that an advertisement for a single product corrupts us, it is rather that the cumulative effect of seeing great quantities of advertisements corrupts us. Advertising provides an atmosphere of hypocrisy and a background of manipulative messages and distorted images. It makes us anxious and suspicious. It weakens our cultural and religious symbols. Advertising promotes material solutions to all problems. It creates false needs. It keeps us daydreaming about products, which is bad for our ability to think clearly. It is hard to think rationally against a background of advertising fantasy. Thus, advertising has a negative cumulative effect on us.

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What Advertising Does to Us Advertising images are surely the most common art we see today. We have to go out of our way to see a good movie or a good painting, but advertising images are everywhere. We see them whether we want to or not, on billboards as we drive to work, on the walls of stores where we shop, in magazines and newspapers, on television, and on the products we use. We even get them in the mail. Everything gets advertised. Advertising is an art form that is uniquely linked to our economic system. Unlike fine art, which usually gives us the perspective of a single individual, advertisements give us the perspective of a whole community of institutions. If fashion advertisements show people wearing baggy clothes, then the characters in toothpaste ads also wear baggy clothes, and there are baggy clothes in the store for us to buy. Advertisements repeat and reinforce each other's social messages. One tells us to buy underarm deodorant to prevent body odor, another tells us to buy deodorant soap, and another asks us to buy feminine deodorant spray; all reinforce the message that we smell bad and need products to make us smell the way we should. Because we are exposed to so much advertising, we absorb its messages and accept its values and attitudes in our approach to life. Throughout our day, we ask questions like: "What do I want to buy? What are they trying to sell me? What can I afford?" in response to advertising. This keeps us focused on money as the essence of daily life. It maintains in us an awareness of how we lack products that would make our lives more comfortable or enjoyable. In this way, exposure to advertising creates within us a self-interest and a restless striving to become more comfortable. It focuses our attention on our own interests at the expense of others or of the collective good. There is also an atmosphere of dishonesty about advertising. We all know that the claims ads make for their products are often greatly exaggerated. We hear the advertisers claim that they want to improve our lives when we know they just want to improve their sales. Often companies put out image advertisements to counter bad impressions people might have of the company. Oil and paper companies show beautiful pictures of nature and say they are concerned with the environment, and cigarette companies put out advertisements saying they really don't want kids to smoke. Constant exposure to this sort of hypocrisy destroys our belief in human decency, and makes us suspicious of people's real motives. Because we live our lives surrounded by hypocritical, or even false advertising messages, advertising for good causes may also appear corrupt.

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Advertisers generally serve two functions for their clients: They create ads for products or causes, and they give their clients advice on what will sell. The advertisers research the demographics (sex, age, marital status, race, religion, region, income, labor-force participation) of their target consumers, and then design ads that appeal to that group. Advertising acts as a social mirror. The advertisements we see are generally only weeks or months old, showing completely contemporary people doing completely contemporary things. This is part of the power of advertising. We see ourselves as we are now. However, advertising is a distorted mirror, reflecting back at us only those values and attitudes that the advertiser wants us to hold. Most ads use pictures because mental images are the predominant mode of thinking in daydreams and fantasies. Text by itself gets people to think, but pictures easily bypass thinking and get people to feel and do, i.e., to imagine themselves as the central players walking through the scene. Advertising constructs fantasies for us that play on our desires for such things as social acceptance or romance. If that magic kiss comes with breath mints, we can try using breath mints ourselves to get a magic kiss. This gives the daydream constructed by the ad that much more power as we replay it in our own lives.

Unit 12 Time

Age and Youth On my last birthday I was ninety-three years old. That is not young, of course. In fact, it is older than ninety. But age is a relative matter. If you continue to work and to absorb the beauty in the world about you, you find that age does not necessarily mean getting old. At least, not in the ordinary sense. I feel many things more intensely than ever before, and for me life grows more fascinating. Not long ago my friend Sasha brought me a letter addressed to me by a group of musicians in the Caucasus Mountains. This was the text of the letter: Dear Honourable Maestro— I have the pleasure on behalf of the Georgian Caucasian Orchestra to invite you to conduct one of our concerts. You will be the first musician of your age who receives the distinction of conducting our orchestra. Never in the history of our orchestra have we permitted a man under one hundred years to conduct. All of the members of our orchestra are over one
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hundred years old. But we have heard of your talents as a conductor, and we feel that, despite your youthfulness, an exception should be made in your case. We expect a favourable response as soon as possible. We pay travel expenses and of course shall provide living accommodations during your stay with us. Respectfully, Astan Shlarba President, 123 years old Sasha is a man with a sense of humour; he likes to play a joke. That letter was one of his jokes; he had written it himself. But I must admit I took it seriously at first. And why? Because it did not seem to me unbelievable that there should be an orchestra composed of musicians older than a hundred. And, indeed, I was right! That portion of the letter was not a joke. Sasha had read about it in the newspaper. He showed me the article, with photographs of the orchestra. There is such an orchestra in the Caucasus. All of its members were more than a hundred years old. There were about thirty of them—they rehearse regularly and give periodic concerts. Most of them are farmers who continue to work in the fields. The oldest of the group, Astan Shlarba, is a tobacco grower who also trains horses. They are splendid-looking men, obviously full of vitality. I should like to hear them play sometime—and, in fact, to conduct them, if the opportunity arose. Of course I am not sure they would permit this, in view of my inadequate age. There is something to be learned from jokes, and it was so in this case. In spite of their age, those musicians have not lost their zest for life. How does one explain this? I do not think the answer lies simply in their physical constitutions or in something unique about the climate in which they live. It has to do with their attitude toward life; and I believe that their ability to work is largely due to the fact that they do work. Work helps prevent one from getting old. I, for one, cannot dream of retiring. Not now or ever. Retire? The word is alien and the idea inconceivable to me. I don't believe in retirement for anyone in my type of work, not while the spirit remains. My work is my life. I cannot think of one without the other. To "retire" means to me to begin to die. The man who works and is never bored is never old. Work and interest in worthwhile things are the best remedy for age. Each day I am reborn. Each day I must begin again. For the past eighty years I have started each day in the same manner. It is not a mechanical routine but something essential to my daily life. I go to the piano, and I play two preludes and fugues of Bach. I cannot think of doing otherwise. It is sort of a benediction on the house. But that is not its only meaning for me. It is a rediscovery of the world of which I have the job of being
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a part. It fills me with awareness of the wonder of life, with a feeling of the incredible marvel of being a human being. The music is never the same for me. Each day it is something new, fantastic and unbelievable. That is Bach, like nature, a miracle. I do not think a day passes in my life in which I fail to look with fresh amazement at the miracle of nature. It is there on every side. It can be simply a shadow on a mountainside, or a spider's web gleaming with dew, or sunlight on the leaves of a tree. I have always especially loved the sea. Whenever possible, I have lived by the sea. It has long been a custom of mine to walk along the beach each morning before I start work. True, my walks are shorter than they used to be, but that does not lessen the wonder of the sea. How mysterious and beautiful is the sea! How infinitely variable! It is never the same, never, not from one moment to the next, always in the process of change, always becoming something different and new. Let the Questions In I have a friend whose whole life plan consists of keeping questions at bay. "Keep yourself surrounded by sound," Ed says. "Always keep moving." When he is driving, he keeps the radio on in his car. When he walks in the house (he lives alone), he turns on the radio or the television. He never allows himself to be alone with himself. Drumming fingers on the windowpane, it's as if he senses a presence at the window. He doesn't like to go out into the country. He avoids the mountains, the wind, the quiet fields. They make him nervous. He likes to keep busy. A strange thing about life in America—it often seems designed to block our questioning. It's so busy, it can rush us into death before we've ever had a chance to stop and think. We might never really stop to ask, "Why?" "Life," Blaise Pascal wrote in an earlier era, "is a search for continual diversion." That is, for distraction, for keeping the mind occupied with superficial things, for keeping out the voices. Which voices? The voices that ask questions. What am I doing on this planet, with the hot sun resting on my face, the wind blowing through my hair? Where am I going? What am I trying to accomplish with my life? Why am I here? Human beings are thinking, question-asking animals. We cannot live like cats or dogs. We keep asking ourselves that simple question, "Why?"

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The questioning impulse in us is our deepest instinct. It is deeper even than the hunger for food. Deeper than the drive to sleep. This instinct to ask questions keeps intruding even during sleep. More than anything else, to live, you must pay attention to such questions and form some satisfactory answers to them. To truly live is to take charge of your liberties and decide what you intend to do with the short span of years that you are given. Bill, another friend of mine, was giving a lecture in Wisconsin some time ago in one of those little rural towns that hosts a branch of the state university. He went for a walk across the late October fields, just to be alone. Geese were flying against the gray clouds overhead. He could see his breath, it was so cold, and his feet crunched the frostbitten earth. Rows of cornstalks lay withering as far as his eye could see, out to the woods. As dusk gathered in the dark shadows, my friend suddenly saw the story line of his life—the way he had been living—saw it as if it belonged to someone else, and he didn't like it. He felt autumn dying all around him. Bill knew he needed a new start. In which direction, he didn't yet know. When he got back to his motel room to prepare his lecture, his heart was pounding. He has never forgotten that walk in the fields, where in the silence, a question awakened him. If that question had not arisen, he says, he might still be where he was. It makes him shudder. Moments of questioning creep up on us. They are rare. We need to seize them. At such moments, a person may fix a goal, plot a course, or determine a whole life. Some thinkers call these defining moments—times when we fill our whole lives with meaning, purpose, goals. The times when we take charge and don't merely drift with the tide. We all have such moments. Presidential candidates certainly have had them. We all have. William Wordsworth wrote of them: Not for these I raise The song of thanks and praise; But for those obstinate questionings Of sense of outward things, Failings from us, vanishings ... Even my friend Ed—who keeps perpetually busy, perpetually surrounded by sound—has such moments. His answer, his decision, is just to keep moving, just to keep himself in sound, to drive out the questions. "The unexamined life is not worth living," Socrates wrote some 23 centuries ago. That is a harsh judgment on my friend and on all of us.
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Often we do not allow the questions to rise up to full height and meet us. We keep too busy to allow ourselves to take that long valuable look down the years—backward maybe, forward certainly. I have often found that air travel is the best time for doing that. It may not seem that I am doing anything. My mind isn't exactly "working." And yet, in fact, the wonder of being alive sweeps over me. And its fragility. And the beauty of it. And the need to concentrate my energies. In any case, I always feel a sense of thankfulness, since to "ex-sist" (to stand forth out of nothingness, as the Latin roots of the word suggest) is to be receiving a moment-by-moment gift from God. Your own views, though, may be less religious. However diverse our perspectives, such moments of reflection have become too rare today. And yet the need to take charge of our fleeting lives—to decide who we will be and what we will try to do—is just as pressing as it ever was for Socrates and for all those others who have preceded us. Take the time to let the questions in, an old priest once counseled me. I took his advice and never regretted that I did. A Diary of the Century How do I feel upon becoming 50 years old? Surprised. Surprised that I should live so long. Surprised that it should seem so short. Surprised that I am not famous. Surprised that I should be surprised because I am not famous. All my life I have been motivated by curiosity. I wonder why? My mother wasn't curious. Although my grandfather died before I was born, judging from what I've heard about him, read about him, and from the books he left, I think it is possible that I inherited my curiosity from him. Born in England of Welsh parents, he came to America alone when he was only 16 years old. At the age of 50 my mind is better than ever—surprise, surprise! I can concentrate with the intensity of a beam of sunshine focused through a magnifying glass. Guilt and passion distract my attention far less frequently. Slowly I begin to perceive the relationships among everything I have experienced and read. My analyses and judgments seem sounder than before. My curiosity burns brighter. Problems once mysterious now seem obvious. And yet—! Every new answer breeds a dozen new questions. What I know, compared with what I do not know, is like a grain of sand by the sea. I am not sure whether there is anything absolute. While I believe I am alive, I am unable to say exactly what this phrase means. Maybe the atoms that make up my body now existed before I was born, and maybe they will continue to exist after I die.
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A few people consider me egotistical. Actually, I am humble. I was lucky to have been born with a fairly good mind, and I have spent years polishing this instrument I inherited. I'll admit I become impatient when confronted with ignorance. However, I know my limitations even better than my capabilities. At times I feel discouraged by my own ignorance. I can find no meaning in life. I believe that the individual life can be filled with meaning only through love and work of one's choice. My wife is a more valuable person than I because she has an infinite capacity for loving others. She is a genius at loving. I am a genius at nothing. When she dies an ocean of tears will flow. I admire her without envying her. When I was a boy of 14 I knew I wanted to become a reporter and then an author. Well, now I am an experienced reporter and next fall my first book will be published. The fact that I say first proves that I am optimistic about my career. I believe that the next decade of my life will become the most fruitful one. Perhaps my only really valuable creation is this diary. My 10 months of psychoanalysis have helped me learn how to forgive myself. I'm more at peace with myself now than at any time in the past. Nevertheless, I'm aware I haven't identified all my psychological conflicts, let alone resolved them. Bertrand Russell says there are three major conflicts: 1) Man against his environment; 2) man against man; 3) man against himself. In my opinion, the conflict of man with himself is the most troublesome. Carved on the temple of Delphi was "Know thyself." I think I know myself better than most people because I spend more time studying myself than anything else. A diarist is a writer who watches himself. If I can learn to know myself well, then I'll be able to know others as well. Human beings are more alike than different. By paying close attention to whatever I feel and think, I can learn what others feel and think. Fortunately, it is the differences among people that make them interesting. Now that I've got rid of much of my guilt, now that I am less rigid about what I expect from myself, I get along better with others because I expect less from them, too. Life hurts. For years I've realized I'm an eccentric, without understanding exactly what I meant by this word. Now I know: An eccentric is one who insists upon being himself regardless of the opinion of others, provided he does not hurt them or himself. If everyone in the world were as eccentric, meaning if everyone accepted himself, there would be no more war. Now that I have lived a half-century, do I have any regrets? Sure, I regret that I was slow to mature. I regret that I did not become a psychoanalyst. Although I am not sorry I decided to become a journalist, I wish that early on I had chosen to become a therapist. Why? Because nothing interests me more than human nature.
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We are left with two frontiers. One is outer space. The other is inner space. While I lack the interest and ability to probe outer space, I'm rather well equipped to probe the mysteries of the human mind. But will I be able to communicate them to others? My brother, an inventor with several patents, is perhaps the world's leading expert about shock absorbers. But he and I cannot communicate about them. I have no technical knowledge of his specialty. He cannot explain it in simple language. This is an example of the failure of communication between the specialist and the layman. This breakdown is spreading. It is as though nerve endings had lost touch with one another. For lack of communication we may come to the end of civilization. The end of book 1 This is the end of book 1. 攀登英语网 http://www.climbenglish.com 提供

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