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Ch.1 Introduction


国际贸易实务

Self-introduction

Contact information Lecture:Shan Huang QQ:32388153 Email: mxwy422@yahoo.com.au Office: level 2,English staff room one

Basic Idea o

f Teaching
Master professional knowledge and skills;

Improve professional English ability.
(through the integration of professional instruction and English language teaching. )

英语专业本科人才培养方案
国际贸易实务4 64必修 3 国际金融4 64 必修6 外国语学院 Z116011 国际商法2 32 必修 5 外国语学院Z216024 金融英语2 32 必修 4 外国语学院Z116012 国际商务函电与合同 2 32 必修 5外国语学院 进出口业务单证2 32 必修 5 外国语学院 商务口译 2 32 选修 6 外国语学院Z316023 商务谈判 2 32 选修 6 外国语学院Z316024 国际商业文化 2 32 选修 7外国语学院

Introduction to This Course
I. Learning Objectives

II. Course Outline III. Devices
? ? ? ? Textbook Other textbooks for reference Grading system Other references (monograph, journals, data sources)

I. Learning Objectives of This Course
? 1. Comprehend the basic concepts and principles of international trade, grasp the basic provisions of import and export contracts, understand the process of negotiation and formation of the contract, be familiar with the details of performing the contract; ? 2. Enhance capability in reading professional articles, obtaining the latest professional information, communicating professionally with the help of English; ? 3. Change the way of studying English to a hands-on applied approach.

You are required to
Attend Classes Attentively
and take notes

You are required to
Preview the text before you come to class.
Read Newspapers/ Journals …
Answer the Questions and Do the Exercises in the Workbook

II. Course Outline
? 1. understand the basic concepts and principles of international trade ;

? 2. learn the terms of international trade ;
? 3. Study the major clauses of and procedures in negotiating and implementing the contract of international sales of goods. ? 4. learn the trade forms

III. Pedagogical Devices
1. Textbook
帅建林 《International Trade Practice (Second Edition) 》 , 对外经济贸易大学 出版社.

2. Other textbooks for reference
?

Zhang Sufang, “International Trade Theory and Practice (Second Edition Workbook)”, University of International Business and Economics Press, 2010. 6.

? ? ? ? ?

黎孝先:《国际贸易实务》(第四版), 对外经济贸易大学出版社,2007年
海闻等,《国际贸易》,上海人民出版社, 2003.3。 吴百福等,《进出口贸易实务教程》,2004.8。 陈宪等,《国际贸易---原理 政策 实务》, 立信会计出版社, 2004. 8。 袁永友、柏望生,《进出口单证实务评析》,中国海关出版社,2006.8。

3. Grading system: ? quizzes ? Home work ? Class performance ? Final exam 4. Other references: Monograph

15% 15% 10% 60%

? 裴长洪主编,《中国对外经贸理论前沿》(4), 社会科学文献出版社。

? 国彦兵著, 《西方国际贸易理论历史与发展》, 浙江大学出版社。

Journals
?国际贸易 ?财贸经济 ?国际贸易问题 ?对外经贸实务 ?世界经济 ?中国人民大学报刊复印资料(外贸)

Data sources
?WTO: World Trade Report ?World Bank: World Development Report

General current information
? 国际商报

Internet sources
?www.unctad.org ?www.worldbank.org ?www.wto.org ?www.mofcom.gov.cn ?www.wtojob.com ?www.export911.com

Chapter 1 Introduction to International Trade ? ? ? ? Basic Concepts Relating to International

Trade Reasons for International Trade Differences between International Trade and Domestic Trade How to measure international trade?

Learning Objectives
After learning this chapter, you should be able to
define what is meant by international trade and understand some basic concepts relating to international trade explain the reasons for engaging in international trade identify the benefits of international trade tell the differences between domestic and international trade Analyze the way of measuring international trade

Concept of international trade
International trade / world trade / foreign trade / overseas trade The fair and deliberate exchange of goods and services across national boundaries. Concerning trade operations of both import and export Including the purchase and sale of both visible and invisible goods.

Visible trade and invisible trade
(1) Visible trade: trade in goods
? Customs formalities have to be carried out. ? Transactions are observable. ? Account for about 80% of the total value of international trade

(2) Invisible trade: trade in services
? Difficult to obtain accurate estimates of the value of the transactions of trade in services ? No agreed definition of traded services ? Ways of measuring these transactions not precise Estimates are obtained by examining foreign exchange records and/or through surveys of establishments. Usual customs records or data are not available for valuing these transactions. May be underestimated or overvalued.

?

? ?

One service may be supplied in four ways
By mail

Through a visit to him by his foreign client

Services of a professional adviser

By a personal visit to that country

Through an office maintained in the client’s country

Others by their nature cannot:
? A tourist can only enjoy a foreign country’s beach by going there.

? Street cleaning services must be supplied on the spot.

What is the origin of international trade?
The story of the caveman takes place on an international basis.

§1 Reasons for International Trade

Resources reasons Economic reasons Other reasons

1.
? ?

Resources reasons
No nation has all of the commodities that it needs Coffee: Colombia, Brazil: major grower of coffee beans, the USA: major consumer Copper: Peru, Zaire Diamonds: South Africa
Uneven distribution of resources leads to international trade

?

?

coffee
copper

diamond

2. Economic reasons
? Development of manufacturing and technology economic benefits — another incentive for international trade. Gain economically by trading ? China has been able to export large quantities of radios and television sets because it can produce them more efficiently than other countries. ? Economic theory: produce and export the products which a country has comparative advantage.

3. Preference reasons
? Innovation or a variety of style (the USA: largest auto producer, still import from Japan, Germany)

4. Other reasons
? Not have enough of a particular item (China: oil producer, consumes more than produces) Political objectives (support the government of another country)

?

§2 Differences between International Trade and Domestic Trade?

1. More complex context
? ? ? ? ? Transacted in foreign languages (5651 kinds, English: 73

countries official language, 2 billion population)
Under international or foreign laws, customs and regulations Numerous culture differences Control and communication systems Foreign currency transactions

USD/$

GBP/?

JPY/J¥

CAD/C$

EUR/

HKD/HK$

CHF/SF

CNY/RMB¥

(Confederation Helvetica, 海尔维第联邦 )

2. More difficult and risky
? ? Information on foreign countries may be difficult to obtain. Political risks: war, expropriation (征收) or confiscation (没收) of the importer's company, imposition of an import ban after the shipment of the goods, transfer risk (imposition of exchange controls, foreign currency shortages), different tax rates, etc.

? Transportation risk ? Economic risks: market failure, non-acceptance, changing exchange rate, changing standards and regulations within other countries.

3. Higher skills required
Broader range of professional skills
?
? ? ? ?

clear customs for export or import
make international payment insurance market survey commodity inspection

§3 How to measure international trade?

1. Balance of Trade

2. Favorable balance of trade and unfavorable balance of trade
? The difference between the monetary value of EXPORTS and IMPORTS of output in an economy over a certain period. ? Favourable balance of trade: trade surplus, positive balance of trade, EXPORTS > IMPORTS. ? Unfavorable balance of trade: trade deficit, negative balance of trade, EXPORTS < IMPORTS. ? Balance of trade: important part of the current account of a nation’s balance of payment.

§3 How to measure international trade?

2. Balance of payment


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