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名词性从句与定语从句的区别


语法系列复习专题-----名词从句、定语从句 名词从句 名词从句有四类:宾语从句、主语从句、表语从句、同位语从句。例如: 宾语从句:I don’t know where he will go. 主语从句:Where he will go is unknown. 表语从句:The problem is how we can get so much money. 同位语从句:We all feel sorry about the news that he failed in the game. 下面几点是学习名词从句要加以注意的: 1. whether 和 if 都可以引导宾语从句表达“是否”意, (即引导宾语从句时 if 和 whether 可以互换)但以下几种名词从句要用 whether(不用 if)引导: (1) 引导主语从句,且在句首时。例:Whether he has won the tennis is not known.(但 It is not known whether/if he has won the tennis). (2) 引导表语从句时。例 The problem is whether he can get a job. (3) 引导同位语从句时。例:I have no idea whether he will come. (4) 介词后的 whether 从句。例:I worry about whether I hurt her feelings. 2. 位于句首引导主语从句的 that 不可忘。 例如:That he got the first place in the competition surprised all of us. 3. 在“It is suggested/proposed/ordered/a pity/no wonder/necessary/strange/…+ that 从句”结构中,that 从句谓语有时用(should)do 这样的虚拟语气形式。 例如:It is suggested that we(should) improve the relations between us. It is a pity that one(should) stay in one place all one?s life. It is strange that she should have failed to see her own shortcomings(缺点). 4. 在“The reason why…is that…”句式中 that 不要误为 because. 例如:The reason why he didn?t go to school yesterday is that he was ill. 5. 名词从句中 that,what 用法比较: 引导名词从句的 that 是连词,在句中无成份,无意义,而 what 是连接代词,what=the thing(s) that. 例如:It was told in yesterday?s newspaper that what the students had done was praised by the factory. I know that he will study. I know what he will study. That he works hard at his lessons is known to us all. What he works hard at is known to us all. All I ask is that you should tell the truth./He is not what(=the person that)he used to be.他和以前大不相同了。 6. where 在名词从句中的使用特点: where 在名词从句中有时可以变为“the place where”,有时可以变为“介词+the place where” 形式。例如: 主从:Where(=The place where)she has gone is still unknown. 宾从:Would you please tell me where(=the place where) Mr Smith lives? 表从:Your dictionary remains where(=in/at the place where)you put. 同位从:Have you any idea where(=of the place where) she is spending her holidays? 7. 无论是哪种名词从句都是陈述语序。例如: I know where he lives./Please tell me what her name is. 当一个特殊疑问句本身就是陈述语序(即“主+谓+(宾)”或“主+系+表”结构) ,将其变为间接引语(即

宾语从句)时,无需改变语序。例如: What?s the matter with him? She asked me what was the matter with him. Who looks after your grandfather? He asked me who looked after my grandfather. 定语从句 一、 定语从句与引导词 定语从句是在复合句中修饰某一名词或代词的从句。被修饰的名词或代词叫做选行词, 而引导定语从句的词叫引导词,有关系代词和关系副词两类。 懂得什么样的先行词后用什么样的引导词是学好定语从句的关键。 1. 关系代词有:that,which,who,whom,whose,在定语从句中作主语、宾语中表语,whose 作定语。代人的有:who,whom,whose,that;代物的有:that,which,whose.例如: The man who helped you is Mr White.(who 代人,在定语从句中作主语) That is the person(whom/who/that) you want to see.(whom,who,that 代人,在定 语从句中作宾语,可省略) I?m not the fool(that) you thought me to be.(that 代人,在定从中作表语) A dictionary is a useful book which(=that) tells us the meaning of words(which 或 that 代物,在定从中作主语) 2. 关系副词有:when(指时间),where(指地点),why(指原因),在定语从句中作状语。 例如:Would you suggest a time(when) we can have a talk?(when 可省略) The house where they live is not very large./This is the reason why he did not came to the meeting. 注意:不是表时间的先行词都用 when 引导定从,不是表地点的先行词都用 where 引导定从。例如:We?ll visit the factory which(=that) makes radios. (which 或 that 在定从中作主语,where 不可用主语,故不可用) They still remember the happy days(which/that) they spent in Beidaihe. (which 或 that 在定从中作 spent 的宾语,when 不可作宾语,故不可用) 二、限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句 限制性定语从句和主句之间不用逗号分开,修饰主句中的某一个名词或名词词组或代 词;非限制性定语从句常用逗号和主句隔开,可以修饰主句中的某一个词,也可修饰整个句子。非限制性 定语从句不能用 that 引导, 引导非限制性定语从句的关系词不能省略。 非限制性定语从句例: Ping?s father, Li who works in a factory, is an engineer./He tore up my photo, which made me very angry.(which 指代主句 内容,因前后两句是因果关系,此时 which 不可换为 as。) He is good at physics, as is known to us all.=As is known to us all, he is good at physics.(as 指代主句内 容,在 as is known/believed, as we all know/believe 这类结构中 as 不可换为 which) 三、 只用 that 引导和不用 that 引导的场合 1. 只用 that 引导的场合 1) 当先行词既包括人又包括物时:He talked about the men and the books that attracted him. 2) 指物的先行词被 any, every, only, very, all, no 等修饰时:These are the very points that interest me./That?s the only watch that I like most. 3) 指物的先行词被序数词或形容词最高级修饰时:The first step that we are to take is very difficult./This is the second card that he gave me. 4) 先行词是指物的不定代词 all,little,few,much,及 everything,anything,nothing 等时:There is still much

that can be done about it./Have you got everything that you need? 5) 先行词是 who 时:Who that have seen him does not like him? 2. 不用 that 的场合如下: 1)非限制性定语从句中 Last night ,I saw a very good film,which was about the Long March . 2)介词放在关系代词之前时 This is the man from whom I learnt the news 3)句中出现了 that,或先行词是 that 时 I have found that which I was looking for. 四、“介词+关系代词”用法 1. 介词的确定应依据定语从句中短语的习惯性搭配,例如:Who is the girl with whom you just shook hands?(shake hands with…是习惯性搭配) 2. 介词常受先行词的制约(即介词和先行词的搭配) ,例如:He built a telescope through which he could study the skies.(through which 即 through the telescope) 3. 当关系代词作“动词+介词”固定短语的宾语时,此时因定短语中的介词不能拆开移到关系代词前。例 如:This is the watch which you?re looking for./He is a kind of man whom you can safely depend on. 五、几个名词后的引导词 1. situation 后常用 where,in which 引导定语从句:Can you imagine a situation where/in which you can use the word? 2. way(方式,方法)后常用 in which 或 that 或 how 引导定语从句,也可省略:Do you know the way(in which/that/how) he worked out the problem? 3. “the same+名词”,“such+名词”,“as+名词”后通常用 as 引导定语从句。 例如:I have the same dictionary as you(have

名词从句考点分析 1.They want to know ______ do to help us. (NMET) A. what they can B. how they can C. how can they D. what can they 析:此题要选陈述语序项,故应排除 C、D。又因 how they can do 不完整,do 后无宾 语,故也应排除,只有 A 项既是陈述语序,且 what they can do 完整正确地表达出“他 们能做些什么”这一意思,故答案为 A。 2.His teacher ______ he ______ bright and ______ he was worth teaching. A.didn’t think;was;that B.thought;was;whether C.didn’t think;was;× D.thought;wasn?t;× 析:观察题目,可知 think 后跟有 and 连接的两个并列宾语从句,这时前一个宾语从句 的引导语 that 可以省略,但引导后一宾语从句的 that 不可省略,据此,可排除 C、D 两个选项。若选 B 项,全句意思不通,而选择 A 项可表达“他的老师认为他不聪明,不 值得教”这一意思,且语法结构无误,故可定 A 是正确答案。 3.______ is done cannot be undone. A.How B.That C.What D.Where

析:do 一般作及物动词使用,从题干看,需选一词作主语(逻辑上是 done 的宾语)。 而 A.How,D.Where 均是副词,不能作主语,故应排除。B 项 that 一词只能在定语从句 中作主语,不能在主语从句中作主语,也应排除。只有选 what(=the thing that),才 能正确表述“凡是做的不可不做”这一意思。 4.Take care ______ you don?t make mistakes in the coming exam. A.of that B.about that C.for what D.that 析:take care 是“注意”、“当心”意,后面可跟 that 引导的宾语从句来表达“当心 不要…”意思,据此,该题应选 D。 5.To his surprise,the umbrella was not ______ he had put. A.which B.where C.the place D.that 析:观察题干,was not 后是表语,根据 where 在表语从句中相当于 in/at the place where, 将其置于空白处则可表达“伞不在他当初放的地方”这一意思,而 C 选项缺少词,不可 选。A、D 项皆不合用。 6.______ we can?t get seems better than ______ we have. A.what;what B.what;that C.that;that D.that;what 析:此题显然是要表达“我们得不到的东西似乎比我们得到的东西好。”这一意思,即 “A seems better that B”结构,根据 what=the thing(s) that 这一特点,将其置 于两空白处正好可以表达出前者比后者好这一意思,故答案为 A。 7.______ we’ll go camping tomorrow depends on the weather. A.If B.Whether C.That D.Where 析:此题 depends 前的主语从句是一个不肯定的内容,在句首表“是否”意时,只能用 Whether,不可用 If。故答案为 B。 8.______ they are most interested in is ______ they can produce more and better cars. A.That;how B.What;how C.What;what D.That;that 析:is 前面是一个主语从句,要表达“他们最感兴趣的(东西)”这一意思,只能选 what 填入空白;is 是表语从句,显然只有选 how 才能表达“如何生产更多更好的汽车”,故 答案为 B。 9.He made a suggestion that the English test ______ until next Wednesday. A.will be put off B.be put off C.will put off D.put off 析:suggestion,order,adivce 等词后的同位语从句谓语要用(should)do 的形式,且 该句中 test 与 put off 为被动关系,故选 B。 10.I don?t think ______ he said something like that is right. A.that B.what C.whether D.when 析:此句 think 后是一宾语从句,这个宾语从句的主语在 is 之前,它是一个被动句。 因为 he said something like that 已经含有主、谓、宾、状等成分,只有选不表意义, 不做成分的 that 才合适,故选 A。 定语从句考点分析 1. The best work ______ Luxun wrote and ______ I have read has been made into a film. A.which;that B.that;× C.×;that D.×;× 析:如果两个定语从句并列,关系代词作宾语时前一句的可以省略,但后一句的不可省略,故应选 C。 2. It was in 1969 ______ two Americans got to the moon by space ship. It was 1969 ______ two Amerians got to the moon by space ship. A.when B.which C.that D.×

析: 第一句是强调时间 in 1969,强调结构是“It was+强调部分+that 句”, 故应选 C。 第二句 It 是表时间的, 先行词 1969 在从句中作状语,故选 A。 3. Is this the house ______ Shakespeare was born? A.at which B.which C.in which D.at where 析:观察题目,空白处只有填 in which 或 where 才能表达“这是莎士比亚出生的房子吗?”这一意思,故答 案为 C。 4. Is this house ______ Shakespeare was born? A.where B.which C.in which D.at which 析:将此句变为陈述句;This house is ______ Shakespeare was born.显然 is 后是一表语从句,只有选 where(=the place where)才能表达“这是莎士比亚的出生地”这一意思,故答案为 A。 5. In the dark street,there wasn’t a single person ______ she could turn for help. A.to whom B.of whom C.from whom D.that 析:“介词+关系代词”要考虑短语搭配或与先行搭配,这道题短语 turn to 有关,故 应选 A。 6. The two things ______ they felt very proud were Jim?s gold watch and Della?s hair. A.about which B.of which C.in which D.for which 析:涉及 be/feel proud of 短语,故答案为 B。 7. Have you ever asked him the reason ______ may explain his being late. A.why B.that C.for which D.what 析:此题易误选 A、C,因为先行词是 the reason,但细观察分析,定语从句缺少主语,所以答案是 B。注意 what 不能引导定语从句。 8. Farming is difficult ______ there is no rain. A.where B.in place C.that D.the place where 析:因为 difficult 是形容词,故其后不是定语从句。这儿的空白处应填引导状语从句 where(=in the place where),全句表达“在没有雨水的地方耕种困难”。这一意思,可见答案为 A。 9. We need the same machine ______ in your factory. A.which is being used B.as is being used C.that is being used D.as it is being used 析:根据“the same+先行词”后跟 as 引导定语从句的原则,可知答案为 B。 10.______ the people,not things ______ are most important. A.There are;who B.Those are;that C.It is;that D.It was;who 析:仔细观察分析题目,可知只有 C 构成强调句才有成立。当我们要检验视其为强调 句的判断是否正确时,只要将“It is (或 was)…that”这三个词去掉,剩下部分读 起来正确无误,则证明判断是正确的,反之是错误的。此题如不填“It is…that” 三词,句子是 The people,not things are most important.语义完整正确,说明选 C 是对的。


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