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博世工业级摄像机操作手册


t f a r D

A101f
Camera User’s Manual
Document ID Number: DA039104 Revision Date: May 20, 2002 Subject to Change Without Notice ? Basler Vision Technologies

Basler Support Worldwide:
Americas: +1-877-934-8472 vc.support.usa@baslerweb.com www.basler-vc.com Europe: +49-4102-463-500 vc.support.europe@baslerweb.com Asia: +65-425-0472 vc.support.asia@baslerweb.com

For customers in the U.S.A. This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class A digital device, pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference when the equipment is operated in a commercial environment. This equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the instruction manual, may cause harmful interference to radio communications. Operation of this equipment in a residential area is likely to cause harmful interference in which case the user will be required to correct the interference at his own expense. You are cautioned that any changes or modifications not expressly approved in this manual could void your authority to operate this equipment. The shielded interface cable recommended in this manual must be used with this equipment in order to comply with the limits for a computing device pursuant to Subpart J of Part 15 of FCC Rules. For customers in Canada This apparatus complies with the Class A limits for radio noise emissions set out in Radio Interference Regulations. Pour utilisateurs au Canada Cet appareil est conforme aux normes Classe A pour bruits radioélectriques, spécifiées dans le Règlement sur le brouillage radioélectrique. Life Support Applications These products are not designed for use in life support appliances, devices, or systems where malfunction of these products can reasonably be expected to result in personal injury. Basler customers using or selling these products for use in such applications do so at their own risk and agree to fully indemnify Basler for any damages resulting from such improper use or sale. Warranty Note Do not open the housing of the camera. The warranty becomes void if the housing is opened.

DRAFT
Table of Contents
1 Introduction
1.1 Camera Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 1.2 Performance Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2 1.3 Environmental Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5 1.3.1 Temperature and Humidity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5 1.3.2 Ventilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5 1.4 Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5

2 Camera Interface
2.1 Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 2.1.1 General Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 2.1.2 Pin Assignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2 2.1.3 Connector Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3 2.2 Video Data and Control Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3 2.2.1 Input Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3 2.2.1.1 ExTrig: Controls Exposure Start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3 2.2.2 Output Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3 2.2.2.1 IntEn: Indicates that Exposure is Taking Place . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3 2.2.2.2 TrigRdy: Indicates that Exposure Can Begin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3 2.2.2.3 Pixel Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4 2.2.3 IEEE 1394 Device Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4 2.3 Camera Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5 2.4 Status LEDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5

3 Operation and Features
3.1 Functional Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1 3.2 Exposure Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3 3.2.1 Setting the Exposure Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3 3.2.2 Controlling Exposure Start via the 1394 Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3 3.2.3 Controlling Exposure Start with an ExTrig Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4 3.2.4 Recommended Methods for Controlling Exposure Start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5 3.3 Trigger Ready Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8 3.3.1 What Happens if you Toggle ExTrig while TrigRdy is Low . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9 3.4 Integrate Enabled Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10 3.5 Version Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10 3.6 Gain and Brightness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11 3.6.1 Gain settings in more detail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-12 3.7 Binning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-13 3.8 Area of Interest (AOI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14 3.8.1 Changes to the Frame Rate With AOI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-15 3.9 Test Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-16

BASLER A101f

I

DRAFT
3.10 Low Smear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-18 3.11 Color Creation in the A101fc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-20 3.11.1 White Balance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-21 3.11.2 Using the A101fc in a Monochrome Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-21 3.11.3 Integrated IR Cut Filter on C-Mount Equipped Cameras. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-21 3.12 Available Video Formats, Modes, & Frame Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-22 3.12.1 Standard Formats, Modes, and Frame Rates on the A101f Monochrome Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-22 3.12.2 Customizable Formats and Modes on the A101f Monochrome Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-22 3.12.3 Standard Formats, Modes, and Frame Rates on the A101fc Color Camera. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-24 3.12.4 Customizable Formats and Modes on the A101fc Color Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-25

4 Configuring the Camera
4.1 Block Read and Write Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2 4.2 Register Write Order . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2 4.3 Changing the Video Format setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2 4.4 Implemented Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3 4.5 Advanced Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-11 4.5.1 Advanced Features Access Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-11 4.5.2 Advanced Features Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-11

5 Mechanical Considerations
5.1 Camera Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1 5.2 C-Mount Adapter Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3 5.3 F-Mount Adapter Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3 5.4 Positioning Accuracy of the Sensor Chip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4 5.5 Maximum Lens Thread Length on A101fc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4

6 Troubleshooting
6.1 Fault Finding Using Camera LEDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1 6.1.1 Yellow LED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1 6.1.2 Green LED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1

Revision History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .iii

II

BASLER A101f

DRAFT

Introduction

1 Introduction

The BASLER A101f progressive scan camera is a versatile camera designed for industrial use. Superb image sensing features are combined with a robust, high precision housing. Important features are: ? Compliant with the 1394 TA Digital Camera Specification (V 1.20) ? High spatial resolution ? High sensitivity ? Anti-blooming ? Asynchronous full frame shutter via electronic control ? Square sensor cells ? High Signal-to-Noise Ratio ? Area of interest (AOI) scanning ? Binning mode ? Correlated double-sampling ? Industrial housing manufactured with high planar, parallel and angular precision ? Compact size

1.1 Camera Models
The camera is available in a monochrome model (the A101f) and a color model (theA101fc). Throughout the manual, the camera will be called the A101f. Passages that are only valid for a specific model will be so indicated.

BASLER A101f

1-1

Introduction

DRAFT

1.2 Performance Specifications
Specification Sensor Type Pixels Pixel Size Anti-Blooming Dark Signal Non-uniformity Photo Response Non-uniformity Max. Frame Rate (at full resolution) Video Output Signal

A101f
Sony ICX085AL/AK - 2/3 inch, HAD, interline transfer, progressive scan CCD 1300 (H) x 1030 (V) 6.7 ?m (H) x 6.7 ?m (V) 1:100 ± 1 DN ± 5% 12 frames/sec. Mono: 8 bits per pixel, IEEE 1394 Compliant Color: YUV 4:2:2, 16 bits/pixel average, IEEE 1394 Compliant

Gain and Brightness Exposure Time Control Synchronization Power Requirements Max. Cable Lengths Shock Vibration Lens Adapter Housing Size (L x W x H)

Programmable via IEEE 1394 bus Programmable via IEEE 1394 bus External via External Trigger signal ExTrig input is opto-isolated, max. 1.4 V, max 50 mA 12 VDC (± 10%), 5.0 W, < 1% ripple supplied via 1394 cable 1394: I/O: 4.5 m 10 m

20G with 50 repetitions in each axis 10G (58-500Hz) for 1 hour in each axis C-mount or F-mount without lens adapter: with C-mount adapter: with F-mount adapter: without lens adapter: with C-mount adapter: with F-mount adapter: 48.7 mm x 62 mm x 62 mm 51.2 mm x 62 mm x 62 mm 80.2 mm x 62 mm x 62 mm ~ 202 g ~ 242 g ~ 310 g

Weight

Conformity

CE, FCC

Table 1-1: Performance Specifications

1-2

BASLER A101f

DRAFT

Introduction

The spectral responsivity for monochrome cameras is shown in Figure 1-1. The graph includes lens characteristics and excludes light source characteristics.

1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 400 500 600 700 Wave Length [nm] 800 900 1000

Figure 1-1: Spectral Responsivity - Monochrome Cameras

BASLER A101f

1-3

Introduction

DRAFT

The spectral responsivity for color cameras is shown in Figure 1-2. The graph includes lens characteristics and excludes light source characteristics.
1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 400 500 Wave Length [nm] 600 700 R B G

Figure 1-2: Spectral Responsivity - Color Cameras

*

Cameras equipped with a C-mount lens adapter contain an integrated IR cut filter. On cameras equipped with an F-mount adapter, use of a suitable IR cut filter is recommended to maintain spectral balance and optimum MTF.

1-4

BASLER A101f

DRAFT
1.3 Environmental Requirements
1.3.1 Temperature and Humidity
Housing temperature during operation: Humidity during operation: 0° C … + 50° C (+ 32° F … +122° F) 20% … 80%, relative, non-condensing

Introduction

1.3.2 Ventilation
Allow sufficient air circulation around the camera to prevent internal heat build-up in your system and to keep the camera housing temperature below 50° C. Provide additional cooling such as fans or heat sinks if necessary. Warning!

!

Without sufficient cooling, the camera can get hot enough during operation to cause burning when touched.

1.4 Precautions
Read the manual Read the manual carefully before using the camera. Keep foreign matter outside of the camera Do not open the casing. Touching internal components may damage them. Be careful not to allow liquid, flammable, or metallic material inside the camera housing. If operated with any foreign matter inside, the camera may fail or cause a fire. Electromagnetic Fields Do not operate the camera in the vicinity of strong electromagnetic fields. Avoid electrostatic charging. Transporting Only transport the camera in its original packaging. Do not discard the packaging. Cleaning Avoid cleaning the surface of the CCD sensor if possible. If you must clean it, use a soft, lint free cloth dampened with a small quantity of pure alcohol. Do not use methylated alcohol. Because electrostatic discharge can damage the CCD sensor, you must use a cloth that will not generate static during cleaning (cotton is a good choice). To clean the surface of the camera housing, use a soft, dry cloth. To remove severe stains, use a soft cloth dampened with a small quantity of neutral detergent, then wipe dry. Do not use volatile solvents such as benzine and thinners; they can damage the surface finish.

BASLER A101f

1-5

Introduction

DRAFT

1-6

BASLER A101f

DRAFT

Camera Interface

2 Camera Interface

2.1 Connections
2.1.1 General Description
The A101f is interfaced to external circuitry via an IEEE 1394 socket and a 9-pin micro-D plug located on the side of the housing. Figure 2-1 shows the location of the two connectors. There are also two status LEDs on the back of the camera. The LEDs indicate signal integrity and power OK (see Section 6.1).

Green LED
(Power OK)

9 Pin Micro D Plug IEEE 1394 Socket

Yellow LED
(Signal Integrity)

Figure 2-1: Camera Connectors and Indicators

BASLER A101f

2-1

Camera Interface

DRAFT

2.1.2 Pin Assignments
The IEEE 1394 socket is used to supply power to the camera and to interface video data and control signals. The pin assignments for the socket are shown in Table 2-1.
Pin 1 2 3 Signal +12 VDC DC Gnd TPBPin 4 5 6 Signal TPB+ TPATPA+

Table 2-1: Pin Assignments for the IEEE 1394 Socket

The 9-pin micro-D plug is used to interface the external trigger, integrate enabled, and trigger ready signals. The pin assignments for the plug are shown in Table 2-2
Pin 1 2 3 4 5 Signal External Trigger + Integrate Enabled + Trigger Ready + Not Connected Not Connected Pin 6 7 8 9 Signal External Trigger Integrate Enabled Trigger Ready Not Connected

Table 2-2: Pin Assignments for the 9-Pin Micro-D Plug

*

The camera housing is not grounded and is isolated from the circuit boards inside of the camera.

5

9

1

6

6 4 2

5 3 1

Figure 2-2: A101f Pin Numbering

2-2

BASLER A101f

DRAFT
2.1.3 Connector Types
The 6-pin connector on the camera is a standard IEEE-1394 socket. The 9-pin Micro-D plug is Molex Part Number 83611-9006 or the equivalent.

Camera Interface

2.2 Video Data and Control Signals
2.2.1 Input Signals
2.2.1.1 ExTrig: Controls Exposure Start
An external trigger (ExTrig) signal can be used to control the start of exposure. ExTrig can be a periodic or a non-periodic function. When the camera is operating under the control of an ExTrig signal, the frequency of the ExTrig signal determines the camera’s frame rate. For more detailed information on using the ExTrig signal, see Sections 3.2 and 3.3. As shown in Figure 2-3, the input for the ExSync signal is opto-isolated. The voltage of the LED in the opto-coupler is 1.4 V. The absolute maximum input current for the LED is 50 mA.1 For the ExSync input, a current of more than 5 mA means a logical one. A current of less than 0.1 mA means a logical zero.

2.2.2 Output Signals
2.2.2.1 IntEn: Indicates that Exposure is Taking Place
The integration enabled (IntEn) signal indicates that exposure is taking place. The IntEn signal will be high during exposure and low when exposure is not taking place. As shown in Figure 2-3. the output for the IntEn signal is opto-isolated. The maximum forward voltage is 35 V, the maximum reverse voltage is 6 V, and the maximum collector current is 100 mA.1 A conducting transistor means a logical one and a non-conducting transistor means a logical zero.

2.2.2.2 TrigRdy: Indicates that Exposure Can Begin
When the trigger ready (TrigRdy) signal goes high, it indicates that exposure of the next frame can be triggered. Section 3.3 explains the operation of the trigger ready signal in more detail. As shown in Figure 2-3. the output for the TrigRdy signal is opto-isolated. The maximum forward voltage is 35 V, the maximum reverse voltage is 6 V, and the maximum collector current is 100 mA.1 A conducting transistor means a logical one and a non-conducting transistor means a logical zero.

1

The opto-isolator used in the camera is a Sharp PC3Q64Q or the equivalent. A detailed spec sheet for this device is available at the Sharp Microelectronics Group (www.sharpmeg.com).

BASLER A101f

2-3

Camera Interface

DRAFT

2.2.2.3 Pixel Data
Pixel data are transmitted as isochronous data packets according to version 1.20 of the “1394 based Digital Camera Specification” issued by the 1394 Trade Association. The first packet of each frame is identified by a 1 in the sync bit of the packet header. The video data for each pixel is output in an 8 bit format. Thus the range of intensity for each pixel includes 256 gray levels. The digital gray value of 0 corresponds to black and the digital gray value of 255 to white.

2.2.3 IEEE 1394 Device Information
The A101f uses an IEEE 1394a compliant physical layer device to transmit pixel data. Detailed spec sheets for devices of this type are available at the Texas Instruments web site (www.ti.com).

Camera Housing

Shield Shield To 1394a Compliant Physical Layer Controller Gnd +12 VDC Input TPA+ TPATPB+ TPBVG VP 6 5 4 3 2 1 IEEE 1394 Socket

16 15 PC3Q64Q

1 2

390 ?

ExTrig ExTrig IntEn+ IntEnTrigRdy+ TrigRdy-

1 2 PC3Q64Q

16 15 1

3 BC847

1 6 2 7 3 8 4 9 5 9-Pin Plug

2.7 K 1 2 PC3Q64Q 2.7 K 16 15 1

2 3 BC847

2

Figure 2-3: I/O Schematic

2-4

BASLER A101f

DRAFT
2.3 Camera Power

Camera Interface

Power must be supplied to the camera via the IEEE 1394 cable. The camera requires +12 VDC ± 10%. Maximum power consumption is 5.0 W for the A101f. Ripple must be less than 1%.

2.4 Status LEDs
Green LED The green LED on the back of the camera is used to indicate whether power is being supplied to the camera. When the green LED is out, it means that no power is present. When the green LED is lit, it means that power is present.

*

Keep in mind that the circuit used to light the green LED does not perform a range check. If power to the camera is present but it is out of range, the LED may be lit but the camera will not operate properly.

Yellow LED The yellow LED indicates signal integrity. In case of an error, blinking signals from the yellow LED indicate that an error condition is present. See Section 6.1 for more information.

BASLER A101f

2-5

Camera Interface

DRAFT

2-6

BASLER A101f

DRAFT

Operation and Features

3 Operation and Features

3.1 Functional Description
The A101f area scan camera employs a CCD-sensor chip which provides features such as electronic exposure time control and anti-blooming. Normally, exposure time and charge readout are controlled by values transmitted to the camera’s control registers via the IEEE 1394 interface. Command registers are available to set exposure time and frame rate. There are also command registers available to set the camera for single frame capture, multiple frame capture, and continuous frame capture. Exposure start can also be controlled via an externally generated trigger (ExTrig) signal. The ExTrig signal facilitates periodic or non-periodic start of exposure. When exposure start is controlled by an ExTrig signal, exposure begins when the trigger signal goes low and continues for a pre-programmed period of time. Accumulated charges are read out when the programmed exposure time ends. At readout, accumulated charges are transported from the sensor’s light-sensitive elements (pixels) to the vertical shift registers (see Figure 3-1). The charges from the bottom line of pixels in the array are then moved into a horizontal shift register. As charges move out of the horizontal shift register, they are converted to voltages which are proportional to the size of each charge. Shifting is clocked according to the camera’s internal data rate. The voltages moving out of the horizontal shift register are amplified by an internal Variable Gain Control (VGC) and then digitized by a 10 bit Analog-to-Digital converter (ADC). For optimal digitization, gain and brightness can be programmed by setting command registers in the camera. Since the IEEE 1394 bus can only handle 8 bit data, the two least significant bits from the ADC are dropped. The 8 bit pixel data leaving the ADC is transferred to an image buffer. From the buffer, the image data is moved to a 1394 link layer controller where it is assembled into data packets that comply with version 1.20 of the “1394 - based Digital Camera Specification” issued by the 1394 Trade Association. The packets are passed to a 1394 physical layer controller which transmits them isochronously to a 1394 interface board in the host PC. The physical and link layer controllers also handle transmission and receipt of asynchronous data such as programming commands. The image buffer between the sensor and the link layer controller allows data to be transferred out of the sensor at a rate that is independent of the of the data transmission rate between the camera and the host computer. This ensures that the data transmission rate has no influence on image quality.

BASLER A101f

3-1

Operation and Features

DRAFT
CCD Sensor
Vert. Shift Reg.

Pixels

Vert. Shift Reg.

Pixels

Vert. Shift Reg.

Pixels

Vert. Shift Reg.

Pixels

ADC

VGC Horizontal Shift Register

Figure 3-1: Sensor Architecture

Microcontroller 1

Control

Microcontroller 2

2 MB SDRAM Image Buffer Image Data Image Data

Control: Shutter Binning AOI Gain Brtness.

Control

Asynchronous Data

FPGA Gain & Brightness IntEn

Image Data

CCD Sensor A/D Converter

Link Layer Controller

Isochronous and Asynchronous Data

Physical Layer Controller

Isochronous and Asynchronous Data

IEEE 1394 Bus

ExTrig

Figure 3-2: Block Diagram

3-2

BASLER A101f

DRAFT
3.2 Exposure Control
3.2.1 Setting the Exposure Time

Operation and Features

Exposure time is determined by the value stored in the SHUTTER control register. The value in the register can range from 0 to 4095 (0x000 to 0xFFF). The value in the register represents n in the equation: Exposure Time = (n + 1) x 20 ?s. So, for example, if the value stored in the SHUTTER register is 100 (0x064), the exposure time will be (100 + 1) x 20 ?s or 2020 ?s.

3.2.2 Controlling Exposure Start via the 1394 Interface
One-Shot Operation In one-shot operation, the camera exposes and transmits a single frame. Exposure begins when the ONE_SHOT control register is set to 1. Exposure time is determined by the value stored in the SHUTTER control register (see Section 3.2.1). The ONE_SHOT control register is self cleared when transmission of frame data begins.

*

See Section 4.2, Register Write Order, for a complete description of the order in which the camera registers must be written. This applies for one-shot, multi-shot, and continuous-shot operation.

Multi-Shot Operation In multi-shot operation, the camera exposes and transmits multiple frames. The exposure for the first frame begins when the MULTI_SHOT control register is set to 1. The number of frames that will be transmitted is determined by the value stored in the COUNT_NUMBER field of the control register. The exposure time for each frame is determined by the value stored in the SHUTTER control register (see Section 3.2.1). The start of exposure on the second and subsequent frames is automatically controlled by the camera. If the camera is operating in video Format 0, Format 1, or Format 2, the rate at which frames will be captured and transmitted is determined by the value stored in the CUR_V_FRM_RATE / REVISION control register. If the camera is operating in video Format 7, the rate at which frames will be captured and transmitted is determined by the value stored in the BYTE_PER_PACKET control register (see Section 3.12.2). The MULTI_Shot control register is self cleared when transmission of the last frame begins. Continuous-Shot Operation In continuous-shot operation, the camera continuously exposes and transmits frames. The exposure of the first frame begins when the ISO_EN/CONTINUOUS_SHOT control register is set to 1. The exposure time for each frame is determined by the value stored in the SHUTTER control register (see Section 3.2.1). The start of exposure on the second and subsequent frames is automatically controlled by the camera. If the camera is operating in video Format 0, Format 1, or Format 2, the rate at which frames will be captured and transmitted is determined by the value stored in the CUR_V_FRM_RATE / REVISION control register.

BASLER A101f

3-3

Operation and Features

DRAFT

If the camera is operating in video Format 7, the rate at which frames will be captured and transmitted is determined by the value stored in the BYTE_PER_PACKET control register (see Section 3.12.2). Frame exposure and transmission stop when the ISO_EN/CONTINUOUS_SHOT control register is set to 0.

3.2.3 Controlling Exposure Start with an ExTrig Signal
The external trigger (ExTrig) input signal can be used to control the start of exposure. A rising edge on the ExTrig signal begins exposure. The ExTrig signal can be periodic or non-periodic. The ExTrig signal must be used in combination with a one-shot, multi-shot, or continuous-shot command. If precise control of exposure start time is desired, you must also monitor the Trigger Ready signal and you must base the timing of the ExTrig signal on the state of Trigger Ready. (See section 3.3 for a detailed explanation of the Trigger Ready signal.) To enable the external trigger feature and set the camera for rising edge triggering, set the ON_OFF field of the TRIGGER_MODE control register to 1, the Trigger_Polarity field to 1, and the Trigger_Mode field to 0. ExTrig/One-Shot Operation In ExTrig/One shot operation, the camera exposes and transmits a single frame. To use this method of operation, follow this sequence: 1. Set the SHUTTER control register for your desired exposure time (see Section 3.2.1). 2. Set the ONE_SHOT control register to 1. 3. Check the state of the TrigRdy signal: a) If TrigRdy is high, you can toggle ExTrig when desired. b) If TrigRdy is low, wait until TrigRdy goes high and then toggle ExTrig when desired. 4. When ExTrig goes high, exposure will begin. Exposure will continue for the length of time specified in the SHUTTER control register. 5. At the end of the specified exposure time, frame readout and transmission will take place. The ONE_SHOT control register is self cleared after frame transmission.

*

See Section 4.2, Register Write Order, for a complete description of the order in which the camera registers must be written. This applies for one-shot, multi-shot and continuous-shot operation.

ExTrig/Multi-Shot Operation In ExTrig/Multi shot operation, the camera exposes and transmits multiple frames. The number of frames that will be transmitted is determined by the value stored in the COUNT_NUMBER control register. To use this method of operation, follow this sequence: 1. Set the SHUTTER control register for your desired exposure time (See Section 3.2.1). 2. Set the MULTI_SHOT control register to 1 and set the COUNT_NUMBER control register to the desired number of frames.

3-4

BASLER A101f

DRAFT
3. Check the state of the TrigRdy signal: a) If TrigRdy is high, you can toggle ExTrig when desired.

Operation and Features

b) If TrigRdy is low, wait until TrigRdy goes high and then toggle ExTrig when desired. 4. When ExTrig goes high, exposure will begin. Exposure will continue for the length of time specified in the SHUTTER control register. 5. At the end of the specified exposure time, frame readout and transmission will take place. 6. Repeat steps 3, 4, and 5 until you have captured the number of frames specified in the count number register. The MULTI_SHOT control register is self cleared after transmission of the last frame. ExTrig/Continuous-Shot Operation In ExTrig/Continuous-shot operation, the camera continuously exposes and transmits frames. To use this method of operation, follow this sequence: 1. Set the SHUTTER control register for your desired exposure time (see Section 3.2.1). 2. Set the ISO_EN/CONTINUOUS_SHOT control register to 1. 3. Check the state of the TrigRdy signal: a) If TrigRdy is high, you can toggle ExTrig when desired. b) If TrigRdy is low, wait until TrigRdy goes high and then toggle ExTrig when desired. 4. When ExTrig goes high, exposure will begin. Exposure will continue for the length of time specified in the SHUTTER control register. 5. At the end of the specified exposure time, frame readout and transmission will take place. 6. Repeat steps 3, 4, and 5 each time that you want to capture a frame. 7. Frame exposure and transmission stop when the ISO_EN/CONTINUOUS_SHOT control register is set to 0.

3.2.4 Recommended Methods for Controlling Exposure Start
If a camera user requires close control of exposure start, there are several general guidelines that must be followed: ? the camera should be placed in continuous shot mode. ? the user must use an external trigger signal to start exposure and must set the camera to react to a rising edge of the trigger signal (i.e., active high). ? the user must monitor the trigger ready signal and the integrate enabled signal (see Sections 3.3 and 3.4 for an explanation of these signals). ? a rising edge of the external trigger signal must only occur when the trigger ready signal is high. Assuming that these general guidelines are followed, the reaction of the camera to a rising external trigger signal will be one of two cases. In case one, the rising edge of ExTrig occurs when the camera is not transferring a captured frame from the sensor to the image buffer. In case two, the rising edge of ExTrig occurs when the camera is transferring a captured frame from the sensor to the image buffer.

BASLER A101f

3-5

Operation and Features

DRAFT

Case 1 - Exposure Start When the Camera is not Transferring a Frame
After each exposure is complete, there is a time period of 80.7 ms. during which the captured frame is transferred from the CCD sensor to the camera’s image buffer. If the ExTrig signal rises after this time period has ended as shown in Figure 3-3: ? The start of exposure will occur between 3 and 6 ?s after the rise of ExTrig. For a given camera, the delay in the start of exposure will be consistent from frame to frame. (The size of the delay will vary slightly from camera to camera, but will always be in the 3 to 6 ?s range.) ? The IntEn signal will rise between 2 and 3 ?s after the start of exposure. For a given camera, the delay in the rise of IntEn will be consistent from frame to frame. (The size of the delay will vary slightly from camera to camera, but will always be in the 2 to 3 ?s range.) ? The actual length of exposure will be equal to the programmed exposure time plus 4 ?s. To know when frame transfer to the buffer is taking place, the user must monitor the integrate enabled signal. The frame transfer time period begins on the falling edge of the integrate enabled signal and lasts for 80.7 ms.

TrigRdy

ExTrig
3 ?s 6 ?s Exposure Frame N Exposure Frame N + 1 2 ?s 3 ?s 3 ?s 6 ?s Exposure Frame N + 2 2 ?s 3 ?s

Exposure

IntEn
80.7 ms 80.7 ms Frame N +1 Transfer to the Image Buffer TIMING CHARTS ARE NOT DRAWN TO SCALE

Frame Transfer

Frame N Transfer to the Image Buffer

Figure 3-3: Exposure Start After Frame Transfer

*

The camera can be programmed to react to a rising edge of the ExTrig signal or to a falling edge of the ExTrig signal. We strongly recommend that you program the camera to react to the rising edge of the signal (i.e., active high). If falling edge triggering is used, the time between the falling edge of the ExTrig signal and the actual start of exposure is excessively long (at least 90 ?s). This occurs due to the characteristics of the opto-coupler on the camera’s ExTrig input.

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DRAFT

Operation and Features

Case 2 - Exposure Start When the Camera is Transferring a Frame
After each exposure is complete, there is a time period of 80.7 ms. during which the captured frame is transferred from the CCD sensor to the camera’s image buffer. If the ExTrig signal rises during this time period as shown in Figure 3-4: ? The start of exposure will occur between 3 ?s and 86 ?s after the rise of ExTrig. The delay in the start of exposure will vary from frame to frame but will always fall in the 3 to 86 ?s range.1 ? The IntEn signal will rise between 2 and 3 ?s after the start of exposure. For a given camera, the delay in the rise of IntEn will be consistent from frame to frame. (The size of the delay will vary slightly from camera to camera, but will always be in the 2 to 3 ?s range.) ? The actual length of exposure will be equal to the programmed exposure time plus 4 ?s. To know when frame transfer to the buffer is taking place, the user must monitor the integrate enabled signal. The frame transfer time period begins on the falling edge of the integrate enabled signal and lasts for 80.7 ms.

TrigRdy

ExTrig
3 ?s 1 86 ?s Exposure Frame N Exposure Frame N + 1 2 ?s 3 ?s 3 ?s 86 ?s 1 Exposure Frame N + 2 2 ?s 3 ?s

Exposure

IntEn
80.7 ms 80.7 ms Frame N + 1 Transfer to the Image Buffer

Frame Transfer

Frame N Transfer to the Image Buffer

TIMING CHARTS ARE NOT DRAWN TO SCALE

Figure 3-4: Exposure Start During Frame Transfer
1

This variability in the start of exposure is commonly referred to as an exposure start jitter. It occurs because when the camera is transferring an image, exposure can only start at certain fixed points during the frame transfer process. If an exposure is triggered when the transfer process is very near to one of these fixed points, the exposure start delay can be as little as 3 ?s. If an exposure is triggered when the transfer process is very far from one of these fixed points, the start delay can be as much as 86 ?s. If you need very close control of exposure start time, you should trigger exposure start when the camera is not transferring a frame as shown on page 3-6.

*

The camera can be programmed to react to a rising edge of the ExTrig signal or to a falling edge of the ExTrig signal. We strongly recommend that you program the camera to react to the rising edge of the signal (i.e., active high). If falling edge triggering is used, the time between the falling edge of the ExTrig signal and the start of exposure will be excessively long (at least 90 ?s). This occurs due to the characteristics of the opto-coupler on the camera’s ExTrig input.

BASLER A101f

3-7

Operation and Features

DRAFT

3.3 Trigger Ready Signal

*
Frame 1 Exposure

The trigger ready signal is not defined in the 1394 Trade Association Digital Camera Specification. Trigger ready is a special feature of Basler cameras.

One possible way to control the camera is to perform an image exposure followed by charge read out and frame transfer and to wait until frame transfer is complete before beginning the next exposure. This situation is illustrated in Figure 3-5.
Frame 2 Exposure Frame 3 Exposure

Frame 1 Transfer

Frame 2 Transfer

Frame 3 Transfer

Read Out

Read Out

Read Out

Figure 3-5: Exposure Between Frame Transfers

While the method of control shown above may be useful in many situations, it is not workable if your objective is to achieve maximum frame rate. To achieve maximum frame rate, most of the exposure for each frame must take place while the previous frame is being transferred out of the CCD array. This situation is illustrated in Figure 3-6.

Frame 1 Exposure

Frame 2 Exposure

Frame 3 Exposure

Frame 4 Exposure

Frame 1 Transfer

Frame 2 Transfer

Frame 3 Transfer

> 100 ns
Read Out Read Out

> 100 ns
Read Out

> 100 ns
Read Out

Figure 3-6: Exposure During Frame Transfer

A point to notice when looking at Figure 3-6 is that exposure must not end during frame transfer; the end of exposure for the next frame must occur at least 100 ns after the transfer of the current frame. (For example, the exposure for frame two must end at least 100 ns after frame one transfer is complete.) This situation poses a problem when you are controlling exposure with an ExTrig signal, that is, how will you know when to toggle the ExTrig signal and begin exposure so that the exposure will end at least 100 ns after the last frame transfer. This problem is addressed by the trigger ready signal. The trigger ready signal will go high at the earliest moment that you can begin exposure and still be sure that the exposure will end at least 100 ns after the transfer of the last frame.

3-8

BASLER A101f

DRAFT

Operation and Features

For better understanding of the use of trigger ready signal, consider an example. Assume that you will set the exposure time to 20 ?s for every exposure and that you want to begin exposing as early as possible during transfer of the previous frame. In this case, the trigger ready signal will go high 20 ?s before the earliest allowable end of exposure. This situation is illustrated in Figure 3-7.

20 ?s Trigger Ready

20 ?s

20 ?s

Frame 1 Transfer Frame Transfer
> 100 ns

Frame 2 Transfer

Frame 3 Transfer

> 100 ns

> 100 ns

Figure 3-7: Trigger Ready Signal If you monitor the trigger ready signal, and toggle ExTrig when the trigger ready signal goes high, the exposure will end at the earliest allowable point. Figure 3-8 illustrates how the ExTrig signal should toggle if you want your 20 ?s exposure time to overlap frame transfer as much as possible. (Note that the trigger ready signal goes low when exposure starts.)

ExTrig

20 ?s exposure

20 ?s exposure

20 ?s exposure

Trigger Ready

20 ?s

20 ?s

20 ?s

Frame 1 Transfer Frame Transfer

Frame 2 Transfer

Frame 3 Transfer

>100 ns

>100 ns

>100 ns

Figure 3-8: Using Trigger Ready to Time the ExTrig Signal

3.3.1 What Happens if you Toggle ExTrig while TrigRdy is Low
As explained above, the trigger ready signal is designed to ensure that exposure ends after the previous frame transfer is complete. But what happens if you toggle ExTrig while the trigger ready signal is low. In this case, the camera will remember that ExTrig has toggled and will delay the start of exposure until the trigger ready signal goes high.

BASLER A101f

3-9

Operation and Features

DRAFT

3.4 Integrate Enabled Signal
The Integrate Enabled (IntEn) signal goes high when exposure begins and goes low when exposure ends. This signal is especially useful when you are operating a system where either the camera or the object being imaged is movable. For example, assume that the camera is mounted on an arm mechanism and that the mechanism can be used to move the camera to view different portions of a product assembly. Typically, you do not want the camera to move during exposure. In this case, you can monitor the IntEn signal to know exactly when exposure is taking place and thus know when to avoid moving the camera.

3.5 Version Information
A101f cameras include an advanced feature called “Extended Versions” that allows the user to read the version numbers of the firmware and several other elements in the camera. The version numbers are contained in an ASCII character string located in the EXTD_VERSIONS advanced features register. The extended versions register and the layout of the information contained in the character string are described in detail on page 4-12.

*

Extended versions is an advanced feature and may not be supported by the camera driver software that you are using.

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3.6 Gain and Brightness
The major components in the camera electronics include: a CCD sensor, a VGC (Variable Gain Control), and an ADC (Analog to Digital Converter). The pixels in the CCD sensor output voltage signals when they are exposed to light. These voltages are amplified by the VGC and transferred to the ADC which converts the voltages to digital output signals. Two parameters, gain and brightness are associated with the VGC. As shown in Figures 3-9 and 3-10, increasing or decreasing the gain increases or decreases the amplitude of the signal that is input to the ADC. Increasing or decreasing the brightness moves the signal up or down the measurement scale but does not change the signal amplitude. The default gain and brightness are set so that with optimal lighting and exposure, the linear output range of the CCD sensor maps to the input range of the ADC. Under these conditions, black will produce a gray value of 1 from the ADC and white will produce a gray value of 254. For most applications, black should have a gray value of 1 and white should have a gray value of 254. Attempt to achieve this by varying exposure and illumination rather than changing the camera’s gain. The default gain is the optimal operating point (minimum noise) and should be used if possible.
input signal to ADC [V]

Operation and Features

increasing gain increases the amplitude of the input signal

light intensity [?J/cm2]

Figure 3-9: Gain

input signal to ADC [V]

increasing brightness moves the input signal up the measurement scale
offset

light intensity [?J/cm2]

Figure 3-10: Brightness

*

Because increasing gain increases both signal and noise, the signal to noise ratio does not change significantly when gain is increased.

BASLER A101f

3-11

Operation and Features

DRAFT

3.6.1 Gain settings in more detail
The output signals from the pixels in the CCD sensor normally range from 0 Volts when the pixels are exposed to no light to 0.4 Volts when they are exposed to bright light. Within that range, the sensor characteristics are linear. Saturation starts at 0.4 Volts. Further exposure results in a higher sensor output signal but linearity is no longer guaranteed. The default factory gain is set for an amplification factor of 5.0 (14 dB). At this setting, the sensor’s normal linear output range of 0 V - 0.4 V is amplified to 0 V - 2.0 V. The peak-to-peak input range of the ADC is 0 V - 2.0 V. Thus when the gain is at factory default, the amplified output of the sensor maps directly to the input voltage range of the ADC. Gain is adjustable and can be programmed on a decimal scale that ranges from 0 to 511 (0x000 to 0x1FF). However, only the settings from 0 to 319 (0x000 to 0x13F) are effective. Settings greater than 319 will not increase the gain and should not be used. The settings result in the following amplification: ? 0 = 4.5 dB ? 319 = 34.5 dB ? In between, the change in dB setting is linear. ? The gain can be adjusted in steps of 0.094 dB. The desired 14 dB default gain is achieved when the gain is programmed to 101 (0x065). You should find that the default gain setting on your camera is near to this value. Reducing the gain below 101 results in mapping more than the linear operating range of the sensor to the ADC. Increasing the gain to more than 101 maps a smaller portion of the sensor’s linear output signal to the ADC.

If you know the decimal number setting for the gain on your camera, the equivalent decibel value can be calculated as follows: 34.5 – 4.5 - × DN ? + 4.5 dB = ? ------------------------? ? 319

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BASLER A101f

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3.7 Binning

Operation and Features

Binning increases the camera’s sensitivity to light by summing the charges from adjacent pixels into one pixel. There are three types of binning available: horizontal binning, vertical binning and full binning. With horizontal binning, pairs of adjacent pixels in each line are summed (see Figure 3-11). With vertical binning, pairs of adjacent pixels from two lines are summed. Full binning is a combination of horizontal and vertical binning in which four adjacent pixels are summed. When horizontal binning is active, image resolution decreases to 650 pixels (H) by 1030 pixels (V). When vertical binning is active, resolution decreases to 1300 (H) by 515 (V). With full binning, resolution decreases to 650 (H) by 515 (V). Horizontal binning is enabled by setting the CUR_V_FORMAT control register to 7 and the CUR_V_MODE control register to 1. Vertical binning is enabled by setting the CUR_V_FORMAT control register to 7 and the CUR_V_MODE control register to 2. Full binning is enabled by setting the CUR_V_FORMAT control register to 7 and the CUR_V_MODE control register to 3.

Charges from adjacent pixels in each line are summed and reported out as a single pixel.

Charges from adjacent pixels in two lines are summed and reported out as a single pixel.

Charges from groups of four pixels are summed and reported out as a single pixel.

Horizontal Binning
Figure 3-11: Binning

Vertical Binning

Full Binning

*

Binning is only available on the A101f monochrome camera. Using horizontal or vertical binning generally increases the camera’s sensitivity by up to two times normal. Full binning increases sensitivity up to four times normal. After switching on binning, the image might look overexposed. Reduce the lens aperture, light intensity, or exposure in this case. With horizontal binning active, frame grabbers often require the information that the horizontal resolution is 650. With vertical binning active, they often require the information that the vertical resolution is 515. With full binning active, they often require the information that the horizontal resolution is 650 and the vertical resolution is 515. With vertical or full binning active (horizontal binning has no effect), the maximum allowed frame rate increases to 22.89 frames/sec.

BASLER A101f

3-13

Operation and Features

DRAFT

3.8 Area of Interest (AOI)
The area of interest (AOI) feature allows you to specify a portion of the CCD array and during operation, only the pixel information from the specified portion of the array is transferred out of the camera. The area of interest is referenced to the top left corner of the CCD array. The top left corner is designated as column 0 and row 0 as shown in Figure 3-12. The location and size of the area of interest is defined by declaring a left-most column, a width, a top row and a height. Reference position is the top left corner of the image. For example, suppose that you specify the left column as 10, the width as 16, the top row as 4 and the height as 10. The area of the array that is bounded by these settings is shown in Figure 3-12. The camera will only transmit pixel data from within the area defined by your settings. Information from the pixels outside of the area of interest is discarded.

Starting Row

Column 0 1 Row 0 Row 1 Row 2 Row 3 Row 4 Row 5

2

3

4

5

6

7

8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

Height in Rows

Row 6 Row 7 Row 8 Row 9 Row 10 Row 11 Row 12 Row 13 Row 14 Row 14 Row 15 Row 17 Row 18 Row 19

The camera will only transmit the pixel data from this area.

Starting Column Width in Columns

Figure 3-12: Area of Interest

The AOI feature is enabled by setting the CUR_V_FORMAT control register to 7 and the CUR_V_MODE control register to 0. The location of the area of interest is defined by setting a value for the “left” field and a value for the “top” field within the IMAGE_POSITION control register that has been established for Format_7, Mode_0. The size of the area of interest is defined by setting a value for the “width” field and a value for the “height” field within the IMAGE_SIZE control register that has been established for Format_7, Mode_0. To use the entire CCD array on the A101f, set the value for “left” to 0, the value for “top” to 0, the value for “width” to 1300 and the value for “height” to 1030.

3-14

BASLER A101f

DRAFT

Operation and Features

*

On the A101fc color camera: the setting for Left must be 0 or an even number. the setting for Top must be 0 or an even number. the setting for Width must be an even number. the setting for Height must be an even number. On all cameras, the sum of the setting for Left plus the setting for Width must not exceed 1300. On all cameras, the sum of the setting for Top plus the setting for Height must not exceed 1030. On all cameras, the AOI must contain at least 6144 pixels (width x height).

3.8.1 Changes to the Frame Rate With AOI
When the area of interest (AOI) feature is used, the maximum allowed frame rate depends on the number of rows included in the area of interest. The maximum allowed frame rate increases as the number of rows included in the area of interest decreases. The formula below can be used to calculate the maximum allowed frame rate when the AOI feature is used:

1,000,000 ?s Frames/sec. = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------43 ?s + [(1029 - Rows in AOI) x 5.44 ?s] + [(Rows in AOI + 1) x 80.05 ?s] + 0.1 ?s

Table 3-1 shows the maximum allowed frame rates for a variety of AOI sizes.

Rows in AOI

Highest Frame Rate

Rows in AOI

Highest Frame Rate

1000 900 800 700 600

12.4 Frames/sec. 13.7 Frames/sec. 15.2 Frames/sec. 17.2 Frames/sec. 19.8 Frames/sec.

500 400 300 200 100

23.2 Frames/sec. 28.1 Frames/sec. 35.5 Frames/sec. 48.4 Frames/sec. 75.8 Frames/sec.

Table 3-1: Maximum Allowed Frame Rates

*
BASLER A101f

The examples in Table 3-1 assume that you are using the maximum allowed packet size. If you use a smaller packet size, you will not be able to achieve the stated frame rates. See Section 3.12.2 for more details.

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Operation and Features

DRAFT

3.9 Test Images
The test image mode is used to check the camera’s basic functionality and its ability to transmit an image via the video data cable. The test image mode can be used for service purposes and for failure diagnostics. In test mode, the image is generated with a software program and the camera’s digital devices and does not use the optics, CCD sensor, VGC, or ADC. Three different test images are available. Test images are an advanced feature. The test images are enabled by setting the ImageOn field of the TEST_IMAGE advanced features register (see page 4-13). To enable test image one, set the field to 1. To enable test image two, set the field to 2. To enable test image three, set the field to 3. To disable the test image feature, set the field to 0. When a test image is active, the gain, brightness, and exposure time have no effect on the image.

Test Image one
As shown in Figure 3-13, test image one consists of lines with several gray scale gradients ranging from 0 to 255. If the camera is operating at full 1300 x 1030 resolution when the test images are generated: ? the first line starts with a gray value of 0 for the first pixel, ? the second line starts with a gray value 1 for the first pixel, ? the third line starts with a gray value of 2 for the first pixel, and so on. (If the camera is operating at a lower resolution when the test images are generated, the basic appearance of the test pattern will be similar to Figure 3-13, but the staring pixel values on each line will not be as described above.)

The mathematical expression for test image one is:

grayvalue = [ x + y ] MOD256

Figure 3-13: Test Image One

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BASLER A101f

DRAFT
Test Image Two

Operation and Features

As shown in Figure 3-14, test image two consists of lines with several gray scale gradients ranging from 0 to 255. If the camera is operating at full 1300 x 1030 resolution when the test images are generated: ? lines 1, 2, 3, and 4 start with a gray value of 0 for the first pixel, ? lines 5, 6, 7, and 8 start with a gray value of 1 for the first pixel, ? lines 9, 10, 11, and 12 start with a gray value of 2 on the first pixel, and so on. (If the camera is operating at a lower resolution when the test images are generated, the basic appearance of the test pattern will be similar to Figure 3-14, but the staring pixel values on each line will not be as described above.) The mathematical expression for test image two is:

[x+y] grayvalue = ------------------ MOD 256, round off all values 4

Figure 3-14: Test Image Two

Test Image Three
Test image three (not shown) is similar to test image one, but it is not stationary. The image moves by 1 pixel from right to left whenever a one-shot, multi-shot or continuous-shot command signal is sent to the camera.

*
BASLER A101f

Test Images are an advanced feature and may not be supported by the camera driver software that you are using.

3-17

Operation and Features

DRAFT

3.10 Low Smear
In applications where a CCD sensor is under constant illumination, highcontrast images may show smearing. Smearing is an unwanted effect that converts dark pixels into brighter ones. With the help of the low smear feature on the A101f, smearing is reduced on the upper part of the image. The effect of the low smear feature is illustrated in Figure 3-15. The low smear feature cannot be activated or deactivated. Low smear is active all of the time, however, the feature operates best at lower frame rates.

Figure 3-15: Full Smear (left), Low Smear (right)

A two step process must be used to calculate the maximum frame rate that you can use and still see the full effect of the low smear feature. First, you must use this formula to calculate the frame transfer time based on the size of the area of interest (AOI): T(f) = 43 ?s + [ (1029 - AOIH) x 5.44 ?s ] + [ (AOIH + 1) x 80.05 ?s ] + 0.1 ?s where: T(f) = frame transfer time AOIH = number of rows in the AOI Second, you must use this formula to calculate the maximum allowed frame: 1,000,000 ?s Frames/sec. ≤ -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------T(f) + [ (AOIH + AOIT) x 7.1 ?s ] + T(e)

where:

T(f) = frame transfer time AOIH = number of rows in the AOI AOIT = number of rows above the AOI T(e) = exposure time

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BASLER A101f

DRAFT

Operation and Features

To better understand these calculations, let’s look at an example. Suppose that you are working with an 800 (H) x 600 (V) area of interest, that there are 215 rows above the AOI and that you want a 2 ms. exposure. The calculations would look like this: T(f) = 43 ?s + [ (1029 - 600) x 5.44 ?s ] + [ (600 + 1) x 80.05 ?s ] + 0.1 ?s T(f) = 50.487 ms and: 1,000,000 ?s Frames/sec. ≤ ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------50.487 ms + [ (600 + 215) x 7.1 ?s ] + 2 ms Frames/sec. = 17.2

So in this case, you can run the camera at up to 17.2 frames per second and still see the full effect of the low smear feature. If the camera’s actual frame rate is higher than the maximum allowed frame rate, the smearing will come back. When you exceed the maximum allowed frame rate by a small amount, the upper part of the image will show partial smearing (see Figure 3-16). As the frame rate is increased, the smearing will become worse.

Figure 3-16: Full Smear (left), Partial Smear (middle), Low Smear (right)

BASLER A101f

3-19

Operation and Features

DRAFT

3.11 Color Creation in the A101fc
The CCD sensor used in the A101fc is equipped with an additive color separation filter known as a Bayer filter. With the Bayer filter, each individual pixel is covered by a micro-lens which allows light of only one color to strike the pixel. The pattern of the Bayer filter used in the A101fc is shown in Figure 3-17. As the figure illustrates, within each block of four pixels, one pixel sees only red light, one sees only blue light, and two pixels see only green light. (This combination mimics the human eye’s sensitivity to color.)

G R G R G R

B G B G B G

G R G R G R

B G B G B G

G R G R G R

G R G R G R

B G B G B G

G R G R G R

B G B G B G

G R G R G R

B G B G B G

G R G R G R

B G B G B G

G R G R G R

G R G R G R

B G B G B G

G R G R G R

B G B G B G
Horizontal Shift Register

Figure 3-17: Bayer Filter Pattern on the A101fc When an A101fc is operating in a color output mode, each pixel goes through a two step conversion process as it exits the sensor and passes through the camera’s electronics. In the first step of the process, an interpolation algorithm is performed to get full RGB data for the pixel. (Because each individual pixel gathers information for only one color, an interpolation must be made from the surrounding pixels to get full RGB data for an individual pixel.) Since the 1394 Digital Camera Specification requires that color information be transmitted as YUV, the second step of the process is to convert the RGB information to YUV. The conversion algorithm uses the following formulas: Y = 0.3 R + 0.59 G + 0.11 B U = -0.168 R - 0.33 G + 0.498 B V = 0.499 R - 0.421 G - 0.078 B

3-20

BASLER A101f

DRAFT

Operation and Features

Once the conversion to YUV is complete, pixels are transmitted from the camera in the YUV (4:2:2) format as defined in Section 2.1.3 Video Data Payload Structure in the 1394-based Digital Camera Specification Version 1.20.

*

The values for U and for V normally range from -128 to +128. Because the 1394 Digital Camera specification requires that U values and V values be transmitted with unsigned integers, 128 is added to each U value and to each V value before the values are transmitted from the camera. This process allows the values to be transmitted on a scale that ranges from 0 to 256 (for more information, see Section 2.1.4 Data Structure in the 1394-based Digital Camera Specification Version 1.20). As a result of the conversion process, the pixel data for the first line and for the first column is not useful. This data should be discarded. When an A101fc is operating in a YUV (4:2:2) mode, the average number of bits per pixel is 16. This means that the camera will require twice the bandwidth of a camera operating in 8 bit monochrome mode. The A101fc can operate in several YUV (4:2:2) color modes and can also operate in several monochrome 8 bit modes (see Sections 3.12.3 and 3.12.4).

3.11.1 White Balance
White balance capability has been implemented on the A101fc. With white balancing, a correction factor can be applied to the U values and to the V values transmitted from the camera. The U_Value field of the WHITE_BALANCE control register can be used to apply a correction factor to the U values transmitted from the camera. The setting for the field can range from 0 to 255. If the field is set to 0, the image will be less blue. If the field is set to 128, there will be no effect on the image. And if the field is set to 255, the image will be more blue. The V_Value field of the WHITE_BALANCE control register can be used to apply a correction factor to the V values transmitted from the camera. The setting for the field can range from 0 to 255. If the field is set to 0, the image will be less red. If the field is set to 128, there will be no effect on the image. And if the field is set to 255, the image will be more red.

3.11.2 Using the A101fc in a Monochrome Mode
The A101fc color camera is normally used in a YUV (4:2:2) color output mode. The camera can also operate in several 8 bit monochrome output modes. The 1394 Digital Camera Specification indicates that when a color camera is operating in a monochrome mode, the camera should output the Y value for each pixel. The A101fc does not operate this way. Instead, it outputs the raw data for each pixel. This allows the camera user to perform color interpolations or other processing algorithms on pixel data that has not been manipulated.

3.11.3 Integrated IR Cut Filter on C-Mount Equipped Cameras
Cameras equipped with a C-mount lens adapter contain an IR cut filter inside of the camera. The location of the filter limits the thread length of the lens that is used on the camera. See Section 5.5 for more details on lens thread length. Cameras equipped with an F-mount lens adapter do not contain an IR cut filter.

BASLER A101f

3-21

Operation and Features

DRAFT

3.12 Available Video Formats, Modes, & Frame Rates
3.12.1 Standard Formats, Modes, and Frame Rates on the A101f Monochrome Camera
The following standard video formats, modes, and frame rates are available on the A101f: Format_0, Mode_5, FrameRate_1 (Mono, 8 bits/pixel, 640 x 480 pixels at 3.75 fps) Format_0, Mode_5, FrameRate_2 (Mono, 8 bits/pixel, 640 x 480 pixels at 7.5 fps) Format_0, Mode_5, FrameRate_3 (Mono, 8 bits/pixel, 640 x 480 pixels at 15 fps) Format_1, Mode_2, FrameRate_2 (Mono, 8 bits/pixel, 800 x 600 pixels at 7.5 fps) Format_1, Mode_2, FrameRate_3 (Mono, 8 bits/pixel, 800 x 600 pixels at 15 fps) Format_1, Mode_5, FrameRate_1 (Mono, 8 bits/pixel, 1024 x 768 pixels at 3.75 fps) Format_1, Mode_5, FrameRate_2 (Mono, 8 bits/pixel, 1024 x 768 pixels at 7.5 fps) Format_1, Mode_5, FrameRate_3 (Mono, 8 bits/pixel, 1024 x 768 pixels at 15 fps) Format_2, Mode_2, FrameRate_0 (Mono, 8 bits/pixel, 1280 x 960 pixels at 1.875 fps) Format_2, Mode_2, FrameRate_1 (Mono, 8 bits/pixel, 1280 x 960 pixels at 3.75 fps) Format_2, Mode_2, FrameRate_2 (Mono, 8 bits/pixel, 1280 x 960 pixels at 7.5 fps)

3.12.2 Customizable Formats and Modes on the A101f Monochrome Camera
The following customizable video formats and modes are available on the A101f:
Format_7, Mode_0

Format_7, Mode_0 is available on the A101f. In this format and mode, the camera’s output will be mono, 8 bits/pixel. Format_7, Mode_0 is used to enable and set up the area of interest (AOI) feature described in Section 3.8. The maximum allowed frame rate in this mode depends on the size of the AOI. The formula shown on page 4-15 can be used to calculate the highest allowed frame rate for any size AOI. When the camera is operating in Format_7, Mode_0, the frame rate can be adjusted by setting the number of bytes that are transmitted in each packet. The number of bytes per packet is set using the BytePerPacket field of the BYTE_PER_PACKET control register that has been established for Format_7, Mode_0. The value that appears in the MaxBytePerPacket field of the PACKET_PARA_INQ control register will show the maximum allowed setting for the bytes per packet. When the bytes per packet is set to the maximum, the camera will transmit frames at the maximum allowed frame rate for the AOI size you have defined. By default, the bytes per packet are set to the maximum.

3-22

BASLER A101f

DRAFT

Operation and Features

The maximum bytes per packet will vary depending on the size of the AOI. This occurs to avoid image buffer under-runs. The rate of image data flowing out of the image buffer must be correctly balanced against the amount of image data entering the buffer. If you set the bytes per packet to a value lower than the maximum allowed, the camera will transmit frames at a lower rate. The rate is calculated by the formula: 1,000,000 ?s Frames/Sec. = -------------------------------------------------------------------------Packets per Frame x 125 ?s The value that appears in the UnitBytePerPacket field of the PACKET_PARA_INQ control register will show the minimum allowed setting for the bytes per packet. The bytes per packet must not be set lower than the minimum. The minimum bytes per packet will vary depending on the size of the AOI. This occurs because of hardware limits on the link layer controller.
Format_7, Mode_1

Format_7, Mode_1 is available on the A101f. In this format and mode, the camera’s output will be mono, 8 bits/pixel. Format_7, Mode_1 is used to enable horizontal binning as described in Section 3.7. The maximum allowed frame rate in this mode is 11.75 frames/sec. The frame rate can be adjusted using the same method as described for Format_7, Mode_0.
Format_7, Mode_2

Format_7, Mode_2 is available on the A101f. In this format and mode, the camera’s output will be mono, 8 bits/pixel. Format_7, Mode_2 is used to enable vertical binning as described in Section 3.7. The maximum allowed frame rate in this mode is 22.89 frames/sec The frame rate can be adjusted using the same method as described for Format_7, Mode_0.
Format_7, Mode_3

Format_7, Mode_3 is available on the A101f. In this format and mode, the camera’s output will be mono, 8 bits/pixel. Format_7, Mode_3 is used to enable full binning as described in Section 3.7. The maximum allowed frame rate in this mode is 22.89 frames/sec. The frame rate can be adjusted using the same method as described for Format_7, Mode_0.

*

When the camera is operating in Format_7, Mode_0, in Format_7, Mode_1, in Format _7, Mode_2, or in Format_7, Mode_3, the CUR_V_FRAME_RATE control register is not used and has no effect on camera operation.

BASLER A101f

3-23

Operation and Features

DRAFT

3.12.3 Standard Formats, Modes, and Frame Rates on the A101fc Color Camera
The following standard video formats, modes, and frame rates are available on the A101fc: Format_0, Mode_1, FrameRate_1 (YUV 4:2:2, 16 bits/pixel, 320 x 240 pixels at 3.75 fps) Format_0, Mode_1, FrameRate_2 (YUV 4:2:2, 16 bits/pixel, 320 x 240 pixels at 7.5 fps) Format_0, Mode_1, FrameRate_3 (YUV 4:2:2, 16 bits/pixel, 320 x 240 pixels at 15 fps) Format_0, Mode_3, FrameRate_1 (YUV 4:2:2, 16 bits/pixel, 640 x 480 pixels at 3.75 fps) Format_0, Mode_3, FrameRate_2 (YUV 4:2:2, 16 bits/pixel, 640 x 480 pixels at 7.5 fps) Format_0, Mode_3, FrameRate_3 (YUV 4:2:2, 16 bits/pixel, 640 x 480 pixels at 15 fps) Format_0, Mode_5, FrameRate_1 (Mono, 8 bits/pixel, 640 x 480 pixels at 3.75 fps) Format_0, Mode_5, FrameRate_2 (Mono, 8 bits/pixel, 640 x 480 pixels at 7.5 fps) Format_0, Mode_5, FrameRate_3 (Mono, 8 bits/pixel, 640 x 480 pixels at 15 fps) Format_1, Mode_0, FrameRate_1 (YUV 4:2:2, 16 bits/pixel, 800 x 600 pixels at 3.75 fps) Format_1, Mode_0, FrameRate_2 (YUV 4:2:2, 16 bits/pixel, 800 x 600 pixels at 7.5 fps) Format_1, Mode_0, FrameRate_3 (YUV 4:2:2, 16 bits/pixel, 800 x 600 pixels at 15 fps) Format_1, Mode_2, FrameRate_2 (Mono, 8 bits/pixel, 800 x 600 pixels at 7.5 fps) Format_1, Mode_2, FrameRate_3 (Mono, 8 bits/pixel, 800 x 600 pixels at 15 fps) Format_1, Mode_3, FrameRate_1 (YUV 4:2:2, 16 bits/pixel, 1024 x 768 pixels at 3.75 fps) Format_1, Mode_3, FrameRate_2 (YUV 4:2:2, 16 bits/pixel, 1024 x 768 pixels at 7.5 fps) Format_1, Mode_3, FrameRate_3 (YUV 4:2:2, 16 bits/pixel, 1024 x 768 pixels at 15 fps) Format_1, Mode_5, FrameRate_1 (Mono, 8 bits/pixel, 1024 x 768 pixels at 3.75 fps) Format_1, Mode_5, FrameRate_2 (Mono, 8 bits/pixel, 1024 x 768 pixels at 7.5 fps) Format_1, Mode_5, FrameRate_3 (Mono, 8 bits/pixel, 1024 x 768 pixels at 15 fps) Format_2, Mode_0, FrameRate_0 (YUV 4:2:2, 16 bits/pixel, 1280 x 960 pixels at 1.875 fps) Format_2, Mode_0, FrameRate_1 (YUV 4:2:2, 16 bits/pixel, 1280 x 960 pixels at 3.75 fps) Format_2, Mode_0, FrameRate_2 (YUV 4:2:2, 16 bits/pixel, 1280 x 960 pixels at 7.5 fps) Format_2, Mode_2, FrameRate_0 (Mono, 8 bits/pixel, 1280 x 960 pixels at 1.875 fps) Format_2, Mode_2, FrameRate_1 (Mono, 8 bits/pixel, 1280 x 960 pixels at 3.75 fps) Format_2, Mode_2, FrameRate_2 (Mono, 8 bits/pixel, 1280 x 960 pixels at 7.5 fps)

*
3-24

When the A101fc camera is operating in a monochrome mode, raw pixel data is transmitted. See Section 3.11.2 for more details.

BASLER A101f

DRAFT
3.12.4 Customizable Formats and Modes on the A101fc Color Camera

Operation and Features

The following customizable video formats and modes are available on the A101fc:
Format_7, Mode_0

Format_7, Mode_0 is available on the A101fc. When an A101fc is operating in Format_7, Mode_0, its output will be monochrome at 8 bits/pixel and the camera will output the raw data for each pixel (see Section 3.11.2). This mode is used to enable and set up the area of interest (AOI) feature described in Section 3.8. The maximum allowed frame rate in this mode depends on the size of the AOI. The formula shown on page 4-15 can be used to calculate the maximum allowed frame rate for any size AOI. When the camera is operating in Format_7, Mode_0, the frame rate can be adjusted by setting the number of bytes that are transmitted in each packet. The number of bytes per packet is set using the BytePerPacket field of the BYTE_PER_PACKET control register that has been established for Format_7, Mode_0. The value that appears in the MaxBytePerPacket field of the PACKET_PARA_INQ control register will show the maximum allowed setting for the bytes per packet. When the bytes per packet is set to the maximum, the camera will transmit frames at the maximum allowed frame rate for the AOI size you have defined. By default, the bytes per packet are set to the maximum. The maximum bytes per packet will vary depending on the size of the AOI. This occurs to avoid image buffer under-runs. The rate of image data flowing out of the image buffer must be correctly balanced against the amount of image data entering the buffer. If you set the bytes per packet to a value lower than the maximum allowed, the camera will transmit frames at a lower rate. The rate is calculated by the formula: 1,000,000 ?s Frames/Sec. = -------------------------------------------------------------------------Packets per Frame x 125 ?s The value that appears in the UnitBytePerPacket field of the PACKET_PARA_INQ control register will show the minimum allowed setting for the bytes per packet. The bytes per packet must not be set lower than the minimum. The minimum bytes per packet will vary depending on the size of the AOI. This occurs because of hardware limits on the link layer controller.
Format_7, Mode_1

Format_7, Mode_1 is available on the A101fc. When an A101fc is operating in Format_7, mode_1, its output will be YUV (4:2:2) at an average of 16 bits/pixel. This mode is used to enable and set up the area of interest (AOI) feature described in Section 3.8. The frame rate can be adjusted using the same method as described for Format_7, Mode_0.

*
BASLER A101f

When the camera is operating in Format_7, Mode_0 or in Format_7, Mode_1, the CUR_V_FRAME_RATE control register is not used and has no effect on camera operation.

3-25

Operation and Features

DRAFT

3-26

BASLER A101f

DRAFT

Configuring the Camera

4 Configuring the Camera

The A101f is configured by setting status and control registers as described in version 1.20 of the “1394-Based Digital Camera Specification” issued by the 1394 Trade Association. (The specification is available at the 1394 Trade Association’s web site: www.1394ta.org.) If you are creating your own driver to operate the camera, Sections 4.1 through 4.5 provide the basic information that you will need about the registers implemented in the camera along with some information about read/write capabilities. A fully functional driver is available for Basler IEEE 1394 cameras such as the A101f. The Basler BCAM 1394 Driver includes an API that allows a C++ programmer to easily integrate camera configuration and operating functions into your system control software. The driver also includes a Windows? based viewer program that provides camera users with quick and simple tools for changing camera settings and viewing captured images. The BCAM 1394 Driver is supplied with comprehensive documentation including a programmer’s guide and code samples. For more information, visit the Basler web site at: www.basler-vc.com.

BASLER A101f

4-1

Configuring the Camera

DRAFT

4.1 Block Read and Write Capabilities
The camera supports block reads but not block writes. Block writes are rejected by the camera.

*

Do not block read registers that are not present. Use the inquiry registers to find out what registers are present and see the tables on the following pages which describe all implemented registers.

4.2 Register Write Order
Whenever the camera is powered on or is initialized, the registers must be written in the following sequence: INITIALIZE (optional) ISO_Channel CUR_V_FORMAT CUR_V_MODE IMAGE_POSITION (Only when using Format 7) IMAGE_SIZE (Only when using Format 7) BYTE_PER_PACKET (Only when using Format 7) CUR_V_FRAME_RATE (For formats other than Format 7) TRIGGER_MODE All other registers in any order ONE_SHOT, MULTI_SHOT, or CONTINUOUS_SHOT

4.3 Changing the Video Format setting
Whenever the Current Video Format setting is changed, you must also do the following: If the CUR_V_FORMAT is changed to Format 0, you must also write the CUR_V_MODE and the CUR_V_FRM_RATE. If the CUR_V_FORMAT is changed to Format 1, you must also write the CUR_V_MODE and the CUR_V_FRM_RATE. If the CUR_V_FORMAT is changed to Format 2, you must also write the CUR_V_MODE and the CUR_V_FRM_RATE. If the CUR_V_FORMAT is changed to Format 7, you must also write the CUR_V_MODE, the IMAGE_POSITION, the IMAGE_SIZE and the BYTES_PER_PACKET. (See Section 3.12.2 and 3.12.4 for more information on setting the Bytes per Packet in Format 7).

4-2

BASLER A101f

DRAFT
4.4 Implemented Registers
A list of all registers implemented in the A101f appears below. The base address for all camera control registers is: Bus_ID, Node_ID, FFFF F0F0 0000

Configuring the Camera

This address is contained in the configuration ROM in the camera unit directory. The offset field in each of the tables is the byte offset from the above base address.

Camera Initialize Register
Offset Name Notes

000h

INITIALIZE

Inquiry Register for Video Format
Offset Name Notes

100h

V_FORMAT_INQ

Inquiry Registers for Video Mode
Offset Name Notes

180h 184h 188h 18Ch ... 194h 198h 19Ch

V_MODE_INQ_0 (Format 0) V_MODE_INQ_1 (Format 1) V_MODE_INQ_2 (Format 2) Reserved V_MODE_INQ_6 (Format 6) V_MODE_INQ_7 (Format 7)

BASLER A101f

4-3

Configuring the Camera

DRAFT
Name Notes

Inquiry Registers for Video Frame Rate and the Base Address of the Video Mode Command and Status Registers for the Scalable Image Size Format
Offset

200h 204h 208h 20Ch 210h 214h 218h ... 21Fh 220h 224h 228h 22Ch 230h 234h 238h ... 23Fh 240h 244h 248h 2E0h 2E4h 2E8h 2ECh

V_RATE_INQ_0_0 (Format_0, Mode_0) V_RATE_INQ_0_1 (Format_0, Mode_1) V_RATE_INQ_0_2 (Format_0, Mode_2) V_RATE_INQ_0_3 (Format_0, Mode_3) V_RATE_INQ_0_4 (Format_0, Mode_4) V_RATE_INQ_0_5 (Format_0, Mode_5) Reserved V_RATE_INQ_1_0 (Format_1, Mode_0) V_RATE_INQ_1_1 (Format_1, Mode_1) V_RATE_INQ_1_2 (Format_1, Mode_2) V_RATE_INQ_1_3 (Format_1, Mode_3) V_RATE_INQ_1_4 (Format_1, Mode_4) V_RATE_INQ_1_5 (Format_1, Mode_5) Reserved V_RATE_INQ_2_0 (Format_2, Mode_0) V_RATE_INQ_2_1 (Format_2, Mode_1) V_RATE_INQ_2_2 (Format_2, Mode_2) V_CSR_INQ_7_0 V_CSR_INQ_7_1 V_CSR_INQ_7_2 V_CSR_INQ_7_3

4-4

BASLER A101f

DRAFT
Inquiry Register for Basic Functions
Offset Name Notes

Configuring the Camera

400h

BASIC_FUNC_INQ

Inquiry Registers for Feature Presence
Offset Name Notes

404h 408h 480h

Feature_Hi_Inq Feature_Lo_Inq Advanced_Feature_Inq

Inquiry Registers for Feature Elements
Offset Name Notes

500h 504h 508h 50Ch 510h 514h 518h 51Ch 520h 524h 528h 52Ch 530h 580h 584h 588h 58Ch 5C0h 5C4h

BRIGHTNESS_INQ AUTO_EXPOSURE_INQ SHARPNESS_INQ WHITE_BAL_INQ HUE_INQ SATURATION_INQ GAMMA_INQ SHUTTER_INQ GAIN_INQ IRIS_INQ FOCUS_INQ TEMPERATURE_INQ TRIGGER_INQ ZOOM_INQ PAN_INQ TILT_INQ OPTICAL_FILTER_INQ CAPTURE_SIZE_INQ CAPTURE_QUALITY_INQ

BASLER A101f

4-5

Configuring the Camera

DRAFT
Name Notes

Status and Control Registers for the Camera
Offset

600h 604h 608h 60Ch 610h 614h 618h 61Ch 620h 624h

CUR_V_FRAME_RATE CUR_V_MODE CUR_V_FORMAT ISO_CHANNEL Camera_Power ISO_EN Continuous Shot Memory_Save One_Shot / Multi-Shot Mem_Save_Ch Cur_Mem_Ch Has no effect Has no effect Has no effect Has no effect

Status and Control Registers for Features
Offset Name Notes

800h 804h 808h 80Ch

BRIGHTNESS AUTO_EXPOSURE SHARPNESS WHITE_BALANCE Has no effect Has no effect When using an A101fc in a YUV output mode, this register can be used to apply a correction factor to the U value for each pixel and to the V value for each pixel. See Section 3.11.1 for more details. Has no effect Has no effect Has no effect Exposure time = (shutter value + 1) x 20 ?s The gain can be set in a range from 0 to 511 (0x000 to 0x1FF). However, settings above 319 (0x13F) have no effect. The effective range of gain settings is 0 to 319 (0x000 to 0x13F). See Section 3.6.1 for more information. Has no effect Has no effect Has no effect Only trigger mode 0 is available. We strongly recommend that the trigger input polarity be set for high active (1).

810h 814h 818h 81Ch 820h

HUE SATURATION GAMMA SHUTTER GAIN

824h 828h 82Ch 830h

IRIS FOCUS TEMPERATURE TRIGGER_MODE

4-6

BASLER A101f

DRAFT
Video Mode Control and Status Registers for Format_7
Bus_ID, Node_ID, FFFF F1F0 0000

Configuring the Camera

The base address for each Format_7, Mode_0 camera control register is: This address is contained in the Format_7 section of the “Inquiry Registers for Video Frame Rate and Base Address of the Video Mode Command and Status Registers for the Scalable Image Size Format.” A register has been prepared for each video mode that is Format_7, Mode_x. The offset field in each of the tables is the byte offset from the above base address.
Video Mode Control and Status Registers for Format_7, Mode_0
Offset Name Notes

000h 004h 008h 00Ch 010h 014h 034h 038h 03Ch 040h 044h

MAX_IMAGE_SIZE_INQ UNIT_SIZE_INQ IMAGE_POSITION IMAGE_SIZE COLOR_CODING_ID COLOR_CODING_INQ PIXEL_NUMBER_INQ TOTAL_BYTES_HI_INQ TOTAL_BYTES_LO_INQ PACKET_PARA_INQ BYTE_PER_PACKET TOTAL_BYTES_LO_INQ / BYTE_PER_PACKET must be ≤ 4095.

BASLER A101f

4-7

Configuring the Camera

DRAFT

The base address for each Format_7, Mode_1 camera control register is: Bus_ID, Node_ID, FFFF F1F0 0100 This address is contained in the Format_7 section of the “Inquiry Registers for Video Frame Rate and Base Address of the Video Mode Command and Status Registers for the Scalable Image Size Format.” A register has been prepared for each video mode that is Format_7, Mode_x. The offset field in each of the tables is the byte offset from the above base address.
Video Mode Control and Status Registers for Format_7, Mode_1
Offset Name Notes

100h 104h 108h 10Ch 110h 114h 134h 138h 13Ch 140h 144h

MAX_IMAGE_SIZE_INQ UNIT_SIZE_INQ IMAGE_POSITION IMAGE_SIZE COLOR_CODING_ID COLOR_CODING_INQ PIXEL_NUMBER_INQ TOTAL_BYTES_HI_INQ TOTAL_BYTES_LO_INQ PACKET_PARA_INQ BYTE_PER_PACKET TOTAL_BYTES_LO_INQ / BYTE_PER_PACKET must be ≤ 4095.

4-8

BASLER A101f

DRAFT
Bus_ID, Node_ID, FFFF F1F0 0200

Configuring the Camera

The base address for each Format_7, Mode_2 camera control register is: This address is contained in the Format_7 section of the “Inquiry Registers for Video Frame Rate and Base Address of the Video Mode Command and Status Registers for the Scalable Image Size Format.” A register has been prepared for each video mode that is Format_7, Mode_x. The offset field in each of the tables is the byte offset from the above base address.
Video Mode Control and Status Registers for Format_7, Mode_2
Offset Name Notes

200h 204h 208h 20Ch 210h 214h 234h 238h 23Ch 240h 244h

MAX_IMAGE_SIZE_INQ UNIT_SIZE_INQ IMAGE_POSITION IMAGE_SIZE COLOR_CODING_ID COLOR_CODING_INQ PIXEL_NUMBER_INQ TOTAL_BYTES_HI_INQ TOTAL_BYTES_LO_INQ PACKET_PARA_INQ BYTE_PER_PACKET TOTAL_BYTES_LO_INQ / BYTE_PER_PACKET must be ≤ 4095.

BASLER A101f

4-9

Configuring the Camera

DRAFT

The base address for each Format_7, Mode_3 camera control register is: Bus_ID, Node_ID, FFFF F1F0 0300 This address is contained in the Format_7 section of the “Inquiry Registers for Video Frame Rate and Base Address of the Video Mode Command and Status Registers for the Scalable Image Size Format.” A register has been prepared for each video mode that is Format_7, Mode_x. The offset field in each of the tables is the byte offset from the above base address.
Video Mode Control and Status Registers for Format_7, Mode_3)
Offset Name Notes

300h 304h 308h 30Ch 310h 314h 334h 338h 33Ch 340h 344h

MAX_IMAGE_SIZE_INQ UNIT_SIZE_INQ IMAGE_POSITION IMAGE_SIZE COLOR_CODING_ID COLOR_CODING_INQ PIXEL_NUMBER_INQ TOTAL_BYTES_HI_INQ TOTAL_BYTES_LO_INQ PACKET_PARA_INQ BYTE_PER_PACKET TOTAL_BYTES_LO_INQ / BYTE_PER_PACKET must be ≤ 4095.

4-10

BASLER A101f

DRAFT
4.5 Advanced Features

Configuring the Camera

*

The advanced features control and status registers are vendor unique and are subject to change.

4.5.1 Advanced Features Access Register
The base address for the Advanced Features Access register is: Bus_ID, Node_ID, FFFF F2F0 0000 This address is contained in the Advanced_Feature_Inq register of the “Inquiry register for feature presence” section. The offset field in each of the tables is the byte offset from the above base address.

Advanced Features Access Register
Offset Name Notes

000h

ADV_FEATURE_ACCESS

4.5.2 Advanced Features Registers
The base address for the advanced features registers is: Bus_ID, Node_ID, FFFF F2F0 0000 The offset field in each of the tables is the byte offset from the above base address.

Inquiry Register for Extended Version Information
Offset Name Field Bit Description

1010h

EXTD_VERSIONS_INQ

Presence (Read only) --Length (Read only) ---

[0] [1..7] [8..15]

Presence of this feature Reserved Specifies the length in quadlets of the “String” field in the Version Information register (see below). Reserved

[16..31]

BASLER A101f

4-11

Configuring the Camera

DRAFT
Field Bit Description

Extended Versions Information Register
Offset Name

1014h

EXTD_VERSIONS

String (Read only)

[n Bytes]

An ASCII character string that includes the software version numbers for the camera. The length of this string field is equal to the number of quadlets given in the “Length” field of the Inquiry Register for Version Information (see page 4-11).

The layout of the information in the string field of the Extended Version Information register is as follows:
aaaa,bbbb-cc,dddd-ee,ffff-gg aaaa = the overall version number of the camera bbbb = the firmware version for microcontroller 1 cc ee ffff gg

= the layout version for the registers accessible via the 1394 bus = the layout version for the registers in the FPGA = the firmware version for microcontroller 2 = the layout version of the registers in microcontroller 2

dddd = the FPGA firmware version

If the string does not fill the entire allocated field length, it will be padded with 0x00 at the end of the string.

4-12

BASLER A101f

DRAFT
Status and Control Register for Test Images

Configuring the Camera

This advanced features register can be used to control the operation of the camera’s test image feature (see Section 3.9).
Offset Name Field Bit Description

0098h

TEST_IMAGE

Presence_Inq (Read only) --Image_Inq_1 (Read only) Image_Inq_2 (Read only) Image_Inq_3 (Read only) Image_Inq_4 (Read only) Image_Inq_5 (Read only) Image_Inq_6 (Read only) Image_Inq_7 (Read only) --Image_On (Read/write)

[0] [1..7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16..18]

Presence of this feature 0: N/A 1: Available Reserved Presence of test image 1 0: N/A 1: Available Presence of test image 2 0: N/A 1: Available Presence of test image 3 0: N/A 1: Available Presence of test image 4 0: N/A 1: Available Presence of test image 5 0: N/A 1: Available Presence of test image 6 0: N/A 1: Available Presence of test image 7 0: N/A 1: Available Reserved 0: 1: 2: 3: No test image active Test image 1 active Test image 2 active Test image 3 active

---

[19..31]

Reserved

BASLER A101f

4-13

Configuring the Camera

DRAFT

4-14

BASLER A101f

DRAFT

Mechanical Considerations

5 Mechanical Considerations

5.1 Camera Dimensions
The camera housing for the A101f is manufactured with high precision. Planar, parallel, and angular sides guarantee precise mounting with high repeatability. The A101f camera is equipped with four M4 mounting holes on the front and two M4 mounting holes on each side as indicated in Figure 5-1.

!

Caution!

To avoid collecting dust on the sensor, mount a lens on the camera immediately after unpacking it.

BASLER A101f

5-1

Mechanical Considerations

DRAFT

PHOTO? SENSITIVE SURFACE OF CCD

Figure 5-1: A101f Mechanical Dimensions (in mm)

5-2

BASLER A101f

DRAFT
5.2 C-Mount Adapter Dimensions
C-Mount Adapter

Mechanical Considerations

C-Mount Adapter on an A101f

PHOTO? SENSITIVE SURFACE OF CCD

Figure 5-2: C-Mount Adapter Dimensions (in mm)

5.3 F-Mount Adapter Dimensions
F-Mount Adapter F-Mount Adapter on an A101f

PHOTO? SENSITIVE SURFACE OF CCD

Figure 5-3: F-Mount Adapter Dimensions (in mm)

BASLER A101f

5-3

Mechanical Considerations

DRAFT

5.4 Positioning Accuracy of the Sensor Chip
On the A101f, the tolerance for the positioning of the sensor’s image area to the camera housing is ± 0.3 mm in the horizontal and vertical directions. Rotational positioning accuracy is as shown in Figure 5-4. Reference position is the center of the camera housing. Since the translational and rotational positioning tolerances depend on each other, the worst case of maximum rotational and horizontal/vertical mis-positioning cannot occur at the same time.

Not to scale

Not to scale

Figure 5-4: A101f Rotational Positioning Accuracy

5.5 Maximum Lens Thread Length on A101fc
Caution!

!

When a C-mount lens is used on an A101fc, the thread length on the lens must be less than 7.5 mm. If a lens with a longer thread length is used, the camera will be damaged and will no longer operate.

As shown in Figure 5.5, when a C-mount lens is used on an A101fc, the thread length on the lens must be less than 7.5 mm. A101fc cameras equipped with a C-mount lens adapter have an internal IR cut filter. If a lens with a longer thread length is used, the IR cut filter will be damaged or destroyed and the camera will no longer operate. Cameras equipped with F-mount lens adapters do not have an internal IR cut filter.

IR Cut Filter
< 7.5 mm

Not to Scale

Figure 5-5: C-mount Lens Thread

5-4

BASLER A101f

DRAFT

Troubleshooting

6 Troubleshooting

6.1 Fault Finding Using Camera LEDs
6.1.1 Yellow LED
The A101f regularly performs self tests. Detected errors are signaled by blinking of the yellow LED on the back of the camera. The number of pulses indicate the detected error. If several error states are present, the yellow LED outputs the error codes in succession. See Table 6-1 for the description of the pulses.

LED

Camera Condition

On Continuous 3 pulses 6 pulses 8 pulses

The camera is OK. ExTrig has not changed state for 5 seconds or longer. If you are not using an ExTrig signal, this indication is normal and should be ignored. The default camera configuration settings could not be loaded. Please contact Basler technical support. The FPGA could not be configured. Please contact Basler technical support.

Table 6-1: LED States

6.1.2 Green LED
The green LED on the back of the camera is used to indicate whether power is being supplied to the camera. When the green LED is out, it means that no power is present. When the green LED is lit, it means that power is present.

*
BASLER A101f

Keep in mind that the circuit used to light the green LED does not perform a range check. If power to the camera is present but it is out of range, the LED may be lit but the camera will not operate properly.

6-1

Troubleshooting

DRAFT

6-2

BASLER A101f

DRAFT
Revision History
Doc. ID Number Date Changes

Revision History

DA039101 DA039102

6-Feb.-2001 18-Apr.-2001

Initial release. Made numerous small changes to grammar and phrasing. Added connector information in Section 2.1.3. Added ripple specification to Table 1-1 and Section 2.3. Added Section 3.10 containing information on the low smear feature. This feature is available on cameras with FPGA firmware version 2.17 or higher. Version 2.17 firmware will be included in cameras manufactured after May 1, 2001. Added Section 4.6 containing information about how to access firmware version numbers.

DA039103

25-July-2001

Updated the camera model information in Section 1.1. Moved the information about color creation in the A101fc to a separate section (Section 3.11) and added information about YUV output, white balance, and using a color camera in monochrome modes. The YUV output and white balance features are available on color cameras with an ID number of 1XXX13053 or higher. Updated the note box on page 3-13 to indicate that binning is only available on monochrome cameras. Corrected the content of the note box at the top of page 3-15. Updated the list of available output formats and modes in Section 3.12. Updated the note for register 80CH on page 4-6. Removed the chapter on camera installation from this manual. The installation information now appears only in the A101f Installation Guide.

DA039104

20-May-2002

Corrected the device information in Section 2.2.3 and Figure 2-3. Updated the exposure control information in Section 3.2.3 to specify the use of rising edge triggering. Deleted the detailed timing explanations from Sections 3.2.2 and 3.2.3. Added Section 3.2.4 containing information about recommended methods for exposure start control. Updated Figure 3-12 in Section 3.8 and added information about minimum AOI size to the note box. Corrected the descriptions of test image one and test image two in Section 3.9. Corrected Figure 3-17 in Section 3.11. Added information about the BCAM driver to page 4-1. Updated the information about the advanced features registers in Section 4.5.

BASLER A101f

i

Revision History

DRAFT

ii

BASLER A101f

DRAFT
Index
A
advanced features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-11 advanced features access register . . . . . . . . . . 4-11 anti-blooming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2 area of interest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14

H
housing size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2 humidity requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5

I
IEEE 1394 device information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4 implemented registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3 input signals external trigger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3 integrate enabled signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3, 3-10 introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 IR cut filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4, 5-4

B
bayer filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-20 binning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-13 block diagram, camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2 block reads and writes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2 brightness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11

C
cable lengths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2 camera models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 camera power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5 cleaning the camera and sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5 C-mount adapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3 color creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-20 connections, general description . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 connector types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3 continuous-shot operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3, 3-5

L
LEDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5, 6-1 lens adapters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2, 5-3 lens thread length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4 link layer controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1

M
mechanical considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1 models, camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 mounting facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1 multi-shot operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3, 3-4

D
dimensions, camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1

O
one-shot operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3, 3-4 output signals integrate enabled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3 pixel data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4 trigger ready . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3

E
environmental requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . exposure start controlling via the 1394 interface . . . . . . . . . controlling with an ExTrig signal . . . . . . . . . . exposure time, setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . external trigger signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5 3-3 3-4 3-3 2-3

P
performance specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2 physical layer controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1 pin assignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2 pixel data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4 pixel size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2 positioning accuracy of the sensor chip . . . . . . . . 5-4 power requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2, 2-5 precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5

F
fault finding using camera LEDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1 F-mount adapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3 frame rate changes with AOI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-15 controlling in Format_7 . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-22, 3-25 nominal maximum rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2 standard frame rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-22, 3-24 functional description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1

R
register write order . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2 registers inplemented in the camera . . . . . . . . . . 4-3

G
gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11–3-12

BASLER A101f

iii

DRAFT
S
sensor anti-blooming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pixel size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . shock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . spectral responsivity color camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . monochrome camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . status LED green . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . yellow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2 1-2 1-2 1-2 1-2 1-4 1-3 2-5 2-5

T
temperature requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5 trigger ready signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3, 3-8 troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1

V
ventilation requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5 version information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10 vibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2 video data and control signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3 video format, changing the setting . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2 video formats, modes, & frame rates customizable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-22, 3-25 standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-22, 3-24 video mode cont. & status regs. for format_7 . . . 4-7 video output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2

W
white balance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-21 write order, register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2

Y
YUV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-20

iv

BASLER A101f


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