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Designing Wireless Networks with Controllers

Identifying Wireless Networking Considerations

2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

DESGN v2.0—8-1

The PDF files and any printed representation for this material are the property of Cisco Systems, Inc., for the sole use by Cisco employees for personal study. The files or printed representations may not be

Reasons for an RF Site Survey
Defines RF characteristics in the environment: – Discover RF coverage areas. – Check for RF interference and issues. – Provide RF spectrum analysis. – Determine appropriate placement of wireless infrastructure devices. Helps define customer requirements

2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

DESGN v2.0—8-2

The PDF files and any printed representation for this material are the property of Cisco Systems, Inc., for the sole use by Cisco employees for personal study. The files or printed representations may not be

RF Site Survey Process
1. Define customer requirements. 2. Identify coverage areas and user density. 3. Determine preliminary access point locations. 4. Perform the actual surveying. 5. Document the findings.

2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

DESGN v2.0—8-3

The PDF files and any printed representation for this material are the property of Cisco Systems, Inc., for the sole use by Cisco employees for personal study. The files or printed representations may not be

RF Site Survey— Customer Requirements
What type and number of wireless devices need to be supported? – Is there current WLAN or RF equipment in place? – Will the WLAN be used only for data? – Will wireless phones be supported in the future? – Are there peak periods to support? Will users be stationary or on the move while using the WLAN? Where should wireless coverage support be provided? What level of support should be provided?

2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

DESGN v2.0—8-4

The PDF files and any printed representation for this material are the property of Cisco Systems, Inc., for the sole use by Cisco employees for personal study. The files or printed representations may not be

RF Site Survey— Identifying Coverage Areas
File Room or Supply Room: Large Filing or Metal Cabinets Elevator Office Shafts Test Lab

Break Room: Microwave Ovens

Conference

Cubicles

Stairwells (Reinforced Building Area)
DESGN v2.0—8-5

2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

The PDF files and any printed representation for this material are the property of Cisco Systems, Inc., for the sole use by Cisco employees for personal study. The files or printed representations may not be

Determining Preliminary Access Point Locations
Default Access Point Placement

2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

DESGN v2.0—8-6

The PDF files and any printed representation for this material are the property of Cisco Systems, Inc., for the sole use by Cisco employees for personal study. The files or printed representations may not be

Visualizing RF Coverage

2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

DESGN v2.0—8-7

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Performing the Site Survey
Use tools and processes to determine coverage: Estimate the access point needed using planning. Measure attenuation at the corner and edge of coverage areas. Determine the coverage range. Build the WLAN coverage. Identify coverage holes.
2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. DESGN v2.0—8-8

The PDF files and any printed representation for this material are the property of Cisco Systems, Inc., for the sole use by Cisco employees for personal study. The files or printed representations may not be

Site Survey Report
All information gathered and developed during the site survey should be included in the report:
Detail customer requirements. Describe and diagram access point coverage. – Be very specific when describing equipment placement locations. – Mark areas that are covered as well as those not needing coverage. Parts list should include: – Access points – Antennas – Accessories and network components Discuss the tools that were used and survey methods.
2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. DESGN v2.0—8-9

The PDF files and any printed representation for this material are the property of Cisco Systems, Inc., for the sole use by Cisco employees for personal study. The files or printed representations may not be

Supporting Guest Access

2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

DESGN v2.0—8-10

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Path Isolation with Ethernet in IP Tunnel
Use of EtherIP tunnels to logically segment and transport the guest traffic between edge and anchor controllers Other traffic (employee for example) still locally bridged on the corresponding VLAN No need to define the guest VLANs on the switches connected to the edge controllers Original Ethernet frame from guest maintained across LWAPP and EtherIP tunnels EtherIP supported across all WLAN controllers – 2006 WLC cannot anchor EtherIP connections.

2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

DESGN v2.0—8-11

The PDF files and any printed representation for this material are the property of Cisco Systems, Inc., for the sole use by Cisco employees for personal study. The files or printed representations may not be

Outdoor Wireless Deployment Options

2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

DESGN v2.0—8-12

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Outdoor Wireless Mesh Solution Components

Cisco Wireless Control System
Wireless mesh management system Enables networkwide policy configuration and device management Supports SNMP and syslog

Cisco Wireless LAN Controller
Links the wireless mesh access points to the wired network Handles RF algorithms and optimization Seamless Layer 3 Mobility Provides security and mobility management

Rooftop Access Point
Serves as “root” or “gateway” access point to the wired network Typically located on rooftops or towers Connects up to 32 “pole-top” mesh access points using 802.11a

Mesh Access Point
Provides 802.11b/g client access Connects to root access points via 802.11a Takes AC or DC power; PoE capable Ethernet port for connecting peripheral devices

2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

DESGN v2.0—8-13

The PDF files and any printed representation for this material are the property of Cisco Systems, Inc., for the sole use by Cisco employees for personal study. The files or printed representations may not be

Example: MAP-to-RAP Connectivity in a Square Mile

2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

DESGN v2.0—8-14

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Mesh Design Recommendations

Hops Throughput

One ~10 Mbps

Two ~5 Mbps

Three ~3 Mbps

Four Up to 1 Mbps*

Latency < 10 ms per hop, 1–3 ms is typical Hops Outdoor: Code supports up to eight hops; four or fewer hops are recommended. Indoor: One hop is supported. Nodes per RAP One RAP supports up to 32 MAPs; 20 nodes are recommended.
2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. DESGN v2.0—8-15

The PDF files and any printed representation for this material are the property of Cisco Systems, Inc., for the sole use by Cisco employees for personal study. The files or printed representations may not be

Common Wireless Design Questions
How many access points are needed? Where will the access points be placed? How will the access points receive power? How many WLCs are needed? Where should the WLCs be placed?

2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

DESGN v2.0—8-16

The PDF files and any printed representation for this material are the property of Cisco Systems, Inc., for the sole use by Cisco employees for personal study. The files or printed representations may not be

LWAPP Access Point Feature Summary

10x0 Models

1121 AG Models

1130 AG Series

1230 AG Series

1240 AG Series

1300 Series Both (LWAPP in AP mode) Yes Yes No No (only g) N/A 16 8

1500 Series

Autonomous/LWAPP/both

LWAPP

Both

Both

Both

Both

LWAPP

External antenna Outdoor install REAP or H-REAP support Dual radio Power (watts) Memory (Mb) WLANs per radio supported

Yes No REAP Yes 13 16 18

No No No No (only g) 6 16 8

No No H-REAP Yes 15 32 8

Yes No No Yes 14 16 8

Yes No H-REAP Yes 15 32 8

Yes Yes Yes Yes N/A 16 16

2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

DESGN v2.0—8-17

The PDF files and any printed representation for this material are the property of Cisco Systems, Inc., for the sole use by Cisco employees for personal study. The files or printed representations may not be

WLAN Controllers and Access Point Support
Part Number (Platform) AIR-WLC2006-K9 (Cisco Wireless LAN Controller appliance) NM-AIR-WLC6-K9 (Cisco Wireless LAN Controller Module for ISRs) WS-C3750G-24WS-S25 (Cisco Catalyst 3750G Integrated Wireless LAN Controller) WS-C3750G-24WS-S50 (Cisco Catalyst 3750G Integrated Wireless LAN Controller) AIR-WLC4402-12-K9 (Cisco Wireless LAN Controller appliance) AIR-WLC4402-25-K9 (Cisco Wireless LAN Controller appliance) AIR-WLC4402-50-K9 (Cisco Wireless LAN Controller appliance) AIR-WLC4402-100-K9 (Cisco Wireless LAN Controller appliance) Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series Wireless Services Module
2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

No. of Access Points Supported 6 6 25 50 12 25 50 100 Up to 300
DESGN v2.0—8-18

The PDF files and any printed representation for this material are the property of Cisco Systems, Inc., for the sole use by Cisco employees for personal study. The files or printed representations may not be

Controller Placement Design
Minimize intercontroller roaming. Implement deterministic redundancy. Centralized design supports the integrated platforms. – Cisco Catalyst 3750G Integrated Wireless LAN Controller for small-to-medium deployments – Cisco WiSM for medium-to-large deployments Distributed designs may work well with existing networks. General recommendation is to use a centralized design, but decide based on: – Current network and policies – Growth plans

2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

DESGN v2.0—8-19

The PDF files and any printed representation for this material are the property of Cisco Systems, Inc., for the sole use by Cisco employees for personal study. The files or printed representations may not be

Example: Distributed WLC Design

2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

DESGN v2.0—8-20

The PDF files and any printed representation for this material are the property of Cisco Systems, Inc., for the sole use by Cisco employees for personal study. The files or printed representations may not be

Example: Centralized WLC Design

2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

DESGN v2.0—8-21

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Campus WLC Options
Stand-alone appliance controller
Routed network on another platform 802.1Q trunk to switched or routed network

Integrated controller
Routed network can exist on the same platform. Layer 2 connection is internal. Layer 2 or 3 connection to routed network can be used.

2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

DESGN v2.0—8-22

The PDF files and any printed representation for this material are the property of Cisco Systems, Inc., for the sole use by Cisco employees for personal study. The files or printed representations may not be

Branch Wireless Network Design Considerations
Number of access points needed at the branch – Availability of switch ports – Availability of power Controller cost WAN bandwidth constraints – Latency between the access point and the WLC should not exceed 200 ms RTT. – For centralized controllers, use REAP or Hybrid REAP access points.

2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

DESGN v2.0—8-23

The PDF files and any printed representation for this material are the property of Cisco Systems, Inc., for the sole use by Cisco employees for personal study. The files or printed representations may not be

Local MAC

Access point MAC functions:
802.11: Beacons, probe response 802.11 control: Packet acknowledgment and transmission 802.11e: Frame queuing and packet prioritization 802.11i: MAC layer data encryption and decryption 802.11 MAC management: Association requests and actions
2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Controller MAC functions:
802.11 proxy association requests and actions 802.11e resource reservation 802.11i authentication and key management

DESGN v2.0—8-24

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Remote Edge Access Point
Lightweight access point designed to be controlled across WAN links: – REAP is designed to support remote offices by extending LWAPP control timers. – Control traffic is still LWAPP encapsulated and sent to Cisco Wireless LAN Controller. – Client data is not LWAPP-encapsulated but is locally bridged. All management control and RF management is available when the WAN link is up and connectivity is available to the Cisco Wireless LAN Controller. It will continue to provide local connectivity even if the WAN is down.

2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

DESGN v2.0—8-25

The PDF files and any printed representation for this material are the property of Cisco Systems, Inc., for the sole use by Cisco employees for personal study. The files or printed representations may not be

REAP Limitations
REAP devices do not support 802.1Q trunking. All WLANs terminate on a single subnet. If connectivity to the WLC is lost, only WLAN1 is supported. Multiple WLANs are not recommend on REAP devices. REAP devices support only Layer 2 security policies. REAP devices and clients require a routable IP address provided locally and do not support NAT.

2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

DESGN v2.0—8-26

The PDF files and any printed representation for this material are the property of Cisco Systems, Inc., for the sole use by Cisco employees for personal study. The files or printed representations may not be

Hybrid REAP
H-REAP is a solution for small or branch offices and retail on the LWAPP Cisco IOS platforms H-REAP supports simultaneous tunneling and local bridging.
– “Local switching” supports bridging traffic onto local VLANs. – “Central switching” supports tunneling traffic to the controller.

H-REAP provides more security options for the remote site:
– Stand-alone mode does client authentication by itself. (WPA-PSK, WPA-PSK2) – Connected mode uses the controller to complete client authentication. (WPA-PSK, WPA-PSK2, VPNs, L2TP, EAP, and web auth)

Round-trip latency must not exceed 200 ms between the access point and the controller. H-REAP supports NAT and PAT.

2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

DESGN v2.0—8-27

The PDF files and any printed representation for this material are the property of Cisco Systems, Inc., for the sole use by Cisco employees for personal study. The files or printed representations may not be

Example: H-REAP Deployment

2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

DESGN v2.0—8-28

The PDF files and any printed representation for this material are the property of Cisco Systems, Inc., for the sole use by Cisco employees for personal study. The files or printed representations may not be

Branch Office WLC Options
Appliance controllers
Cisco 2006—Support for up to six access points Cisco 4402-12, 4402-24

Integrated controller
Cisco Wireless LAN Controller Module for ISR Cisco Catalyst 3750 Series Integrated WLAN Controller (support for 25, 50 access points)

2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

DESGN v2.0—8-29

The PDF files and any printed representation for this material are the property of Cisco Systems, Inc., for the sole use by Cisco employees for personal study. The files or printed representations may not be

Summary
An RF site survey is used to determine the RF characteristics of a wireless network and help determine access point placement. Guest services are easily supported using EtherIP tunnels in the Cisco Unified Wireless Network. Outdoor wireless networks are supported using outdoor access points and Cisco Wireless Mesh Networking access points. Campus wireless network design provides RF coverage for wireless clients in the campus using lightweight access points. The access points are managed to Cisco Wireless LAN Controllers. Branch wireless network design is provides RF coverage for wireless clients in the branch. Central management of REAP or H-REAP access points can be supported.

2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

DESGN v2.0—8-30

The PDF files and any printed representation for this material are the property of Cisco Systems, Inc., for the sole use by Cisco employees for personal study. The files or printed representations may not be

2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

DESGN v2.0—8-31

The PDF files and any printed representation for this material are the property of Cisco Systems, Inc., for the sole use by Cisco employees for personal study. The files or printed representations may not be

Wireless Networking Review
Define the wireless requirements. Conduct an RF site survey to define the RF characteristics in the environment. Define access point deployment locations based on the site survey and customer requirements. Determine the WLC design: – Redundancy (primary, secondary, tertiary) – Placement of WLCs in distribution layer – Whether remote sites will use local centralized controllers Determine the number of mobility groups that you will need. Plan how to support internal VLANs and guest access if needed.

2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

DESGN v2.0—8-1

The PDF files and any printed representation for this material are the property of Cisco Systems, Inc., for the sole use by Cisco employees for personal study. The files or printed representations may not be

Cisco Unified Wireless Network Review

2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

DESGN v2.0—8-2

The PDF files and any printed representation for this material are the property of Cisco Systems, Inc., for the sole use by Cisco employees for personal study. The files or printed representations may not be

Module Summary
Cisco Unified Wireless Network architecture centralizes WLAN configuration and control on WLCs that control LWAPP access points. The Cisco Unified Wireless Network provides transparent roaming supporting both intracontroller and intercontroller roaming. Deterministic controller redundancy with integrated RRM provides the highest-quality roaming experience. An RF survey in a wireless network design determines the characteristics of the wireless network and access point placement to provide optimal RF coverage for wireless clients.

2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

DESGN v2.0—8-3

The PDF files and any printed representation for this material are the property of Cisco Systems, Inc., for the sole use by Cisco employees for personal study. The files or printed representations may not be

2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

DESGN v2.0—8-4

The PDF files and any printed representation for this material are the property of Cisco Systems, Inc., for the sole use by Cisco employees for personal study. The files or printed representations may not be


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