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Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2014

Academic Standard Handbook
of Peking University National Model United Nations Conferen

ce for High School Students 2014

2014 年北京大学全国中学生模拟联合国大会 学术标准手册

Academic Standard Handbook

PKUNMUN 2014

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Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2014

编订人员:
李竞菁(秘书长,北京大学国际关系学院) 黄惠伶(副秘书长,北京大学国际关系学院) 谢雯(副秘书长,北京大学光华管理学院) 毛思源(学术总监,北京大学国际关系学院) 陈雪瑶(学术总监,北京大学经济学院) 胡倩卿(学术总监,北京大学外国语学院)

特别鸣谢:
陈迎新(新加坡国立大学)

特别说明:
“北京大学全国中学生模拟联合国大会” , 会议名称、 活动标志由北京大学所有, 未经允许, 不得用于与本会议无关的活动或其他商业性目的的组织或活动。 本手册及相关材料版权归北京大学模拟联合国协会所有,未经允许,不得以任何方式出版。 如引用,须注明出处。

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前言
亲爱的各位代表: 大家好!

学术标准手册使用说明

这本《学术标准手册》 (Academic Standard Handbook) ,旨在为所有参会代表提供一个更加 明确、清晰、完整的会议学术标准,以利于代表们更有效地学习规则、利用规则、理解掌握模联 会议的学术规范。 本《学术标准手册》继承了往届会议的主要学术思想并有所修订整理,是 2014 年北京大学 全国中学生模拟联合国大会官方指定的唯一学术标准。会议期间,与学术相关的所有问题,均以 本手册作为依据。若出现本手册未涉及问题,本届大会组委会具有最终解释权。1 本手册第一部分为 “规则概述” , 主要为各委员会的会议进程分别提供中英文双语参考标准, 以有利于会议在相对稳定、客观的环境下进行。代表应充分熟悉此部分内容,作为正式会议过程 中的重要辅助。 在第一部分中还包括特殊委员会 ICTY (前南斯拉夫问题国际刑事法庭) , EESC (欧 洲经济与社会理事会)以及 MPC(主新闻中心)的特殊规则。在二零一四年北京大学全国中学 生模拟联合国大会上,共有五个特殊委员会,它们分别是:EESC(欧洲经社理事会) 、FHRC(未 来人权理事会) 、ICTY(前南斯拉夫问题国际刑事法庭) 、DPI NGO(联合国新闻部·非政府组织 年度会议)和 MPC(主新闻中心) 。这些委员会凝聚了组委会和主席团的智慧与努力,也见证了 PKUNMUN 不断的探索与创新。 第二部分为文件写作指导,主要介绍了立场文件、工作文件、决议草案、修正案和指令草案 的标准格式和写作方法,并分别附有中英文范例。本部分采用了双栏介绍方法,代表们可以在左 栏阅读范例的过程中,在右边一栏查看相关说明解释并写下自己的心得体会。 第三部分是本届大会组委会精心撰写的模拟联合国会议学术准备指南,包括文件检索技巧、 背景文件阅读指导以及正式会议参会准备指导, 希望这份指南能对各位代表的会议准备有所帮助。 本手册虽然汇集了往届大会的学术成果, 并在此基础上进行了一定程度的修改和完善, 但仍 不可能达到尽善尽美, 组委会真诚地希望通过各位代表出色、 专业的表现, 能使 《学术标准手册》 更科学、更完善。

北京大学全国中学生模拟联合国大会组委会 二零一三年十月

1《学术标准手册》的所有内容将根据每年大会的委员会设置等具体情况作出修订和增补,请以当年组委会发布 的学术标准为依据。

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目 录
前言 学术标准手册使用说明 ............................................................................................................ 3 第一部分 会议规则与流程 ................................................................................................................ 5
一、会议流程参考标准 ......................................................................................................... 5 二、北京大学全国中学生模拟联合国大会常规委员会(中文) 议事规则示意图 ............. 15 三、北京大学全国中学生模拟联合国大会常规委员会(中文)用语范例 .......................... 16 四、北京大学全国中学生模拟联合国大会常规委员会(中文) 快速规则流程参考 .......... 18 五、北京大学全国中学生模拟联合国大会常规委员会(英文)议事规则 .......................... 19 六、北京大学全国中学生模拟联合国大会常规委员会(英文)议事规则示意图 ............... 29 七、北京大学全国中学生模拟联合国大会常规委员会(英文)用语范例 .......................... 30 八、北京大学全国中学生模拟联合国大会特殊委员会学术标准 ......................................... 31 (一)前南斯拉夫问题国际刑事法庭 ....................................... 31 (二)欧洲经社理事会 .................................................. 38 (三)联合国新闻部/非政府组织年度会议 .................................. 39 (四)主新闻中心 ...................................................... 41 九、北京大学全国中学生模拟联合国大会危机处理学术标准............................................. 42 (一)危机的定义与特点................................................. 42 (二) 总则 ........................................................... 43 (三)人员及职责 ...................................................... 43 (四)危机内容与流程 .................................................. 43 十、观察员制度改革 ........................................................................................................... 44

第二部分 会议文件 ............................................................................................................................. 45
一、立场文件 Position Paper .............................................................................................. 45 二、工作文件 Working Paper.............................................................................................. 49 三、决议草案 Draft Resolution ........................................................................................... 51 四、指令草案 Draft Directive .............................................................................................. 61 五、修正案 Amendment ................................................................................................... 61

第三部分 模拟联合国会议学术准备指南 ..................................................................................... 63
第一节 准备阶段 ........................................................................................................... 63

背景指导文件阅读指导 .................................................. 63 资料检索指导 .......................................................... 65 第二节 会议阶段 .............................................................................................................. 74

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第一部分

会议规则与流程

会议流程参考标准2
北京大学全国中学生模拟联合国大会共有 次分组会议,其中,第一、三、五、六次分组会 议总时间分别 约 小时。 大会的常规委员会将分别经过:各国代表阐述本国立场 工作文件 在工作文件的基础上进一步讨论 开始形成国家集团 开始撰写 分钟,第二、四次分组会议总时间为 分钟。会议总时长约为 分钟,

国家集团基本确定

开始撰写决议草案

在决议草案的基础上进一步讨论

投票表决,共八个阶段。这八个阶段始终在六次分组会议的

正式辩论 和 非正式辩论 中交替进行。其中: 分组会议(一):共 分钟

属于会议开始阶段,主席团与各国代表、各国代表之间都需要相互熟悉,于是,在第一次分 组会议上,各国的主要任务往往是进行本国基本立场的阐述,并且在倾听别国立场的同时,与本 国立场进行比较,初步确定有共同合作基础或合作意向的国家,以便会议的下一步讨论。 分组会议(二)与分组会议(三):共 分钟

属于会议的前期,也是会议进程中最关键的一个时期。在第一次分组会议讨论的基础上,初 步形成了国家集团, 一个国家或由几个国家组成的国家集团开始在共同利益的基础上撰写工作文 件,并对工作文件进行充分的讨论。一般来讲,在这一阶段,议题会被分割成为几个小问题进行 逐一的讨论和解决。 分组会议(四):共 分钟

属于会议的过渡期, 在这个时期, 很多份工作文件会被更充分地讨论, 国家集团也更为明显, 各国的根本利益也逐步显露,如果会议进程较快,会进入到决议草案撰写环节。 分组会议(五):共 分钟

说明:此部分仅为大会流程的参考标准,是理想状态下模拟联合国会议的进程,具体的会议进 程会根据会场实际情况有所变化。
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属于会议的末期,国家集团根据工作文件撰写决议草案,并对决议草案进行充分讨论,提出 相应的修正案。 分组会议(六):约 分钟

属于会议的结束阶段, 各国家集团将在会议进入最后的投票表决前进行最后的磋商。 最终通 过对决议草案进行投票的方式作出决议。

2. 会议流程示意图

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北京大学全国中学生模拟联合国大会常规委员会(中文)议事规则 总 则

本议事规则由二零一四年北京大学全国中学生模拟联合国大会组委会制定,适用于 二零一四 年北京大学全国中学生模拟联合国大会 常规委员会(中文)。 对于其他模拟联合国会议,若无特别说明,该规则流程将不具有约束作用。 本规则流程在其所能适用的范围内具有约束力。 本规则流程最终解释权属于北京大学全国中学生模拟联合国大会组委会。

第一章 会场和人员
北京大学全国中学生模拟联合国大会由若干委员会构成,每一委员会分别占有一间会场;在 正式会议期间, 一间会场一般情况下只能包括本委员会的成员以及主新闻中心驻会记者。 每一委 员会都由主席团、代表和会场志愿者组成。 主席团是一个委员会的管理团队,但他们不能参与一个议题的讨论,也不能达成会议共识。 主席团只是一个经过特殊训练的会议组织者, 而不是会议进程的领导者。 主席团成员均为北京大 学模拟联合国协会会员,主席团成员在会议期间将分别扮演以下三种角色: ( ) 会议指导:监督并确认会议是否按照模拟联合国的规则进行,并负责文件审批、回答代表 提出的问题, 同时也有权在其认为适当的时机对会议做出学术上的指导, 但这一指导以不打断会 议的正常进行为准则; ( ) 主席:主持一个委员会的会议并协调主席团内部事务; ( ) 主席助理:主席的协助者,进行点名、会议记录、计时等。 ( ) 代表是指获得邀请参加北京大学全国中学生模拟联合国大会的中学生; 代表将扮演其代表 国家的外交官参与相应委员会的讨论;在正式会议期间,代表需尊重其他参会者、遵循主席团引 导。若代表对主席团的决定持有异议,可在休会期间向组委会提出。 ( ) 志愿者负责协助主席团的工作,如进行意向条传递、会议文件的印发等。志愿者应按照会 议时间安排,准时到岗,认真履行职责。志愿者同时有权拒绝履行不合理的工作要求。 代表座位的安排取决于各国名称的拼写,特别是首字母。在各分组会议之前,主席团将随机 选择一个起始字母以排列座次。 例如, 主席团选择了 , 那么将从 字母开始一直排列座位至 ,

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Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2014 然后从 开始排至 ,以此类推。座位的排列从一个会场的最左前排列到最右后。主席团在除特

殊情况下不会更改座次, 代表没有权利在未得到主席允许的情况下更换座位。 除非有个人特权问 题,代表不得在未经主席允许的情况下,私自离开座位。 国家牌是代表在会场内出席与采取行动(如投票、动议等)的唯一凭证。在会议期间,如果 代表在采取行动时未举起国家牌, 主席团不会接受其行动要求。 国家牌将由主席团在会前摆放在 相应国家代表的座位处。

第二章 会议
第一节 点名
会议开始时,主席将请各位代表就座,并保持安静。主席宣布会议开始,并由主席助理按 到 的顺序点国家名。当被点到时,代表应举起国家牌并喊 出席 。点名结束后,主席助理将宣
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布该分组会议的国家出席数、符合法定国家数 与否、简单多数、

多数以及

出席数。

在主席助理点名时未出席代表需通过意向条向主席表明已出席会议,主席助理将在当前发言 结束后宣布该代表之出席并修改简单多数、 简单多数、 多数和 多数和 出席数。

出席数的计算方法分别为:

( ) 简单多数:所有出席代表数乘以百分之五十之后加一,并向下取整; ( ) 多数:所有出席代表数乘以二除以三,并向上取整;

( ) 百分之二十数:所有出席代表数乘以百分之二十,并向上取整。

第二节 正式辩论
确定议题 结束后,会议将进入 正式辩论 阶段;在一个终止辩论的动议被通过且所有决议草 案及其非友好修正案都被投票表决之前, 正式辩论都将以在 确定议题 环节中被确定的议题作为 讨论的主题。 正式辩论的发言名单将在 确定议题 结束后自动开启: ( ) 主席将随机点出愿意发言的国家代表进入发言名单;主席助理将记录此发言名单;

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法定国家数,即该会场应出席人数的简单多数。

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Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2014 ( ) 每位代表发言完毕之后,其代表国家将被从发言名单中的划除 ( ) 不在发言名单中的代表(包括已经发言结束的代表)可通过提交意向条的方式向主席申请 加入发言名单,主席助理将把这些国家依据提交意向条的顺序添加到发言名单的末尾。 正式辩论中,每位代表的初始发言时间为 秒;

( ) 代表可通过动议改变正式辩论的发言时间,具体方法请参见 动议与问题 一节。 ( ) 若代表发言结束后的剩余时间大于等于十秒,则此剩余时间可以用来让渡;否则,此剩余 时间将被自动让渡给主席; ( ) 让渡的对象包括: 让渡给主席,即主席可自行处理剩余时间; 让渡给代表,即被让渡的那一位代表将利用剩余时间进行发言; 让渡给评论, 即由主席随机选择另一位代表利用剩余时间对发言做出评价, 被评论的代表 无权继续发言; 让渡给问题, 即由主席随机选择另一位代表对发言代表提出一个问题, 该问题不占用剩余 时间,被提问的代表将只被允许在剩余时间内回答这一个问题。 经由让渡所剩余的时间不可二次让渡。 在以下情形下正式辩论将暂停或被结束: ( ) 一个有主持核心磋商或自由磋商的动议被通过时,正式辩论将被暂停; ( ) 一个问题被提出时,正式辩论将被暂停; ( ) 一个暂时休会的动议被通过时,正式辩论将被暂停; ( ) 当大会组委会或主席团认为必要时,正式辩论将被暂停。 ( ) 一个结束辩论动议被通过时,正式辩论将结束; ( ) 当正式辩论发言名单中的最后一位代表发言完毕,并没有代表希望继续发言时,正式辩论 将自动结束。

第三节 非正式辩论
非正式辩论是指打断正式辩论而进行的磋商,包括有主持核心磋商和自由磋商两种。 ( ) 有主持核心磋商指代表们在主席的主持下, 按照主席随机点出的并由主席助理记录的发言 顺序,在规定的时间内依次进行发言; ( ) 自由磋商指在一定时间内,代表们可以离开座位或会场以交换观点; ( ) 非正式辩论期间所使用的语言均须为工作语言。

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Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2014 ( ) 有主持核心磋商或自由磋商的动议需要表决通过。 ( ) 当且仅当一个有主持核心磋商或自由磋商的动议被通过后, 会议才从正式辩论过渡至非正 式辩论。

第四节 动议和问题
动议是在前一位代表结束正式辩论的发言后或在后一位代表开始正式辩论的发言前(动议确 定议题、动议结束正式辩论和动议更改投票顺序除外),在主席询问所有在场代表是否希望提出 改变会议进程的方案的前提下,代表提出具体方案的一种形式。其中,提出方案的过程和方案的 内容,称之为动议。 动议包括动议确定议题、动议修改正式辩论发言时间、动议进行有主持核心磋商、动议进行 自由磋商、动议延置决议草案、动议取消延置决议草案、动议结束正式辩论、动议更改投票顺序 和动议暂时休会,共计九种: ( ) 动议确定议题是指在正式辩论尚未开始但本委员会有两个或两个以上议题时, 代表为设定 本次会议优先讨论的议题而提出的方案, 这一方案应包括该代表所选择的希望优先得到讨论的议 题; ( )动议修改正式辩论发言时间是指当代表认为正式辩论当前的发言时间过长或过短而要求对 其进行修改时所提出的方案,这一方案应包括该代表所建议的修改后的发言时间; ( )动议进行有主持核心磋商是指当代表认为有必要对当前议题范围下某一特定问题进行深入 讨论时所提出的方案, 这一方案应包括本次有主持核心磋商的主题、 总持续时间和每位代表发言 时间; 一般情况下, 一个有主持核心磋商的总时间与每位代表发言时间应成整数倍关系, 但有主 持核心磋商的发言名额不固定,结束以总时间为准; 在有主持核心磋商中,发言时间不得让渡。 磋商的主题应该符合所讨论议题,且更详细与具体,或与议题的某一个方面紧密相关。 对同一主题的有主持核心磋商可以通过再次动议进行。 一个有主持核心磋商的总时间不得超过 分钟。

( )动议进行自由磋商是指当代表认为有必要与其他代表交流意见或进行文件阅读及起草等其 他工作时所提出的方案,这一方案应包括本次自由磋商的总时间,在这一总时间内,代表们将被 允许自由的进出会场,但当时间用尽之后代表们须尽快回到会场;

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Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2014 ( ) 动议延置决议草案是指当一份决议草案已被介绍之后, 代表为搁置对其的讨论所提出的方 案,这一方案应包括代表要求延置的决议草案的编号;当此动议被通过后,所有对该决议草案进 行讨论的动议将不再被允许, 同时不能对这该决议草案提出修正案或进行投票, 直到一个取消延 置该决议草案的动议被通过; ( ) 动议取消延置决议草案是指在一份决议草案已被延置的情况下, 代表为重新开始对其的讨 论、修正和投票而提出的方案,这一方案应包括代表要求取消延置状态的决议草案的编号; ( )动议结束辩论是指当代表认为关于当前议题的讨论已经足够充分而应进入到对目前所有决 议草案及其非友好修正案进行投票的阶段时所提出的方案: 一旦一个结束辩论的动议被提出并得到附议后,主席将邀请两位赞成此动议及两位反对此 动议的代表交替发言阐述理由,由赞成该动议的第一位代表首先发言,发言时间为九十秒,发言 时间不能让渡; 若其中一方不足两位代表,将遵守发言双方人数对等的原则调整发言人数; 当所有代表均已阐述己方的理由之后,将自动进入对该动议的投票阶段; 一旦该动议获得通过, 将结束当前议题的正式辩论 (且不能再次回到对此议题的正式辩论) , 进入对决议草案和修正案的投票阶段; 在投票结束后,会议将进入下一个议题的讨论。 ( ) 动议更改投票顺序是指当一个结束辩论的动议被通过后, 代表为了更改决议草案的投票顺 序而提出的方案,这一方案应包括新的决议草案的投票顺序;一旦此动议获得通过,所有未被延 置的决议草案将按照这一新的顺序被表决;至多只能有一个更改投票顺序的动议被通过。 ( )动议暂时休会是指在某一阶段会议按照日程接近尾声时,代表为暂时结束会议所提出的方 案,当此动议通过后,会议将暂时中止,直到下一阶段开始; 任何动议都必须首先获得附议,才能被表决。 只有在一项动议未获附议,或未获通过,或其过程进行完毕之后,才可以出现下一项动议。 对动议的投票,请参考本规则第二章 投票 一节的内容。 提出问题是代表在提出动议、投票之外的另一项权利。问题不允许与议题或其他代表的发言 内容相关。问题包括程序性问题、咨询性问题和个人特权问题: ( ) 程序性问题是指代表认为会议进程不符合既定的规则程序时,为进行纠正所提出的问题。 程序性问题可随时提出; ( ) 咨询性问题是指当代表对于会议的程序存在疑问时,为获得解答所提出的问题。如 是否 已经收到决议草案? 、 该有主持核心磋商的主题是什么? 此时,主席团将暂停一切当前的活

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Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2014 动并回答代表的问题,包括当下代表的发言。出于礼节的考虑,建议代表通过传递意向条的方式 提出咨询性问题; ( ) 个人特权问题是指当代表在会场产生某种不适,需要大会组织者提供帮助,为寻求改善所 提出的问题。 如投影字体过小, 话筒声音过小、 会场空调温度过低等。 代表自己可以解决的问题, 如去洗手间等,不必向主席团提出。 ( ) 任何问题均无需附议或投票。

第五节 投票
投票分为程序性投票和实质性投票。 程序性投票是指对所有动议的投票,只能投赞成或反对。 选择议题动议、修改正式辩论发言时间动议、进行有主持核心磋商之动议、进行自由磋商之 动议、取消延置决议草案之动议、更改投票顺序之动议及暂时休会之动议需得到简单多数位 代表的赞成才可获得通过;延置决议草案之动议、结束辩论之动议需获得三分之二多数代表 的赞成才可获得通过。 实质性投票是指针对文件的投票,即对非友好修正案和决议草案的投票: ( ) 此一投票过程发生在正式辩论结束后, 并且只对此时已被提交并审阅通过且不处在延置状 态的决议草案和非友好修正案进行表决; ( ) 在表决前,委员会需要闭门并禁止任何代表进出会场,并由主席助理进行重新点名,以确 认需要通过相关文件的 文件三分之二多数 ; ( ) 首先表决非友好修正案: 非友好修正案将按照编号顺序进行逐条表决; 非友好修正案将按照赞成、反对或弃权的顺序举牌逐条表决;主席助理将会记录每一次投 票的结果并确定该条修正案是否被加入相应的决议草案; ( ) 其次表决决议草案: 决议草案将按照编号顺序进行表决;如若一个更改投票顺序的动议通过,将按照新的顺序 进行表决; 决议草案将采取两轮唱名表决:在第一轮投票中,所有的代表均需投票,可以投赞成、反 对、弃权或过;在第二轮投票中,所有第一轮投 过 的代表需重新投票,但只能投赞成或 反对; 主席助理将记录每一位代表的投票选择;

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Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2014 对于一个议题,一个委员会在本次会议中只能通过一份决议草案;当一份决议草案获得通 过时,不再对剩余的决议草案进行表决。 当一份决议草案获得通过或无一份决议草案获得通过时,由于正式辩论已结束,会议将自 动进入下一议题的讨论,除非一个暂时休会的动议被通过。 ( ) 任何对会议文件的表决都需要得到 文件三分之二多数 的赞成票才能通过: 文件三分之二多数 是指在一次对文件的表决中, 赞成票与反对票之总数乘以二除以三并 向上取整后所得的数; 弃权票不计入三分之二多数的计算过程。 ( )安全理事会及历史安全理事会、未来安全理事会中被表决的决议草案、修正案、指令草案 等,当至少 票为 赞成 ,且其中包括五个常任理事国的赞成票时,方可通过: 五个常任理事国,即中华人民共和国、法兰西共和国、俄罗斯联邦、大不列颠及北爱尔兰 联合王国以及美利坚合众国; 这一要求不适用于程序性投票。

第六节 观察国
观察国是指非委员会成员国,但因其与本委员会议题关系紧密等原因而被邀请参加委员会会 议的国家代表; 观察国得与本委员会会员国行使同等权利并具有同等义务,但是: 观察国代表无权起草决议草案及指令草案,及其修正案; 观察国代表无实质性投票权力。

第三章 代表权利与义务
任何一个代表在会场上都应当着正装。 代表们在会场内的交流需通过意向条实现。意向条是指各国代表之间或代表与主席之间在会 议过程中出于互相交流及沟通的目的而撰写的纸条;对于其内容和格式均无特殊要求,但其 语言必须符合本委员会的工作语言;会场志愿者将会帮助代表或主席传递意向条。

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Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2014 代表享有答辩权,即用于保护一个国家的名誉与权利,特别是在会议中出现特别情况,如出 现不负责任的指控、 干涉内政的行为或者一个代表 (团) 在会议上的权利得到损害或剥夺时。 代表须通过意向条向主席团申请使用这项权利,由主席团决定是否给予提出国一定的发言机 会以阐述或反驳。这一时间长短由主席团控制。 除自由磋商外的正式会议期间,不允许代表在会场内使用笔记本电脑。 正式会议中手机必须保持静音。 禁止将非经组委会允许的食物或饮料带入会场。

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北京大学全国中学生模拟联合国大会常规委员会(中文) 议事规则示意图

注:“设定议题”环节已于 2011 年取消。

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北京大学全国中学生模拟联合国大会常规委员会(中文)用语范例
1. 点名

主席助理:“中国?” 中国代表:“出席!” *说明:对于点名,代表仅需回答“出席”即可。

动议
主席:“请问场下有无问题或动议?” 中国代表:“中国代表动议?? 1. 进行一个有主持核心磋商,其主题为‘出口食品的安全保证’,总时长为十分钟,每位代表 发言时间一分钟。” 2. 进行一个自由磋商。总时长为十分钟。” 3. 更改正式辩论发言时间为一分钟。” 4. 延置决议草案 1.1。” 5. 取消对决议草案 1.1 的延置。” 6. 结束辩论。” 7. 更改决议草案投票顺序。新顺序为决议草案 1.2、决议草案 1.3、决议草案 1.1。” 8. 暂时休会。” *说明:对于动议,代表应首先说明动议的类型,再给出这项动议所包含的全部要素。

问题
主席:“请问场下有无问题或动议?” 中国代表:“问题! 9. 程序性问题。根据规则流程,动议延置决议草案 1.1 应需要绝对多数赞成票;但投票结果仅 达到简单多数,因而该动议不能被通过。” 10. 咨询性问题。请问动议延置决议草案所需的赞成票为简单多数还是绝对多数?” 11. 个人特权问题。中国代表无法看清屏幕上的投票结果。能否调大屏幕字体?

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Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2014 *说明:对于问题,代表应首先说明是何种问题,再具体阐释问题。

让渡
主席:“中国代表,您的发言时间仍剩余一分钟。请问您将如何让渡?” 中国代表:“中国代表希望将时间让渡给主席/评论/问题/俄罗斯代表。” *说明:对于让渡时间,代表仅需给出让渡的对象即可。

投票

唱名表决

主席助理:“中国?” 中国代表:“赞成/反对/弃权/过!” *说明:在唱名表决阶段,代表们只需给出本国的决定即可。注意,“过”仅能在对决议草案和 指令草案的第一轮投票中使用;在第二轮投票中,只能选择“赞成”和“反对”。

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北京大学全国中学生模拟联合国大会常规委员会(中文) 快速规则流程参考
快速规则流程索引
规则 个人特权问题 程序性问题 咨询性问题 动议有主持核心磋商/自由磋商 动议结束辩论 动议更改发言时间 动议暂时休会 表决 无需表决 无需表决 无需表决 简单多数 三分之二多数 简单多数 简单多数 说明 随时提出,当代表感觉在会议中有所不适时 随时提出,当会议不符合既定进程时 仅在发言权处于开放状态下允许,对规则提问 需要说明主题(有主持核心磋商)和时间限制 关闭主发言名单并进入投票阶段 更改正式辩论的发言时间 按照日程会议时间临近结束时提出,暂时中止 这一阶段的所有辩论 在一份决议草案被介绍之后;通过后此份决议 草案不能被讨论、修正与表决 取消延置动议的所有效果 在正式辩论被关闭后可提出,通过后将按新的 顺序表决决议草案;只能通过一次更改顺序 两分钟阅读、两分钟介绍;无格式要求 三分钟阅读、三分钟介绍、三个语法问题;只 能通过一份决议草案 友好修正案直接引入;非友好修正案一分钟阅 读、一分钟介绍;逐条举牌表决 只有正式辩论的剩余时间可被让渡;不可二次 让渡;让渡选项:主席、代表、问题、评论 通过向主席团传递意向条以申请这项权利。主 席决定是否赋予代表发言时间。

动议延置决议草案 动议取消延置决议草案 动议更改投票顺序 工作文件 决议草案

三分之二多数 简单多数 简单多数 无需表决 文件的三分 之二多数 文件的三分 之二多数 自动

修正案

让渡

答辩权

自主

说明:主席对于所有程序性问题均有最终的决定权。主席可采取在规则流程中未包括、但他认为 适当的措施以推动会议的进程。

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北京大学全国中学生模拟联合国大会常规委员会(英文)议事规则

Rules and Procedures
All rights reserved. This publication should not be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the Organizing Committee of PKUNMUN 2014. The rules and procedures contained herein are applicable to English committees of PKUNMUN2014 except the ICTY, the MPC and the EESC. The Organizing Committee of PKUNMUN has the final interpretation right to the rules and procedures.

Introduction to the Staff
The committee Director is the substantive expert on the issues. The Director acts as an impartial observer of documents to be discussed and of the proceedings as a whole. Because of their knowledge, all Draft Resolutions and Amendments in committee must be approved and signed by the Director to be presented to the committee as a whole. As the substantive leader of the committee, the Director also has the discretion to rule on all points and motions brought before the committee. Any questions about substantive issues should be raised with the Director.

While the Director is the substantive expert, the Chair is the procedural expert who chairs the committee when it is in formal session. The Chair has a full understanding of the rules of procedure, and it is his/her responsibility to facilitate the committee?s work by ensuring that the sessions run smoothly. Though the Chair runs the business of the committee, the Director retains the ultimate power to rule any motions out of order. Any questions about procedural issues should be raised with the Chair.

During the conference, the Rapporteur is in charge of recording for the meeting and calculating (numbers of countries present or countries in favor of a certain motion or document). Besides, the Rapport eur is responsible for arranging the Roll Call in each session and assisting the Chair throughout the conference.

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Before the conference, the Assistant Directors prepare the updates to the background guide, as well as the summaries of the position papers that delegates have submitted. During the simulation, their job is to aid the Director by answering delegates? questions and by monitoring blocs during caucuses, and to provide ?sounding boards? for delegate ideas, solutions and concerns. If the committee is producing a large amount of paperwork at some point in the course of discussing a topic, Directors will often rely on the Assistant Directors to work directly with delegates on preparing and revising Draft Resolutions. The Assistant Directors also help keep track of the Speakers? List, votes, and other procedural matters. Delegates should feel free to approach the Assistant Directors at any time with questions about the substance or procedure of the committee. ? Delegates will show courtesy and respect to the Committee staff and to other delegates. 1. Formal dressing is kindly required in the committee room. 2. Always keep the cell phone power-off or on silent mode during the conference. 3. The lap-top should not be used in the committee room during the conference except in unmoderated caucus. 4. No talking is allowed in the committee room. The Chair will immediately call to order any delegate who fails to comply with this rule, often using the term “Decorum.” 5. Pages can be used to communicate with the chair and other delegates with the help of volunteers. The content and format of the pages are not specially required but the official language of the committee should be used. 6. Delegates need to address each other in the Third Person at all times. Insulting and abusive words are strictly forbidden. Delegates are always encouraged to use “honorable speaker” or “fellow delegates,” never “you” or “I”. Delegates should stand when addressing themselves.

The Process: Committee Session

First of all the rapporteur will do the Roll Call in alphabetic order. Delegates should raise their placards and answer “present” when their country?s name is called. After the roll call, the rapporteur will declare the simple majority, the two-thirds majority and 20% of the number. The debate will not be permitted to proceed unless at least a simple majority of the members of the Committee are present.

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Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2014 the number of the countries present multiplies 1/2 and adds 1 (rounded down). the number of the countries present multiplies 2/3 (rounded up). Delegates who are late for the Roll Call should send a page to the Dais to show the presence. The absence of a delegate or delegation (which means both delegates are absent) will be considered as forfeiting their time and abandoning their rights to debate and vote.

During the formal debate, delegates have the opportunity to share their views with the entire committee. In the formal debate, delegates make speeches, answer questions, introduce and debate Resolutions as well as Amendments. ? Speakers? List will be established continuously for the purpose of formal debate. This Speakers? List will be followed for all debate on the Topic Area, except when interrupted by procedural motions, discussion of Amendments, or the introduction of a resolution. Speakers may speak generally on the Topic Area being considered and may address any resolution currently on the floor. A country may add its name to a Speakers? List by handing in a page to the Chair, provided that the nation is not already on the Speakers? List or it wishes to be re-added to the list after finishing its speech. ? The Chair of the committee will then call on the delegates on the Speakers? List (in the order they were placed on the list). The initial time for each speaker in the formal debate is 120 seconds, which can be yielded and changed. A motion to extend or shorten the speaking time requires a simple majority of the committee?s members to pass. ? After being recognized from the general Speaker?s List, a delegate may yield any or all of his or her time left (which is at least 10 seconds) in one of four ways: to another delegate, to questions, to comments or to the Chair. Please note that only one yield is allowed. A delegate must declare any yield at the conclusion of his/her speech. (1) Yield to another delegate: His/her remaining time will be offered to that delegate. If the delegate accepts the yield, the Chair shall recognize the delegate for the remaining time. The delegate may NOT make any further yields. (2) Yield to questions: Questioners will be selected by the Chair and limited to ONE question each. Follow-up questions will not be allowed (at the discretion of the Chair). The Chair will have the right to call to order any delegate whose question is, in the opinion of the Chair, rhetorical, leading, or not designed

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Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2014 to elicit information. Only the speaker?s answers to questions will be deducted from the speaker?s remaining time. (3) Yield to comments: This allows other delegates to convey their thoughts regarding a policy or point mentioned in a speech. (4) Yield to the chair: Such a yield means that the delegate forfeits his/her time. The Chair will then moves on to the next speaker or invite other delegates to comment. Formal debate can be interrupted either by caucuses (see below) or through points or motions on the floor. A full explanation of all points or motions is included later in this document.

? Points of Personal Privilege: Whenever a delegate experiences personal discomfort which impairs his/her ability to participate in the proceedings, he or she may rise to a Point of Personal Privilege to request that the discomfort be corrected. While a Point of Personal Privilege may interrupt a speaker, delegates should use this power with the utmost discretion. Points of Order: During the discussion of any matter, a delegate may rise to a Point of Order to indicate an instance of improper procedure. Points of Order will be immediately decided by the Chair in accordance with these rules of procedure. The Chair may rule out of order those points that are dilatory or improper. A representative rising to a Point of Order may not speak on the substance of the matter under discussion. A Point of Order may only interrupt a speaker if the speech is not following proper procedure. Points of Inquiry: When the floor is open, a delegate may rise to a Point of Inquiry to ask the Chair a question regarding the rules of procedure. A Point of Inquiry may NEVER interrupt a speaker. Delegates with substantive questions should not rise to this Point, but should rather approach the committee staff during caucus or send a note to the dais. ? Motions for an Un-moderated Caucus: A motion for an un-moderated caucus is in order at any time when the floor is open, prior to closure of debate. The delegate making the motion must specify a time limit for the caucus. The motion will

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immediately be put to a vote barring any other motions that take precedence. A simple majority of members is required for passage. The Chair may rule the motion out of order. Motions for a Moderated Caucus: In a moderated caucus, the Chair will temporarily depart from the Speakers’ List and call on delegates to speak at his or her discretion. A motion for a moderated caucus is in order at any time when the floor is open, prior to closure of debate. The delegate making the motion must briefly explain its purpose and specify a time limit for the caucus as well as the time limit per speech. Once raised, the motion will be voted on immediately, with a simple majority required for passage. The Chair may rule the motion out of order.

? During the formal debate, delegates may motion for an un-moderated caucus of a fixed period of time. The caucus serves as a temporary suspension of the rules of procedure and the formal debate. During this time, delegates can meet ?informally with one another and the committee staff to discuss Working Papers, Draft Resolutions, Amendments, and other relevant issues. Often a great deal of resolution writing and compromise is accomplished during caucuses, and delegates are encouraged to use the entire duration of the un-moderated caucus to the best of their advantages. ? The purpose of the moderated caucus is to facilitate substantive debate at critical junctures in the discussion. Delegates can also motion for moderated caucuses on specific topics to focus the debate of the committee on issues that they feel are of particular relevance. When a motion for moderated caucus is passed, the committee moves away from the speakers? list and delegates raise their placards to be recognized to speak immediately. ? During the process of the debate, the floor is open for documents including working papers, draft resolutions and amendments.

Delegates may propose Working Papers for committee consideration. Working Papers are intended to aid the Committee in its discussion and formulation of Draft Resolutions and need not be written in draft resolution format. Working papers are not official documents, but do require the signature of the Director to be approved and distributed. Amendments cannot be made to Working Papers. Once distributed, delegates will be given 2 minutes to read, after which the sponsors will have 2 minutes to introduce their working paper.

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(1)Brief introduction: The final results of discussion and negotiation are Draft Resolutions — a committee?s written suggestions for addressing a specific problem or issue. Draft Resolutions are all resolutions that haven?t been yet voted on. Each resolution should deal specifically with the topic area currently under discussion by the committee. (2)Responsibility of Dais: While the Director will not advocate a particular solution, it is his/her responsibility to ensure that the committee has fulfilled its responsibilities and adequately addressed the entire topic before it can be introduced as a resolution. Our Directors are trained to be very discriminating in accepting Draft Resolutions, and delegates should not be surprised or offended if the dais staff sends a proposal for a resolution back to the committee for revision before approving it. (3)Sponsors and signatories: To be a signatory of a draft resolution does not necessarily mean fully supporting the resolution, but the sponsors of a draft resolution should be those who totally agree with what is written in the resolution. A sponsor may NOT be the sponsor or signatory of any other draft resolution. A motion to introduce a draft resolution will be in order when it receives the approval of the Director and is signed by 20 percent of the members in the committee. (4)Introducing draft resolutions: Once a draft resolution has the requisite number of signatories, has been approved by the Director, and has been distributed and read for 3 minutes, the sponsors will have 3 minutes to introduce the resolution, which needs no procedural vote. More than one Draft Resolutions may be on the floor at any one time, but at most ONE resolution may be passed per Topic Area. After 3 minutes? introduction, delegates who are not introducing or committee staffs may raise 3 questions concerning grammar mistakes.

Motions to postponement and resumption of Draft Resolution: After a draft resolution has been introduced to the committee, a delegate may motion for the postponement of debate on the draft resolution. The motion, otherwise known as “tabling,” will require a two-thirds vote to pass. Once the motion passes, no debate or action, including voting, will be allowed on the draft resolution. A motion to resume debate on a draft resolution on which debate has been postponed will require a simple majority to pass. Resumption of draft resolution will cancel the effects of postponement of it.

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Delegates may amend any resolution which has been introduced. An amendment must have the approval of the Director. After an amendment is delivered to the committee, delegates have 1 minute to read it and then the sponsors is entitled 1 minute to introduce it. (1) An amendment is considered unfriendly if NOT all the sponsors in the resolution to be amended sign on the amendment. Unfriendly Amendment should be signed by at least 20 percent of the delegates present. The Unfriendly Amendments will be voted after the roll call and the reading of Friendly Amendments. (2) An amendment is considered friendly only if ALL the sponsors in the resolution to be amended agree with this amendment, which means they must sign on the amendment. (3) Amendments to Amendments are out of order; however, an amended part of a resolution may be further amended at a later time.

When the floor is open, a delegate may move to close debate on the substantive or procedural matter under discussion. The Chair might rule such a motion dilatory. When closure of debate is moved, the Chair may recognize up to two speakers for and two against the motion. Closure of debate requires the support of two-thirds of the committee. If the Committee is in favor of closure of debate, the Chair will declare the closure of the debate and move the committee to immediate voting procedure. If a given speaker?s list is exhausted, debate will automatically be closed.

The substantive voting at PKUNMUN will be voting on Draft Resolutions, Unfriendly Amendments and Draft Directives.

In the vote on unfriendly amendments, the Chair will call countries in alphabetical order, and delegates may vote “Yes,” “No,” “Abstain,” or “Pass.” A two-thirds majority is required for the amendments to be passed

? The vote on Draft Resolutions will follow the order in which the Draft Resolutions were introduced. But after debate is closed (the Unfriendly Amendments have been voted), a motion to change the order of voting on Draft Resolutions currently on the floor will be in order. There will be no debate on this motion, and it will require a simple majority to pass. Only one such motion can pass in the voting procedures.

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Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2014 ? The roll call voting will be voting on Draft Resolutions, Draft Directive and Unfriendly Amendments. In a roll call vote, the Chair will call countries in alphabetical order. In the first round, delegates may vote “Yes,” “No,” “Abstain,” or “Pass.” A delegate who passes during the first round of the roll call must vote “Yes” or “No” in the second round. After the Chair has announced the beginning of voting, no delegate can interrupt the voting except on a Point of Personal Privilege or a Point of Order in connection with the actual conduct of voting. The rooms are also sealed. A two-thirds majority is required for a resolution to be passed. Once a resolution has been passed, the voting procedure is closed as only one resolution may be passed on a topic area

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Quick Reference Guide
RULES OF PROCEDURE: QUICK REFERENCE GUIDE
RULE Point of Personal Privilege VOTE No Vote COMMENTS In order at any time; used when a delegate is unable to participate in committee business. In order at any time; but able to interrupt Point of Order Point of Inquiry Motion for Moderated Caucus Motions for Unmoderated Caucus Motion to Close the Speakers? List Motion to Suspend the Meeting No Vote No Vote 1/2+1 a speaker only when the speech itself is not in order. In order only when the floor is open. Motion requires purpose and time limit for caucus. Maximum time, including extensions, 15 minutes 1/2+1 2/3 Motion requires time limit for caucus. Same as Motion to Close the Debate When the scheduled time of a committee session has elapsed This motion will be in order after a resolution has been introduced to the Motion to Postpone a D.R.

1/2+1

2/3

committee. And once it passes, no debate or action, including voting, will be allowed on the resolution. This motion will cancel the effects of postponement. This motion will be in order after the closure of debate. Once it passes, the vote will follow the new order. Only one such motion can pass in the voting procedures. No multiple yields. May yield to 1)

Motion to Resume a D.R.

1/2+1

Motion to Reorder D.R.(s)

1/2+1

Yield

another

delegate,

2)

questions,

3)

comments, 4) chair Right to Reply Academic Standard Handbook PKUNMUN 2014 Provided your personal or national 27

Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2014 integrity has been impugned, you may use the right by sending a page to the dais on which you write down your reply. The Chair may grant you the right to read it or not.

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北京大学全国中学生模拟联合国大会常规委员会(英文)议事规则示意图

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北京大学全国中学生模拟联合国大会常规委员会(英文)用语范例
1. Roll Call
Rapportuer: Algeria Delegate of Algeria: Present. Rapportuer:Delegate of Algeria is present.

2. Deliver a Speech
Delegate: Honorable chair and distinguished delegates… thank you.

3. How to Raise a Motion?
Delegate: Delegate of Japan would like to shorten/ lengthen the speaking time to 2min. Delegate: Delegate of Russia would like to close the debate/ suspend the meeting/ adjourn the meeting. Delegate: Delegate of South Africa would like to motion for a moderated caucus. The subject is private sector?s duty to cope with climate change. The total time should be ten minutes and each speaker is entitled one minute. Delegate: Delegate of China would like to motion for an un-moderated caucus lasting five minutes. Delegate: Delegate of United States motions to postpone/ resume Draft Resolution 1.1. Delegate: Delegate of Denmark motions to reorder the three Draft Resolutions. The new order for voting is 1.2, 1.3 and then 1.1.

4. How to Raise a Point?
Chair: Are there any points or motions on the floor? Delegate: Point! Chair: The chair recognizes delegate of Brazil. What is your point? Delegate: Delegate of Brazil would like to point for personal privilege, for I haven?t got the printed Draft Resolution. Chair: Thank you. I will have our staff get down to that.

5. Yield Time
Chair: Delegate of Algeria, you have 30 seconds left, how would you like to yield your time? Delegate of Algeria: I would like to yield the time to chair/ delegate of…. / question/ comment.

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北京大学全国中学生模拟联合国大会特殊委员会学术标准 一、前南斯拉夫问题国际刑事法庭(ICTY)

Opening Statements of both the Prosecution and the Defense Team
Each team has 30 minutes.

Presentation of the evidence and the crossexamination proceedings

Judges' inquiry at any time necessary

Arguments
Including a 5-min short statement and free debating Q & A sessions with time limit

Arguments

Working Paper handling and documenting session

Delibrations and Judgment

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Rules and Procedures of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia
1. Structure of the Court
There shall be seven lawyers in both the Prosecution and Defense team and five judges as the Trial Chamber in the court. The dais will also play an important role in the trial as amicus curiae. ? Task of the Prosecution Team The prosecutors should prepare an indictment which lists crimes the alleged perpetrator is accused of having committed, and requests a certain penalty to be imposed by the court. To make a convincing case, the prosecutors should testify the gravity of the crimes committed and confirm whether the accused isdirectly or indirectly- responsible for these crimes. It should not be the aim of the prosecutors to always seek the maximum penalty for the accused. It is important that the penalty is just and adequate to the gravity of the crimes attributed. The prosecutors should try to ensure a fair administration of justice on behalf of the righteous. Actions and argumentation of the prosecution team should be directed at a careful selection of relevant evidence and at presenting arguments that will testify the alleged crimes of the accused and support the requested penalty best thus provide a strong case before the court. ? Task of the Defense Team The defenders should prepare pleading strategy for the accused. Its task is to find the loopholes in the Prosecution?s case. In accordance with the Rome Statute, the accused is presumed innocent until proven guilty. Thus, the defense must show why the case of the prosecution is not convincing and valid enough to establish the responsibility of the accused beyond all reasonable doubt for the crimes perpetrated. The defense prepares a pleading with the arguments contradicting the accusations of the prosecution team and concludes with a request for a reduced punishment or even acquittal of the accused. Defenders hold a crucial and very challenging role: Even an accused that may have perpetrated the worst crimes has the basic right to legal assistance and it is the task of the defense team to provide that assistance in the best possible manner. The cases simulated are in no way straightforward and it is a challenge to search for arguments to the benefit of the accused as well as for possible mitigating circumstances. ? Task of the Judges The judges are required to summarize the legal opinions in the position papers once they are submitted by the lawyers from both the prosecutors and defenders before the deadline, and release the related document after a week time. During the session, judges have rights to intervene the debate once they have any judicial inquiry for the lawyers. The Trial Chamber should make decision as a whole each time, which means the simple majority of the judges? decision counts. It is the task of the Trial Chamber to make convincing judgments representing the opinion of the whole international legal systems and also the righteous of human nature after the sessions of procedural issues and evidentiary issues provided by both prosecution and defense 32 PKUNMUN 2014 Academic Standard Handbook

Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2014 Team. The judges are required to write the final legal opinions or relevant decisions of this case and declare it to the court in the last session. ? Role of the dais The dais shall be divided into two groups. Chair and assistant will be mandated in each session, while other members of the dais would be appointed by the court as amicus curiae. Documents submitted to the court should be reviewed by the amicus curiae. The judges also have the right to solicit legal advices from the amicus curiae in written form or orally.

2.
?

Procedural Issues
The key components of procedure include: For all international courts, the prosecutors are appointed as an independent party responsible for the investigation and prosecution of international crimes. Unlike the inquisitorial system, for all international courts, it is the prosecutor who brings and prosecutes the cases. The prosecutors bear the burden of proof, and must prove all crimes beyond a reasonable doubt.

(1)

?

The Defense Team does not have to prove its case beyond a reasonable doubt. The onus lies on the prosecution throughout the proceedings to establish its case. The Defense is entitled to investigate the allegations made against the accused and call its own evidence if it so wishes.

?

Each party, as well as the judges, can subpoena witnesses to testify in the second phase of the trial theoretically. However, in this court, subpoenaing witnesses is impossible in practice. So the evidences could only be submitted in written form.

(2) ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

The basic fair trial standards applied by the international courts are the:

Presumption of innocence; Right to trial before an independent and impartial tribunal; Right to be informed promptly of the nature of the charges against them Right to adequate time and facilities to prepare a defense Right to legal assistance; Right to examine evidence against them and obtain the presentation and examination of evidence on their behalf under the same conditions as evidence against them; Right not to be compelled to testify against him/herself or to confess guilt. Key Steps

(In particular, these rights are reflected by Article 21 of the ICTY Statute and Article 67 of the Rome Statute.) (3) ① Investigation (This step is omitted in the conference) ② The Indictment ? ? ? The prosecutor should apply for an indictment to be issued by the trial chamber and the amicus curiae (the amicus curiae are consisted of directors from PKUNMUN). The prosecutor is responsible for the content of the indictment. The judges will determine whether there are reasonable grounds for the issuance of an indictment.

The indictment is the document upon which the entire case will be based. It must be precise and inclusive, Academic Standard Handbook PKUNMUN 2014 33

Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2014 since the trial chamber cannot convict a defendant for a crime he or she has not been charged with (unless they convict for a lesser and included crime to one charged.) The indictment is critical to informing the accused of the charges he or she faces. Important considerations include: ? ? ? ? ? ? The accused will use the indictment to prepare pleadings. An accused cannot mount proper pleadings if the indictment does not adequately inform him or her of the charges. An indictment must not violate the rights of the accused to be informed in detail of the nature and cause of the charges and to adequate time and facilities to prepare pleadings. The “nature” of the charge is its legal characterization, or the specific alleged offence and the alleged mode of liability. The “cause” of a charge includes the facts it is based on. The material facts of the prosecution?s case must be set out with enough detail to inform a defendant. The prosecutor has the obligation to submit the evidences intended to prove the material facts before the court. Which facts is “material” is decided and defined on a case -by-case basis according to the nature of the charges. For example, a charge of directly perpetrating a crime requires more specific material facts aiming at the accused in the indictment than a charge of aiding and abetting. At the ICTY, the focus of the indictment is on the offence, as opposed to the conduct of the accused. Therefore, how an offence is characterized in an indictment is binding on the trial chamber and they cannot convict for a crime not charged, even if they find one was committed. ③ Several essential rules to be mentioned about the indictment ? ? ? ? ? The indictment must be issued by a single judge in the chamber before the proceedings can begin. This is usually done before the suspect is arrested or surrenders. The prosecutors must provide evidence, either documentary or a summary of evidence, which will be called during trial, to support the charges in the indictment. The evidence must establish prima facie that the suspect committed the crimes. The court must determine that the prosecutor has met the evidentiary requirements for bringing the case to trial. Each charge must be confirmed. Pre-Trial Proceedings (4)

After an indictment is issued, the accused will be transferred to the court (the accused in the conference will be simulated by one of the directors from PKUNMUN), either under arrest or voluntarily. As soon as an accused is brought before the court, there is a formal first hearing. The judge will ensure that the rights of the accused have been respected, formally read out the charges to the accused and allow the accused to enter a plea. If the accused pleads not guilty, a date for trial will be set. (5) Disclosure There are rules relating to what each party must disclose to the other. Prosecution rules include, inter alia: ? The prosecutors must disclose to the defenders that is favourable to the accused. The prosecutors? 34 PKUNMUN 2014 Academic Standard Handbook

Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2014 obligation to disclose this material is continuous, lasting throughout the trial. ? During the pre-trial phase, the Prosecution Team must disclose evidence that supports the indictment along with the indictment submitted, and disclose it in the pre-trial speech. The Defense Team should also submit their evidence openly along with the submitted pleading documents. ? Some material is exempt from disclosure and in some circumstances the trial chamber can allow some information to remain undisclosed. (The Defense team must apply to the chamber before the session for evidence and proofs begin.) Defense rules include ? ? The defenders have to provide an outline of its defence before the commencement of the case, but do not have to provide the evidence that it will rely upon. The defenders must disclose information if it will rely on an alibi or other special defense (such as lack of mental capacity) before the commencement of the case. However, if the defenders fail to disclose this information, it will not be prohibited from raising the pleadings or evidence. (6) Pleas, admissions of guilt, and plea bargaining Guilty pleas and plea bargaining are critical issues for ICTY. Key considerations regarding this practice are described below. To save time and simplify the procedure for participants, this session is omitted and the whole conference is moved on to the next phase. You can search the website of ICTY to find about the rules on this phase if you would like to know more about it. (7) Trial and Judgment International criminal trials are usually very long and complicated. Both the prosecutors and the defenders have the opportunity to present their legal opinions and control the evidence they each present. Judges control the proceedings to ensure fair and expeditious trials. Since there are no juries, the Judges will control the final judgment. Trials are in principle to be open to the public, unless there is a need for closed or private sessions due to security or other reasons. Decisions and progress will be issued to the MPCs as press releases. The trials follow a basic format: ① Opening statement In this phase, the lawyers from both the Prosecution and Defense team should give a commencement speech for 30 minutes declaring their legal opinions. There will be five minute?s halt for the parties in the court between the two speeches. Each team should distribute the 30 minutes among the members. The Prosecution team will start first and then comes to the Defense team. ② Presentation of evidence Usually the prosecution presents its evidence and then the defenders present its evidence. The prosecution may present additional evidence in rebuttal and the defenders? evidence in rejoinder. The judges can also call evidence and can hear evidence to determine a sentence. For each witness called and evidence provided, the following procedure is followed: ? ? The witness and evidence is first examined by the party calling it; then Cross-examined by the other party; and finally PKUNMUN 2014 35

Academic Standard Handbook

Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2014 ? Re-examined by the calling party. The judges may ask questions at any time. Cross-examination is limited to the subject matter of the evidence-in-chief, matters affecting the credibility of the witness and the subject matter of the case of the cross-examining party. At first, the three parties have five minutes in reading the introduction to the evidence or the witness and prepare for the examination. After the process of examination, the prosecutors and defenders should make debates on certain points and problems in the evidence or the testimony of the witness. Each member of the two teams can motion for a moderated caucus to debate. Each debate should be no longer than 10 minutes. The trial chamber has ultimate control over the presentation of evidence and subpoenaing witnesses, and is required to ensure the testimony admissible both efficient and effective for confirming the truth. When both the prosecutors and the defenders declare that they all have no intention to provide evidence or witness, they could submit a working paper summarizing the presentation of evidence and read it at the end of the phase. The judges, as heard counsels from both sides, should mention whether they approve the credibility of the evidence and witness in the summary if necessary. ③ Arguments The argument is based on the debates for final sentence to the accused. ? ? The Prosecution team and the Defense team should declare their opinions on the sentence for 5 minutes each at first. After the first round comes to an end, members from Prosecution team are invited to ask several questions to the members in Defense team on a specific issue about the pleadings. And the members in the Defense team can only answer the question with Yes, No or they can refuse to answer it. When the inquiry from the Prosecution team ends, the Defense team can ask their questions and the rules for answering are the same for the Prosecution team. ? The third part is the time for judges to ask questions to the Prosecution team and Defense team. Judges are required to ask three questions to both the two teams and the members in the two teams should give the answers to the three questions for no more than 10 minutes. ? After answering questions from the judges group, the members of two teams are endowed with the opportunities to motion for moderated caucus focusing on various points in the possible judgment made at the end of the case. The judges will vote for whether the topic is in order or not to be discussed. The two teams should make the speech alternately which means that lawyers coming from the same team shouldn?t make speeches continuously. ? During the debate, the Prosecution team and the Defense team should craft their working papers on legal opinions and submit it to the judges as well as the chamber before the closure of argument. ④ Deliberations and Judgment In this phase, the two teams have 5 minutes to introduce their final legal opinions. After the introduction, each member in three parties can motion for a moderated caucus to discuss certain points in one of the working papers as their final statements. The discussion should be no longer than an hour. After the two-party deliberation, the Trial Chamber will officially declare their final common opinion on the 36 PKUNMUN 2014 Academic Standard Handbook

Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2014 case for 20 minutes. The Prosecution and the Defense team are required to respond the common opinion with a three minutes? speech. Heard the counsels from the two teams, the Trial Chamber will declare the final closure of the case.

3. The use of amicus curiae in the procedures of ICTY
The use of amicus curiae in proceedings before the ICTY Rule 74 of the Tribunal's Rules of Procedure and Evidence permits a Chamber to either invite or grant leave to any State, organization or person to appear before the Chamber as amicus curiae if the Chamber "considers it desirable for the proper determination of the case." The amicus curiae may make submissions on any issue specified by the Chamber. States, individuals and organizations regularly sought leave to file amicus curiae briefs in the early cases heard by the Tribunal, especially on issues of general importance to the development of international criminal and humanitarian law. The amicus curiae in this conference is made up of dais members as counselors of the Trial Chamber, As stated in the beginning of this article, documents submitted to the Trial Chamber should be reviewed by the amicus curiae. The judges also have the right to solicit legal advices from the amicus curiae in written form or orally. Both counsels could raise questions to the amicus curiae in written form only, and submissions on issues specified by the Chamber could also be made by the amicus curiae if necessary. The amicus curiae have the right to issue official declarations and press releases to the MPC after each session.

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二、欧洲经社理事会 (European Economic and Social Committee)
委员会介绍
经社委员会代表雇主、工会以及中小企业、环境组织等经济和社会集团的利益,由有组织的经 济和社会市民社会团体组成,它的主要工作是向欧洲议会、欧盟理事会和欧洲委员会这三个主要机 构提出建议。本次会议为控制会场规模及会议进程,将这些成员分为三组,并选择了 22 个代表欧盟 典型状况的国家参与会议。会议旨在讨论欧洲目前面临的重要问题,劳动力短缺,通过讨论欧洲的 现状提出可能的解决方案,在欧盟框架下解决问题。 1. 集团: 在本次会议中,委员会所有成员将分为三个集团,分别是: “雇主集团(Employers) ” 、 “雇 员集团(Workers) ”和“其他利益集团(Various Interests) ” 。每一个国家代表团都将由三位代表 组成,三位代表分别来不同集团且此三者享有相同的代表权利。 2. 点名: 主席团按照字母顺序对到会代表进行点名。与常规委员会有所区别的是,EESC 将实行分组 点名制度,即主席团将分别对三个集团组进行点名。主席助理将首先进行第一组内的点名,其 次是第二组,最后是第三组。三组的顺序将在分组会议时视情况轮换。主席助理需分别记录每 一集团组出席代表的数量及出席代表的总数,并分别计算出每一组内的简单多数、三分之二多 数和 20%数并根据出席代表的总数计算出本次分组会议的简单多数、 三分之二多数和 20%数。 当 且仅当每个集团组出席代表数均达到或超过本集团组代表总数的简单多数时,主席方可宣布会 议正式开始。 3. 代表身份: 在 EESC 中,需要代表们非常明确的是其身份并不是单纯的“国家代表” ,而是以“国家+角 色”的身份形式存在。每位代表不仅需要根据自身的国家设定,还需要根据自身的角色设定来 做好角色扮演,增强“三方机制”的执行力度。 4. 正式辩论发言名单的形成: 会议正式开始后,主席团将开始建立正式辩论的发言名单,具体方式请参阅常规委员会学 术标准。需要说明的是,在建立发言名单时,同一国家不同角色的几位代表可以同时出现在发 言名单中,并将根据优先组别被标以“国家+组别” 。如在本次会议中,芬兰雇员集团代表在发 言名单中将被标以“Finland Workers” 。 5. 文件签署: 代表撰写文件或签字时,不仅需写上国家名,还需写上优先组别序号,如在本次会议中, 芬兰雇员集团代表签字范例为: “Finland2” (在本次会议中,组别序号将在分组会议中轮换) 。 6. 其他说明: 三方具有相同的代表权利指的是:三者在会场内具有平等的、互不干涉的权利,如起草权、 投票权等,意即同一国家代表团内部的意见允许有所不同。

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三、 联合国新闻部/非政府组织年度会议 (United Nations Department of

Public Information Non-Governmental Organizations Conference)
会议流程:
第一部分:自愿性报告(session 1) (1) (2) (3) 代表于 PKUNMUN 正式会议召开前某一特定时间向主席团申请进行自愿性报告; 正式会议 session 1 中,点名流程结束后自动进入自愿性报告环节; 每组报告人员共拥有 20 分钟时间,若报告时间不足 20 分钟,将自动进入对该组报告

的提问(Q&A)环节,提问者高举 NGO 代表牌以示意愿,由报告人员自行挑选提问者,只有回答时 间计入总时长,提问时间不计入总时长。

第二部分:正式辩论 (1) (2) (3) 自愿性报告环节结束后自动进入第一轮正式辩论环节; 主发言名单自动开启, 愿意发言的代表高举国家牌, 主席将一一点出愿意发言的代表; 每位代表拥有九十秒发言时间,剩余时间若超过 10 秒,可进行让渡(让渡规则同常规

规则) ,主发言期间仅会有结束辩论的动议被通过。

第三部分:非正式辩论 (1) (2) (3) (4) a) b) c) i. 第一轮正式辩论结束后自动进入非正式辩论环节; 非正式辩论由动议推动 代表可在进入非正式辩论环节后主动提出动议; 动议共分 7 类:

动议进行有主持核心磋商 动议进行自由磋商 动议进行双边辩论 需简单多数

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Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2014 ii. iii. 代表需提出双边辩论的主题、总时长、双方可允许总人数及本方立场(正 or 反) 有意愿代表正(反)方发言的代表高举国家牌,主席将一一点出发言代表,单方总数不应

超过可允许总人数; iv. v. vi. 由动议代表开始发言,双方交替发言; 总时长不应超过 20 分钟; 主席有权决定代表所动议辩论是否在符合会议规程范围内;

vii. 双边辩论中一方单次发言不应超过 120 秒。 d) i. ii. iii. iv. v. e) f) 动议进行多边辩论 需简单多数; 代表需提出多边辩论的主题、总时长; 由动议代表开始发言,其余代表可在任意无其他代表发言时间发言; 总时长不应超过 20 分钟; 多边辩论中一方单次发言不得超过 120 秒。 动议暂时休会 动议结束辩论

第四部分 会议文件 (1) (2) 布申请。 (3) (4) 工作文件:代表可在正式辩论环节结束之后向主席团提交工作文件。 NGO 危机行动方案:当会议议程中出现危机时,NGO 以及国际组织代表应尽快进行磋 立场文件:代表应在正式会议召开前指定时间之前向主席团提交立场文件。 自愿性报告发布申请:代表应在正式会议召开前指定日期向主席团提交自愿性报告发

商讨论,制定 NGO 危机行动方案,作为处理突发事件的指导文件。 (5) NGO 共同宣言:NGO 宣言作为与会非政府组织以及国际组织针对此次议题讨论总结以

及未来长期规划, 代表着 NGO 与国际组织在相关问题上的共识。 NGO 共同宣言只需要与会代表 进行讨论和增加宣言友好修正案(如与会代表有此需求) 。NGO 共同宣言的通过无需投票。一经 主席团审核以及起草 NGO、 附议 NGO 成员数量超过规定下限, 在向委员会全体与会代表介绍后 自动生效。

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四、主新闻中心(Main Press Center)
主新闻中心是二零一四年北京大学全国中学生模拟联合国大会的新闻机构,采取新闻社报道制 度。具体的新闻社分配与记者分组将在主新闻中心通告中具体说明。

1. 会场规则 主新闻中心的代表称记者,分视频记者与文字记者两类。在正式会议召开期间,任一记者均可 随意进入出于开放状态的会场。记者于会场旁听期间,不得随意走动。在自由磋商或休息期间可自 由采访代表与主席。会场进入投票状态时,记者可选择在投票开始前离开,投票开始后不得离开座 位。投票期间的会场处于关闭状态,会场外的记者不得进入。

2. 例会制度 主新闻中心采取晨会与晚会制度,在主新闻中心主席规定的晨会时间,所有媒体记者必须到达 会场进行点名并以新闻社为单位,进行 5 分钟的主旨演讲。演讲的具体形式,内容由新闻社内部自 行决定。在 5 分钟的主旨演讲内,各新闻社需总结前一日工作的主题,并根据各委员会的会议进展 给出当天的报道重点。5 分钟的演讲结束之后,主新闻中心的主席团将根据各新闻社的计划给出建 议,并点评前一天的新闻报道。

3. 稿件提交审核制度 主新闻中心的主席团为会议新闻机构的总编,所有稿件,视频只有经过主新闻中心主席团的审 核才会被提交印刷。每日晚会时由主席宣布该日的截稿时间,截稿时间前未提交的稿件,主席团当 天不再接受。

4. 报道宗旨 主新闻中心旨在报道各会场会议, 并以新闻社的影响力推动会议进程。 根据新闻社立场的不同, 各新闻社可自行选取报道角度与重点,选取采访对象和会场进行报道。本次主新闻中心采取多新闻 社制度,这要求主新闻中心代表除具备新闻记者的基本素养外,更需要注意新闻社立场的异同。对 于记者素养的具体要求以及新闻社立场把握的指导将在主新闻中心背景指导文件中具体说明。

5. 着装要求 各新闻社着装要求与会议其他代表相同。在不影响各会场会议正常进行的前提下,可使用摄影 工具及电脑。

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北京大学全国中学生模拟联合国大会危机处理学术标准 一、危机的定义与特点
定义
在国际关系中, 危机 (Crisis) 是走向战争或和平的转折关头。 导致危机的冲突要是得不到解决, 就会升级为更严重的冲突甚至战争。
4

在北京大学全国中学生模拟联合国大会中,为模拟更加真实的国际社会,特别设立“危机”, 指不同于本委员会所讨论的议题,但又迫切需要得到该委员会处理的突发事件,其优先性高于当前 议题的讨论。

特点
国际危机的基本特点主要表现在以下几个方面: 第一, 不确定性。国际危机是处于战争与和平之间的一个特殊阶段,危机管理成功,则恢复和 平,不确定性消失;处理失败,不确定性增加,危机上升为局部甚至全面战争; 第二, 突发性。国际危机是出乎危机一方甚至双方预料的,其突发性给决策者造成强烈震撼。 如何适应国际危机的突发性,快速将国家决策体制转成危机决策机制,进行有效的信 息沟通,是国际危机成功管理的关键; 第三, 可管理性。国际危机的管理过程就是尽量避免自身出现无意识的行为(无意识的行为可 能引起危机的紧张局势加剧),同时准确判断对方的能力和意志,并准确将自己的判 断传递给对方, 减少对方出现鲁莽行为的可能性, 并竭力约束对方不发生鲁莽的行为; 第四, 可沟通性。在国际危机管理中,信息沟通的过程是危机双方互动的过程。通过有效的信 息沟通,可以清楚地了解对方的意图,并使对方不要误判自己的意图。有效的信息沟 通是国际危机可“管理”的必要条件。

【美】詹姆斯〃多尔蒂、小罗伯特 普法尔茨格拉夫:《争论中的国际关系理论》,阎学通、陈寒溪等译,世 界知识出版社 年版,第 页。
5

4

主要参考:郑伟:《国际危机管理与信息沟通》,中央编译出版社 2009 年版,第 18-19 页。

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二、 总则
本议事规则由二零一四年北京大学全国中学生模拟联合国大会组委会制定,适用于 二零一四年 北京大学全国中学生模拟联合国大会 所有出现危机的委员会。 本规则流程在其所适用的范围内具有约束力。 本规则流程最终解释权属于北京大学全国中学生模拟联合国大会组委会。

三、 人员及职责
组委会:学术总监分管和协调相关危机事务。 主席团: 涉及危机的委员会各设一名危机负责人,负责掌控本委员会危机处理情况、撰写危机 处理报告等;其余主席团成员配合危机负责人处理好相关事务。 代表:对危机做出及时有效的应对。涉及联动危机时需要与相关委员会的本国代表进行合作。 记者:报道危机相关内容。具体职责将在主新闻中心的背景文件中说明。

四、危机内容与流程
危机共分为两类,分别是委员会内部危机以及联动危机。 二零一四年北京大学全国中学生模拟联合国大会将对危机内容将有所创新,具体内容将在下一 轮更新中发布。

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观察员制度改革6
在 PKUNMUN 2014 中,组委会将对观察员制度进行改革。在以往大会中,观察员仅作为会议的 “旁观者”观摩会议,2014 年,我们希望通过如下改革,鼓励各位观察员更加深入地参与到会议之 中:

一、

会议前期准备:
观察员须选择自己最感兴趣的一个委员会,阅读背景文件并选择以下两项任务中的一项提

交: 1、 回答背景文件中任意两个主席团提出的问题(见批判性思考/ critical thinking 等部分) ; 2、 选择三个你预期将会在会议中扮演重要角色的国家,并分析这些国家可能的立场或主要诉 求。

二、

对话学术总监:
在 2014 年大会中,观察员可将所观察到的、值得注意的会场情况(包括但不限于议题讨论

情况、会议进程、代表/国家集团/主席团表现、观察员认为存在的问题等)反馈至学术总监, 并与学术总监就所反馈的内容进行讨论7。我们将安排 2-3 次对话学术总监的机会,具体时间将 根据会议日程安排决定,原则上为第二次及第五次分组会议结束后。

三、

观察员报告:
在日常的新闻发布会上,我们将在各委员会主席/学术总监总结前新增观察员报告环节:观

察员可单独或以小组形式对所观摩委员会的情况向领队教师、组委及主席团发表自己的感想及 建议。每个委员会的观察报告时长不超过三分钟。

第二、三项活动非强制性参加,有与学术总监交流意愿或希望在新闻发布会上发表报告的 观察员可提前至组委办公室报名。

6

大会观察员不是“观察国” ,不代表任何国家,不享有一般代表的任何权利,即不享有发言权、文件起草权、表决 权等 7 若希望就某一委员会情况与学术总监进行交流, 我们建议观察员持续旁听至少两个该委员会的分组会议, 以充分了 解并作出客观、连续的评价

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第二部分 会议文件
一、 立场文件 Position Paper
(一) 中文范例
委员会:世界卫生组织 议题:青少年艾滋病的预防 国家:德意志联邦共和国 代表: 艾滋病是人类面临的共同挑战。自 1981 年首次发现至今, 这一病魔已经吞噬了 2500 万人的生命。 由于不断变化的生活方 式,青少年(15-24 岁)已成为艾滋病传播的易感人群。青少年 艾滋病问题主要表现为以下几个方面。第一,近年来全球几乎 一半的新增艾滋病病例是 15-24 岁的青少年;第二,艾滋病患 者的羞耻感和人们对于艾滋病病人及病毒携带者的歧视十分严 重;第三,由艾滋病引申出来的其他疾病(如恐艾症)同样困 扰着全世界的青年人;第四,虽然各国欲进一步完善青少年艾 滋病预防体系,但由于国家之间的政治、经济和社会文化差异, 依然无法形成协力抗击艾滋病的统一战线。对于广大发展中国 家来说,社会动荡,经济落后,资源匮乏等问题影响了青少年 艾滋病防控工作的开展。 对此,国际社会采取了如下行动:第一,将与艾滋病病毒/ 艾滋病、疟疾和其他疾病斗争作为联合国千年发展目标中的第 六个总体目标;第二,设立联合国艾滋病规划署整合各个联合 国机构的资源共同在全球开展艾滋病防治工作;第三。联合国 儿童基金会致力于“携手儿童青少年,携手抗击艾滋病”行动; 第四,2001 年由世卫组织与广泛的利益相关方进行磋商,制定 了控制艾滋病毒/艾滋病的战略,作为联合国系统抗击流行病整 体行动的一部分。 德国重视艾滋病防治工作,并致力于加强青少年艾滋病的 预防。在医疗技术方面,德国注重在艾滋病防治方面的科研及 资金投入,近年来已有较成熟的药物遏制疗法,使患者的生活 状况得到极大改善;在教育方面,德国重视艾滋病预防知识的 普及和青少年性教育;在对外援助方面,德国向中非共同体国 家提供资金防治艾滋病。 德国在此提出以下建议: 1. 呼吁各国政府重视青少年艾滋病的预防,加强公共卫 生干预,在经济调控、技术支持和宣传教育方面承担 起责任; 2. 呼吁各国出台并完善相关法律,以保障艾滋病人及病 毒携带者的正当权利,规范艾滋病病人及病毒携带者 应尽义务; 3. 号召各国制定适于自己国家的具有可行性的防治艾滋 病规划,普及艾滋病知识,面向民众尤其是青少年进 行艾滋病及艾滋病预防教育; 4. 希望各国完善社会保障体系,确保父母因艾滋病致死 的儿童受教育的权利; Academic Standard Handbook PKUNMUN 2014
立场文件在格式上没有特殊要求, 开篇左上角标明委员会,议题和代 表国家即可。

第一部分表需运用自己的语言对议 题进行归纳概括。也可在其中表达 出本国代表基本立场态度。本文作 者开门见山,并将主要表现归纳成 四个方面。 (通过整体阅读背景文件 和综合已经查找资料获得)言简意 赅是判断一篇立场文件的重要标准 之一。

第二段代表简要回顾国际社会对议 题所述问题采取的措施和效果(本 文作者对于已取得成果涉及得较 少,基本局限于联合国所采取措施, 代表们在撰写立场文件时应兼顾措 施和成果两方面内容,但也可以就 实际情况进行调整) 。

第三段代表需着眼于本国在议题下 已采取行动和成果。一般按照时间 顺序或者是地域、领域分别进行表 述。

第四段为本国立场表述和希望采取 的措施。此为整个立场文件的核心 部分。

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Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2014 5. 德国将在青少年艾滋病预防方面继续给予发展中国家 帮助,并呼吁各发达国家以及有能力的发展中国家本 着人道主义精神在资金,技术等方面对发展中国家进 行适当援助;而发展中国家应积极借鉴国际社会的有 效经验,探索适合自己国情的艾滋病防治方式; 6. 世界卫生组织应统一艾滋病治疗标准,规范艾滋病用 药。国际社会要加强艾滋病领域的科研合作和攻关, 加强艾滋病疫苗和抗病毒药物研发,进一步优化治疗 方案。 德国希望与各国加强合作,联合抗击艾滋病,共同致力于青少 年艾滋病预防事业。 注:本立场文件作者为 2010PKUNMUN,世界卫生组织德国代 表方圆、孙涤,文章有删改,仅供参考。

对于立场文件的首要要求就是表达 出和国家实际情况相符的立场和有 可操作性、值得继续探讨的具体措 施,作为和同会场代表沟通交流的 第一个正式文件,是之后会议讨论 的基础。

(二) 英文范例
Committee: United Nations Security Council (UNSC) Topic: Situation in Timor Leste Country: Bosnia and Herzegovina Delegates: Liu Chenge, Zheng Qi The situation in Timor-Leste has been under the international spotlight for decades. As a young nation, Timor-Leste unquestionably faces many challenges, and still has a long way to go before achieving long-term peace, stability and development. Declaring its independence from Portugal, East Timor was incorporated by Indonesia in 1975. From then on, Timorese people had gone through an arduous journey until independence was formalized on May 20, 2002. Afterwards, UNMISET was established by UNSC, which was committed to providing assistance to Timor-Leste and dealing with government-related affairs. After UNMISET fulfilled its mission in 2005, Resolution 1599 was passed by the Security Council authorizing peace-building activities by establishing the UNOTIL. However, Timor-Leste has encountered intimidating difficulties since its independence, including military unrest, Massacre, and semi-paralyzed electoral system. Then unrest broke out, which has been lasted for several months. Soon, the Security Council, by its Resolution 1704 (2006) of 25 August 2006, established the UNMIT. Deeply concerned with the current situation in Timor-Leste, Bosnia 46 PKUNMUN 2014 Academic Standard Handbook
本 国 立 场 方面 可 以 整合 成 一个 段 落,也可以分条列出,以便阅读。 在写作过程中,需要注意语言的规 范化和严谨性,避免模棱两可、主 观化和过分的文学化。 回顾议题内容发展这一段落要尽量 做到简明扼要,选择具有重大影响 力的事件进行叙述。 英文立场文件写作格式、内容结构 与中文文件基本一致。

本国就议题在国内采取的相关政策 措施及其效果。可以在回顾过去成 果的内容中加入本国赞成以及签署 的相关国际协议,发起或参与的国 际行动与合作,并可适当对过去采 取的措施加以评价。

Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2014 and Herzegovina presents the following suggestions, First, Bosnia and Herzegovina stresses on United Nation Security Council?s “full commitment to the sovereignty, independence, territorial integrity and national unity of Timor-Leste and the promotion of long-term stability in the country” as the undoubted principle. Therefore, Bosnia and Herzegovina values reasonable and peaceful mediation rather than military maneuvers. Also, UN?s involving should be righteous, legitimate and beneficial. Currently, with respect to the interests of Timorese people, UN should be authorized to spread its presence and service in several aspects in Timor-Leste. Yet a final withdrawal of personnel should be also on the schedule, with full preparation. Second, Bosnia and Herzegovina calls for instructions and suggestions from international community to promote the voting form, due to current educational level and social status in Timor-Leste. The United Nations should continue to support the electoral process, including providing technical and logistical support as requested by the Government. Now that the Timorese Government has fully assumed its control over all policing operations, it is imperative to ensure the ability of PNTL to respond to potential security challenges in the electoral period and beyond, gradually reducing its dependence on UN peacekeeping troops. The rivalry between PNTL and FDTL roots from the immature political system in Timor-Leste which appoints different leaders to manage these two armed force. Therefore, a reform is needed to eradicate all problems brought by the enmity of internal military sects. Third, in order to support overall political and social transition process, sustainable development becomes an unquestionable linchpin of the country. In particular additional efforts are needed to promote rural development, infrastructure development and the role of the private sector, which will provide more employment opportunities for the young. Education keeps up its significant function as the main tool to carry out authentic democracy and mitigate internal conflicts. UN organizations could work out a feasible way with local ones and the Academic Standard Handbook PKUNMUN 2014 47
本文中,代表对于可能采取的国内 和国际措施描述较为精细,因此占 据大量篇幅。在实际写作过程中, 要注意字数的控制和语言的简练。

Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2014 government to popularize the unified official languages, with basic respect to minority cultures. Besides, Bosnia and Herzegovina benefitted from the cooperation with the OSCE (Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe). Therefore, we suggest Timor-Leste to further improve the relationships with ASEAN and other regional groups, concerning assistance in legislation and political building-up. In conclusion, Bosnia and Herzegovina is willing to play a positive role in Timor-Leste issues and is confident that Timorese stability and political harmony will advance in the future.
对于引用的文献、联合国文件进行 注释标注体现了一个代表的学术规 范意识和对于原作者的尊重。

[1] United Nations. Security Council, United Nations Security Council Resolution 1410 S-RES-1410 (2002). Print. [2] United Nations. Security Council, United Nations Security Council Resolution 1599-S-RES-1599(2005). Print. [3] “Defense Force dispute puts East Timor in crisis” Web. 25 Jul. 2008 <http://web.archive.org/web/20080725164631/ http://www.abc.net.au/nesw.inde> 注:本立场文件作者为 2012PKUNMUN UNSC 波黑代表郑齐、刘 晨歌,文章有删改,仅供参考。

?

写作指导:
一篇优秀的立场文件不仅可以让阅读的代表和主席了解国家的基本立场,对过去的措施和 议题的发展进行梳理,更能使代表在写作的过程中激发出正式会议中的思维火花。其中,本国 立场及对相关议题提出的建议、措施是立场文件的重要组成部分。希望代表们在仔细阅读“背 景指导集”的基础上,梳理议题脉络,查阅可靠的相关资料,对议题进行完整了解,从多种角 度提出相关建议和解决措施,力图真实、完整地反映模拟国家的立场。必要时可以举出实例、 提供数据或援引相关决议、规定讲话及声明。 在立场文件的写作过程中,应避免立场与所代表国家的不符甚至相悖、建议及措施过于空 泛、笼统(比如“加强国际合作” 、 “增加对教育方面投入” ,忽视了对国际合作的多种类型及进 行具体的选择和分析) 、概念模糊、表述不清(不阐明行为主体等) 、对所在委员会职责缺乏了 解等问题。 我们鼓励代表在立场文件中提出新颖、 可行的设想。 另外, 要特别提醒代表们注意, 对资料的引用需用脚注或尾注标明来源,严禁抄袭。 48 PKUNMUN 2014 Academic Standard Handbook

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二、 工作文件 Working Paper
1. 工作文件是一个或多个拥有共同意见的国家代表,即国家集团在会议中起草的一种重要文件。 当对某一特定问题产生了初步的解决方案,或认为有必要阐明本国或本国家集团的立场时,可 以起草工作文件: (1) (2) (3) 工作文件只需有起草国,无需附议国; 工作文件内容没有特定的格式要求 工作文件应措辞恰当,排版合理,详略得当,基于已经讨论过或正在讨论的分议题,在恰

当的时间提交并值得讨论。过分简略或繁杂、包含太多过去已经提到的条款的工作文件,很难 被通过。

2. 中文范例
工作文件 1.1 联合国气候变化框架公约成员方会议 面对关于《京都议定书》的分歧,如何努力抑制全球气候变暖 起草国:中国、印度 1. 要求有关国家以全人类的福祉为依归,承担起应负的责 任, 放弃与全世界对抗的立场, 改变目前短视错误的做法, 为全人类计,为子孙后代计,切实努力,克服困难,在促 成京都议定书的通过方面发挥积极作用。 要求国际社会在促使某些国家改变消极态度方面坚定立 场,坚持努力,发挥整体的作用。 建议考虑对某些不负责任的国家采取一致的行动, 以改变 目前议定书暗淡的前景, 以减少并最终杜绝此类事件的再 次发生。 这些行动的范围应该较为广泛, 并应在此过程中 强调联合国的作用。 决定所有议定书缔约方皆应: a) 无论是发展中国家还是发达国家, 都应承诺在现在的 基础上加大对环境保护的投入,包括发展环保产业、 增加对环境保护的研究经费、对民众进行环境教育 等。 b) 加强环境保护技术的研究、 转让和共享。 尤其是有利 于温室气体排放减少和降解的技术, 对这方面的技术 保护应当给以不同与一般的特殊对待。 提议由各国派代表设立专门的机构和专家顾问委员会, 以 专门讨论实施联合国气候变化框架公约及京都议定书的 具体措施。 鼓励发展中国家积极采取措施减少二氧化碳的排放, 在进 行工业生产,日常生活中尽量考虑到环境保护的因素。
第一行:文件类型及编号,编号由 主席团决定 第二行:委员会 第三行:议题 第四行:起草国(无数量要求,无 附议国)

2. 3.

尽管对工作文件的格式没有固定要 求,但是希望代表在书写工作文件 时能尽量“小题小做” ,更详细、具 体地阐述某一特定问题,以体现在 该问题讨论上各成员国的进展。

4.

每一条目应以动词开头,以表明具 体行动和措施。 “有关国家”一词既可以适当点明 行为主体,也可以避免过于主观、 缺乏实际依据的指控要求。

5.

6.

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2. 英文范例
Delegates may propose Working Papers for committee consideration. Working Papers are intended to aid the Committee in its discussion and formulation of Draft Resolutions and need not to be written in Draft Resolution format. Working papers are not official documents, but do require the signature of the Director to be approved and distributed. Amendments cannot be made to Working Papers. Once distributed, delegates will be given two minutes to read, after which the sponsors will have two minutes to introduce their working paper. WORKING PAPER 1.1 UN Conference on Trade and Development Generalized System of Preferences
第一行:标题大写,编号由主席决 定; 第二行:委员会名称; 第三行:议题全称; 第四行:起草国

Sponsors: Bolivia, Peru and Ecuador
Bolivia, Peru and Ecuador believe that a GSP should be set up so that Lesser-Developed Countries (LDCs) receive preferential treatment from Developed Countries (DCs). To that end we propose: 1. 2. 3. 4. Each DC reduces their tariffs to the lowest level possible. This level will be determined by the below created subcommittee. Bilateral trade agreements should be pursued for further reductions in tariffs. Trade preferences should be granted in the following areas: Agriculture, Manufactures, Semi-manufactures, Raw materials. Decisions on product coverage by preference giving nations must be made in consultation with the affected LDC. Annual re-evaluation of coverage shall take place with the LDC with disputed going to the below-created subcommittee. 5. A subcommittee of UNCTAD should be created with equal membership of developed and developing countries. This subcommittee would have the following powers: a) To mediate disputes between preference givers and receivers b) Make recommendations that all countries should follow c) Serve as a forum for airing grievances relating to the GSP d) Report regularly to the Secretary-General Membership should be as follows: a) Five permanent nations from the DCs b) Five permanent nations from the LDCs and LLDCs c) Ten members elected annually by UNCTAD 50 PKUNMUN 2014 Academic Standard Handbook
在会场上应尽量避免在工作文件 中大段出现已进行会议中完全没 有涉及或者代表国家在会议中没 有表达的立场、措施和建议,应避 免直接运用会议前直接草拟好的 文件呈交主席团。注意,工作文件 是对已进行和正在进行的会议进 程所得出的初步解决方案。 工作文件在整个会议中起到了总 结会议已取得成果以及引出会议 新发展方向的作用。因此,一篇优 秀的工作文件不仅是逻辑严谨, 表 意清楚的会议阶段性总结稿, 更应 作为推动会议进程的重要工具而 被发放全场。 同样, 对于工作文件中的措施的阐 述应尽量做到具体翔实, 切莫泛泛 而谈,难以深入。

Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2014

三、 决议草案 Draft Resolution
决议是由被投票通过的决议草案自动升级而成的,是针对一个议题的讨论结果,是联合国 正式的、具有法律效力、各国应当遵守的官方文件。尚未被通过,但按照决议格式书写的 正式文件就是决议草案: (1) 决议草案的起草国数量无固定要求,但起草国和附议国的总数必须达到百分之二十出 席数; (2) 一份决议草案的起草国无法起草或附议另一份决议草案 (3) 一份决议草案的附议国可以附议多份决议草案 1.

2. 中文范例
决议草案 1.1 联合国大会第一委员会——裁军与国际安全委员会 无核国家的核威胁 起草国:阿根廷、中国、法国、德国、印度、美国 附议国:巴西、匈牙利、日本、科威特、黎巴嫩、马其顿、
与立场文件和工作文件不同,决 议草案有着明确的格式要求,望 各位代表注意。 标题加粗,编号由主席决定 委员会名称加粗 议题名称,加粗 起草国和附议国要留出空白签 字处,国家名称加粗、斜体;起 草国顺序按照对决议草案贡献 大小排列,如贡献相同,则按照 字母顺序排列;在实际中,起草 国和附议国需要在本国家名称 下签字。 决议正文开头写明委员会全称, 逗号结束。 序言性条款: 动词开头,加下 划线,每一条逗号结尾。

纳米比亚、阿曼、巴拿马、波兰、罗马尼亚、南非、越南、 坦桑尼亚、津巴布韦
联合国大会, 深信核武器对人类和对文明的存续造成最大的威胁, 认为在全球实现核裁军之前,国际社会必须制定有效措施和安排, 以确保任何方面不使用或威胁使用核武器危害无核武器国家的安 全, 回顾裁军谈判会议提交大会第十五届特别会议, 又回顾载于 1980 年 12 月 3 日第 35/46 号决议附件内的《宣布 1980 年代为第二个裁军 十年宣言》第 12 段, 注意到裁军谈判会议及其保证部队无核武器国家使用或威胁使用核 武器的有效国际安排特设委员会为了就这项问题达成协议而进行的 深入谈判, 回顾其历年通过的有关决议, 特别是 1990 年 12 月 4 日第 45/54 号、 1993 年 12 月 16 日第 48/73 号、 1994 年 12 月 15 日第 49/73 号、 1998 年 12 月 4 日第 53/75 号和 2003 年 12 月 8 日第 58/35 号决议, 第一条重申需要早日就保证不对无核武器国家使用或威胁使用核武 器的有效国际安排达成协议; 第二条满意地注意到裁军谈判会议中原则上没有人反对缔结一项国 际公约以保证不对无核武器国家使用或威胁使用核武器的设想,尽 管也有人指出在研拟各方可以接受的共同办法方面存在着困难; 第三条呼吁所有国家,特别是核武器国家,就共同办法,特别是可

行动性条款:动词开头,斜体, 每一条以分号结束,最后一条以 句号结尾。 中文决议草案标号需逐条用数 字表明,如“第一条” ,如需多 级层次,第一层用汉字,如 “ (一) ”表明,第二层用汉字,

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Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2014 载入具有法律约束力的国际文书的共同方案,积极努力争取及早达 成协议; 第四条建议进一步加紧努力,寻求这种共同办法或共同方案,并建 议进一步探讨各种不同的备选方法,包括特别是在裁军谈判会议上 审议的那些办法,以克服各种困难; 第五条又建议裁军谈判会议继续积极加紧谈判,以求早日达成协议 并缔结关于保证不对无核武器国家使用或威胁使用核武器的有效国 际安排,同时考虑到对缔结一项国际公约的广泛支持和未达成这项 目标所提出的任何其他提案。

如“ (子) 、 (丑) 、 (寅) ”……并 保持一定缩进

3. 英文范例及指导
A motion to introduce a draft resolution will be in order when it receives the approval of the Director and is signed by 20 percent of the members in the committee. To be a signatory of a draft resolution does not necessarily mean fully supporting the resolution, but the sponsors of a draft resolution should be those who totally agree with what is written in the resolution. A sponsor may NOT be the sponsor or signatory of any other draft resolution. Something about a Resolution “A resolution is the most appropriate means applying political pressure on member states, expressing an opinion on an important issue, or recommending action to be taken by the United Nations. Most UN resolutions are not binding ?law?; the only body that may produce resolutions that are binding upon the member states of the United Nations is the Security Council.” -------- TEIMUN Guide to Resolution Writing

Sample
DRAFT RESOLUTION 1.1 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Post-Kyoto Policy Choices and Framework
标题大写,加粗;编号由主席决定 委员会名称,加粗 议题名称,加粗; 起草国与附议国,加粗、斜体,起草 国顺序按照对决议草案贡献大小排 列, 如贡献相同, 则按照字母顺序排 列;总数要达到与会国家总数的 20%;在实际中,起草国和附议国需 要在本国家名称下签字。 起草国和附议国签字处,留出空白 决议正文开头写明委员会全称, 逗号 结束。

Sponsors: Japan, Rep. of Korea, Poland, Mexico, Canada, US, Viet Nam Signatories:Germany, Kazakhstan, Russian Fed., Switzerland, Denmark, Netherlands, Italy, UK, France, Indonesia, Finland, Australia

The United Nations Framework on Climate Change, Acknowledging that climate change is unequivocal, and that delay in reducing emissions significantly constrains opportunities to achieve lower stabilization levels and increases the risk of more severe climate change impacts, fully respecting the contributions of the 52 PKUNMUN 2014

序言性条款: 动名词开头, 加下划线, 以逗号结尾。

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Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2014 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Reaffirming that economic and social development and poverty eradication are global priorities, Recognizingthat deep cuts in global emissions will be required to achieve the ultimate objectives of the Convention, emphasizing the urgency of addressing climate change, Reaffirming the principle of ensuring the environmental sustainability and targets set up by the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), Noting that one hundred and eighty-nine States and one regional economic integration organization have ratified the Convention, Resolving to urgently enhance implementation of the Convention in order to achieve its ultimate objectives in full accordance with its principles and commitments, Stressing the significance of the participation of all countries in the Post-Kyoto Framework, Appreciating the achievements made during past Conferences of the Parties, especially during the thirteenth Conference of the Parties, Acknowledging that main principles of the Kyoto Protocol should be reserved yet improved, PART I Improvements of the Kyoto Protocol Emission Trading (ET) 1. Reevaluates the limits of party?s commitment period reserve (CPR), which is the minimum domestic quantity that a Party must hold in its national efforts on reducing GHG emissions, while such reevaluations can be carried out by scientific organizations or facilities, provided IPCC as a good example; 2. Regulates the carbon market by setting carbon price range on a scientific basis, and fluctuation of prices within the range is acceptable; 3. Claims that reassessment of the carbon price should be done timely; Academic Standard Handbook PKUNMUN 2014
联合国决议的重点用词是序言性条 每一条行动性条款原则上只能有一 个动词。 行动性条款:动词第三人称单数开 头,斜体,每一条分号结尾;逐条用 阿拉伯数字表明, 如需多级层次, 第 一层用圆括号加小写字母,如(a), 第二层用圆括号加小写罗马数字, 如 (i),并保持一定缩进。

Within the preamble of a DR, one will not find clauses proposing action or making substantive statements. The perambulatory clauses explain the purpose of the policy paper and state the main reasons for the suggestions to follow. This is where previous UN resolutions are referred to and relevant precedents of international law are cited. Preambulatory clauses should specifically refer to factual situations or incidents regarding the topic at hand. The preamble may also include altruistic appeals to the common sense or humanitarian instincts of member states.

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Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2014 Joint Implementation (JI) 4. Recommends all parties to take Track two procedures for their higher value, which requires that each project under JI be reviewed by an accredited independent entity to determine whether the project meets the requirements established under Article 6 of Kyoto Protocol; Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) 5. Addresses the importance of accuracy of emission data collection, which is achieved through all possible means of observation programs, such as an integrated observation network, employing satellites and oceanic and land systems; 6. Facilitates the ratification procedures of CDM, urging CDM Executive Board to essentially optimize efficiency of approval of projects; 7. Stresses the critical role of private sectors in CDM, with incentives from governments and organizations as follows: (a) Appealing to energy-efficiency labeling around the globe, which serves to help advertise those private sectors that have adopted low-emission manufacture and transportation methods and have attained a high level of energy efficiency; (b) Further encouraging financial assistance subsidized to companies and factories with respect to their efforts in combating climate change, in accordance with the diverse situations of countries; (c) Facilitating government loan to those private sectors lacking necessary financial support which are willing to take direct measures in response to the climate change issue; (d) Calling for the enhancement of protection systems about the intellectual property rights of private sectors; (e) Decidinglocal governments as well as UNFCCCprovide guidance and help to facilitate the implementation of CDM projects; 8. Encourages countries to implement CDM through a wide range of methods, including technology innovation and diffusion, Research and Development programs (R&D), and etc: (a) Fully realizes the great need of technology transfer of many developing countries depending on the capacities of different 54 PKUNMUN 2014 Academic Standard Handbook
The main part of a resolution is a logical progression of sequentially numbered operative clauses. Each operative clause calls for a specific action by member states or by any UN bodies or related agencies.
款和行动性条款的谓语动词, 这些谓 语动词从某种程度上说都比较简单, 并形成了一个常用的“词库”, 代表们 应学会应用。

Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2014 countries; (b) Calls for the improvement of present technology transfer platform with clarification of its function; (c) Appeals to hold elections on a regular basis on the platform supervisors who are responsible for the transparency of information exchange; (d) Emphasizes that the technology transfer process itself should be environmentally-friendly; (e) Encourages the scholarly communication in the form of regular meetings and forums on technology transfer among scientists on issues relevant to technology transfer, welcoming all countries to be involved; (f) Emphasizes the need to assess the capacity of countries on providing technology and write assessment report and moderated suggestions, including its necessity; (g) Suggests that countries receiving technology transfer submit reports on enactment and influence of the projects on a regular basis under supervision; (h) Encourages private sectors, especially international corporations, to contribute to technology transfer by providing potential beneficial policies; (i) Encourages further discussion of arranging technology transfer projects in the efficiency order; Supervision system 1. Emphasizes the diversity of countries taking part in the supervision process, in which developed countries and developing countries have the same status; 2. Emphasizes the importance of transparency actions by governments in maintaining the normal functioning of the supervision system with the assistance of public media; 3. Sets on the agendathe establishment of a supervision mechanism based on the experience of existing mechanisms, which will include the constitution and specified duties of supervisors under the principle of simplicity and effectiveness; 4. Recalls the consensus in Montreal Treaty regarding "non-compliance procedures", including Ancillary (helping) measures and Punishment measures, proclaiming that ancillary Academic Standard Handbook PKUNMUN 2014 55

Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2014 measures are superior; Assessment System 1. 2. Affirms the importance of links between supervision and assessment departments; Insists that the responsibilities of different countries vary, and that responsibilities can't be clear-cut, and that specific measures are necessary while dealing with specific situations with respect to relative fairness, concerning the diversity of population and economic background; 3. 4. Emphasizes that rights of survival and development are of fundamental concern in the process of assessment; Urges wider involvement of the existing assessment agencies, with closer connection between the assessment teams and relevant councils locally and systematically with respect to self-evaluation; 5. Reiterates the necessity of clarifying various aspects and functions of the assessment process, such as responsibility distribution, background for technology transfer, etc.; 6. Proclaims that regular adjustment of the assessment be taken place on a regular basis; Adaptation Fund 1. Fullyassessesthe Adaptation Fund provided to the countries in need on a regular basis, evaluating the basic needs of each nation under UNFCCC/IPCC; 2. Encourages all nations which have capacities all field; 3. Calls private sectorswithcapacityto provide investment related to combating climate change home and abroad; PART II New mechanisms to be integrated into the Framework Emission Reduction Plan 1. Appreciates the sincerity of all parties endeavoring to reduce GHG emissions, especially those that have successfully fulfilled their emission targets; 2. Strongly recommends the participation of all countries in the 56 PKUNMUN 2014 Academic Standard Handbook to provide fund accordingly to assist other nations in climate change combating in

Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2014 process of tackling the climate change, regardless of their economic basis; 3. Emphasizes that no mandatory limitation should be imposedtothereduction plan of developing countries in the foreseeable future unless extreme situations occur; 4. Urges relevant organizations such as IPCC to carry out the scientific and specific plan of GHG emissions reduction of Annex-I parties, with detailed numbers expected; 5. Urges Annex-I parties to assume their responsibilities with the greatest possible efforts; Education and public awareness: 1. Calls for every country to encourage education institutions to put climate issue into the mandatory curriculums, through a series of initiatives for primary and lower secondary education, youth education programmes and relevant tertiary education; 2. Suggests that the initiatives be based on three key perspectives which will be dealt with differently depending on development of educational programmes, the proficiency of students and teaching context, with consideration of: (a) What we know about the climate change and its impacts: to form a general understanding on climate change issues among the public; (b) What can be done to limit climate change: to call the attention to care about the environment by using energy efficient methods; (b) What can we expect as futuring aspects: to encourage the research of future sustainable, green technologies and practices to tackle the climate change, socio-economic perspective-issues connected to climate change which includes: (i) influence on economic growth; (ii) security aspects of climate and energy policy; 3. Suggests the project includes: (a) A national dissemination and networking project; (b) Cooperation between the projects "Climate Education" and "Education for Sustainable Development";

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Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2014 (c) Support for a number of educational projects, as they become ready for dissemination; 4. Requests thatthe above targets be achieved by founding an office under UNESCO, for closer cooperation between the United Nations and public sectors and among UN bodies regarding the climate change issue; Cooperation with United Nations Agencies 1. Draws attention to the cooperation between environmental organization and other committees as UNEP, UNDP, WB, etc; 2. Calls for cooperation with UNESCO: (a) Designates the function and influence of technological statistic group affiliated to UNESCO: (ⅰ) Report the detailed working situation timely; (ⅱ) Compose the evaluation paper on each project; (iii)Launch a data bank to assess the financial budget and investment direction; (ⅲ)Found the policy of risk analysis; (b) Assists developing countries with related education; Prevention of improper land use 1. Calls for mitigation of deforestation around the globe by: (a) Initiating interactions between environmental organizations and countries like Indonesia, Peru, and Brazil which are suffering from the great threat posed by deforestation, tackling international illegal logging trades with stricter regulations and expertise involvement; (b) Encouraging all countries to work out a shared voluntary “code of conduct” to halt the import and marketing of illegally harvested wood and wood products, such as the Joint Statement and the Action Plan for Cooperation in Combating Illegal Logging between Japan and Indonesia; (c) Promoting a comprehensive approach for the assistance of the timber producing countries, supporting activities of the International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO); (d) Stressing the entirety of forest use instead of focusing on the

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Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2014 timber yields, with the guidance of the countries who have successfully benefited from this mode; (e) Encouraging the assistance for small-scale private forests with adaptation and utilization measures by local and national governments; (f) Addressing the needs of local and indigenous communities suffering from deforestation; 2. Mitigates impacts of desertification caused by warming

temperature through in the ways that: (a) Deeply concerns that many Middle East countries, African countries, Asian Countries and Latin American countries have suffered from the desertification, since it has affected the quality of people?s life, as well as the prosperity of their economies; (b) Realizes that clear-cutting--the practice of cutting large tracts of forest to the ground—is alleged to be the most cost-efficient for the companies doing the harvesting; but it is often badly degrades the land and so imposes devastating long-term costs; (c) Emphasizes that new forestry techniques must also be developed to improve timber-harvesting methods. In contract, selective tree harvesting techniques could improve harvesting practices in many areas of the world; (d) Urges the importance of tree planting movement. The key point is each planner receives the small compensation for seedling planted only after it has nurtured and protected to have an excellent chance of surviving on its own; 3. Proposes proper use of agrarian lands and agriculture technologies by: (a) Encouraging the government-led researches on new farming methods with less impact on the climate issue; (b) Welcoming technology transfer and sharing on the new farming methods, methods; (c) Ensuring the basic food provision with assistance from the World Food Program (WFP). Academic Standard Handbook PKUNMUN 2014 59 fully encouraging countries with advanced agricultural development experience to diffuse such kind of

Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2014

Lists of verbs used in Preamble Clauses
Affirming Alarmed by Approving Aware of Believing Bearing in mind Confident Contemplating Convinced Declaring Deeply concerned Deeply convinced Deeply conscious Deeply disturbed Deeply regretting Desiring Emphasizing Expecting Expressing its satisfaction Fulfilling Fully alarmed Fully aware Fully believing Further deploring Further recalling Guided by Having adopted Having considered Having considered Having devoted attention Having examined Having heard Having received Having studied Keeping in mind Noting with regret Noting with satisfaction Noting with deep concern Noting further Noting with approval Observing Realizing Recalling Recognizing Referring Seeking Taking into account Welcoming

Lists of verbs used in Operative Clauses
Accepts Affirms Approves Authorizes Calls Calls upon Condemns Confirms Considers Declares accordingly Deplores Designate Draws attention Emphasizes Encourages Endorses Expresses its hope Further invites Further proclaims Further recommends Further reminds Further requests Further resolves Has resolved Notes Proclaims Reaffirms Recommends Regrets Reminds Requests Resolves Solemnly affirms Supports Takes note of Urge

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四、 指令草案 Draft Directive
指令草案是指针对危机的解决方案。

英文范例
Draft Directive 4.1 Executive Council of Organization of Prohibition of Chemical Weapons Sponsors: United Kingdom, The United States of America
起草国和附议国加粗, 编号加粗,由主席规定 顺序。 委员会名称加粗

Signatories: Japan, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Italy The OPCW, 1. Requests the government of India and Pakistan to fully cooperate with the OPCW in the following: a. Find out the modus operandi of the terrorist groups; such as JeM in acquiring chemical materials; b. Allow full-fledged inspections of the region of Kashmir, where chemical materials are suspected to have been tested. Urges cooperation among security and intelligence related bodies to prevent terrorist attacks that involve chemical agents.

留签字空白处

每一项内容以动词第三 人称单数起始,以句号 结尾。编号规则同工作 文件和决议草案。 注意,危机的指令草案 是处理一项特定突发事 件的解决方案,不需要 加入与该突发事件无关 的其他内容。危机文件 书写需要注意时效性和 可操作性,应为解决问 题的最迅速和有效的方 法。

2.

五、 修正案
1.

Amendment

修正案是指由一位或多位代表起草的, 按照联合国决议文件格式对当前会议的某 份决议草案提出修正意见,包括友好修正案和非友好修正案: (1) 友好修正案是指获得原决议草案所有起草国同意并附议的修正案(需 在该份友好修正案的附议国处签字)将被直接添加到其所修正的决议 草案中; (2) 非友好修正案是指未获元决议草案所有起草过同意并附议,且起草国 与附议国数量之和达到百分之二十出席数的修正案,该份修正案将会 在对决议草案的投票表决前被逐条投票决定是否加入其所修正的决议 草案; (3) 对非友好修正案的投票为实质性投票; (4) 无法对修正案提出修正案; PKUNMUN 2014 61

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Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2014 (5) 一国代表可起草或附议多分修正案,但决议草案的起草国不能对自己 的决议草案提出修正案,只能附议非起草国撰写的修正案。 (6) 可对指令草案提出修正案

中文范例
联合国大会第一委员会——裁军与国际安全委员会 无核国家的核威胁 起草国:中国 附议国:德国,巴基斯坦,孟加拉国 1. 删除行动性条款第三项中语句: “特别是核武器国家” ; 2. 加入行动性条款: “倡议所有核武器国家,以全球利益为先, 积极寻求可行性途径,力求与无核国家达成共识。 ”
标题、委员会名称、议题名称加 粗

起草国和附议国名称加粗、斜体 并留出签字空白处。

各条内容以动词开头并斜体表 示。

英文范例
Amendment 1.1.1 Security Council Reactivating the Peace Talks Process Concerning Palestinian and Israeli Situation
起草国和附议国名称加 标题、委员会名称、议题 名称加粗

Sponsors: India, Thailand Signatories: Togo, Fiji, Antigua and Barbuda, Kuwait, Argentina, Indonesia, Poland, Uganda, Nigeria
1. 2. 3. Change the word “immediately” to “gradually” in operative clauses No.6. Delete the operative clause No.7 Add as the final operative clause: Decides to remain seized of the matter.

粗、斜体并留出签字空白 处。

各条内容以动词开头并斜 体表示。

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第三部分
第一节 准备阶段

模拟联合国会议学术准备指南

一、背景指导文件阅读指导
1. 背景指导文件 每份背景指导文件都包括以下几个方面: ?委员会简介 Description of the Committee 介绍委员会的历史,使命,和运作方式 Explanation of the committee’s history, mandate and operation ?议题介绍 Introduction to the Topic 委员会讨论议题的简要介绍 A brief introduction of the topic ?背景 Background 关于议题各个方面的详尽介绍,包括其历史,起因,现状,国际社会(组织或地区)采取 过的行动及可能的解决方案 A detailed introduction of the topic, including its history, causes, current situation, actions taken by international society(or a certain district or an organization) and possible solutions ?案例 Cases 与议题各方面相关的案例,囊括历史,现状及可供参考的解决方案等 Cases related to all aspects of the topic, including its history, current situation and solutions to relate to, etc. ?值得思考的问题 Questions to consider 提出在会议中希望代表讨论的重点问题,以及阅读背景指导文件时代表应该重点注意思考 的部分 Questions raised to bring up major problems to discuss during the meeting. The delegates should also pay more attention to the questions while reading a Background Guide 在背景指导文件中,该部分也可能被称为批判性思考 Also known as Critical thinking in a Background Guide ?参考文献 References 背景指导文件中引用的参考文献 Sources the Background Guide referred to

2. 背景指导文件目录范例 下面给出的 2012 年北京大学全国中学生模拟联合国大会(PKUNMUN 2012)国际劳工 组织(ILO)背景文件的目录。

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目录
欢迎辞 国际劳工组织介绍 议题介绍
强迫劳动的内涵与现状 1. 强迫劳动的定义 2. 强迫劳动的常见形式 3. 强迫劳动的现状 造成强迫劳动现象的原因 1. 殖民剥削与奴隶贸易 2. 战争 3. 强权政治 4. 非法移民和人口贩卖 5. 发展中国家综合症 6. 其他原因 全面消除强迫劳动的行动 1. 国际劳工组织 2. 各国政府 3. 雇主 【案例分析】 4. 劳工的行动 【案例分析二】

推荐参考资料
重要文件 数据库及网络资源

引用文献

基于背景指导文件的学术准备 背景指导文件为代表提供了关于委员会和议题最基本的信息, 基于背景指导文件, 代表 可以根据自己的国家立场和关注重点进行进一步的研究。 背景指导文件的立场是中立的,通常,主席团书写的基调是客观,描述性的。限于立场和篇 幅, 主席团在背景指导文件中无法囊括所有的信息。 这就需要代表在理解背景指导文件的基 础上继续进行学术准备。 3. 64 PKUNMUN 2014 Academic Standard Handbook

Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2014 委员会简介是背景指导文件不可或缺的一部分, 联合国各机构及其他国际组织的职能有 所不同。职能的区别对于代表是很重要的,比如说,安理会的代表能够启动制裁,军事打击 等手段, 环境署的代表则不能, 这些区别能够在会前帮助代表了解自己在会议中能够提出的 解决方案的范围。 同样,委员会的运作方式对于一些特殊委员会也很重要,以 PKUNMUN 2014 的欧洲经 社委员会(EESC)为例,这一委员会在欧盟框架下采取松散的三代表结构,这对于代表把握 立场和会议进程是十分重要的。 背景指导文件的主体部分为代表提供着手了解委员会和议题的信息和范围。 代表可根据 文件中提供的信息进行进一步的资料检索, 立场确定, 以及通过文件中所给出的案例对整个 问题解决过程中,委员会的职责,权限和解决方式有更为直观和清晰的了解。 尤其值得注意的是问题部分, 如果代表能够站在代表国家的立场上完整的回答出主席团 在背景指导文件中提出的问题,那么他的会前准备至少成功了一半。 背景指导文件中的参考文献部分则是进一步资料检索的开始,参考文献中列出的网站, 书籍及研究者都是议题相关学科的重要资源。关于资料检索的具体问题,将在第二部分,资 料检索中具体指导。

4.

资料检索指导

1、撰写目的 在模拟联合国会议的准备过程中, 学术资源检索是极为重要的一个环节, 同时也是代表 国家立场逐渐形成的过程。代表在会场的表现,一部分取决于现场发挥能力,另有很大程度 上取决于会前学术“功课”的准备情况。代表在会前所要考察的,是所代表国家在联合国体 系内,或者是其他场合已经承认的某些事实、原则,而这些都反映在协定、条约或者国内的 法令中, 这需要代表在会前进行完备的学术资源检索。 在没有进行完整的研究准备下进行的 讨论就是完全脱离实际的行为,不符合北大模联对于会议学术性和严谨性的定位。 在检索资料的过程中, 也应注意资料本身的可信度和权威性, 并不是通过任何检索渠道 获得的材料都值得参会代表采用。 只有资料来源和资料本身可信, 代表的立场和阐述才因基 于事实而更有说服力。 这也是为什么我们致力于会议的学术化和规范化, 撰写有关学术检索 来源和方式的内容。 2、学术检索内容及方式

内容
委员会 议题内容 代表国家 利益攸关国 其他关键文 件、案例

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方式 书籍影像
1)、联合国资源 探索联合国系统, 充分了解所联合国大会以及各委员会的历史议题和决议, 是准备会议 的基本步骤。这也需要各位代表在会前充分利用联合国的电子资源,而不是简单地进行“百 度”或者“维基” 。 ?联合国电子资源 联合国网站:http://www.un.org 联合国文件中心:http://www.un.org/zh/documents/ 联合国新闻中心:http://www.un.org/News/ 联合国正式文件系统:http://documents.un.org/ 联合国书目信息系统 (UNBISnet):http://unbisnet.un.org/ 联合国信息查询系统(UN-I-QUE)):http://libunique.un.org/lib/unique.nsf 联合国新闻稿资料库:http://www.un.org/en/unpress/index.asp (1995 年 10 月以来印发的 新闻稿全文) 联合国成员国代表团活动记录 http://www.un.org/depts/dhl/unms/ 联合国条约汇编高级搜索:http://treaties.un.org/Pages/AdvanceSearch.aspx?tab=UNTS

网络资源

其他

(1)联合国文件中心(UN Document Centre)
联合国文件中心集合了所有文件搜索的链接, 以及主要委员会文件的分类链接, 界面比较友 好。从这个界面可以链接到主要的联合国文件系统,同时还有联合国主要委员会页面:

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Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2014 以联合国安理会的英文界面为例:

Resolutions: 决议,也就是会议的成果,会议最重要的内容; Mission Reports: 特派团报告,事件相关区域情况的直接反映; SG’s Reports: 秘书长报告,秘书长关于该委员会处理中的事项及其审议达到的阶段的简要 说明,比较宏观但是能够指出目前问题的关键; Meeting Records:会议记录,其内容包括会议记录,会议决议,主席的声明和新闻稿。

(2)联合国新闻中心(UN News Centre)
联合国的国际时事、行动进展和会议进程都会发表官方的声明、新闻稿等文件。这些文 件可以在联合国新闻中心系统的数据库中检索到。

注意:搜索格式可以参考search tips, 联合国很多的信息都可以通过Email发到你的邮箱,比如:

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(3)联合国三大检索系统
开始检索之前: ??联合国文件原文主要是英文,因此建议大家在检索的时候使用英式英文进行,中文委员 会再在检索结果中选择中文文件; ??任何数据库都提供专业主题词的叙词表,对于不确定的专业名词等可以进行检测。联合 国书目信息系统叙词表:http://lib-thesaurus.un.org/LIB/DHLUNBISThesaurus.nsf;

例1:人权(human rights)相关的专业表述。 ??明确自己的检索词,以及检索字段(标题,主题词,还是标签)。变换检索策略达到最 佳检索效果。

【UNBISNET 联合国书目信息系统】

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UNBISNET是达格· 哈马舍尔德图书馆提供的网上书目系统,是一个比较重要和好用的文 件检索系统,提供以下三类文件的检索: Bibliographic Records:联合国书目信息系统网络版的检索范围主要始于1979年。也包括自 1946年以来,大会、经社理事会和安理会所通过的决议的全文; Voting Records: 包括大会第一届起 (1946年-) 和安全理事会第一年起 (1946年-) 以不表决、 唱名表决和记录表决等方式通过的所有决议的表决记录。提供决议全文的链接; Index to Speeches: 会议发言记录。提供发言全文的链接。 提供的检索方式: ?Browse List Search 浏览搜索:便于了解单个问题按照时间排序的文件信息;

例2对“forced labor”进行title字段的精确检索

Keyword Search 关键词搜索:对于某一问题所有相关的问题。

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提供多种 字段检索 的关键字 检索。

字段逻辑关系 选择

对于以上 的检索条 件进一步 进行搜索 限制, 比如 文件种类, 语言, 发布 时间等。

例:对“forced labour”进行关键词检索

文件信息,以及相关 主题词。

可以选择若干文件,点击右下角“Add to my list”,将文件打包通过邮件发送。 70 PKUNMUN 2014 Academic Standard Handbook

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【UNODS 联合国正式文件系统】
正式文件系统中收录联合国会议文件全文(包括决议和决定) ,其中含1993年以来印发 的文件。1946年以后大会、安全理事会、经济及社会理事会和托管理事会所通过的决议, 在此数据库中可采用下列方式和不同方式的组合进行搜索:按文号,按印发日期,按标题, 用语,按主题,按工号。总的来说搜索联合国决议和文件的时候可以使用 ODS,不支持对 新闻稿一类的文件的搜索。

【UN-I-QUE 联合国资料文号数据库】
这是一个全英文的检索数据库, 提供对1946年后联合国文件材料文号和文件标题的检索。 总的来说这个数据库功能比较单一也比较局限, 对于搜索的要求也比较高。 为了实现有效的 检索也要阅读一下Search Tips。

三大检索总结: 联合国的这三个检索系统各有特色, 要根据其特点进行使用。 注意在检索遇到困难时调整检 索策略或者关键词的使用, 有时使用一些通配符可以起到比较好的效果。 但是不同的检索平 台认可的通配符可能有差异,因此更不要拘泥于某个固定的检索思维。 2). 其它资源 声明:以下网站和书籍只是我们的一部分建议,并不代表所有权威资料的来源,也不是必 须使用的。我们鼓励代表们通过多种渠道收集与委员会、国家以及议题相关的资料,拓宽 自己的知识面和思路,同时增进自己对于联合国的理解。

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Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2014 (1)国家情况检索资源:

Country Information:
1. permanent mission: http://www.un.int/index‐en/webs.html; 2. CIA Factbook: http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook; 3. The UN’s National Government Information Page: www.un.org/esa/national.htm 4. UN CyberschoolBus Country At A Glance: www.cyberschoolbus.un.org/information.index.asp 5. BBC News Country Profiles: news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/country profiles/default.stm 6. Country Watch: www.countrywatch.com 7. Country Reports: www.countryreports.org 8. The Economist Country Briefings: www.economist.com/countries 9. Governments on the World Wide Web: www.gksoft.com/govt/en 10. Infoplease Country Information: www.infoplease.com/countries.html 11. One World‐Nations Online: www.nationsonline.org/oneworld 12. Political Resources: www.politicalresources.net/index2.htm (2)议题调查电子资源:

Topic Research:
1. UN Peace and Security Page: www.un.org/peace; 2. UN Human Rights Page: www.un.org/rights; 3. UN Economic and Social Development Page: www.un.org/esa; 4. UN Humanitarian Affairs Page: www.un.org/ha; 5. UN International Law Page: www.un.org/law. 6. Databases: ? Pro Quest (全文数据库平台) ? PQDT (Pro Quest Dissertations & Theses) ? Web of Science, SCI (科学引文) ,SSCI (社会科学引文) , AHI (艺术和人文引文) , 参考数据库平台 ? OCLC (参考数据库平台) ? EBSCO (全文数据库平台) ? Google Scholar 注:检索平台是数据库的集合,如OCLC 包括 FirstSearch参考数据库、papers first会议论 文数据库等,Pro Quest包括 ABI商业信息数据库等。使用时可选择特定数据库检索,也可 在平台对所有数据库库同时进行检索。但由于绝大部分优质数据库需购买才可使用,可能 大部分代表都无法使用该方式进行检索,故在此不做过多阐述。Google Scholar(谷歌学术 搜索) 是一个免费的网络学术检索工具,涵盖了许多重要的学术出版商和数据库。但是对于 普通用户而言,Google Scholar能做到的大部分是检索,仅能获取一部分文献的全文资料。 (3)纸质资料检索 一般图书: 一般图书包含许多比较成型的、广泛被接受的学术观点,以及一些从学科内基本原理出发, 72 PKUNMUN 2014 Academic Standard Handbook

Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2014 对社会现象的阐释等 工具书: 通常只有图书馆中会有完备的书目, 如 《大英百科全书》 《辞海》 《当代西方政治学词典》 等。 目前有很多工具书都已经被电子化,网上可以查询。此外,以维基百科为代表的具有一定学 术严谨度的免费互联网百科的出现,方便了事实型数据的查找。当然,对于此类网络百科提 供的内容,代表应对其真实性加以甄别。 政府、非政府间组织(NGO)出版物: 机构制作的法令、议案、公报等,具有一定权威性。另还有一些政府对某些领域的发展规划 等 。 此 类 资 源 电 子 版 更 易 获 得 , 如 : Norway ? s Strategy for SustainableDevelopment : http://www.regjeringen.no/upload/FIN/rapporter/R-0617E.pdf 【相关参考书目】 声明:以下书目是北大模联的前辈通过多年国际关系学习经验积累的书单,其中的书籍能 帮助大家加深对于联合国历史和制度的了解,以及对于国际关系的了解。阅读这些书籍并 不是必须的会议准备,但是对于代表学术水平的提高有一定的帮助,可以借鉴与参考。 梁西《国际组织法》(第四版),武汉大学出版社,1998年 王杰《联合国遭逢挑战》,中央编译出版社,1995年一月 王杰《大国手中的权杖:联合国形势否决权纪事》,当代世界出版社,1998年 李铁成《联合国历程》,语言出版社,1996年 李铁成《世界之交的联合国》,人民出版社,2002年 张树德《中国重返联合国纪事》,黑龙江人民出版社,1999 徐光健《联合国宪章诠释》,山西教育出版社,1999 王铁崖《联合国基本文件集》,中国政法大学出版社,1991 袁士槟,钱文荣主编,《联合国机制与改革》,北京语言学院出版社,1995 李铁城,《联合国五十年》,中国书籍出版社,1995 郭隆隆著《联合国新论》,上海教育出版社,1995 《联合国及其专门机构概述》,2002 王杏芳主编《联合国重大决策》,当代世界出版社2001

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第二节

会议阶段

在进行了充分的学术准备后,代表们就要面对紧张的会期了。在会议阶段,代表们的各 类会议技巧将在学术准备的支撑下推动整场会议。 a) 角色扮演 角色扮演是所有技巧中的重中之重。 在模拟联合国会议中, 从开始的点名到最 后的表决,无时无刻不渗透着角色扮演。 要真正做好角色扮演并非易事。 最重要的是, 代表们应该广泛而深入地了解所代表 国的历史、文化和政策、外交方针。唯有在真正理解国家政策的产生原因和历史背 景的基础上,代表们方能将该国立场阐述得清晰而具有说服力。例如,当一个国家 面临未解决的边界问题, 种族冲突或国际争端时, 其政策中常常会含有许多对自身 安全的关切。 代表们应当牢记:在角色扮演中不应该体现个人观点。从某种意义上来说,在 模拟联合国的会场上, 一名令人信服的国家代表就是一位出色的演员, 他应该很好 的体现出代表国的意志,使别人确信,他对此是完全赞同的。代表们必须注意的一 点是, 针对同一个问题有许多不同的观点, 认同与否与观点是否有价值是不划等号 的。 b) 游说与谈判 游说与谈判的技巧在人们的工作和生活中发挥着重要的作用, 但学习并掌握它 们并不是一件容易的事。 谈判并不仅仅意味着说服他人接受自己的观点, 还包括听 取他人的意见, 进行思考和反复的协商, 找到自己的落脚点, 从而得到想要的结果。 在模拟联合国中,谈判从委员会成员聚集一堂的那一刻,也许更早就开始了,直到 最后通过决议才能宣告结束。 游说与谈判的重点 ?熟知代表国的政策与目标 在谈判中, 如果作为外交官的代表都不清楚自己的国家期望达成的目标是什么, 又如何能说服别的代表来支持你的国家呢?因此, 全面的了解自己的国家是十分重 要的。 在会议的准备阶段列出的本国基本政策和在会议上希望达成的目标在这时就 能够帮助代表更好的完成游说和谈判的工作。 同时, 代表还应该了解哪些国家和本 国属于同一集团,哪些国家与本国有着根本冲突,与哪些国家则有着求同存异,进 一步合作的可能。 ?进行合理的妥协 熟悉代表国的政策底线是成功谈判的基础。 最理想的情况是用最少的付出换来 最令人满意的结果。 然而在实际情况下, 代表往往需要做出一定程度的让步来达成 目的。 在参加会议之前, 代表应该思考在哪些领域可以调整自己的政策进行妥协。 但 必须明确的是,这些妥协不可对本国造成伤害,构成威胁,更不可随意更改确定的 立场。在会议进程中,如果某些国家支持的提议有害本国利益,代表必须提出,积 极寻找解决方案。在谈判的过程中,代表应该时刻牢记,既要尊重他人,又要坚守 74 PKUNMUN 2014 Academic Standard Handbook

Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2014 原则。 妥协的时机把握也是值得思考的一点。 如果太早就提出了妥协, 将会给其他代 表留下无需与这位代表认真商讨的印象, 从而在往后的讨论中忽略与你交流的重要 性。因此即使最终妥协,也应该让其他代表知晓,你是出于集团利益的考虑,为了 让这个措施能够争取到更广泛的支持而做出妥协的。 关于谈判的技巧 ?听取他人意见 许多代表认为, 听取他人的意见是一种相对被动的态度和做法。 在会议进程中, 往往出现意向条代替磋商的现象,这是一种不明智的做法。积极的了解你的盟友, 你的游说对象,能够让你掌握许多有用的信息,找到说服他人的方法和关键。不要 一味的急于表现,在协商中倾听他人的想法,往往能得到更令人满意的协商结果。 ?寻求双赢 成功的谈判能够让双方都成为赢家。 因此代表应该学会营造合作的气氛, 这更 有利于一个集团的长久发展。得到尊重和欣赏会让每一位代表更努力参与会议。 ?询问而非命令 在谈判过程中, 你期望从对方那里得到你所想要的信息, 比如他对你的支持态 度。 一个合作的气氛比起灌输的气氛更能够达到预期的效果。 与其不厌其烦的重复 本国的立场和态度, 不如认真听取对方的想法, 在能够合作的部分的基础上扩大共 识,商讨合作事宜。这样会让谈判的双方都感到最后的共识是符合自己需求的,实 现了双赢的目的。 ?了解谈判对象 知彼知己,方能百战不殆。对于本国立场熟练掌握的代表,也应该对对方的立 场,动机和代表的集团利益了如指掌。这位代表是否能够果断的做出决定,是否会 坚定的站在一个立场不再更改,这都是需要代表注意的特征。 ?解决方法多样 在谈判中要学会灵活应对,随机应变,其中很重要的一点是要明确,对于某个 问题的解决,并非只有一条正确的途径。很多事情都是可以商榷的,代表的做法也 并非是唯一正确的。谈判过程中,当一个新的想法被提出是,要积极思考它是否与 你代表的国家政策目标一致, 去寻找别人想法中的可行之处, 通过协商修改来达成 共识。 做好用其他方法解决问题的准备, 你就能更好的面对会场上瞬息万变的情形。 ?必要时请说不 拒绝对很多人来说难以启齿,代表必须注意的是,拒绝并不是针对个人的,而 是出于对于国家立场或者解决方案的维护。有些时候“不”是唯一合适的回答。 ?寻找最佳集团 同一个国家可能同时从属于若干个不同的集团, 在结成同盟的时候, 就要选择 最利于实现本国利益的集团。 在选定集团之后, 代表应该努力在该集团中确立本国 的地位,是自己的发言有力,想法有操作性,使自己的盟国团结在一起共同成功。 ?有效利用自由磋商和意向条 自由磋商是进行游说和谈判的最佳时机, 选取合适的游说和磋商对象, 短短的 五分钟也可以有丰硕的成果。当然,意向条也是重要的工具,但需要注意的是,意 向条的作用是在不方便语言交流时起到实时通讯的作用, 而非取代有组织核心磋商 的作用,直接成为会议最重要的交流方式。 Academic Standard Handbook PKUNMUN 2014 75

Peking University National Model United Nations Conference for High School Students 2014 c) 演讲技巧 扮演外交官意味着代表们在发言时应该表现的自信而睿智, 发言内容清晰, 直 截了当,符合逻辑,各个观点间相互关联并且可行可用。 会议中涉及到的通常有两类发言: 有准备发言----有准备发言往往有事先写好的发言稿,这样可以清楚高效地发 表演说, 但如果代表为了准备演讲而耽误了宝贵的磋商和文件写作时间, 就得不偿 失了。 另外, 在会议中发言时限和重点往往会有所改变, 事先准备好的讲稿很可能已 经不能符合但当时的需求,这时候,我们就需要第二种发言了。 即兴发言----即兴发言往往更切中主题,使听者的注意力更为集中。但在此过 程中,发言中可能限于语言能力和思路的清晰程度对观点有多遗漏或者表述不清。 因此即兴发言者可以准备一个发言提纲,选择最重要的内容进行表达。 需要注意的是,无论哪种发言,都不应该手持讲稿一字不拉的朗诵,这样会使听众 失去兴趣,也不利于观点的传递和眼神的交流。

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