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Kinect for Windows人机交互界面指南


Human Interface Guidelines
v1.8

?2013 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Acknowledgement and waiver
You acknowledge that this document is provided “as-is,” and that you bear the risk of using it. (Information and views expressed in this document, including URL and other Internet Web site references, may change without notice.) This document does not provide you with any legal rights to any intellectual property in any Microsoft product. The information in this document is also not intended to constitute legal or other professional advice or to be used as a substitute for specific advice from a licensed professional. You should not act (or refrain from acting) based on information in this document without obtaining professional advice about your particular facts and circumstances. You may copy and use this document for your internal, reference purposes. In using the Kinect software and Kinect sensors described in this document, you assume all risk that your use of the Kinect sensors and/or the software causes any harm or loss, including to the end users of your Kinect for Windows applications, and you agree to waive all claims against Microsoft and its affiliates related to such use (including but not limited to any claim that a Kinect sensor or the Kinect software is defective) and to hold Microsoft and its affiliates harmless from such claims.

Microsoft, Kinect, Windows, and Xbox are registered trademarks, and Xbox360 is a trademark, of the Microsoft group of companies. All other trademarks are property of their respective owners.

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Contents

4 Introduction
Learn about the Kinect for Windows sensor and SDK, and how placement and environment affect its use

14 Interaction Design Tenets for Kinect for Windows
Learn about our design principles and how to design the best input for the task

21 Gesture
Learn interaction design considerations for various types of gesture

46 Voice
Learn interaction design considerations for voice, including language and audio considerations

60 Feedback
Learn about interaction design considerations for gestural and audio feedback, text prompts, and more

77 Basic Interactions
Learn about the areas of the Kinect screen and user space, plus details on engaging, targeting, selecting, panning and scrolling, zooming, and entering text

118 Additional Interactions
Learn about distance-dependent interactions, and designing for multiple inputs and users

135 Conclusion

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Introduction

Introduction
Welcome to the world of Microsoft Kinect for Windows–enabled applications. This document is your roadmap to building exciting humancomputer interaction solutions you once thought were impossible. We want to help make your experience with Microsoft Kinect for Windows, and your users’ experiences, the best. So, we’re going to set you off on a path toward success by sharing our most effective design tips, based on our long-term design, development, and usability work. You’ll be able to focus on all those unique challenges you want to tackle. Keep this guide at hand – because, as we regularly update it to reflect both our ongoing findings and the evolving capabilities of Kinect for Windows, you’ll stay on the cutting edge. Before we get into design tips, it will help to start with a couple of basics: a quick introduction to the Kinect for Windows sensor, software development kit (SDK), and Developer Toolkit, and some environment and sensor setup considerations.

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Introduction > Meet the Kinect for Windows Sensor and SDK

Meet the Kinect for Windows Sensor and SDK
The Kinect for Windows sensor and SDK provide the ears and eyes of your application. You’ll want to keep their capabilities in mind as you design your application.

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Introduction > Meet the Kinect for Windows Sensor and SDK

How Kinect for Windows sensor, SDK, and Toolkit work together
The Kinect for Windows sensor, SDK, and Toolkit work as a team to provide new and exciting capabilities to your application.

Kinect for Windows sensor
Provides raw color image frames from the RGB camera, depth image frames from the depth camera, and audio data from the microphone array to the SDK.

Kinect for Windows SDK
Processes the raw data from the sensor to provide you with information such as skeleton tracking for two people, player tracking for six people, and word recognition from audio data for a given language. You can download the SDK free from www.KinectforWindows.com.

Kinect for Windows Developer Toolkit
Using the Toolkit is optional, but you can find code samples in it that show how to use features of the SDK, as well as components such as Kinect Button and Kinect Cursor, which help you build interfaces faster. Using the components in the Toolkit lets you focus on your unique problem, and makes the user experience of your application consistent with other Kinect for Windows–enabled applications. Throughout this document, whenever we reference a sample or control, it is in the Developer Toolkit, also downloadable at www.KinectforWindows.com. The following sections cover what this team of products does to bring natural experiences to your application. When we say “Kinect for Windows,” we mean the “sensor” and SDK working together, unless otherwise specified.

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Introduction > Meet the Kinect for Windows Sensor and SDK

What Kinect for Windows sees
Kinect for Windows is versatile, and can see people holistically, not just smaller hand gestures. Six people can be tracked, including two whole skeletons. The sensor has an RGB (red-green-blue) camera for color video, and an infrared emitter and camera that measure depth. The measurements for depth are returned in millimeters. The Kinect for Windows sensor enables a wide variety of interactions, but any sensor has “sweet spots” and limitations. With this in mind, we defined its focus and limits as follows: Physical limits – The actual capabilities of the sensor and what it can see. Sweet spots – Areas where people experience optimal interactions, given that they’ll often have a large range of movement and need to be tracked with their arms or legs extended.

Near mode depth ranges
? Physical limits: 0.4m to 3m ? Sweet spot: 0.8m to 2.5m

sweet spot
0.4m/1.3ft 0.8m/2.6ft

physical limits

2.5m/8.2ft 3m/9.8ft

Default mode depth ranges
? Physical limits: 0.8m to 4m (default) Extended depth (beyond 4m) can also be retrieved but skeleton and player tracking get noisier the further you get away, and therefore may be unreliable. ? Sweet spot: 1.2m to 3.5m
sweet spot
0.8m/2.6ft 1.2m/4ft

physical limits

3.5m/11.5ft 4m/13.1ft

Angle of vision (depth and RGB)
Note that Near mode is an actual setting for Kinect for Windows, and is different from the various ranges we detail in Interaction Ranges, later in this document. ? Horizontal: 57.5 degrees ? Vertical: 43.5 degrees, with -27 to +27 degree tilt range up and down

27° 43.5° 27° 57.5°

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Introduction > Meet the Kinect for Windows Sensor and SDK

Skeleton tracking
Kinect for Windows can track up to six people within its view, including two whole skeletons.

Full skeleton mode
Kinect for Windows can track skeletons in default full skeleton mode with 20 joints.

Seated mode
Kinect for Windows can also track seated skeletons with only the upper 10 joints.

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Introduction > Meet the Kinect for Windows Sensor and SDK

What Kinect for Windows hears
Kinect for Windows is unique because its single sensor captures both voice and gesture, from face tracking and small movements to wholebody. The sensor has four microphones that enable your application to respond to verbal input, in addition to responding to movement.

Audio input
The Kinect for Windows sensor detects audio input from + and – 50 degrees in front of the sensor.

Microphone array
The microphone array can be pointed at 10-degree increments within the 100-degree range.

For more information about audio and voice issues, see Voice, later in this document.

This can be used to be specific about the direction of important sounds, such as a person speaking, but it will not completely remove other ambient noise.

Sound threshold
The microphone array can cancel 20dB (decibels) of ambient noise, which improves audio fidelity. That’s about the sound level of a whisper. (Kinect for Windows supports monophonic sound cancellation, but not stereophonic.) Sound coming from behind the sensor gets an additional 6dB suppression based on the design of the microphone housing.
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20 decibels cancelled

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Introduction > Meet the Kinect for Windows Sensor and SDK

Directional microphone
You can also programmatically direct the microphone array – for example, toward a set location, or following a skeleton as it’s tracked.

track me!

Loudest source targeting
By default, Kinect for Windows tracks the loudest audio input.

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Introduction > Consider Sensor Placement and Environment

Consider Sensor Placement and Environment
The situation in which your Kinect for Windows–enabled application is used can affect how users perceive its reliability and usability. Don’t forget to test your application early (and often) with the kind of environment and setup you expect it to ultimately be used in. Consider the following factors when you design your application.

For more information, see Choose the Right Environment for Voice, and Best Setup for Controls and Interactions, later in this document.

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Introduction > Consider Sensor Placement and Environment

Will many people be moving around the sensor?
You’ll want an optimal setup and space where no one comes between the engaged user and the sensor. For example, you might want an interaction area defined by using a sticker on the floor to indicate where the user should stand, or by roping off an area so that people walk around.

Will you rely on voice as an input method?
Voice input requires a quiet environment for reliable results. If you can’t control ambient noise level, try designing for user interaction closer to the sensor. If a noisy environment is unavoidable, voice might work better as augmenting other inputs (but not as the sole input method).

How far back are your users?
Consider what they can comfortably see. Design your user interface to account for the distance at which people will interact, within the range of the sensor. Users who are older or visually impaired might need graphics or fonts to be larger.

What will the lighting situation be?
Lighting affects image quality in different ways. So, if you envision a particular design, you’ll want to specify that users check their lighting; and if you expect a certain kind of lighting, you’ll need to design around those limitations. For example, ideally the light will come from behind the sensor. The infrared depth camera works in all lighting situations (even darkness), but better in moderate light than in direct sunlight or full-spectrum lighting. Dim lighting is fine for depthsensing applications (such as using avatars); with large amounts of natural light, skeleton tracking is less reliable. On the other hand, color image quality does require good lighting (for example, if you’ll use green-screening).

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Introduction > Consider Sensor Placement and Environment

How will your users dress?
Items that drastically change the shape of a person wearing or holding them might confuse skeleton tracking. For example, black clothing, as well as reflective items, can interfere with the infrared camera and make skeleton tracking less reliable.

Where will the sensor be placed?
Because your users will be interacting with the screen, place the sensor above or below the screen, to directly face the subjects it’s expected to track. Avoid extreme tilt angles. If you’re using the Kinect for Windows controls and interactions we provide, the distance between the user and the sensor that will provide the most reliable behavior is between 1.5 and 2 meters. If your scenario involves simple motion or blob detection and doesn’t rely on skeleton tracking, you can mount the sensor to the ceiling or at other angles.

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Interaction Design Tenets for Kinect for Windows

Interaction Design Tenets for Kinect for Windows
Kinect for Windows opens up a new world of gesture design and voice design.

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Interaction Design Tenets for Kinect for Windows > Overall Design Principles

Overall Design Principles
Before we go into to our design guidelines, we recommend you first read this brief section for some very important interaction tenets. They reflect the best ways we’ve found to employ gesture and voice, and to avoid some thorny issues. Keep the following in mind as you design your interactions.

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Interaction Design Tenets for Kinect for Windows > Overall Design Principles

The best user experiences are context-aware.
? Your UI should adapt as the distance between the user and the sensor changes. ? Your UI should respond to the number and engagement of users. ? Place your controls based on expected user movements or actions. ? Make sure your interactions are appropriate for the environment in which your application will be used. ? The further the user, the wider the range of movement. ? The closer the user, the more and finer the content, tasks, and gestures. ? Environment affects user input.

Each input method is best at something and worst at something.
? Users choose the input that requires the least overall effort for a given scenario. ? People tend to stick to a single input unless they have a reason to change. ? Input methods should be reliable, consistent, and convenient – otherwise people will look for alternative options. ? Switching input methods should happen intuitively, or at natural transition points in the scenario.

Confident users are happy users.
? It’s important to keep interactions simple, and easy to learn and master. ? Avoid misinterpreting user intent. ? Give constant feedback so people always know what’s happening and what to expect.

The strongest designs come after user testing.
? Kinect for Windows enables a lot of new interactions, but also brings new challenges. ? It’s especially hard to guess ahead of time what will work and what won’t. ? Sometimes minor adjustments can make a huge difference. ? Conduct user tests often and early, and allow time in your schedule for adjustments to your design.

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Interaction Design Tenets for Kinect for Windows > Strong Inputs

Strong Inputs
In order to provide a good experience and not frustrate users, a strong voice and gesture interaction design should fulfill a number of requirements. To start with, it should be natural, with an appropriate and smooth learning curve for users. A slightly higher learning curve, with richer functionality, may be appropriate for expert users who will use the application frequently (for example, in an office setting for daily tasks).

For more information about designing for different distance ranges, see Distance-Dependent Interactions, later in this document.

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Interaction Design Tenets for Kinect for Windows > Strong Inputs

A strong voice and gesture interaction design should be:
? Considerate of user expectations from their use of other common input mechanisms (touch, keyboard, mouse). ? Ergonomically comfortable. ? Low in interactional cost for infrequent or large numbers of users (for example, a kiosk in a public place). ? Integrated, easily understandable, user education for any new interaction. ? Precise, reliable, and fast. ? Considerate of sociological factors. People should feel comfortable using the input in their environment.

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Interaction Design Tenets for Kinect for Windows > Strong Inputs

Intuitive, with easy “mental mapping.”

Easy to back out of if mistakenly started, rather than users having to complete the action before undoing or canceling.

Efficient at a variety of distance ranges.

Appropriate for the amount and type of content displayed.

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Interaction Design Tenets for Kinect for Windows > Strong Inputs

The Right Input Mode for Your Task
As you design your interactions, keep in mind all the input methods available to you, and the pros and cons each have to offer.

Natural actions
If one interaction is better at a given task, consider using that one instead of forcing all interactions into one input mode.

For example, for entering text, let people use their physical keyboard or a touch interface instead of gesturing.

Do
Enable users to accomplish tasks quickly and intuitively.

Don’t
Force users to use inappropriate input methods for certain tasks just because they’re good for other tasks in the scenario. Require an input method that feels forced, unnatural, awkward, or tedious. Switch input modes for the sake of variety or effect.

Use each input mode for what it’s naturally best at. Take user orientation and location into account so that input modes are switched only when it’s convenient and benefits productivity.

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Gesture

Gesture
This section begins by providing some important gesture definitions and goes on to recommend a number of important design considerations for gesture interaction.

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Gesture > Basics

Basics
In this document we use the term gesture broadly to mean any form of movement that can be used as an input or interaction to control or influence an application. Gestures can take many forms, from simply using your hand to target something on the screen, to specific, learned patterns of movement, to long stretches of continuous movement using the whole body. Gesture is an exciting input method to explore, but it also presents some intriguing challenges. Following are a few examples of commonly used gesture types.

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Gesture > Basics

Innate and learned gestures
You can design for innate gestures that people might be familiar with, as well as ones they’ll need to learn and memorize.

Innate gestures
Gestures that the user intuitively knows or that make sense, based on the person’s understanding of the world, including any skills or training they might have. Examples: ? Pointing to aim ? Grabbing to pick up ? Pushing to select

Learned gestures
Gestures you must teach the user before they can interact with Kinect for Windows. Examples: ? Waving to engage ? Making a specific pose to cancel an action
Wave to engage

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Gesture > Basics

Static, dynamic, and continuous gestures
Whether users know a given gesture by heart or not, the gestures you design for your Kinect for Windows application can range from a single pose to a more prolonged motion.

Static gesture
A pose or posture that the user must match and that the application recognizes as meaningful.
Be wary of designing for symbolic static gestures such as “okay” that might carry different meanings across cultures.

Dynamic gesture
A defined movement that allows the user to directly manipulate an object or control and receive continuous feedback.
Slide to confirm Confirmed!

Pressing to select and gripping to move are examples of dynamic gestures.

Continuous gesture
Prolonged tracking of movement where no specific pose is recognized but the movement is used to interact with the application.

Examples include enabling a user to pick up a virtual box or perform a whole-body movement.

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Gesture > Gesture Interaction Design

Gesture Interaction Design
With Kinect for Windows, you can explore the new and innovative field of gesture interaction design. Here are some of our key findings and considerations in making gesture designs feel “magical.”

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Gesture > Gesture Interaction Design

Accomplish gesture goals
The users’ goal is to accomplish their tasks efficiently, easily, and naturally. Your goal is to enable them to fulfill theirs.

Users should agree with these statements as they use gesture in your application:
? I quickly learned all the basic gestures. ? Now that I learned a gesture, I can quickly and accurately perform it. ? When I gesture, I’m ergonomically comfortable. ? When I gesture, the application is responsive and provides both immediate and ongoing feedback.

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Gesture > Gesture Interaction Design

Design for reliability
Reliability should be a top priority. Without reliability, your application will feel unresponsive and difficult to use, and frustrate your users. Try to strike a good reliability balance.

? If the gesture is too circumscribed, unique, or complex, there will be fewer “false positives,” but it might be hard to perform. ? If the gesture is too unspecific or simple, it will be easier to perform, but might have lots of false positives and/or conflicts with other gestures.

For more information about false positives, see Engagement, later in this document.

Do
Teach users how to effectively perform a gesture. Instill confidence so users can show others how to perform a gesture.

Don’t
Drive users to other modes of input/ interaction because of poor reliability. Require such rigid gestures that users develop superstitious behaviors, like making up incorrect justifications for reactions they don’t understand. Use different gestures for similar actions unless there is too much overlap between the gestures and natural variation in users’ movement. Design multiple gestures that are too similar.

Teach users how to perform a gesture early in the experience so they can use it in similar contexts.

Consider the frequency and cost of false activations.

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Gesture > Gesture Interaction Design

Design for appropriate user mindset
If you’re designing a non-gaming Kinect for Windows–enabled application, or a specific UI item such as a menu, keep in mind that game mindset is NOT the same as UI mindset. As you design, keep conscious of the purpose of your application and the nature of your users, and design accordingly.

Game mindset
Challenge is fun! If a user is in game mindset and can’t perform a gesture, then it’s a challenge to master it and do better next time.

In game mindset, a silly gesture can be fun or entertaining.

UI mindset
Challenge is frustrating. If a user is in UI mindset and can’t perform a gesture, he or she will be frustrated and have low tolerance for any learning curve.

In UI mindset, a silly gesture is awkward or unprofessional.

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Gesture > Gesture Interaction Design

Design for natural interactions
Gesture might provide a cool new method of interacting with your application, but keep in mind that its use should be purposeful.

Do
Allow people to interact from a distance.

Don’t
Try to force-fit gesture or voice on existing UI that was designed for a different input method.

For example, don’t simply map gestures to a touch interface.

Allow gesture to enable an interaction or expression that other input devices can’t.

Require gestures for tasks that could be done faster and more easily by using another input method.

Center part of the interaction on user tracking and poses – things that Kinect for Windows does best.

Require that gestures be used for productivity, speed, and precision tasks.

Provide multiple ways to perform a task if environment or context might change.

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Gesture > Gesture Interaction Design

Determine user intent and engagement
Determining user intent is a key issue, and hard to do right. Unlike other input devices, which require explicit contact from a user, or only track a tiny area of a person’s body, Kinect for Windows sees a person holistically. Kinect for Windows users are constantly moving and interacting with the world, whether or not they intend to be interacting with your application. Your challenge is to detect intended gestures correctly and avoid detecting “false positive” gestures. Keep in mind that users in a social context may alternate between interacting with the application and with other people beside them or in the vicinity. The application must be aware and considerate of the social context of the users.

Hello!

Part of determining user intent is recognizing when people want to first engage with the application. It’s tricky because there’s no physical medium such as a mouse for detecting intent with Kinect for Windows. If the user must actively trigger engagement, be sure you demonstrate it at some point early in the experience, or make the trigger clearly visible when it’s needed. Avoid long or cumbersome engagement experiences, because they will become frustrating for returning users or users who have already observed someone using the application.

Do
Provide feedback to increase confidence.

Don’t
Forget to provide feedback when a gesture fails or is canceled. Require users to modify natural behavior to avoid interaction. Miss, ignore, or don’t recognize the user’s gesture. Misinterpret natural body movements as the proposed gesture.

For more information, see the Engagement and Feedback sections, later in this document.

Provide a clear and simple way for people to engage and disengage. Recognize unique and intentional movement as gesture or interaction. Ignore natural body movements (scratching, sneezing, etc.).

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Gesture > Gesture Interaction Design

Notes
Waving is one method for determining user intent. (For example, Xbox users must wave back and forth at least three times, rotating at the elbow, for the movement to be recognized.) Waving feels natural, yet it’s a unique movement not often misinterpreted. It also carries meaning to people as a way to begin an interaction.

Other possible ways to recognize engagement involve how close the user is to the sensor, or a particular pose, such as what direction he or she is facing. You can also choose to recognize when someone disengages as a cue to explicitly turn interactability off, rather than using a timeout or other passive method. For example, when a user turns away from the screen, take that as a cue that they’re no longer engaged. (But be careful not to disengage people accidentally in the middle of a task.)

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Gesture > Gesture Interaction Design

Design for variability of input
Users’ previous experience and expectations affect how they interact with your application. Keep in mind that one person might not perform a gesture the same way as someone else.

Gesture interpretation
Simply “asking users to wave” doesn’t guarantee the same motion. They might wave: ? From their wrist ? From their elbow ? With their whole arm ? With an open hand moving from left to right ? By moving their fingers up and down together

It’s hard to scan for a broad variety of interpretations; instead, it’s best to give users clear tips about the exact gesture you require.

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Gesture > Gesture Interaction Design

Make the gesture fit the user ’s task
Logical gestures have meaning and they relate to associated UI tasks or actions. The feedback should relate to the user’s physical movement.

Do
Make the action and feedback parallel – for example, users swipe left to scroll left or move content to the left.

Don’t
Require users to move a hand up to scroll content to the left.

Use logical movements that are easy to learn and remember.

Require abstract body movements that have no relationship to the task and are hard to learn and remember. Require a big movement for a small result, like a whole arm swipe to move one item in a list. Use big movements for actions that must be repeated many times through an experience.

Make the size or scope of the motion match the significance of the feedback or action. Use big, easily distinguishable movements for important and less frequent actions.

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Gesture > Gesture Interaction Design

Design for complete gesture sets
The more gestures your application requires, the harder it is to design a strong gesture set. So, we recommend that you keep the number of gestures small, both so that they’re easy to learn and remember, and that they’re distinct enough from one another to avoid gesture collisions. In addition, if you strive to be consistent with other applications, people will feel at home with the gestures and you’ll reduce the number of gestures they have to learn. You’ll also reduce the training you have to provide.

Here are a few things to remember when defining a gesture set:
? Make sure each gesture in an application’s gesture set feels related and cohesive. ? Keep your users’ cognitive load low; don’t overload them with gestures to remember. Research shows that people can remember a maximum of six gestures. ? Take cues from existing gestures that have been established in other Kinect applications. ? Test thoroughly for “false positive” triggers between gestures. ? Use obvious differentiators, such as direction and hand state, to make gestures significantly different, reduce false positives, and avoid overlap. ? Make sure similar tasks use the same gesture language, so that users can guess or discover gestures through logical inference or pairing. For example, pair a swipe right (to move content right) to a swipe left (to move content left).

IF:

THEN:

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Gesture > Gesture Interaction Design

Do
Differentiate direction changes.

Don’t
Risk gesture overlap by making the direction of two similar gestures the same.

Differentiate progression or path.

Have two gestures that follow the same path, especially if they’re in the same direction.

Have clear and different start and end points.

Have vague and similar start and end points that result in different actions.

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Gesture > Gesture Interaction Design

Do
Design logically paired gestures to be consistent and follow the same gesture language.

Don’t
Define the conceptual opposite action of a defined gesture as something other than a pair or mirror of that gesture.

Notes
Think about the whole scenario. What does the user do after completing a gesture? Might that action look like the start of an unintended gesture? Will it put them in a natural position to begin the next logical gesture for your common scenarios?

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Gesture > Gesture Interaction Design

Handle repeating gestures gracefully
If users will need to perform a gesture repeatedly (for example, moving through pages of content), you might encounter a few common challenges.

Do
Design repeating gestures to be fluid, without jarring starts and stops.

Don’t
Let feedback get in the way and hinder or pace the user’s rhythm. For example, people shouldn’t feel like they must wait for an animation to finish before they can repeat the gesture. Design a gesture such that repetition is inefficient. Design the opposite gesture to resemble the “return” portion of the first gesture.

Enable users to quickly get into a rhythm of movement. Consider the movement of the whole repetition. Ignore the “return” portion of a repeated gesture if it will disrupt the ability of the user to repeat the gesture smoothly.

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Gesture > Gesture Interaction Design

Avoid “handed” gestures
Handed gestures are ones that can be done only with a specific hand. They do not provide users with a truly natural experience, are undiscoverable, and should be avoided.

Do
Allow users to switch hands to reduce fatigue. Accommodate both left and righthanded people.

Don’t
Require specifically handed gestures; they’re not discoverable or accessible. Design as if you, the developer or designer, are the only user.

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Gesture > Gesture Interaction Design

Vary one-handed and two-handed gestures
For variety and to accommodate natural interaction, you can design for both singlehanded and two-handed gestures.

Do
Use one-handed gestures for all critical-path tasks. They’re efficient and accessible, and easier than twohanded gestures to discover, learn, and remember.

Don’t
Use two-handed gestures for critical, frequent tasks.

Use two-handed gestures for noncritical tasks (for example, zooming) or for advanced users. Two-handed gestures should be symmetrical because they’re then easier to perform and remember.

Require the user to switch between one- and two-handed gestures indiscriminately.

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Gesture > Gesture Interaction Design

Remember that fatigue undermines gesture
Your user shouldn’t get tired because of gesturing. Fatigue increases messiness, which leads to poor performance and frustration, and ultimately a bad user experience.

For more information, see Multimodal Interactions, later in this document.

natural movements

good gestures in between (unique and purposeful)

awkward movements

Do
Offer gesture alternatives: for example, in a list of items, use different gestures to navigate in small or big steps, jump within the list, zoom in or out, or filter to shorten the list.

Don’t
Require excessive repetition of a single gesture, such as page swiping to get through a long list. (So, avoid long lists or use a more appropriate modality, such as voice search.)

Require users to assume uncomfortable positions, such as holding their hand above their head for a long time.

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Gesture > Gesture Interaction Design

Consider user posture and movement ranges
User posture might affect your gesture design, so consider where and how your users will use your application. For example, sitting limits a person’s possible movements.

Do
Design a single gesture that works well across all viable postures.

Don’t
Design alternate gestures for the same command, such as different gestures for seated and full skeleton mode.

Keep in mind the normal and comfortable ranges of interaction for the human body.

Design one gesture that works well in one posture but poorly in another.

Be aware of the loss of reliability if you view a user from the side. Joints that are not in full view are placed in predicted locations by the skeleton tracking and aren’t always in the correct position.

Require users to stand at distances or orientations where skeleton tracking will be less reliable. Examples include users oriented sideways to the sensor, blocked by objects (such as a table), out of visible range of the sensor, etc.

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Gesture > Gesture Interaction Design

Teach gestures and enable discoverability
Whenever a gesture is available to interact with your application, you should find a way to communicate it to your user. Here are some options.

Teaching methods
? A quick tutorial for new users ? An indication of gesture state throughout the interaction ? A visual cue or hint when a user first engages ? A static image ? An animation ? A message or notification
Wave to engage How to gesture Hello!

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Gesture > Gesture Interaction Design

Be aware of technical barriers
If you’re using skeleton data to define your gestures, you’ll have greater flexibility, but some limitations as well.

Tracking movement
Keeping arms and hands to the side of the body when performing gestures makes them easier to track, whereas hand movements in front of the body can be unreliable.

Tracking speed
For very fast gestures, consider skeleton tracking speed and frames-per-second limitations. The fastest that Kinect for Windows can track is at 30 frames per second.

Field of view
Make sure the sensor tilt and location, and your gesture design, avoid situations where the sensor can’t see parts of a gesture, such as users extending a hand above their head.

Tracking reliability
Skeleton tracking is most stable when the user faces the sensor.

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Gesture > Gesture Interaction Design

Remember your audience
Regardless of how you define your gestures, keep your target audience in mind so that the gestures work for the height ranges and physical and cognitive abilities of your users. Think about the whole distance range that your users can be in, angles that people might pose at, and various height ranges that you want to support. Conduct frequent usability tests and be sure to test across the full range of intended user types.

Physical differences
For example, you should account for users of various heights and limb lengths. Young people also make, for example, very different movements than adults when performing the same action, due to differences in their dexterity and control.

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Gesture > Gesture Interaction Design

Iterate
Finally, getting a gesture to feel just right might take many tweaks and iterations. Create parameters for anything you can, and (we can’t say it enough) conduct frequent usability tests.

Do
Design a gesture that works reliably for your whole range of users. Design a natural and discoverable gesture.

Don’t
Design a gesture that works for you but no one else. Build your application to be inflexible, so it is hard to make adjustments.

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Voice

Voice
Besides gesture, voice is another input method that enables new and natural-feeling experiences.

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Voice > Basics

Basics
Using voice in your Kinect for Windows– enabled application allows you to choose specific words or phrases to listen for and use as triggers. Words or phrases spoken as commands aren’t conversational and might not seem like a natural way to interact, but when voice input is designed and integrated well, it can make experiences feel fast and increase your confidence in the user’s intent.

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Voice > Basics

About confidence levels
When you use Kinect for Windows voicerecognition APIs to listen for specific words, confidence values are returned for each word while your application is listening. You can tune the confidence level at which you will accept that the sound matches one of your defined commands.

? Try to strike a balance between reducing false positive recognitions and making it difficult for users to say the command clearly enough to be recognized. ? Match the confidence level to the severity of the command. For example, “Purchase now” should probably require higher confidence than “Previous” or “Next.” ? It is really important to try this out in the environment where your application will be running, to make sure it works as expected. Seemingly small changes in ambient noise can make a big difference in reliability.

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Voice > Basics

Listening models
There are two main listening models for using voice with Kinect for Windows: using a keyword or trigger, and “active listening.”

Keyword/trigger
The sensor only listens for a single keyword. When it hears that word, it listens for additional specified words or phrases. This is the best way to reduce false activations. The keyword you choose should be very distinct so that it isn’t easily misinterpreted. For example, on Xbox360, “Xbox” is the keyword. Not many words sound like “Xbox,” so it’s a well-chosen keyword.

Kinect!

Home

Always on, active listening
The sensor is always listening for all of your defined words or phrases. This works fine if you have a very small number of distinct words or phrases – but the more you have, the more likely it is that you’ll have false activations. This also depends on how much you expect the user to be speaking while the application is running, which will most likely depend on the specific environment and scenario.
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Voice > Basics

Choose words and phrases carefully
When choosing what words or phrases to use, keep the following in mind. (If each screen has its own set of phrases, these guidelines apply within a set; if the whole application uses one set of phrases, the guidelines apply to the whole application.)

Distinct sounds
Avoid alliteration, words that rhyme, common syllable lengths, common vowel sounds, and using the same words in different phrases.

Don’t Syllables in Common
SOMETHING SOMEONE INCREASE DECREASE

Alliteration
CAT KIT KEY

Rhymes
MAKE TAKE PAIR PEAR

Vowels in Common
MAIN TAKE DATE FACE

Same words in different phrases
ONE MORE TIME SHOW ME MORE PLAY MORE LIKE THIS MORE RED

Brevity
Keep phrases short (1-5 words).

Do
SHOW THE LEFT ONE

Don’t
SHOW ME THE ONE ON THE LEFT

PUT IN CART

PUT THIS ONE IN THE SHOPPING CART

Word length
Be wary of one-syllable keywords, because they’re more likely to overlap with others.

Do
PLAY THIS ONE STOP VIDEO SHOW MORE SONGS SCROLL RIGHT GO BACK

Don’t
PLAY STOP MORE SCROLL BACK

Simple vocabulary
Use common words where possible for a more natural feeling experience and for easier memorization.

Do
TURN UP RED FIRST

Don’t
MAX OUT CRIMSON INITIAL

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Voice > Basics

Minimal voice prompts
Keep the number of phrases or words per screen small (3-6).
Go home, Go back, Next page, Previous page

Word alternatives
If you have even more items that need to be voiceaccessible, or for non-text based content, consider using numbers to map to choices on a screen, as in this example.

camera

1

2

3

2

User prompts
For commands recognized with low confidence, help course correct by providing prompts – for example, “Did you mean ‘camera’?”

camrwoj

Did you mean “camera”?

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Voice > Basics

Reduced false activation
Test and be flexible. If a specific word always fails or is falsely recognized, try to think of a new way to describe it.
Confidence level threshold

You can require higher confidence levels (80% to 95%) – that is, having Kinect for Windows respond only when it’s certain that the user has given the correct trigger. This might make it harder to users to interact, but reduce unintentional actions.

Acoustics
Test your words and phrases in an acoustic environment similar to where you intend your application to be used.
Test Test

VS

Triggering audio
Try using a trigger or event to make Kinect for Windows start listening. For example, only listen when a skeleton is detected in a certain area.

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Voice > Voice Interaction Design

Voice Interaction Design
Generally, it’s best to avoid forcing people to memorize phrases or discover them on their own. Here are a few best practices for helping users understand that they can use voice, and learn what words or phrases are available.

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Voice > Voice Interaction Design

Visual voice prompts
Display exactly how users must say voice commands.

“Show me the next one” “Show me the next 20”

Listening mode
Indicate visually that the application is “listening” for commands. For example, Xbox360 uses a microphone icon.

User assistance
Display keywords onscreen, or take users through a beginning tutorial.
First say “Kinect”, then say “Home” or “Next”

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Voice > Voice Interaction Design

Visual notifications
If there is an issue with the microphone connection, display an error icon and/ or message so the user can address the problem.

!

Microphone is not detecting audio, please check connection

Audio prompting
If for some reason the user might not be facing the screen, have an option for Kinect for Windows to read the available phrases out loud.
The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog

Alternative input
Voice shouldn’t be the only method by which a user can interact with the application. Build in allowances for the person to use another input method in case voice isn’t working or becomes unreliable.

IF:

THEN:

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Voice > Voice Interaction Design

VUI (voice user interface) bars and labels
As seen in Xbox360 interfaces, VUI bars and labels are a great way to indicate what commands are available, especially if you’re using a keyword. In Xbox360, the user says the keyword (“Xbox”), and then the VUI bar appears, containing phrases that he or she can choose from. This is a good way of clearly indicating what phrases are available, without having them always present on the screen.

Kinect

You can say: “Home”, “Next”, “Back”

See it, say it model
The “see it, say it” model is one where the available phrases are defined by the text on the screen. This means that a user could potentially read any UI text and have it trigger a reaction. A variation of this is to have a specified text differentiator, such as size, underline, or a symbol, that indicates that the word can be used as a spoken command. If you do that, you should use iconography or a tutorial in the beginning of the experience to inform the user that the option is available, and teach them what it means. Either way, there should be a clear, visual separation between actionable text on a screen and static text.

When mic icon is blue, you can say words in blue.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisiciing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna al qua.

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Voice > Voice Interaction Design

Choose the right environment for voice
There are a few environmental considerations that will have a significant effect on whether or not you can successfully use voice in your application.

Ambient noise
The sensor focuses on the loudest sound source and attempts to cancel out other ambient noise (up to around 20dB). This means that if there’s other conversation in the room (usually around 60-65dB), the accuracy of your speech recognition is reduced.

60-65dB =

Amplify that to the sound level of a mall or cafeteria and you can imagine how much harder it is to recognize even simple commands in such an environment. At some level, ambient noise is unavoidable, but if your application will run in a loud environment, voice might not be the best interaction choice. Ideally, you should only use voice if: ? The environment is quiet and relatively closed off. ? There won’t be multiple people speaking at once.

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Voice > Voice Interaction Design

System noises and cancellation
Although the sensor is capable of more complex noise cancellation if you want to build that support, the built-in functionality only cancels out monophonic sounds, such as a system beep, but not stereophonic. This means that even if you know that your application will be playing a specific song, or that the song will be playing in the room, Kinect for Windows cannot cancel it out, but if you’re using monophonic beeps to communicate something to your user, those can be cancelled.

Distance of users to the sensor
When users are extremely close to the sensor, the sound level of their voice is high. However, as they move away, the level quickly drops off and becomes hard for the sensor to hear, which could result in unreliable recognition or require users to speak significantly louder. Ambient noise also plays a role in making it harder for the sensor to hear someone as they get farther away. You might have to make adjustments to find a “sweet spot” for your given environment and setup, where a voice of normal volume can be picked up reliably. In an environment with low ambient noise and soft PC sounds, a user should be able to comfortably speak at normal to low voice levels (49-55dB) at both near and far distances.

Audio level detected

Distance of user to Kinect
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Voice > Voice Interaction Design

Social considerations
Keep in mind the social implications of your users needing to say commands loudly while using your application. Make sure that the commands are appropriate for the environment, so you don’t force your users to say things that will make them uncomfortable. Also make sure that the volume at which they have to speak is appropriate for the environment. For example, speaking loud commands in a cubicle-based office setup might be distracting and inappropriate.

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Feedback

Feedback
Whether you employ gesture, voice, or both, providing good feedback is critical to making users feel in control and helping them understand what’s happening in the application. This section covers some ways you can make feedback as strong as possible.

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Feedback > Basics

Basics
It’s important, especially if your users are standing at a distance and have little direct contact with the interface, to take extra care in showing them how their actions map to your application. Also, because a gesture is only effective and reliable when users are in the correct visibility range, it’s important to give feedback to them in case they don’t know when they’re out of range.

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Feedback > Basics

Consider what users want to know
As you design, imagine you’re a first-time user, and ask yourself these questions.

For more information, see Engagement, later in this document.

? Is the sensor on and ready?

? Am I in control? ? Can I engage now?

? What does the sensor see? ? Where’s the field of view?

? How much of me can the sensor see? ? Is my head in view?

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Feedback > Basics

? How many people can the sensor see? ? How do I know it’s seeing me and not someone else?

? When and where can I gesture?

Notes
Many of these questions can be answered by displaying a small User Viewer (visualizing depth) on the screen to show what Kinect for Windows sees at any given time. Highlighting players, hands, or other joints in the depth viewer might also be helpful. You can also prompt people to move into the appropriate field of view whenever they’re cropped, too close, or too far back.

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Feedback > Feedback Interaction Design

Feedback Interaction Design
This section gives tips for designing various kinds of feedback, including selection states, progress indicators, and other visuals, as well as audio feedback.

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Feedback > Feedback Interaction Design

Best practices
There are several best practices that apply whether you’re designing for gesture or voice.

Make it clear what content the user can take action on, and how Differentiated controls
Use iconography, colors, or tutorials to show users how to differentiate between controls they can activate, text prompts for voice input, and other text and content.
buTToN lINK Normal TExT

For more information, see Targeting and Selecting, later in this document.

Lorem

Lorem ipsum dolor

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing

Input suggestions
Use iconography or tutorials to show users what input methods are available to them.

Gesture suggestions
Show what gestures are available.
Press to select

Visual feedback
Show cursor visuals if you’re tracking a user’s hand.

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Feedback > Feedback Interaction Design

Command suggestions
Show what commands users can speak.

You can say: “Home”, “Next”, “Back”

Audio notifications
If there’s an error with a Kinect for Windows state (for example, a hardware or a connection issue), show the error message or state and a suggestion for how to fix it. Display some change in the visuals. Consider whether you should recommend that the user switch to alternative input methods.

!

Microphone is not detecting audio, please check connection

For an example of how to do this, see the Sensor Chooser component in the Kinect for Windows Developer Toolkit.

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Feedback > Feedback Interaction Design

Map feedback to gesture Progress feedback
When a user controls something by direct manipulation, show the progress in a way that translates to the person’s motion.

For example, if the user turns a page by a gesture, show the page pulling up and turning over as his or her hand moves horizontally.

Clarify selection states Targeting and selection
Provide feedback about what items users can take action on, what state those items are currently in, and how to take action on them.
For example, for targeting and selecting, with a gesture that requires Z-axis movement, using size changes to show depth helps users understand the action required (see Kinect Button, later in this document).

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Feedback > Feedback Interaction Design

UI controls
For controls that are not for navigation, such as check boxes and toggle buttons, have clear visual changes that show state changes.

resting

hover

selected

Selection confirmation
Whether the user triggers an item by voice or gesture, have a visual indication of recognition before changing the state of the application.

Lorem ipsum

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Feedback > Feedback Interaction Design

Use progress indicators Ergonomics
Be careful when designing the timeout length for progress indicators in case users might be required to hold a position. Also consider how frequently users will be repeating the interaction. Avoid forcing users to wait unnecessarily.
Hold pose for 4 seconds

Clear visuals
If you’re using a progress timer, or a countdown, use clear visuals to show the entire progression. If you are visualizing the user’s progress in completing a task, make sure the visual is clear, prominent, and placed where the user is focused.

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Feedback > Feedback Interaction Design

Keep context by animating User orientation
If the UI changes based on something (such as distance) that the user might have triggered inadvertently, try animation to show where the content is located in the new layout.

Layout continuity
If the user is navigating, use animation to help him or her understand the layout.

For example, horizontal animation can show that the user has moved horizontally in space in your application’s layout.

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Feedback > Feedback Interaction Design

Use skeleton tracking feedback
Full-body skeleton tracking provides a wide range of new application possibilities. You can use feedback both to lead and confirm the user’s movements.

Make sure users know whether the sensor sees them User resets
If you need to track a user but the sensor cannot see them, let the user know where to stand so that it can. If you lose track of a user in the middle of a process, pause the process and guide the user back to a place where you can track him or her.
Please move left

For more user-tracking feedback information, see Engagement, later in this document.

For example, in Kinect Sports, the game tells users if they’re getting too close and shows them at the beginning where to stand for optimal tracking.

The User Viewer
Another way to do this is to show a small scene viewer or visualization to show the user exactly what Kinect for Windows can see at any given time. This can help users understand how to stay within the right range and, when they’re outside of it, why things aren’t working. (For more information, see The User Viewer, later in this document.)

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Feedback > Feedback Interaction Design

Lead by example Training and feedback
If you want users to copy a specific movement or action, you can show an avatar or animation, either before you expect to track the users’ movement, or even during the movement. If you show an animation during the user’s movement, visually indicate whether or not the user is doing it correctly.

An example of this is in Xbox Dance Central, where the onscreen dancer moves correctly and independently of the user, but limbs get highlighted in red if the user makes a mistake.

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Feedback > Feedback Interaction Design

Mirror users’ actions Real-time movements
Make sure the movement is in real time so the person feels in control.

Realistic reactions
Make other objects in the scene react correctly to collisions with the skeleton/ avatar.

Smooth movements
Apply smoothing techniques to skeleton-tracking data to avoid motion and poses that are jittery or not human-like.

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Feedback > Feedback Interaction Design

Use audio feedback
Audio feedback can be very effective, and has its own set of considerations.

Warning sounds
Audio can be a good way to get users’ attention if they need to be notified of something – for example, audio warnings or alerts.

!

Microphone is not detecting audio, please check connection

Teaching cues
You can use sound patterns or cues to communicate a simple message or teach users when to pay attention.

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Feedback > Feedback Interaction Design

Base audio feedback on user orientation Instructional audio
If the user isn’t facing the screen, or is far away, consider using audio as a way to communicate to him or her – for example, giving available options, directions or instructions, or alerts.
You can play the next song by saying “next”

Announce selection states Activity signals
Sounds can be a good way to signal to a user that something has changed or has been selected. Click

Consider using sounds that match the action the user is taking, to enforce his or her feeling of control and familiarity – for example, a click noise when a button is pressed.

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Feedback > Feedback Interaction Design

Combine feedback
In the physical world, we use all of our senses to gauge whether our actions are effective and in order to communicate naturally with others. Similarly, combining different types of feedback often makes for a better experience in a virtual world.

Reinforced feedback
Combining visual and audio inputs can make feedback stronger.

A great example of this is the menu in Dance Central. As the user scrolls up and down the menu, the following changes happen to the item he or she points to: ? It grows larger. ? It glows a brighter shade of pink. ? It gets a slider visual. ? The items surrounding it become slightly larger and a slightly different color. ? The sound changes dynamically, in real time, based on the position of the user’s hand. The result seems like a very “hands-on” experience, where the user can almost feel the effects of his or her movements.

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Basic Interactions

Basic Interactions
Although we leave it up to you to create exciting and unique experiences with Kinect for Windows, we’ve taken care of some of the basic interactions and controls for you and included them in the Developer Toolkit. Using our interactions and controls saves you time and also establishes some consistency that your users will learn to expect as they encounter Kinect for Windows experiences in various aspects of their daily lives. We’ve spent a lot of time tuning and testing this first set of interactions to give you the best foundation possible, and we’ll add more in our future releases. The following sections help you set the stage for your application, and show you how to enable users to easily engage with it, target and select items, and scroll or pan. We also call out some examples that you’ll find in the Interaction Gallery, and share some tips for interactions that we don’t provide for you.

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Basic Interactions > Best Setup for Controls and Interactions

Best Setup for Controls and Interactions
We’ve worked hard to provide great controls and interactions, but to make them as reliable as possible, we recommend this setup: ? Set your application to use Near mode. For more information, see the SDK, at: http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/ library/microsoft.kinect.skeletonstream. enabletrackinginnearrange.aspx ? Optimally your users should be standing between 1.5m and 2m away from the sensor. ? The sensor should be placed above or below the screen, wherever it has the least amount of tilt and can see the most of your users’ bodies. It helps a lot if it can see your users’ heads. ? The sensor should be centered on the screen so that users can stand directly in front of it. ? There should not be large amounts of natural light, or people walking in front of your users.

For information about button controls, see Kinect Button, later in this document.

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Basic Interactions > Best Setup for Controls and Interactions

Screen resolution
The Kinect for Windows controls we’ve built were designed for 1920x1080 resolution screens. Whether you’re using these controls or creating your own, keep in mind that different screen resolutions affect the intended size of the control. Also, because the Physical Interaction Zone (or PHIZ, described in the following section) has a fixed size relative to the person, and doesn’t adjust for the screen size or orientation, it might be helpful as you resize your controls to focus on fine-tuning the ratio of control size to PHIZ size, to ensure that the experience is still reliable and the control is still easily selectable. The smallest button we’ve designed is 220 by 220px in 1920x1080 resolution. We’ve tested to ensure that this button size and resolution combination makes it possible to have close to 100 percent accuracy for most users. If you have a different resolution, however, you need to resize the button to make sure the ratio is maintained, to keep the reliability. The following chart shows how this small button size translates for different resolutions.

Kinect Region (px) Width UHDTV (W)QHD 1080p WSXGA+ HD+ WXGA+ WXGA 720p XGA SD HVGA
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Button (px) Width/Height 880 294 220 214 184 184 157 147 157 98 66

Height 4320 1440 1080 1050 900 900 768 720 768 480 320

7680 2560 1920 1680 1600 1440 1366 1280 1024 720 480

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Basic Interactions > Setting the Stage: the Kinect Region, the PHIZ, and the Cursor

Setting the Stage: the Kinect Region, the PHIZ, and the Cursor
The Kinect Region, the Physical Interaction Zone (PHIZ), and the cursor are all things that you need to get started with your Kinect for Windows–enabled interface. You can easily set them up so they’ll work the best for your scenario.

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Basic Interactions > Setting the Stage: the Kinect Region, the PHIZ, and the Cursor

The Kinect Region
The Kinect Region is the area on the screen where Kinect for Windows–enabled interactions are possible in your application. That means it’s also the only area where your Kinect for Windows cursor will appear. As you plan and design your application, consider where and how big you want this area to be, how itwill affect the user experience, and how it will fit within the orientation of your screen (landscape or portrait).

Full window
In the Interaction Gallery sample, shown at right, the Kinect Region is the entire window; when the sample is maximized, which it is by default, that’s the entire screen. This method is the least jarring and confusing for users because it most directly translates to the expected behavior of cursor areas that they’ve experienced before.

Notes
To try out how it would feel with another setup, use a mouse to click the Restore button at the upper-right of the Interaction Gallery sample window, change the size of the window, and drag it to different parts of the screen. Also, notice that all controls in the sample are mouse-enabled, but are built to be used primarily with Kinect for Windows interactions, with mouse as more of an administrative or testing input. If part of your application is mouse- and keyboard-enabled and part is Kinect for Windows–enabled, consider putting the non–Kinect-enabled controls inside the Kinect Region and then hiding them, along with the mouse cursor, when the user interacts with Kinect for Windows. For more information, see Multiple Inputs, later in this document.

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Basic Interactions > Setting the Stage: the Kinect Region, the PHIZ, and the Cursor

The Physical Interaction Zone
The PHIZ aims to: ? Provide a consistent experience that users can learn quickly, across all Kinect for Windows–enabled applications. ? Enable users to comfortably reach everything they need to interact with. ? Provide responsive tracking (low latency).

Area
The area of the PHIZ is relative to the size and location of the user, and which hand he or she is using. It spans from approximately the user’s head to the navel and is centered slightly to the side corresponding to the hand the user is actively using to interact. Each hand has its own separate PHIZ.

Shape
Instead of mapping directly from a flat, rectangular area that has the same shape as the screen, we take the range of movement of human arms into account and use a curved surface, which makes moving and extending the arm within the area comfortable and natural.

Axis
We measure X and Y dimensions as if the curved surface were a rectangle. We measure Z by arm extension, because we’ve found that this is not always the same as Z space between the user and the sensor.
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Basic Interactions > Setting the Stage: the Kinect Region, the PHIZ, and the Cursor

Ergonomics
The PHIZ stays the same shape and size relative to the user, regardless of the aspect ratio of the Kinect Region (for example, portrait vs. landscape), to keep users in a space where movement is comfortable and not fatiguing. This means that users will always be able to comfortably interact with all parts of your application; however, keep in mind that the thinner and longer your Kinect Region is, the harder it will be for your users to target precisely.
For example, if your screen is extremely tall and narrow, users will have to move their hands much farther to move left and right, and moving up and down will seem extremely fast.

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Basic Interactions > Setting the Stage: the Kinect Region, the PHIZ, and the Cursor

Portrait Screen Interactions
A large screen in portrait orientation is well suited to individual interactions. The entire screen can present a single user-centric interaction surface. The user can interact with the screen in the same way he or she might with a dressing-room mirror.

Portrait screen design
Even though a single user can easily fit into the frame, it can be a challenge to design an experience that involves movement spanning the entire vertical range of the portrait screen. Mapping the PHIZ to the portrait screen will affect the cursor interaction. Moving the cursor left and right seems slower. Moving the cursor up and down seems more rapid, and makes finegrained control more difficult.

UI placement
Place the controls within easy reach of the user, for example, near the center of the PHIZ. Place interaction points away from the margins of the screen and toward the center so that a user can easily use either hand.

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Basic Interactions > Setting the Stage: the Kinect Region, the PHIZ, and the Cursor

User considerations
Avoid long interactions that require the user to keep hisor-her hands raised for more than a few seconds, such as a vertical scroll. Avoid fine-grained vertical motions in your UI interactions. Fined-grained targeting along the vertical axis will cause fatigue in users.

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Basic Interactions > Setting the Stage: the Kinect Region, the PHIZ, and the Cursor

Variations in user height
Portrait screens should account for users of various heights. The UI elements will either need to be designed to accommodate an average user height or should use Adaptive UI design to target individual users. As we mention in Remember your audience earlier in this document, keep your audience in mind.

Consider sensor placement and limitations
If the sensor is placed at the bottom or the top of the portrait screen, it may have difficulty tracking the user at a steep angle. The sensor will see the user’s skeleton and gestures from an angle and if the user is very close to the display, the skeleton may be clipped. A sensor placed at the top of the screen may have difficulty recognizing a short user who is standing close to the screen. As we mentioned in Consider Sensor Placement and Environment earlier in this document, the best practice is to anticipate these limitations and to test the interactions.

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Basic Interactions > Setting the Stage: the Kinect Region, the PHIZ, and the Cursor

The Kinect for Windows Cursor
Much like a mouse cursor, the Kinect for Windows cursor provides visual cues to your users as they target, select, and scroll or pan by moving their hand in the PHIZ. Although we’ve built a lot of feedback into our controls and we suggest you do the same for any new ones you build, we’ve made the cursor a strong mechanism for providing feedback.

Pressing
As a user extends his or her arm in a pressing motion, a color fill goes up and down within the cursor to indicate how far along in the press the user is. This feature was heavily user-tested and has shown to improve pressing accuracy and learnability. It also makes it easier for users to cancel before a press is made, or retarget if a press is about to happen over the wrong control. The cursor also has a visual state that indicates when the user has completed a press.

Gripping
When Kinect for Windows detects that the user’s hand is in a gripped state, the cursor changes to a gripped visual and shows a color consistent with the fully pressed state. This confirms to the user that the grip is detected, as well as being a strong visual cue for how to make a recognizable gripped hand.

Standard cursor and feedback graphics

Default targeting state

Targeting over something that is actionable (grip or press)

Progress indication (color fills hand as the user presses further)

Fully pressed state

Gripped hand detected

Right hand vs. left hand cursors

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Basic Interactions > Setting the Stage: the Kinect Region, the PHIZ, and the Cursor

The cursor moves freely within the Kinect Region only when the user’s hand is in the PHIZ; if the user’s hand is anywhere above and to the sides of the PHIZ, the cursor sticks to the top, left, or right of the window, and becomes semitransparent. This provides feedback for how to get back into the area where the user can interact. When the user’s hand falls below the PHIZ, the cursor drops off the bottom of the screen and is no longer visible, allowing the user to rest or disengage. Because we’ve built only one-handed interactions (see Vary one-handed and two-handed gestures, earlier in this document), by default we show only one cursor for one user at any given time. This cursor is determined by the hand of the primary user who first enters the PHIZ (see the following section, Engagement). The primary user can switch hands at any time by dropping one hand and raising the other.

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Engagement
With most human-computer interactions, it’s easy to know when users mean to interact with the computer, because they deliberately move the mouse, touch the keyboard, or touch the screen. With Kinect for Windows, it’s harder to distinguish between deliberate intent to engage and mere natural movement in front of the sensor. We leave the details of how to handle this up to you, because your specific scenario might have special requirements or sensitivity. This section describes the default behavior and the User Viewer control, covers some things to think about as you design for engagement, and explains the solution we’ve implemented in the Interaction Gallery sample.

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Default engagement behavior
The Kinect for Windows interaction model considers the engaged user to be whoever is in control of the application. By default, the engaged user is the same as the primary user, and the primary user is selected based solely on user hand states observed. These defaults can be overridden.

Hand states
Other than “Not tracked,” they are not mutually exclusive: ? Not tracked – No hands are being tracked. ? Tracked – Kinect is tracking at least one skeleton. ? Active – Hand is tracked, and raised anywhere above the bottom of the PHIZ, at any reachable arm extension – for example, when the arm is reached all the way up, out to the right, or out to the left, and anywhere in between. ? Interactive – Hand is tracked, active, and inside the PHIZ (a smaller rectangle that is within the active area described above).

Primary user
Only one user can control the single cursor at any time; this person is the primary user. Default primary user selection can be overridden by your application to fit your scenario: ? The primary user is designated when the first tracked person raises his or her hand. ? When the primary user drops his or her hand below the PHIZ (out of the active area), or leaves the view of the sensor, he or she stops being the primary user, and another skeletontracked user can raise a hand to become the new primary user. ? While the primary user has an active hand, another user cannot take over. ? Even though the sensor can see up to six people, only two of them will have tracked skeletons. The primary user can only be one of these two fully tracked users.

Notes
It might make sense for your application to cycle through tracked skeletons, to enable all (up to six) users to have the opportunity to be active.

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The User Viewer
We’ve built the User Viewer control to help make engagement easier for users to understand. It’s a simple view that shows silhouettes for any user tracked by the sensor and allows developers to set colors for any visible players. By default, it uses two colors to distinguish between the primary user and others.

Colors
? Color for the primary (engaged) user

? Color for any other users who are detected but not tracked

We’ve chosen some generic colors as default for this control, but you can set them to whatever’s appropriate for your design and brand.

The User Viewer helps to answer the following engagement questions for your users:
? Can the sensor see me? ? Is any part of my body clipped? Is my hand still in view? ? Am I the primary user in control of the experience right now? ? Is it possible for me to take over control of the application? ? Someone just walked in between me and the sensor: am I still tracked? ? Is the person behind me or next to me confusing the sensor and making my cursor jumpy?

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Including the User Viewer in your application helps your users understand how to place themselves at the right distance and orientation for the sensor to see them. It also reduces any feeling that the application or Kinect for Windows is buggy, unresponsive, or unexplainably jumpy, and helps users figure out what is happening and how to make their experience better. As mentioned above, this feedback is especially important in Kinect for Windows interactions, because users moving freely in space will quickly feel a frustrating lack of control if the system does not behave as they expected. For more information, see Feedback, earlier in this document. You can size and place the User Viewer anywhere in your user interface.

In the Interaction Gallery sample, we use the user viewer in two different ways:

A full-screen overlay on the Attract view
The purpose of the Attract view is to show users that we can see them, and entice them to interact with the application. The large User Viewer helps to get this message across and serves as an interesting visualization.

Small and centered at the top on all other screens
This visually cues users to what the sensor sees, who the engaged user is, and how to take over engagement. We also use the small User Viewer as a launching point for application messaging and user education, and replace it with the Sensor Chooser UI if there is a Kinect for Windows connectivity error.
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Considerations for designing engagement
It’s important that when a user is ready to interact with your application, they can do so easily.

The top engagement interaction challenges are to ensure that:
? Users who want to engage, can. ? Users who aren’t trying to engage, don’t. ? Engaging feels natural and intuitive. ? Engaging doesn’t feel like significant additional effort.

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Ease of engagement
When considering how to design your application’s engagement strategy, consider how and where you expect your users to interact with it. In some scenarios, it should be harder for users to engage.

Quick, easy engagement
If you’re not concerned about false positives, a “low barrier” solution might simply look for a tracked user’s hand entering the PHIZ (being interactive), such as our default behavior does. For example, this might be a good method for a simple interactive sign.

Deliberate, safe engagement
A “high barrier” solution could build on top of a low barrier, looking for additional factors in order to remove false positives. For example, you might want this when data or consequences are more critical.

Notes
With the high-barrier solution, after the low-barrier criteria are met, hinting could show what else is required to complete engagement. You might trigger engagement when the user: ? Faces the screen ? Raises a hand into the engagement area ? Is in front of the sensor and remains stationary for a short time (less than 500 milliseconds)

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Common false positives for engagement
Your challenge is to design actions that feel easy to the user, but also don’t risk false positives.

Here are some common user behaviors that can potentially be misinterpreted:
? Holding something (such as a drink or mobile phone) ? Moving a hand toward the body or resting it on the body ? Touching the face or hair ? Resting an arm on the back of a chair ? Yawning and extending arms ? Talking and gesturing with other people

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Initial engagement
In the Interaction Gallery sample, we demonstrate an example of a more complicated engagement model that has a “speed bump” for initial engagement and then allows deliberate engagement handoff between users.

Here is how the engagement flow works:
? The application starts in Attract view, which cycles through images, enticing users to come and interact. ? As users who walk by are detected, they appear as gray silhouettes in a full-screen overlay on the Attract view. ? When a user pauses and faces the sensor, her player mask turns purple and she is directed to raise her hand. (For more information about player masks, see Multiple Users, later in this document.) ? Once the user raises her hand, her silhouette is replaced with a cursor, and she is presented with a large button and instructed to “Push Here.” Note that this also serves as user education, teaching the press-to-select interaction. In user research, we found that this was enough to teach people to successfully press to interact with the rest of the application. ? After she presses the large button in the center of the screen, she is successfully engaged and enters the Home view of the application.

Notes
This is a fairly high barrier to entry, requiring a user to perform a deliberate action in order to engage. Another option would be to skip this step and go directly to the home page after a user raises his or her hand into the PHIZ.

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User handoff
After initial engagement, the Interaction Gallery sample demonstrates how users can hand off to another user.

The following occurs in the event that one user decides to relinquish control to another:
? If, at any time, the primary (interacting) user drops her hand below the PHIZ, a second skeleton-tracked user has a chance to take over control and is assigned a blue color in the User Viewer. ? Messaging comes out from the small User Viewer to inform the second tracked user that he has an opportunity to raise a hand to take over.

? If the second user raises his hand, he has temporary control of the cursor and is prompted to press a button to take over.

? If, at any time before the second user presses, the first user raises her hand, she is still the primary user and will remain in control of the application, removing the ability for the second user to take over. ? If the second user completes the press, he is now the primary user, and has control over the cursor.

? If the primary user leaves, the application will give any other tracked user the chance to confirm engagement and remain in the current view.

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This solution overrides the default engagement behavior in the following ways:
? The primary user drops his or her hand but does not completely disengage and other users cannot immediately take over control. ? The primary user does not immediately switch when one user drops his or her hand and the second user raises his or her hand. ? A third User Viewer color is used for the candidate user who has the option of taking over control. ? The candidate user who is trying to take over control is temporarily the primary user, but will not remain so if he or she does not complete the required speed-bump action.

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Basic Interactions > Targeting

Targeting
After users have engaged with a Kinect for Windows application, one of the first tasks is to target an object (get to an area or item they want to open or take action on). Where people traditionally move a mouse or move their hand over a touch screen, they can now move their hand in the PHIZ to control a cursor on the screen. We’ve enabled targeting from a distance to enable natural integration with other distance-based interactions. We’ve found that people naturally move their hands in the X, Y, and Z axes even when they think they’re moving only in a single axis. Our ergonomic PHIZ helps translate to the screen what users think and feel they are doing. As with any new input method, there’s a slight learning curve, but users quickly learn, especially as they continue to encounter the same experience in all Kinect for Windows– enabled applications. As you design interfaces where users target objects, consider the following.

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Basic Interactions > Targeting

Do
Make controls easy to target, with appropriate spacing, placement, and sizes.

Don’t
Crowd multiple controls together or make them too small to reliably hit.

(Our recommended smallest button size is 220px; see Screen Resolution.)

Make it clear which objects the user can take action on.
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Make users guess which items they can interact with.

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Make sure visual feedback matches user intent.

Provide ambiguous feedback.

Provide audio feedback when the user targets an actionable item.

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Basic Interactions > Selecting

Selecting
Typically, users target an item in order to take action on it. For example, they may want to select a button that triggers a reaction, such as navigation, in an application. In this document, when we refer to selecting, we mean selecting an item and triggering an action.

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With the Kinect Button and Kinect Cursor components in the Developer Toolkit, we are introducing a new interaction for selecting with Kinect for Windows: pressing. We’ve found that when presented with a Kinect for Windows control, users naturally think of pressing with their hand in space; it maps nicely to their understanding of the physical world where they press physical buttons or extend their arm to point at objects. Currently, the components we’ve built support only the ability to select an item to trigger an action, but you could extend and build on the interaction to make it work for other selection scenarios, such as toggling multiple items in a list. Along with the press interaction, we’ve provided you with two styles of Kinect Button as components in the Developer Toolkit, designed specifically to provide a good pressing experience as well as feedback. We’ll cover our new button styles and tips later in this section.

Notes
Although we’ve built only buttons so far, we think it’s a good idea to use the press interaction for other selectable controls where it feels natural. If you’re building your own Kinect for Windows controls, consider using the press gesture where it translates well, to keep experiences consistent and avoid forcing users to learn a large gesture set.

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Why is pressing better than hovering?
The Basic Interactions sample in the 1.6 version of the Developer Toolkit showed hovering as the solution for selection. In that model, a user must target a control, and then hold his or her hand over that control for a specified amount of time to make the selection. Although it’s easy to learn, and dependable, hovering over controls is not something users can get better or faster at, and as a result, selection interactions can seem tedious and slow. People also tend to feel anxious about the hover progress timer starting, so they keep moving their hand, or feel they have to hold their hand in a blank area so as not to inadvertently select something. Pressing allows users to be precise, but to go at their own pace and use a more natural movement.

As we designed the pressing model, our goals were:
? Users can select with no training. ? Users can select anywhere on the screen. ? Performance improves over the hover model.

1.6 hover model

1.7 press model

We want users to be confident when they press to select and we want to make inadvertent selections rare. Here are some of the problems we’ve worked to solve while translating users’ hand movements and arm extensions in space to a press on the screen: ? A user means to simply target (moving in X and Y axes) when they are physically making some movements in Z. ? A user means to push or press “straight out” in Z when, in fact, he or she is moving quite a lot in X and Y. ? Different users will start pressing at different arm-extension levels (for example, some with their arm close to their body, some with their arm almost fully extended). ? Users need to cancel an inadvertent press gesture. ? Users need visual progress feedback: how much more do they need to press? Are they pressing when they don’t mean to? ? Users need to learn to press in order to select.

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Kinect Button
The Developer Toolkit provides you with two styles of Kinect Button, a component we’ve built to make the most common selectable control easy to add to your application and to customize for your experience. We’ve built in feedback to help users understand that the control is targetable, which control they’re targeting, and how to interact with it in 3D space. A combination of the button’s changing size and the cursor visuals helps users understand that they need to press and how far they need to press in order to select it. It also shows them if they’re in the middle of a press so they can cancel if they need to.

In designing pressing with our button controls, we decided to trigger on release, similarly to standard touch and mouse behavior. This enables users to cancel a press at any time by moving their hand up, left, or right. Moving their hand down will trigger a release, however, because we found that as people get confident with their presses, they often drop their hand as they release. Although the buttons were designed for Kinect for Windows interactions, they also respond to mouse, keyboard, and touch input.

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Button styles
We are providing two button styles you can use: tiles and circle buttons. You can change button sizes, shapes, and colors, and also create your own, but we think these styles are a good baseline and will cover most of the common scenarios. The buttons are the recommended sizes for 1920x1080 screens. If you’re developing for a different screen resolution, be sure to adjust the size, to make sure your users can both hit them accurately and read button text from the distance you expect them to interact from. For a chart of how button size translates for different resolutions, see the chart in Best Setup for Controls and Interactions, earlier in this document. In the Interaction Gallery sample, we show an example of how to use the tile button style tailored to specific experiences and styled for a specific brand. Look at the Video Player module to see a slightly different use of a circle button (which is outlined on the following page).

Tile buttons
We provide three sizes for tile buttons: small (220px), medium (330px) and large (440px).

? Tile buttons can fit in a grid, with equal padding between tiles. Padding can vary, if hit areas don’t overlap. For usability, button size is more important than padding. ? Tile buttons are composed of a background (which can be a solid color or an image/symbol) and a text area that overlays the background on the bottom edge. ? If text is omitted, the overlay does not appear. If an image is omitted, a solid color appears. ? You can easily resize them to fit your design. ? Tile buttons are good for listing items, launching pages, or navigating. ? Tile buttons are built to be easy for users to target and select – keep them somewhat large so that they‘ll remain easy to target. ? The border property allows for invisible padding that is hit-targetable. This allows buttons without dead space between them, making it easier for users to select within a group of items. By default, tile buttons have invisible 5px borders.

In the Interaction Gallery sample, we use tile buttons for: ? Tiles on the home screen that navigate you to each of the modules ? Images that launch shadow boxes in both the horizontal scrolling view and the Article view ? The buttons for the engagement speed bumps

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Circle buttons
These are used mostly for simple navigation buttons (such as Back or Home) or for settings.

Normal

Hover

Pressed

Disabled

PLAY

PLAY

PLAY

PLAY

? The design is a circle surrounding a glyph of your choice; you can also add text below or to the right of the circle. ? You can scale the size of the circle and text to fit your needs and resolution. ? You can replace the circle and glyph with an image of your choice. ? Make sure that they are easy to target and select on your resolution and screen size. ? The button and text are inside a rectangular area that is all hit-targetable – this enables users to be less accurate and still hit the button. The area of the button is larger than the visuals, which helps reduce clutter without making users struggle to select the buttons. ? By default you can use them in black or white, or you can re-template them to use a brand color of your choice.

In the Interaction Gallery sample, we use circle buttons for: ? Back buttons in various views ? The Close (X) button on shadow boxes ? The Play/Pause/Replay button on the video view

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Basic Interactions > Panning and Scrolling

Panning and Scrolling
Scrolling enables users to navigate up and down, or left and right; panning can enable users to navigate freely in X and Y within a canvas, like dragging a finger over a map on a touchscreen. Experiences often allow users to scroll and pan continuously, pixel by pixel through content, at intervals through a surface or page, or between consecutive screens or views.

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Basic Interactions > Panning and Scrolling

With the Kinect Scroll Viewer component, we’re introducing a new direct-manipulation, continuous panning and scrolling interaction: grip and move. Kinect for Windows can detect the user’s hand closing into a fist, called gripping. This interaction is a solution for scrolling through lists or panning on large canvases, but might not be the strongest interaction for navigation between discrete pages, screens, or views. The gesture allows for a high level of control, but can be fatiguing to do repeatedly or for large jumps. You can place content or controls inside a Kinect Scroll Viewer to add this experience to an application.

Notes
Although we’ve built grip recognition to work specifically for scrolling or panning, consider using it for similar interactions, such as zooming, drag and drop, or rotating. Gripping works best if the user is no more than 2m away from the sensor. Gripping works best if users’ wrists are easily seen. Encourage users to remove large coats or items on their wrists before interacting by gripping. For paging or view-changing scrolling scenarios, consider using Kinect Buttons in the scroll viewer, or above it, to help jump users to the place they’re looking for. When there are discrete sections, it may be faster and less frustrating to navigate straight to them, rather than scroll to them with direct manipulation.

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Why is gripping to scroll better than hovering?
The Basic Interactions sample from the 1.6 version of the Developer Toolkit showed an example of scrolling through a list of items by targeting a large button and hovering over it, making the canvas move at a constant pace. Like using hovering to select, it was very easy and reliable to use, but also frustrating and slow. Although there are ways to make hovering to scroll work better, such as allowing acceleration, we’ve found that direct manipulation with grip is a fun interaction and allows users to control their speed and distance more deliberately.

1.6 hover model

1.7 grip model

As we worked on this new interaction with panning and scrolling in mind, we had the following goals:
? Provide feedback when the user grips and releases. ? Enable users to successfully scroll short distances with precision. ? Enable users to scroll longer distances without frustration or fatigue.

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Kinect Scroll Viewer
In order to provide you with the best arena for panning and scrolling through lists by gripping, we’ve built the Kinect Scroll Viewer for you to use in your applications as a component from the Developer Toolkit. Although it was designed for Kinect for Windows input, it also responds to mouse, keyboard, and touch input.
dETaIl

Developer Options
? You can enable and disable scrolling in X or Y axes. ? The control allows free panning when both X and Y are enabled (imagine dragging around a canvas). ? Use the Kinect Items Control to create a databound list of items to scroll through.

User Experience
? Users can grip anywhere within the Scroll Viewer and drag to directly manipulate the canvas. ? Users can grip and fling to scroll longer distances, and the canvas will continue moving while being slowed by a set amount of friction. ? The Kinect Scroll Viewer tries to correct for accidental scrolls in the wrong direction as users repeatedly fling. ? Users can stop a moving canvas at any time by gripping or pressing on the scrolling area. ? When the end of a scrollable area is reached, it has a slight elastic bounce to provide feedback to the user.
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Users should be able to scroll or pan by gripping any portion of the screen that actually moves when scrolled (any part of the Kinect Scroll Viewer). When the Kinect Cursor is over the Kinect Scroll Viewer, by default the background color of the Kinect Scroll Viewer changes to indicate the grippable area. We found that this color change makes the interaction easier to understand and complete. The Kinect Scroll Viewer enables users to move their gripped fist slowly for finer control, or “fling” the content if they want to traverse a longer distance. The fling gesture is particularly helpful when users want to reach the beginning or end of a list quickly. Kinect for Windows ignores pressing when the user’s hand is gripped, except to stop scrolling, or unless the user has already completed a press when a grip is detected. The visual padding at either end of the Kinect Scroll Viewer, along with the elastic effect during scrolling, and the bounce when the end is hit from a fling, help to indicate to the user that they’ve reached the beginning or end of a list. We suggest that you avoid using long scrollable lists of content in applications, because repeatedly doing any gesture can be fatiguing and frustrating. Try to ensure that most users can reach either end of a list with no more than two or three repetitions. Grip-and-move to scroll or pan can be a fun and novel experience, but grip recognition while users are quickly moving their hands is not extremely reliable, so we suggest that you reserve the Kinect Scroll Viewer for non-critical tasks. Combining grip-and-move with other gesture interactions might also make them both slightly less reliable. Ergonomically, horizontal scrolling is usually easier and more comfortable for people than vertical scrolling. Where possible, structure your user interface to allow for horizontally scrolling content. Also, remember that, as with any new gesture, user education is important. Many users have never experienced a grip-and-move interaction before. Grip recognition works best when users are deliberate about their hand positions. Sometimes half-closed hands are misrecognized as grips. Many users figure this out quickly, but having clear messaging can help avoid initial confusion or frustration.

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User Interface
? The color of the overlay that appears when the Kinect Cursor enters the Kinect Scroll Viewer is configurable. By default, it is a semi-transparent gray. ? The only visible part of the Scroll Viewer is the scrollbar. ? A small panning indicator shows the users’ current location in the canvas and the amount of canvas available. Users cannot grab the panning indicator; it is only provided as visual feedback. The panning indicator only appears when the user is actively scrolling by gripping (not with a mouse). ? If mouse movement is detected, the scrollbar appears, with a traditional thumb control and two arrows. After mouse movement stops, the scrollbar times out and disappears, returning to the panning indicator.

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Notes
Horizontal scrolling is easier ergonomically than vertical scrolling. If you have vertical scrolling, do not design it to span the entire height of the screen. Kinect Scroll Viewer areas that take up larger screen space are easier to scroll through. It is less fatiguing for users if they don’t have to reach across their body to scroll. Be sure to provide clear user education when you include grip scrolling in an interface.

In the Interaction Gallery sample, the Scroll Viewer is used: ? In the Pannable Map view, for 2D panning ? In the Article view, for scrolling the text vertically

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Basic Interactions > Zooming (Z-Axis Panning)

Zooming (Z-Axis Panning)
Zooming makes objects on the screen larger or smaller, or displays more or less detail. Many people are familiar with using a zoom control with a mouse and keyboard, or pinching to zoom on a touch screen. Zooming with Kinect for Windows can be especially challenging because it’s much harder to be precise about distance, or start and end points, when users aren’t directly touching the surface. Currently, we don’t provide controls or interactions that help with zooming, but we recommend using our grip recognition if you do your own implementation of zooming, to keep it consistent with the scroll interaction. The following suggestions are based on existing zooming UI that people might be familiar with.

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Triggered zoom mode
UI that represents the hands, or a symbolic visual, such as arrows, to indicate that zooming has been initiated. This is useful if, for example, the user triggers zooming by holding both hands up.

+

Zoom control UI
UI that can be similar to a slider from 0 to 100 percent. It might be useful to enable users to grab and drag the slider, or press and hold Forward or Back buttons on either side.

VUI
Voice commands like “Zoom 100%,” “Zoom in,” or “Zoom out,” which enable users to jump to different zoom increments. Avoid forcing people to do too much repetition of voice commands.

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Basic Interactions > Zooming (Z-Axis Panning)

The goal of zooming is to manipulate an object on the screen and see the results. Here are some ways to map user actions to zoom responses. As with anything that requires direct manipulation, try to avoid lag, and keep the UI as responsive as possible.

Proportion of change in two-handed zoom
Look for the user to hold up both hands, and then base the percent of zoom on the percent of change in the distance of the hands toward or away from each other.

This might feel most intuitive and familiar to users, because it’s similar to the touch interaction. However, it can be a challenge to implement it well. For example, you need to define the start and end of the gesture accurately to make the zoom level stick at the appropriate location.

Z-axis zoom
Use a literal translation between a user’s hand and object, by zooming with the hand moving in Z-space. That is, increase zoom as the user’s hand pulls in towards the body, and decrease as the hand pushes out.
Z-space is typically harder to work with, so this can be a more challenging, although intriguing, approach.

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Basic Interactions > Zooming (Z-Axis Panning)

Trigger + zoom gesture
Enable users to trigger zooming mode by voice or a distinct gesture, and then to zoom in or out by using another gesture.
It’s important to avoid false activations with this method, because it could be very disorienting to trigger zooming by mistake.

A set increment triggered by a directional gesture
Specify the same increment for every zoomed gesture.

This can be tedious and frustrating for big zooms, but can work well for semantic zooming. Semantic zooming is when the zoom makes a more meaningful content change – such as zooming out of one page in a document to see all the pages in the document, or zooming in on a collection of tiled items to display titles or dates.

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Basic Interactions > Text Entry

Text Entry
Voice and gesture aren’t strong input methods for text entry, and you should avoid designing for it. Keep in mind that text entry with gesture is usually a series of targeting and selecting actions, which can get frustrating and tiring if the user must do it multiple times in sequence. If you expect users to need to enter text, and they have access to alternative inputs such as a touchscreen, it’s best to direct them to that input method.

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Basic Interactions > Text Entry

Avoiding ineffective input
Writing content by gesturing or voice is very difficult, slow, and unreliable. Searching or filtering can be successful if the user only needs to select a few letters.

Virtual keyboard
A virtual keyboard is a text-entry UI that people might be familiar with. It an allows for brief text entry by targeting and selecting from a list of letters.

Most targeting and selecting enhancements we’ve described for other inputs can be combined to make text entry easier. For example, it can be useful to increase collision volume (a specified range beyond the visual boundary within which an object responds to input) based on predicted words, or filter letters available based on completion. As always, be sensitive to being too forceful or presumptuous about what your user’s intent is, and leave them in control.
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Do
Enable text entry for searching, or filter through a small set where only a few letters are required.

Don’t
Require long text entry with a gesture that imitates a keyboard experience.

Enable voice text entry with a small number of recognized words.

Require voice text entry with individual letters (sounds are too similar: “B,” “P,” “V”).

Use voice for short phrases and for a limited and appropriate set of tasks.

Require long phrase dictation or conversational voice input.

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Additional Interactions

Additional Interactions
In addition to the basic interactions of targeting and selecting, scrolling, zooming, and entering text, Kinect for Windows enables more complex distance-dependent interactions, as well as multiple input modes and multiple-user scenarios.

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DistanceDependent Interactions
With Kinect for Windows, users no longer need to directly touch a computer in order to interact with it. Of course, this introduces an interesting set of considerations for designing interactions and interfaces for larger distances. This section describes how you can make your interface more usable at any distance.

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Interaction ranges
Users can interact with Kinect for Windows from a variety of distances. These distances are divided into the following categories: Out of Range, Far Range, Near Range, and Tactile Range. (Note that Near Range does not refer to the Near mode setting detailed in Meet the Kinect for Windows Sensor, earlier in this document.)

Out of range (over 4 meters)
Most Kinect for Windows interactions aren’t feasible at this range. Your UI should focus on broadly informing users that an interesting interaction is available, and enticing them to move closer with an Attract view.

Visuals must be very large and simple, and in some cases you can use audio to get users’ attention. You could use this range to see general shapes – for example, to see where movement is in the room.

Far (2.0-4.0 meters)
In Far Range, the user’s full skeleton typically is visible. Seated mode is also available.

Gestures that are fairly coarse-grained, and short commands, work best in this range. The UI must be large enough to be visible from far away.

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Near (0.4-2.0 meters)
In Near Range, a full skeleton might be partially obscured or cut off, but this is a good distance for seated mode.

Because the user is near to the sensor, you can have fairly detailed visuals, longer phrases for speech, and finer gestures and depth data. This is also a good range to work in if you plan to require object or symbol recognition.

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Tactile (0.0-0.4 meters)
This is the range at which people could use a touch screen; thus by definition, they must be no further than an arm’s length away.

Because the user is close to the screen, this range can have the highest level of detail for visuals and controls. (Many items, small items, and fine detail.)

If your user is in Tactile Range, mouse, keyboard, and touch might be more appropriate input methods than voice or gesture. Neither depth nor skeleton data is available at this distance; depth data is limited to at least 40cm in Near Range, and at least 80cm in Far Range.

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Content, text, and target sizes
As the user gets further away from the screen, the text and target sizes should adjust to account for what he or she can see, and what Kinect for Windows can adequately hear. Also consider the increasing imprecision and decreasing detail in hand-tracking and gestures over distance.

Graphics-to-text ratio
As distance increases, consider increasing the graphics and size of text, and reducing the amount of text to maintain user engagement and reduce visual strain.

Transitions
As the UI adjusts to users’ distance, use transitions to help them keep their context and understand how their movements affect what they see.

User orientation
Consider using anchor points or unchanging sections to orient users and provide consistency.

Visual consistency
Be consistent in the general location of items that users can take action on.

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Item placement and quantity
Two things factor into determining the number of items on the screen that users can take action on, and where the items should be placed: ? The distance between the user(s) and the sensor ? Screen size and resolution When designing screens, keep the following in mind.

Object grouping
In general, grouping items in an easyto-reach area can help users have faster interactions. Corners and edges tend to be harder to target than the center.

Distance adjustments
With longer distances, text has to be larger and gestures less detailed, which will most likely lead to fewer gestures and voice commands in Far Range.

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Adaptive UI
With an adaptive UI, your application can dynamically adjust to optimize the experience for a user based on his or her position and height. An adaptive UI is most useful on large displays where the user may not be able to see or reach all of the content on the screen. The application can adapt to show an appropriate UI for the user based on his or her distance from the screen.

Points of orientation
Remember to establish and maintain visual consistency as the application adapts to the user in each interaction range. Refer to Content, text, and target sizes earlier in the document. Consider the user-experience flow, and design the application so a user in the Tactile Range can comfortably see and reach the interface elements related to his or her task without having to move away from the screen.

Adapt to variable positions and user height
Since users can interact with Kinect for Windows sensor from a variety of distances, you can design your application for the user at each interaction range. ? Users may begin interacting with the application from any range. Design your application to adapt to the current position of the user. Refer to Interaction ranges earlier in this document. ? Guide the user through the different ranges with appropriate cues and transitions so he or she is never confused about what can be done at any given location. Refer to “User orientation” and “Layout continuity” in Feedback Interaction Design earlier in this document.

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Transitions
Use transitions to help the user keep context as they move between interaction ranges.

Do
Design a transition that reveals or hides additional information or detail without altering or obscuring the anchor points in the overall UI.

Don’t
Reflow text or content and discard visual context from one range to another.

Guide the user with clear feedback so they can control transitions from one range to another. If a specific distance is used as a transition threshold, allow minor changes in the user’s stance so the UI doesn’t change without specific intent.

Rapidly toggle between states when a user is positioned at the boundary between interaction ranges.

Design UI where users can accomplish all tasks for each goal within a single range.

Don’t separate out tasks within one goal and disrupt the flow of the experience by having the user repeatedly cross ranges.

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User’s field of view
The user’s field of view and reach determines the most comfortable area for his or her interactions based on his or her distance from the screen. At a Far Range the field of view may be the entire screen. At a Tactile Range the field of view may be a small portion of the screen. In adapting the UI to the user: ? Adjust the interface to account for the user’s field of view. ? Position the UI for Tactile Range interactions based on the user’s field of view and reach. This is important on a larger screen where the user cannot see or reach the entire screen.

Adaptive UI at Tactile Range
Make sure the user has easy-to-reach access to the controls and information relevant to the Tactile Range action. Avoid displaying information out of the immediate field of view that will require the user to step back to see or access.

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Adaptive UI with multiple users
For experiences with multiple users, it may be necessary to provide individual UI controls for each user. The individual controls can also be adaptive and may be based on the position of each user. In addition, the application may continue to provide information, visuals, and sounds targeted to other users observing the application. For more information see Multiple Users later in this document.

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Additional Interactions > Multiple Inputs

Multiple Inputs
Much as we often use both voice and gesture to communicate with each other, sometimes the most natural way to interact with an application can involve multiple input methods. Of course, with some options and combinations, you risk creating a confusing experience. This section outlines the ways to make multimodal actions clear and usable. We recommend designing your Kinect for Windows controls to work with multiple inputs to allow for greater flexibility and easier troubleshooting. Kinect Button and Kinect Scroll Viewer are examples of controls that work with Kinect for Windows as well as mouse, touch, and keyboard.

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Based on your use scenario, think about how you want your controls to handle multiple inputs:
? Will users interact with the application by using more than one input at any given time? ? Do you want users to be able to use any input method or input at any time? Only with certain controls? Only at specified times in your task flow? ? Does one input method take priority over the others if multiple methods are used at once? If the Kinect Button and Kinect Scroll Viewer detect multiple inputs, they respond to the first one detected.

In the Interaction Gallery sample, either the mouse cursor or Kinect Cursor can be visible and used at any given time. The Kinect Cursor is on by default, but if mouse movement is detected: ? The Kinect Cursor is disabled and invisible. ? The mouse cursor becomes visible. ? The Mouse Scrollbar appears on the Scroll Viewer. ? The application frame with windowing controls becomes visible if the application is in full-screen view (which it is by default). ? After the mouse has been inactive for two seconds, Kinect for Windows mode comes back on and reverses the changes. ? All controls in the application respond to mouse, keyboard, and touch input at any time.

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Single mode interactions
With single-mode interactions, multiple input modes are available but only one is used per action. For example, your application might allow people to use voice to trigger some commands, and gesture to navigate; or it might use keyboard for text input in Tactile Range and skeleton tracking and gestures at a distance. Here are a few things to remember.

User cues
Provide visual and/or audio cues to the user about what input methods are available.

Backup methods
Whenever possible, have a back-up input method that users can switch to in order to complete any given task (for example, either mouse or voice for selecting a button).

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Multimodal interactions
With multimodal interactions, the user employs multiple input methods in sequence to complete a single action.

Speech + gesture
The user points to a product, and then says “Add to cart.”
Add to cart

Speech + touch
The user presses and holds a photo, and then says “Send photo.”

Send photo

Speech + skeleton
The user says “Record,” and then makes a movement.
Record

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Here are some reasons to use multimodal interactions:

Reduce the number of steps for a more complex action
For example, sending a photo typically takes two steps using the same input method – clicking the photo and then clicking Send. With multimodality, this can become one action with two input methods.
Send

Enable triggering controls without moving the user’s body
For example, if a task relies on a user’s body being in a certain position, voice is a great way to trigger an action without the person having to move.
Record

Increase confidence
For example, it’s more likely that a command will be not be executed accidentally if the user has to do two things to perform it.

Make the best use of each input
For example, you might require voice input to put the application into volume-setting mode, but require gesture to give the input for the actual volume level.
Volume

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Additional Interactions > Multiple Users

Multiple Users
Kinect for Windows can track up to two skeletons and, therefore, detailed movement information from two users simultaneously. This opens the way for some interesting collaborative interactions, as well as new challenges regarding control and inputs. Currently our Kinect for Windows controls and interactions don’t support multiple simultaneous users. Only one person can be actively interacting with them at any time. This section covers what we know so far about designing for multiple users.

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Tracking
Kinect for Windows can be aware of up to six people, tracking two of them in skeleton detail, returning full joint information. For the other four users, Kinect for Windows returns a small amount of information: a player mask specifying the mask or volume of the person, and a center position.

Your application needs to select the two people who will be primary. We recommend that the first two skeletons detected become the primary users by default.

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Multiple users and distance
As you design experiences and build your expectations, keep in mind the number of people who can physically be in view, depending on their distance from the sensor. You can expect Kinect for Windows to track the following number of people in each distance range.

Tactile

Near

Far

Out of range

Number of People

0

1-2

1-6

0

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Multiple users, multimodality, and collaboration
Enabling multimodality with multiple users means that you can have many combinations of people at different distances, using different input methods. Depending on your model for collaboration, there are some important considerations for the different ways of handling this.

Collaborative interactions
Collaborative interaction is when two users interact with the same screen space and inputs. This means that any action taken by one user affects the state of the application for both. There are two options for balancing control in this case:

Single-driver model
This model assigns one of the users as the “driver” at any given time and registers actions taken by that person only. The driver role can be selected or transferred in a number of ways, including designating the first user to engage as driver, or the user that is closer to the sensor. This is one way to avoid conflicting inputs. Typically, this model has visuals that show which person is being tracked, and has only one cursor on the screen at any time.

Equal participation model
This model takes input from both users, often simply in the order that it’s given. This works very well for scenarios where each user has a unique experience to drive, as in games or avateering (making one’s skeletal movement affect the avatar’s movement on screen). However, it can be a very complex model for navigating or for basic interactions.

For the Interaction Gallery example of handing off between single drivers, see User Handoff, earlier in this document.

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Non-collaborative interactions
In a non-collaboratve interaction, each user has his or her own sub-experience within the interface.

You can handle this with screen partitioning or sectioning. In general, this experience should be very similar to the single-driver experience described above; however, it’s an extra challenge to correctly map each person’s speech and actions to the corresponding interface. Voice commands can be a challenge. Gestures and movement should have separate visual feedback per user.

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Conclusion

Conclusion
Kinect for Windows is at the forefront of the revolution known as NUI—Natural User Interface. The next generation of humancomputer interaction, NUI lets people interact with any device, anywhere, using the movements and language they use every day in their lives. Microsoft Kinect for Windows– enabled applications open a broad range of new possibilities for people to interact with computers in ways that feel natural. From business to the arts, from education to gaming, and beyond, NUI expands the horizons of application development. In this document we’ve provided you with the tenets and best practices for creating NUI applications, and guidance on both the basic and more advanced Kinect for Windows interactions for gesture and voice. We hope our suggestions help you create “magical” experiences for your users. Your development of touch-free, natural UI will shape the way people experience and interact with software applications for years to come.

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