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定语从句语法解析(三)


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定语从句语法解析(三)
五、紧缩的定语从句 1. 关于“介词+关系代词+不定式” 该结构主要用于正式文体中,相当于一个被紧缩的定语从句: She must have time in which to grow calm. 她必须有冷静下来时的时间。 Allow me one minute in which to change my clothes. 给我一点时间换衣服。 He was miserable unless he had neighbors with whom to quarrel. 他要是没有邻居吵架就 难受。 注意,该结构中的介词不能没有,也不能位于不定式后面: 在那儿孩子们有个玩耍的花园。 正:There the children had a garden in which to play. (很正式) 正:There the children had a garden in which they could play. (较正式) 正:There the children had a garden to play in. (较口语化) 误:There the children had a garden which to play in.

2. 将定语从句转化为分词短语 有时为了简洁起见可将定语从句转化为分词短语作定语: Who’s the girl who is sitting beside Jim? / Who’s the girl sitting beside Jim? 坐在吉姆 旁边的女孩是谁? Most of the people who were invited to the party were teachers. / Most of the people invited to the party were teachers. 应邀参加晚会大多数是教师。 Anyone who touches that wire will get a shock. / Anyone touching that wire will get a

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shock.任何人触到那根电线都会遭到电击。 注意, 并非所有的定语从句都能转换成分词短语, 比如那些不能后置定语的分词短语就不能与定 语从句进行转换: 误:This is the boy being from the country. (being 引出的分词短语通常不用定语,除非它 是构成被动语态的助动词) 正:This is the boy who is from the country. 这是来自乡下的那个男孩。 误:We caught the thief having stolen the car. (现在分词完成式不用作定语,即使换成一般 式也不对,因为现在分词短语作定语时它不能先于谓语动作之前发生) 正:We caught the thief having stolen the car. 我们抓住了偷汽车的小偷。

六、应考定语从句的几个易错点 1. 混淆定语从句与并列句 请看下面两题: (1) He has two children, and both of _____ are abroad. A. them B. whichC. whomD. who (2) He has two children, both of _____ are abroad. A. them B. whichC. whomD. who 第(1)题选 A,第(2)题选 C。由于第(1)题中用了并列连词 and,从而使整个句子为并列句,and 后应是一个独立的简单句,所以选 A 不选 C;第(2)题没有并列连词 and,both of whom are abroad 为非限制性定语从句。

2. 混淆定语从句与表语(从句)

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请看下面的试题: (1) Your coat is still _____ you left it. A. whereB. there C. there where D. the place where

答案选 A,where 引导的是表语从句(=在…的地方),而不是定语从句。 (2) Is this school _____ your father worked in ten years ago? A. whereB. what C. that D. the one

答案选 D,this school 为句子主语,the one 为表语,your father worked in…为定语从句。 不要误认为 this 是句子主语,否则 school 前应加冠词 the。比较: Is this the school _____ your father worked in ten years ago? A. whereB. what C. that D. the one(选 C)

Is this the school _____ your father worked ten years ago? A. whereB. what C. that D. the one (选 A)

3. 混淆定语从句与状语从句 请看下面的试题: (1) I went upstairs ______I heard some crying. A. whereB. when C. that D. which

答案是 B 而不是 A,when 的意思是“当…的时候”,引导的是时间状语从句。(upstairs 为副 词,不宜用作先行词) (2) He is _____ a clever boy _____ we all like. A. such, that B. such, as C. so, that D. so, as

答案应选 B,而不是 A。such … that …(如此…以致…)用于引导结果状语从句,其中的 that 不

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充当句子成分,而 such…as…中的 as 为关系代词,用以引导定语从句并在定语从句充当句子成 分。上句中第二空之所以选 as,是因为它用作动词 like 宾语。

4. 误加与关系代词同义的人称代词 误:He is a man everyone respects him. 正:He is a man everyone respects. 他是一个人人都敬重的人。

5. 混淆关系代词与关系副词 有的同学一看到先行词是表示时间、 地点、 原因的名词, 就认为一定要用关系副词, 其实也一定。 在此情况下,还要看关系词在定语从句中是用作什么成分,若是用作状语,则用关系副词,若不 是用作状语(如用作主语、宾语等)则不能用关系副词,而用关系代词。比较: This is the factory where I want to work. 这就是我想工作的工厂。(work 为不及物动词 where 在从句中用作状语) This is the factory that I want to visit. 这就是我想参观的工厂。(visit 为及物动词,that 用作 visit 的宾语) The reason why he can’t come is that he is ill. 他没来的是因为他病了。(come 为不及物 动词,why 在定语从句中用作状语) The reason that he put forth is very important. 他提出的理由很重要。(put forth 为及物动 词,that 在定语从句中用作其宾语)

6. 因逗号误判 which 有的同学一看见逗号, 就以为一定要选 which 而不选 that, 但问题是有时根本就不是定语从句:

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(1) If a book is in English, _____ means slow progress for you. A. as B. whichC. what D. that

(2) When I say two hours, _____ includes time for eating. A. as B. whichC. what D. that

以上两题均应选 that,而不能选 which,因为它们根本不是定语从句。之所以选 that,是因为 句中已有 if 和 when 引导的状语从句,逗号后为主句,that 为主句主语。

7. 混淆 which 与 whose 两者在定语从句中都可用作定语,区别是: whose 的意思相当于 one’s,而 which 的意思 则相当于 that 或 this。比较: (1) This is Mary, whose [= and her] father we met last week. (2) Call again at 11, by which time [= and by that time] the meeting should be over.


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