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The difference of Chinese and Western novels in the characterization


The difference of Chinese and Western novels in the characterization The East (or Chinese) novels not only shape the characters and events, attaches great importance to the words and deeds describing description by words and deeds reflected the character's position and valued orientation, but also pay attention to the compact nature of the plot and suspense, the attractiveness of the flash in the pan, the widespread rap with folk literature with an integral contact. For foreign novels, attaches great importance to the static psychological description, through subtle changes in the inner world of characters, the size of the event meanders through the conversion of character perspective, they (foreign readers) care about is the impact of events on the character, interpersonal relationships. Thus, the Oriental novels portray the character and heart can be "dynamic" essence summed up (the action is seductive, see around corners), a Western novel to portray the character and heart can be "static" for the essence summarized (heart does not move is not frivolous, the center of the storm is always quiet), which is the difference between East and West the most essential novel to portray the character and heart. Chinese fictional psychological description concise and action oriented. Describes the characters in the success or failure often determines the success or failure of the novel, the Chinese novel characterization is often in the plot trajectory, concise language to portray the details of the action, in order to accurately represent the inner world of characters. Chinese fiction to dialogue between characters, a Western novel, pay attention to the inner monologue of the characters to show their psychological and emotional. Such as "A Dream of Red Mansions" back to the dialogue between characters as the main form. Like a dialogue between the dialogue, Wang Xifeng and the old lady between Lin and Jia, Granny Liu and girls between the dialogue. Chinese novel focuses on the actions of the characters to express the emotions of the characters; the West is quite detailed psychological portrayed. Such as the "Water Margin", description of Wu Song in the face of a tiger, the kind of inner fear, is "turned into a cold sweat out" approach to performance; in “the Romance of the Three Kingdoms”, Zhang Fei and Guan Yu's action description, I really mean that there is a little cartoon. American film "Mulan", the army behind to catch up with Mulan, snow crash, the character's actions speak louder than the language of the characters. Chinese classical novels often pay more attention how to write characters, less write why the figures. Often use the words of the novel "hearts think", "The hearts of misery", "very resentment to simply explain the figures intense or lingering mind sees. Classical Chinese novels often in order to express the characters deep in the inner world, unlike the Western novels often direct psychological description, and is omniscient and omnipotent, all-round present. China's novels often focus on the poetry to talk figures and create a figure born in the environment. Western novels are rarely in the form of poetry, even if there not have much relationship with the characters. Western fiction Psychological Depiction of the delicate depth of Western novelist particular attention to the nuanced portrait of the inner world of characters, they are good to go deep into the human mind, to analysis and mining of

people's hidden, multi-dimensional, and varied the inner world. The Western novel is more emphasis on the inner monologue of the characters to express the character's personality, mental and emotional. Are often the first person, has a very direct, very moving psychological talk. Western novel focuses on the direct psychological portray the characters. Special attention to the description of the character variety of complex feelings intertwined, more involved in thinking mood rapidly changing. And often reflect the social conflict through the characters and the complex inner conflict. Western modernist writers frequently used the "stream of consciousness", "interior monologue" and "psychological symbol", "psychological space-time dislocation" and other art techniques, are developed on the basis of psychological description of great importance in the Western novel. The artistic features of the Western modernist novel is not for no reason, late 20th century China, novels are from the West, China's own rare psychological art tradition. The Western novel has a deep tradition of stream of consciousness. Rare in the Western novel broad characters, tend to flow to the consciousness of that figure, rendered directly. Westerners tend to focus on the process, the Chinese people tend to focus on results, the Chinese people for one thing, a person often have a clear understanding of the desire. However, the early novels of Chinese and Western have only re-plot and action rather than the tendency of heavy figures. First, traditional way of inheritance and the creation of inter-subjectivity are both different. Chinese classical novels of this unique psychological is relate to the description of its historical origins. Classical Chinese is born out of the biographical literature, vernacular novels from the storytelling. Historical facts to live is the true nature of biographical literature, the historical record is more concerned about time, place, and action events, and sometimes in the text either explicitly or implicitly make a simple evaluation, but it is rarely dug the character into the deeper psychological world. Western classical novels are regarded as the common descendants of the epic and the drama of literary style. Aristotle Homer to the fate of the two protagonists history statement essays the grand scale of narrative structure, as well as on the soil of this creation, the formation of "a work, only to imitate an object", "imitation confined to a complete action "(" Poetics ") in order to reach the thesis of the" universal "meaning character, and laid the foundation and theory of the structure of Western narrative literature, less extensive and far-reaching impact, almost throughout the narrative literature of Europe . Structural model of the main line of this one or two main characters, so that the writers have the energy to have room for a complete image of carved figures, while around them, while inside, as if the ideas are calmly completed depicting the typical image of the main. In all, Chinese and Western classical novel is a fruit grown in different soil, due to the different historical, social atmosphere to create habits and other factors; they are in ideological content and artistic expression, especially in Psychological Depiction of the existence of very big difference, not surprising. These differences cannot stack up to use one is better standard of value to determine the comparative analysis of research evaluation should be a historical dialectic, a clear grasp of the characteristics

to be able to clearly inherited, absorb and discard. Generally speaking, the literature of human nature is bound to reveal some of the psychological characteristics of people to a certain extent. From a broad sense, pay attention to psychological description in the novel writing, which is the common rational knowledge and the pursuit of, and Western writers. And Western fiction is the fruit of cultivated soil, due to the different social history, cultural background and literary tradition in terms of ideological content and artistic expression, especially in the psychological description, there are differences. Chinese classical novels of its action and strong in character description is unique in the world literature, writers often portrayed through realistic characters words and deeds, through detailed tracing of life events and living environment to reflect the spirit of the character of the work and writers subjective evaluation . Western classical novelist attaches great importance to portray the inner world of characters, the spirit of the characters emotions in a prominent position, and often the characters' inner activities of novel mining process to measure the level of the art of the novel, and with the writer through a lot of subjective psychological description better drumming up their artistic themes. This article aims to show two different artistic styles and Western novels of psychological description, and to explore the formation of this for different reasons. Second, the formation of the psychological description of the reasons of artistic differences of Chinese and Western Fiction Human society is vastly different, but the people's basic needs of life, emotional, psychological and thinking structure, there is much in common. So that the different national, ethnic, age literature is the existence of the common law of literature. During the literary creation, in order to make the characters real fullness, filled with the spirituality and vitality of life, people pay attention to abnormal psychological description. Psychological description of the creation of Chinese and Western novels, however, although not inherently different, but they are innately born out of different social soil and cultural environment. This is destined to their respective social history and cultural traditions of this nation is inextricably linked to, and eventually formed the artistic features of Chinese and Western novel writing in two different styles of psychological description. (I) Different social and historical The first is the basic role of the West in different socio-economic development history of the formation of psychological description of the differences of Chinese and Western Fiction. We know that social life is the source of people to create, the figures presented in the novel psychological description, must be subject to the constraints of time and social development. Expand psychological description must first have a description of the object, is active in a variety of ideas, full of personality psychology and individual sense of independence; the same time, the community can give the writers free mining capture, the performance of the mission of these psychological and space. In other words, the development of the society to provide writers with a psychological description of the possible conditions, the ED also a writer of psychological description to reflect the power of the person's mental outlook and

requirements. Social progress and development in readers and writers, objects and subjects of common constraints affect the development of the art of psychological description of literary creation. In the West, after the ancient Greek and Roman medieval long years, the theological doctrine of the feudal religion to dominate everything, rigid ignorance of the people's thinking, emotional psychological basically lost its individual character. Neither social psychological prototype nor materials for creative writers, firmly tied to the writer's own thinking and hands and feet. Therefore, on behalf of medieval literature the main body 41 of religious literature is the conceptualization, formulation of preaching. With the seeds of capitalism developed, since the 14th century, the West a massive Renaissance and the Enlightenment. People's thinking and social realities of life, the "people" instead of "God", to promote humanity, fully affirmed human values, human dignity and human forces, trying to promote the liberation of personality. Conceived by the fertile soil of the community and the spirit of the times with personality psychology to provide writers with a wealth of life prototypes; attaches great importance to the "people", prompting the writer to concentrate, to "discover" a variety " and its active and diverse inner world boldly explore and comprehensive exposure. Followed by the further development of capitalism and the novel art itself continues to mature, and reached a very high level in Psychological Depiction of the 19th century Western fiction, Romantic literature and the realistic literature of psychological description of achievements the most significant. From the earliest form of Chinese fiction - the beginning of the Wei-chi, Ghost Stories, Fictions of the Ming and Qing long chapter-long history of development; China has been under the rule of the feudal society. Of absolute monarchy in feudal socio-political and economic self-sufficiency affect all aspects of social life. Confucianism is considered as the core of the ideological foundation of the feudal society, the emphasis on socio-political and personal morality, so that the creative concept of the feudal intellectuals are often based on the promotion and maintenance of the feudal social system and it’s moral and ethical. This climate resulted in the Chinese feudal society to become a social personality, and embodies the highest principles of the social relationship between the "five relationships", people talk about Wisdom and, speaking of filial piety and righteousness. The literary value of the inclination of stereotypes is to take care of all the ethical consciousness, the formation of the fixed nature of the characters attributes: the concept of good and evil, courtesy and Desire. In this way, neither fiction writer character psychology carved to provide sufficient material and psychological prototype and does not require or even prevent them to go in depth to reveal the inner world of characters. Until the end of the Qing Dynasty, the decline of the feudal system, the infiltration of foreign culture of the collapse and the West, people gradually in the literature showing a different inherent in traditional mental outlook and state of mind. To the May Fourth New Culture Movement, Chinese classical novel really began the transition to the new ideological content and form of skills. (II) Of the different cultural traditions Firstly, it’s different for Chinese and Western novels to develop in their different

origin and history of the development. Chinese classic novels are focus on the external image of the description of the characters, action words, less static, delicate psychological portrayed, which is closely related to the origin of the Chinese classical novel. We know that the ancient novel by "speak" the oral literature. Tang and Song dynasties, then this, the Ming Dynasty Imitation, the novel's subject matter since the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the original are folk oral tradition story. "Speak" is a kind of "senses heard the ballad literature, mainly through the sound of lively and vivid storyteller, with the story consistent with the performance of movements, gestures, posture, facial expressions and other people and things, but mostly with the third person "he" is described to the audience. Behavioral action and depiction of voice and facial expression relatively easy to express the feeling of the story-teller, and relatively easy to visually convey the information put into the story, it tends to make the audience to performances quickly grasp the main thrust of the story, plot, clues, and characters of the joys and sorrows, to arouse the audience resonance. Ming and Qing lengthy subject to "speak" profound impact on popular fiction, especially the chapter in the form of novels and lively language style, left the speaker's narrative tradition and talk about the traces of singing performances. This is for the audience of the time of ancient Chinese culture is not yet universal, low level of knowledge, it is best to understand the essence of the literature and culture and entertainment. A lot of description of the character of mental activity, not only will make the storyteller the lack of movement performance, it tends to dilute the ups and downs of the story, scattered audience's attention, resulting in dull atmosphere of the field house, so the story-teller generally try to avoid the lengthy analysis of static psychological . However, for the West, in the Middle Ages, the novels open reading requirements in the same status to a large crowds. Literature and Western novel by the rapper in the transmutation process is different. Mature ancient Chinese novel of the Ming and Qing novels retain the imprint of the ballad literature and folk tales. Western novel by Christian culture and modern culture in their development process, "break" free from the fetters of the ballad literature. The outbreak of the 18th century Enlightenment, to promote and advocate all kinds of ideas, people freed from the detention of the feudal ideology, the Enlightenment home their literature as a weapon, created a lot of philosophical fiction, Travels body satirical novels, and educational novels. Enlightenment writer who is an urgent need to master the new method is able to present complex inner world of people. So in the sentimentalism literature appears, Chen own thoughts and feelings directly to the reader new novel - first-person epistolary novel, it quickly emerged. As the figures in the first person form of direct self-analysis, and readers distance communication can be more intimate, moving, in-depth artistic effect. Therefore, the new novel in the Enlightenment in Psychological Depiction of medieval speech novel "Fission" artistic experience to the creation of the novel in the third person a lot of influence. After, to the works created by third-person narrator is more subtle, desalination has become a "shadow", allowing the reader to have more direct contacts and exchanges with the character, so that people further into to the story and characters communication and dialogue. Chinese and Western novels are reflected by the different literary styles. The birth

and development of every kind of literary style, is bound to be the first of its mature literary style, especially with the closest literary style. For fiction, with most closely is the dramatic literature and biographical literature, because they are based on the description of the characters, events, plot-based. However, the Western novel and the Chinese novel is not the same degree by the impact of these two literary styles, but the former is influenced by the dramatic literature, the latter by the biographical literature a greater impact. Have different characteristics due to these two literary styles in the depiction of the psychological and, therefore, lead to a fictional psychological portrait of difference. Theatrical performances, which contain a lot of character dialogues and monologues, provide unique favorable conditions for the characterization of character psychology. Ancient Greece to psychological portray delicate, said the tragedy master Ou Euripides "Medea" to Shakespeare's "Macbeth", "Hamlet" a masterpiece of character psychology reveals nuanced, profound subtlety of the Spirits conflict structure set of sharp intense, has been spectacular. Dramatic literature depicts psychological strengths and achievements made since the ancient Greek novel writing for future generations to inherit and learn from. There are many outstanding achievements and far-reaching Western writers often both a playwright but also novelists, such as Cervantes, Voltaire, Rousseau, Goethe, Fielding, as well as the 19th century, Hugo, Merimee, Miao plug, Gogol, and so on. The longer a case of this writer set the public, the more novel and drama creation methods, learn from each other, communication, integration to create a special favorable conditions. We must focus on the performance of conflict and drama is different from the novel itself is to shape the characters. In the novels of China and the West, The characters are divided into the type of character and typical character, also known as flat characters and round characters, as well known as a static character and dynamic figures. This may seem similar, and Western novels seem to be the first type figure was later developed into the typical character. And I want to say here is shaping the character of the Chinese novel from beginning to end seem very focused portrait description, perhaps because of the start of the Chinese novel by the early description, regardless of four masterpieces, or other novel, the character played, its portrait of the face of the description is essential. Western novel has gone through a description from a focus on portrait to dilute the portrait description of the process, such as the face of accurate tracing from Mobo Sang Zola's characters to Kundera, Kafka is fuzzy. In addition, in contrast to shape the characters in dangerous and harsh environments and struggle to shape the characters, seems to be the same in the creative approach of the Western novel. So many heroes in China's "Outlaws of the Marsh" are successfully created the image, in contrast to a "Black Whirlwind and waves”. In “the Romance of the Three Kingdoms”, the contrast Zhou Yu and Zhuge Liang, comparison of Liu Bei, Cao Cao, "Dream of Red Mansions” Twelve Women's shape is particularly the comparison shape of Lin and Jia is unrivaled success. In “The Bai Luyuan”, the comparison between Family Bai and Family Lu. In the West, the most typical is in the “Notre Dame de Paris” in the beauty and

ugliness contrasting descriptions. In addition, shaping the character of the dialogue description of the Chinese novel seems to be successful than the West. There is a different discipline on theoretical guidance for Chinese and Western novel writing. There are two main disciplines theoretical and fictional psychological description: literary theory and psychology. Western literary theory has always stressed that the "imitation". Aristotle in "Poetics" that the essence of art is an imitation of literature and art as the imitation of reality. At the same time, many theorists and writers have thought the world of personalized literature is to express the human spirit. The literary theory prompted, guiding the writer to dig unconsciously, to imitate, showing life in a variety of character psychology. The ancient Chinese literary theory or a novel theory of character psychology but no systematic theory describes the shape of the characters in the literary creation less attention. Writers in this regard the lack of theoretical guidance, performance on character psychology out of conscious action and in a spontaneous state. Theoretical science and modern Western professional development compared to China much earlier. In the 19th century, with advances in physiology, the German psychologist Wilhelm Wundt, who established the first psychological laboratory, and made a series of achievements. Psychological research directly inspired the novelist, for them to grasp the analysis of the psychological world of the mysterious to provide a scientific basis and theoretical guidance. The most significant is the doctrine of the Austrian psychologist Sigmund Freud's psychoanalysis and student of Jung's collective unconscious. Former psychoanalytic theory to explain the creative writers of psychological motivation, the latter's archetypal criticism, not only to avoid the literary creation is seen as an alternative behavior to meet the personal desires, and also to the literature of art and society as a whole, the history of mankind up; in turn theoretical discipline construction also contributed to the fiction writers consciously or unconsciously, to the literary figure in his works to empirical, graphical abstract mysterious theory of psychological science reveals. Such as the generation of modernist literary, the genre of surrealism, stream of consciousness, are largely extended by the impact of psychoanalytic theory. The introduction of the Chinese Psychological Science is basically come up from the 20th century. From the above discussion, we can roughly understand the different characteristics of the psychological description of art in Western fiction creations, as well as the formation of these unique social and historical and cultural sources deep. In the psychological description of art, both classical Chinese novels are used to close connection with the description of environment, the story and the characters actions concise and vivid description of the dynamic, or Western writers are good at figures psychological changes to be refined and accurate capture, lifelike description and Western-style Hearty to express, and together they create a gallery of colorful characters in world literature and literature typically gave birth to the potential direction of development and exchange basis, and the development of novel. In today's era, human irrefutably become the core of everything in the universe. The four basic relations, the human and the modern society, human and nature, man and man, man and self, are undergoing a comprehensive alienation and distorted.

Extensively to explore the inner world of characters and human psychology has increasingly become the development trend of literary creation. Throughout the Evolution of the Western Fictions, psychological description depicts characters indispensable artistic techniques with the development of society occupy an increasingly important role in the novel writing. A deeper understanding in Western psychological description of the similarities and differences of art, help us to better inherit and learn from, in literary creation through different angles and methods, combined with different ways of thinking and habits, and complete life, of human nature are fully discussed and demonstrated.

Le Petit Prince by Antoine de Saint-Exupery The Lost Symbol by Dan Brown The Longest Day by Cornelius Ryan Bai Lu Yuan by Chen Zhongshi


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