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体验营销在房地产营销中的应用论文参考文献和外文翻译


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译文题目: 体验营销:洞察消费者的消费心理 学生姓名: 专 业: 学 号: 市场营销

所在学院: 指导教师: 职 称:

2015 年 12 月 25 日

Experiential Marketing
An Insight into the Mind of the Consumer
Adeosun L P K, Ganiyu R A. Experiential Marketing: An Insight into the Mind of the Consumer[J]. Asian Journal of Business and Management Sciences, 2012, 2 Ladipo Patrick Kunle Adeosun,Rahim Ajao Ganiyu

Abstract
Experiential Marketing is the process of engaging customers with in-depth experiences of the product or a brand. It can also be termed as a live marketing engagement where there is a face to face interaction between the consumer and a product or a brand. Its purpose is to appeal to the emotional senses of the customers and to influence their choice decision. This paper aims at investigating consumer's response to retail experiential marketing. As a descriptive and explanatory study, it establishes a connection between consumer lifestyle and behavior in modern retailing and how it affects customer satisfaction. The paper suggests various characteristics and specifications that a retail outlet should have in order to appear most appealing to the consumer and create an experimental touch in the entire retailing process.

Keywords:Shopping experience, customer, experiential marketing, customer
satisfaction, emotional attachment.

1. INTRODUCTION In recent years, there has been increased interest in building and enhancing customer experience among researchers and practitioners. Companies are shifting their attention and efforts from premium prices or superior quality to memorable experiences. Also, the value created by memorable or unique customer experiences and emotions exert significant impact on organizational performance in terms of customer satisfaction, retention and loyalty. Experiential marketing is the new approach which views marketing as an experience and treats consumption like a total experiment, by taking cognizance of the rational and emotional aspects of consumption using eclectic methods. We are in the era of ?experience economy? and the main concern and preoccupation of proactive organization is how to create total experience and unique value system for customers, which necessitate the need to understand the life of customer from perspective of their shopping experience. Experiences is inherent in the mind of everyone, and may result into physical, emotional, and cognitive activities which invariably may generate strong feelings that the customer might take away. Experience tends to come from the interaction of personal minds and events, and thus no two experiences may be the same in any occasion (Schmitt1999). Schmitt (2003) distinguishes between five types of experience that marketers can create for customers to include; sensory experience (sense)affective experience (feel), creative cognitive experience (think), physical experience, behaviors and lifestyles (act), and social-identity experience, all relating to a reference group or culture (relate). The author posits that the ultimate goal of experiential marketing is to create holistic experience that seek to integrate all these individual types of experiences into total customer experience. According to Pine and Gilmore (1999), economic development is generating a new and dynamic era of experiences, which challenge the traditional sales approach focusing on product sales and service offering. And in order to enhance consumers' emotional connections to the brand and provide a point of differentiation in a competitive oligopoly, retailers have turned their attention to creating memorable retail experiences, which try to appeal to consumers at both physical as well as psychological levels.

The emergence and spread of shopping malls, supermarkets and hypermarkets in both developed and developing countries, heightened competition for consumers? spendable or discretionary incomes. There are therefore more choices available for consumers than ever before. In such a situation retailers seeks to develop business strategies that focus on creating and maintaining customers, by offering customers a differentiated shopping experience. The term "Experiential Marketing" refers to actual customer experience with the product/service that drive sales and increase brand image and awareness. When done right, it's the most powerful technique to win brand loyalty. Olorunniwoetal (2006) concluded that customer experience is related to behavioral intentions and connecting the audience with the authentic nature of the brand is one of the prime goal of experiential marketing. This is achieved through participation in personally relevant, credible and memorable encounters. Shopping has been considered a search process where shoppers would like to ensure that they make the right decisions. In addition, they also intend to derive emotional satisfaction (Tauber1972). It has been found that a high level of brand awareness may not translate into sales. Proactive organization should consider every visit of the shopper as a distinct encounter and a moment of truth. Unless the interaction is satisfactory, the next visit may not guaranteed. Therefore, if the store does not provide a compelling reason for a repeat patronage, the amount of purchase per visit may likely decline (Zeithaml1998). The growing significance of experiential marketing has resulted into diverse and fascinating study on the concept (e.g. Csikzentmihalyi1997Schmitt 1999; Pine and Gilmore 1999; Holbrook2000; Arnouldetal2002Caru and Cova 2003 to mention a few). However, the dynamics of consumer behavior have necessitated the need for more papers. With few exceptions, the existing experiential retail literature has focused mainly on the isolated testing of static design elements (i.e. atmospherics, ambient conditions, and services cape architecture) of retail stores (Turley and Milliman2000).McCole (2004) in particular recognizes this dearth of academic research in the areas of experiential and event marketing as an indication of the division between academia and business and calls for marketing theory in these areas to be more closely aligned with practice. Similarly, Gupta, (2003) identified a lack of systemic body of knowledge and conceptual framework on which to base scientific inquiry as a key tenet of

experiential marketing. The current study seeks to address some of these gaps in the literature. In consequence this paper aims to gauge consumers' responses to experiential marketing in modern retail outlets and analyze the effect of experiential marketing on consumer behavior. 2. CONCEPTUAL BACKGROUND Experience as defined within the realm of management is a personal occurrence with emotional significance created by an interaction with product or brand related stimuli (Holbrook and Hirschman1982). For this to become experiential marketing the result must be “something extremely significant and unforgettable for the consumer immersed in the experience” (Caru and Cova2003, p. 273). According to Schmitt (1999) experiential marketing is how to get customers to sense, feel, think, act, and relate with the company and brands. Customer satisfaction is a key outcome of experiential marketing and is defined as the “customer fulfillment response” which is an evaluation as well as an emotion-based response to a service. It is an indication of the customer?s belief on the probability or possibility of a service leading to a positive feeling. And positive affect is positively and negatively related to satisfaction. Experiential marketing involves the marketing of a product or service through experience and in the process the customer becomes emotionally involved and connected with the object of the experience (Marthurs1971). A well designed experience engages the attention and emotion of the consumer, and becomes memorable and allows for a free interpretation, as it is non-partisan (Hoch2002). In contrast to traditional marketing which focuses on gaining customer satisfaction, experiential marketing creates emotional attachment for the consumers (McCole2004). The sensory or emotional element of a total experience has a greater impact on shaping consumer preferences than the product or service attributes Zaltman (2003). The benefits of a positive experience include the value it provides the consumer (Babinet al1994; Holbrook1999) and the potential for building customer loyalty. Experiential retail strategies facilitate the creation of emotional attachments, which help customers obtain a higher degree of possessive control over in-store activities (Schmitt2003). These strategies allow consumers to become immersed within the holistic experience design, which often creates a flow of experiences. Affective reaction based on an interaction with an object can be described as a person?s subjective perception or judgment about whether such interaction willchange his or her core affect or his or her emotion toward the object. Cognitive reaction

toward interacting with the object involves cognitive reasoning or appraisal, and is a consumer assessment of the purchase implications for his/her well being. Cognitive and affective reactions towards an object can be quite different, for example: one might appraise taking garlic as good and useful for one?s health, nevertheless, one can at the same time consider it unpleasant due to its smell and taste. Experiential events can turn out to create both consumer and consumption experiences and can by far more effective in attaining communication goals. Caru and Cova (2003) conceptualization of experience, and Csikzentmihalyi(1997) experience typology and 7 ?I?s of Wood and Masterman (2007) may serve as a useful framework for evaluating the effectiveness of an event by developing measures that relates to the level of challenges, newness, surprise, and matching it with the audience?s prior experience and skill level. However, the usefulness of measuring these attributes of the event depends upon the assumption and belief that an event that is strong in those attributes will effectively create a memorable and potentially behavior changing experience. The strategic experiential marketing framework consists of five strategic experiential models which create different forms of experience for customers. The five bases of the strategic experiential modules are: (1) Sensory experience: the sensory experience of customers towards experiential media includes visual, auditory, olfactory and tactile response results. (2) Emotional experience: the inner emotion and sense of customers raised by experience media. (3) Thinking experience: customers' thoughts on the surprise and enlightenment provoked by experience media. (4) Action experience: is the avenue through which experience media, linked customers so that they can acquire social identity and sense of belonging. (5) Related experience for customers: is actualizes through the experience of media production links, and to social recognition. 3. METHODOLOGY AND METHODS This study, being descriptive and explanatory, utilized secondary sources of information. Secondary information is a good source of data collection and documentation that cannot be under-estimated as it provides necessary background and much needed context which makes re-use a more worthwhile and systemic endeavour (Bishop, 2007). 4. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS

The retailing business is constantly changing and experiencing huge trends due to changing consumer tastes, consumption patterns and buying behaviors. As a result of the changing consumer shopping ecosystem, retailers? ability to sell its merchandise, depends largely on the strength of its marketing mix elements and ability to create a rewarding and fulfilling experiences for customers. Traditional marketing strategies focusing on price or quality are no longer a source of differentiation and competitive advantage. Researchers advocate that one of the main routes to successful differentiation and competitive advantage is a much stronger focus on the customer (Peppers and Rogers, 2004). Shopping involves a sequence of '?see–touch–feel–select'? and the degree to which a shopper follows the whole or part of this process varies with brand, product category, and other elements of the marketing mix. Experiential marketing evolved as the dominant marketing tool of the future (McNickel2004). Companies have moved away from traditional “features and benefits” marketing, towards creating experiences for their customers (Williams, 2006). Experiential marketing has evolved as a response to a perceived transition from a service economy to one personified by the experiences, for instance, Williams (2006, p.484) argues that “modern economies are seen as making a transition from the marketing of services to the marketing of experiences, all tourism and hospitality offers acts of theater? that stage these experiences”. From now on leading edge companies, whether they sell to consumers or businesses, will achieve sustainable competitive advantage by staging experiences which include personal relevance, novelty, surprise, learning and engagement (Schmitt1999Poulsson and Kale (2000). Undoubtedly, consumers now desire experiences and, in order to fully capitalize on this, business must deliberately orchestrate and engage in offering memorable experiences that create value and ultimately achieve customer loyalty. 5. References [1]Alvin Toffler. Future shock [M].New York: Bantam Books, Inc., 1970. [2]Elizabeth C. Hirschman, Morris B. Holbrook. Hedonic Consumption: Emerging Concepts, Methods and Propositions [J].Journal of Marketing, 1982, 46(3):92- 101. [3]B. Joseph Pine II. Welcome to the experience economy [J] Harvard Business Review, 1998- 7- 8: 97- 105.

[4]B. H. Schmitt. Experiential Marketing: How to Get Customers to Sense, Feel, Think, Act, and Relate to Your Company and Brands[M]. New York: The Free Press, 1999.

体验营销: 洞察消费者的消费心理
Adeosun LPK,Ganiyu - [R A.体验式营销:见识到了消费者[J]的心灵。商 业和管理科学,2012,2(英文版) 帕特里克;拉希姆

摘要

体验营销是通过提供深入的对产品或品牌体验过程来吸引客户。它也可以被 称为一个生动的营销, 通过这种营销形式, 商家可以与消费者进行面对面的互动。 它的目的是吸引顾客对产品或服务的情感感受,进而影响他们的消费选择。本文 旨在调查消费者对零售体验营销的反应。作为一个描述性和解释性的研究,它为 现代零售业中消费者的生活方式和行为建立了一个联系,同时,本文还就如何影 响顾客满意度, 提出零售商店为了更好地吸引消费者,应该在整个零售过程中为 顾客提供一个对产品的体验过程。

关键词: 购物体验;消费者;体验营销;顾客满意度;情感联系

1、介绍
近年来,不论是理论研究者还是实践者,大家都对建立和增强客户体验表现 出了很大的兴趣。 公司都将他们的注意力和努力,从商品价格和质量上转移到了 客户体验上。同时,通过体验营销创造的价值令对组织的绩效产生了重要影响, 特别是在客户满意度,客户维系和忠诚方面。体验营销是一个新的营销方法,通 过理性的认知和消费的情感因素,把市场看成是一个客户体验式市场。 我们正处于一个“体验经济”的时代,一些比较积极的组织,都很关心和关 注的是如何为客户创造一个独特的体验和价值体系,这需要了解客户的生活,从 而为他们营造一个独特的购物体验。体验是每个人固有的心理,贯穿于身体、情 感和认知活动中, 体验可以产生强烈的感情来吸引客户。体验往往来自个人的心 理和购物过程的交互,并且受到具体环境和情况的影响 (施密特,1999)。 施密特(2003)总结了五种体验,营销人员可以为客户创建的体验就包括:感 官体验(感觉)、情感体验(感受)、创造性认知体验(认为)、身体体验、行为和生 活方式和社交体验。 作者认为体验营销的终极目标是为客户创建一个整体性的消 费体验,把设法把所有这些类型的体验都融入到客户体验中。 根据派因和吉尔摩(1999)的观点,经济的发展正催生出一个新的、动态的购 物体验时代, 它挑战了传统的专注于产品销售和服务销售方法。为了提高消费者 的情感与产品的联系, 也为了在竞争日益的市场中赢得优势地位,零售商们都将 注意力转向为客户创造一个难忘的零售体验中,试图从生理和心理上吸引消费 者。 随着购物中心、超市和大型超市的出现,在发达国家和发展中国家中,商家 的竞争日益加剧,在这种情况下,零售商们都寻求制定商业策略,专注于开发和 维护客户关系,并且为客户提供一个差异化的购物体验。 “体验式营销”这个词指的是用户对产品 /服务的实际体验,它能够推动销 售,提高品牌形象和意识。如果做得好,这将是商家最强大的竞争力,可以赢得 品牌忠诚度。 客户体验与消费者的行为意图联系在一起,为客户提供真实的购物 体验也是体验营销的主要目标之一。这是通过亲自参与、感受产品和服务,建立 一个可靠的和难忘的邂逅体验过程。 购物正被认为是一个搜索商品的过程,消费者不仅要确保他们做出正确的决 定,选择合适的产品。此外,他们还打算得到情感上的满足。人们已经发现,高 水平的品牌知名度可能不会转化为销售。 积极的组织应该考虑顾客的每一个真实 的购物差异化需求, 为其提供个性化的购物体验。如果商店不能提供一个令人信 服的理由再次来光临,那么消费者的购买数量可能会下降。

体验营销越来越受到关注,越来越多的人对它表现出了研究兴趣 (例如施密 特 1999; 派因和吉尔摩 1999; 霍尔布鲁克 ,2000; 阿尔努等人, 2002; 科瓦, 2003)。然而,消费者的购物行为动力,需要更多的研究文献。除了少数例外, 现有的零售体验方面的研究文献资料主要集中在零售商店的静态因素方面(即氛 围、环境条件和服务)等方面 (特尔立,2000)。科尔(2004)认为,目前的学术界 对体验体验缺乏研究, 此外, 以后需要将这些领域的营销理论与实践更加紧密的 结合起来。 古普塔在 2003 年也发现了,目前对体验营销缺乏一个系统性的知识和概念 框架。目前的研究都有很大的不足,因此,本文旨在衡量在现代零售业,消费者 对体验营销的感受, (完整译文请到百度文库)以及体验营销对消费者行为的影 响。

2、 研究背景
体验营销,其定义为个人在购物过程中,对产品或品牌产生的情感交互 (霍 尔布鲁克和赫希曼 1982)。这就是说,体验营销的结果必须是“非常重要的和难 忘,对于消费者来说”(科瓦 2003)。根据施密特(1999)的观点,体验营销,旨 在如何让顾客的感觉、思考和行动都与商家的产品或服务联系在一起。 体验营销包括:产品或服务的营销经验,以及在这一过程中所涉及到的客户 情感上的交互过程。 一个精心设计的购物体验可以很好地吸引消费者的注意力和 情感, 并成为难忘的购物经历, 能够加强顾客对产品的认可和对商家的品牌忠诚 度 (霍克,2002)。 相比于传统营销只关注销售量,这种新型的营销方式的重点是 获得客户满意度,体验营销为消费者创造了情感依恋( 科尔,2004)。消费者对 产品的这种情感元素比产品或服务的本身质量价格等属性还重要。 积极的客户购 物体验的好处, 包括它提供给消费者的服务价值以及使客户对企业建立了潜在的 客户忠诚度。 体验营销的零售策略能够促进客户对商家的情感建立,可以帮助客户获得对 店内活动更高程度的信息享有权 (施密特,2003)。 这些策略都让消费者沉浸在商 家提供的一体化的体验营销中。 基于交互对象的情感反应可以被描述为一个人的 主观感知或判断。认知反与对象交互,涉及到认知推理或评价,它会直接影响到 消费者的购物行为。 体验营销为消费者创造一个很好的消费体验,可以更有效地达到沟通的目 标。这一理论可以作为一个有用的框架,被商家用来革新营销理念,努力提供客 户满意度,通过有效地开发措施,为客户建立整体性的购物体验,加强消费者对 产品和品牌的依赖,建立更好的认同感和忠诚度。

战略体验营销框架,由五个战略经验模型组成,他们为客户创造了不同形式 的购物体验。这五个战略体验模块为: (1)感官体验:客户的感官体验包括视觉、 听觉、嗅觉和触觉反应。(2)情感体验:客户的内在情感和感觉。 (3)思维体验: 客户的想法。(4)操作经验:通过接触,操作获得的用户体验。(5) 其他相关的客 户体验。

3、研究方法
本文中,使用的研究方法,主要是描述性和阐述性方法,使用的数据等信息 来源于前人的文献, 以及其他渠道获得的资料。二手间接获得的信息是一个很好 的数据及资料来源, 它们的作用不能被被低估,因为它提供了必要的背景和前人 的研究情况,以便为下阶段的研究提供一个很好地理论基础。

4、讨论和结论
零售行业的市场环境不断变化,消费者的品位、费模式和购买行为都发生了 巨大的改变。 由于消费者购物行为和理念等方面的改变, 零售商的产品销售业绩, 在很大程度上取决于它的营销组合的力量, 以及是否有能力为客户创造一个生动 的和充实的购物体验。传统营销策略只专注于价格或质量,而不是差异化营销, 难以在目前竞争日益激烈的市场环境中,建立较好的竞争优势。研究者主张实行 成功的差异化营销路线, 为客户构建一个良好的购物体验是现代零售的竞争优势 源泉。(珀斯和罗杰斯,2004)。购物涉及一系列的“看、触摸、感觉、选择等过 程。因此,零售商应该根据这几个体验方面,建立一个很好地营销组合,更好地 服务客户。 体验营销是未来重要的营销工具( 麦克尼尔,2004)。公司已经从传统的“特 点和优点”营销转变为创造顾客体验式营销(威廉姆斯,2006)。体验营销已经作 为零售商的一个重要营销工具,不断地提高其产品的竞争力。威廉姆斯 2006 年 认为,“现代经济被视为一个充满拥护体验的服务营销阶段,包括所有的旅游和 酒店业也都提供了一体化的体验服务。 现在已经开始领先地位的商家,他们是否也需要完善体验营销呢,是否要通 过举办体验式营销服务实现可持续的竞争优势呢, 包括: 客户的新奇体验、 新颖、 惊喜、 学习和参与。 毫无疑问, 这是肯定的, 如今消费者欲望和体验要求都很高, 对商家的期望非常高,因此,即便是那些正处于优先地位的商家,也不要觉得体 验营销不重要,相反,要加强建立体验营销方式,只有这样,才能维持企业 的 长久竞争力。 为了充分利用这一点,企业必须故意为顾客安排并提供难忘的购物 体验,创造价值,最终实现客户忠诚度。

5、参考文献:
[1]Alvin Toffler. Future shock [M].New York: Bantam Books, Inc., 1970. [2]Elizabeth C. Hirschman, Morris B. Holbrook. Hedonic Consumption: Emerging Concepts, Methods and Propositions [J].Journal of Marketing, 1982, 46(3):92- 101. [3]B. Joseph Pine II. Welcome to the experience economy [J] Harvard Business Review, 1998- 7- 8: 97- 105. [4]B. H. Schmitt. Experiential Marketing: How to Get Customers to Sense, Feel, Think, Act, and Relate to Your Company and Brands[M]. New York: The Free Press, 1999.


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